Rahman, M.M; Corteel, M.; Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M.; Wille, M.; Alday-Sanz, V.; Pensaert, M. B.; Sorgeloos, P.; Nauwynck, H J
A standardized inoculation model was used in 2 separate experiments to gauge the virulence of 3 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from Thailand and Vietnam (WSSV Thai-1, WSSV Thai-2, and WSSV Viet) in Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Mortality patterns (Expt 1) were compared and WSSV-positive cells quantified (Expt 2) in tissues following intramuscular inoculation of shrimp with the most (WSSV Thai-1) and least (WSSV Viet) virulent isolates as determined by Expt 1. The results of Expt 1 de...
Kulkarni, A.D.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Brinchmann, M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Sudheer, N.S.; Singh, B.I.S.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally
Achuthankutty, C.T.; Desai, U.M.
The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is causing a serious concern and threat to the shrimp aquaculture production in India since 1994. In this paper, the result of a successful attempt made in formulating a plant extract for treating the WSSV...
Zwart, M.P.; Bui Thi Minh Dieu,; Hemerik, L.; Vlak, J.M.
Background - White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes
Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.; Paknikar, Kishore M.
Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Metho...
Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical
Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M
White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.
Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir.
Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( Pvannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV led to massive death of L. vannamei.
Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.
Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina
Kanchanaphum, P; Wongteerasupaya, C; Sitidilokratana, N; Boonsaeng, V; Panyim, S; Tassanakajon, A; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Flegel, T W
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia. Three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. These were Sesarma sp., Scylla serrata and Uca pugilator. All these crabs could be infected with WSSV by injection and they sustained heavy viral infections for up to 45 d (confirmed by normal histology, specific in situ DNA hybridization and PCR amplification) without visible signs of disease or mortality. All of them also transferred the disease to P. monodon via water while physically separated in aquarium cohabitation tests. Transfer of the virus to the shrimp was monitored using in situ DNA hybridization and PCR assay at 12 h intervals after cohabitation began. With U. pugilator, WSSV could be detected in the shrimp cohabitants after 24 h using PCR amplification and after 60 h using in situ hybridization. With S. serrata, the shrimp were positive for WSSV after 36 h using PCR and after 60 h using DNA in situ hybridization. With Sesarma sp. they were positive after 48 h using PCR and 72 h using in situ hybridization. These laboratory studies demonstrated that crab carriers of WSSV may pose a real threat to cultivated shrimp. However, the studies were carried out in containers with a small volume and with relatively clean sea water as compared to shrimp cultivation ponds. Pond-based studies are now needed to determine whether factors such as pond volume, pond water quality and shrimp and crab behavior can influence the rate and success of transfer.
Bernard, C.; Keesee, B.; Philippoff, C.; Curran, S.; Lotz, J.; Powell, E.
Investigators, including three REU interns, conducted an experiment to quantify parameters for an epidemiological model designed to estimate disease transmission in marine invertebrates. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic disease affecting commercially important penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide. The virus devastates penaeid shrimp but other varieties of decapods may serve as reservoirs for disease by being less susceptible to WSSV or refractory to disease. Non-penaeid crustaceans are less susceptible to WSSV, and different species have variable resistance to the disease leading to different potential to serve as reservoirs for transmission of the disease to coastal penaeid fisheries. This study investigates virulence and transmission rates of WSSV in two palaemonid shrimp which are keystone members of coastal food webs, and effects of species interactions on transmission rates of WSSV are estimated in a laboratory setting as a proxy for natural habitats. Two species of grass shrimp were exposed to a Chinese strain of WSSV through feeding the test individuals with previously prepared, inoculated penaeid shrimp. Replicated tanks containing 30 animals were exposed to the virus in arenas containing one or both species for 24 hours, then isolated in 1 liter tanks and monitored. During the isolation period moribund individuals were preserved for later analysis. After 7 days all test individuals were analyzed using qPCR to determine WSSV presence and load in DNA. From these data transmission rates, mortality, and viral concentration were quantified and used as parameters in a simple epidemiological model.
Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun
The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah
Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.
Rahman, M M; Corteel, M; Escobedo-Bonilla, C M; Wille, M; Alday-Sanz, V; Pensaert, M B; Sorgeloos, P; Nauwynck, H J
A standardized inoculation model was used in 2 separate experiments to gauge the virulence of 3 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from Thailand and Vietnam (WSSV Thai-1, WSSV Thai-2, and WSSV Viet) in Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Mortality patterns (Expt 1) were compared and WSSV-positive cells quantified (Expt 2) in tissues following intramuscular inoculation of shrimp with the most (WSSV Thai-1) and least (WSSV Viet) virulent isolates as determined by Expt 1. The results of Expt 1 demonstrated that mortalities began at 36 h post inoculation (hpi) for both Thai isolate groups and at 36 to 60 hpi for the Viet isolate group. Cumulative mortality reached 100% 96 to 240 h later in shrimp challenged with the WSSV Viet isolate compared to shrimp challenged with the Thai isolates. WSSV infection was verified in all groups by indirect immunofluorescence. In Expt 2, WSSV-infected cells were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of both dead and time-course sampled shrimp. WSSV-positive cells were detected in tissues of Thai-1 inoculated dead and euthanized shrimp from 24 hpi onwards and from 36 hpi onwards in shrimp injected with the Viet isolate. Significantly more infected cells were found in tissues of dead shrimp inoculated with the Thai-1 than in Viet isolate-inoculated shrimp. In these experiments, substantial differences in virulence were demonstrated between the WSSV isolates. The Vietnamese isolate induced a more chronic disease and mortality pattern than was found for the Thai isolates, possibly because it infected fewer cells. This difference was most pronounced in gills.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS and total hemocyte counts (THC of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g were distributed in 24 tanks (60L, divided in two groups (infected and non-infected, which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate. During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05 after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05, regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.
Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M
White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.
Hasson, K W; Fan, Y; Reisinger, T; Venuti, J; Varner, P W
We analysed 20 boxes of, frozen imported bait-shrimp (China: Parapenaeopsis sp. and Metapenaeopsis sp.) and 8 boxes of native, frozen bait-shrimp (Gulf of Mexico: Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum) by RT-PCR or PCR for Taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellowhead virus/gill-associated virus (YHV/GAV), white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). All 28 boxes of shrimp were negative for TSV, YHV/GAV and IHHNV; 2 boxes of imported bait-shrimp were WSSV-positive by 3 different PCR assays. Intramuscular injection of replicate groups of SPF (specific pathogen-free) L. vannamei juveniles with 2 different tissue homogenates prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait boxes resulted in 100% mortality of the test shrimp within 48 to 72 h post-injection. No mortality occurred among injected negative control groups. Histological and in situ hybridization analyses of 20 moribund treatment-shrimp demonstrated severe WSSV infections in each sample. Oral exposure of SPF L. vannamei postlarvae, PL (PL 25 to 30 stage; approximately 0.02 g) to minced tissue prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait-lots did not induce infection, possibly because of an insufficient infectious dose and/or viral inactivation resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles of the bait-shrimp during PCR testing. Use of an electric drill and collection of drill-tailings (tissue from approximately 20 to 30 shrimp) from frozen blocks of shrimp was successfully employed as an alternate tissue-sampling method without thawing. Our findings indicate that imported WSSV-infected bait shrimp, originating from China, are being sold in Texas for the purpose of sport fishing and represent a potential threat to freshwater and marine crustacean fisheries, as well as to coastal US shrimp farms.
Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against
César M. Escobedo-Bonilla
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool against viral infections. Previous works with RNAi showed different antiviral efficacies depending on the silenced gene. This work evaluated the antiviral efficacy of double-stranded (ds RNA against two non-structural (orf89, wsv191 WSSV genes compared to structural (vp26, vp28 genes to inhibit an experimental WSSV infection. Gene orf89 encodes a putative regulatory protein and gene white spot virus (wsv191 encodes a nonspecific nuclease; whereas genes vp26 and vp28 encode envelope proteins, respectively. Molecules of dsRNA against each of the WSSV genes were intramuscularly injected (4 μg per shrimp into a group of shrimp 48 h before a WSSV challenge. The highest antiviral activity occurred with dsRNA against orf89, vp28 and vp26 (cumulative mortalities 10%, 10% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, the least effective treatment was wsv191 dsRNA (cumulative mortality 83%. All dead animals were WSSV-positive by one-step PCR, whereas reverse-transcription PCR of all surviving shrimp confirmed inhibition of virus replication. This study showed that dsRNA against WSSV genes orf89, vp28 and vp26 were highly effective to inhibit virus replication and suggest an essential role in WSSV infection. Non-structural WSSV genes such as orf89 can be used as novel targets to design therapeutic RNAi molecules against WSSV infection.
Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai
The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.
Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai
The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.
Full Text Available Munculnya serangan White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV pada udang yang dibudidayakan kemungkinan sebagai akibat menurunnya kualitas lingkungan tambak. Data diperoleh dari penelitian budi daya udang windu yang dilakukan Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Maros menggunakan 8 unit tambak ukuran 500 m2. Tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 10 dan 20 ekor/m2 ditebar dalam petak tambak tersebut serta penambahan probiotik setiap minggu sebanyak 1 mg/L berlangsung selama pemeliharaan udang dan tanpa pemberian probiotik sebagai kontrol merupakan perlakuan yang diuji. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Setelah penebaran, beberapa petak terserang WSSV dan menyebabkan kematian total yaitu pada hari ke-27, 30, 41, dan 47. Serangan WSSV terus berlanjut selama pemeliharaan udang di tambak berlangsung. Pada petak menggunakan probiotik mempunyai kecenderungan terserang WSSV lebih lambat daripada yang tidak menggunakan probiotik. Semakin tinggi padat tebar udang windu di tambak, maka semakin rentan terhadap serangan WSSV. Padat tebar 10 ekor/m2 menggunakan probiotik produksinya cenderung lebih baik daripada padat tebar 20 ekor/m2. Peningkatan populasi Vibrio sp., peningkatan konsentrasi nitrit dan tingginya populasi awal Vibrio sp. di air melebihi 103 cfu/mL dan di sedimen 104 cfu/g diduga erat kaitan dengan munculnya serangan WSSV pada udang yang dipelihara di tambak pada penelitian ini. The outbreak of WSSV infection on tiger shrimp culture was thought to be an impact of its pond environmental depletion. The data was obtained from the study of tiger shrimp culture conducted in ponds Research Station of RICA Maros using 8 unit of brackishwater ponds compartment of 500 m2 each size. The PL-25 were stocked in the ponds at the density of 10 pieces and 20 pieces/m2 and on the otherhand, ponds also were treated with 1 mg/L commercial probiotics applicated in every week during culture period and no probiotics application as control. Each
Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Fei
In this study, we discovered that shrimp miR-100 was up-regulated at 24 h after WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. The anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of miR-100. After AMO-miR-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with WSSV or V. alginolyticus. The knockdown of miR-100 expression decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp from 24 h to 72 h post-infection and enhanced the mortality of V. alginolyticus-infected shrimp significantly. The knockdown of miR-100 affected phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) after the infection with WSSV or V. alginolyticus, indicating a regulative role of miR-100 in the immune potential of shrimp in the response to WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection. The knockdown of miR-100 induced the apoptosis of shrimp hemocytes, and V. alginolyticus + AMO-miR-100 treatment caused more hemocyte apoptosis than V. alginolyticus treatment. The miR-100 influenced also the morphology of shrimp hemocytes and regulated the phagocytosis of WSSV or V. alginolyticus. Thus, we concluded that miR-100 may promote the anti-Vibrio immune response of shrimp through regulating apoptosis, phagocytosis and PO activity and affects the progression of WSSV infection at a certain level.
Soto, M A; Shervette, V R; Lotz, J M
Shrimp viruses can remain infectious in frozen shrimp tissue and have been found in frozen commodity shrimp. Therefore, the threat of viral outbreaks in wild and cultured shrimp via frozen commodity shrimp exists. Because frozen shrimp are imported with and without the cephalothorax, more knowledge is needed concerning the infectivity of a cephalothorax relative to that of an abdomen. We compared the mortality rates from shrimp exposed to a WSSV-infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver. Estimates of transmission coefficients from the exposures to the infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp were also calculated because the transmission coefficients account for differences in the initial doses. In addition, we compared the variability in infectivity of pieces of shrimp by feeding 24 equal-sized pieces of cephalothorax and abdomen to 24 individually isolated shrimp. In Expt 1, susceptible shrimp did not completely consume the infected abdomen, and a significant difference was detected among shrimp exposed to the abdomen (mortality rate = 0.40), cephalothorax (mortality rate = 0.75), and whole shrimp cadaver (mortality rate = 0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.95 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.59 from an infected abdomen, and 0.69 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 2, susceptible shrimp were starved to ensure complete ingestion of each dose. No significant difference was observed in the estimated mortality rates from an infected cephalothorax (0.58), abdomen (0.63), or whole shrimp (0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.84 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.83 from an infected abdomen, and 0.60 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 3, no difference was observed in the mortality rates resulting from exposures to pieces of infected cephalothorax (0.57) or abdomen (0.58). Our results suggested that there was no difference in the viral loads of a WSSV-infected cephalothorax or abdomen, but
Zhi Wang; Fei Zhu
In this study, we discovered that shrimp miR-100 was up-regulated at 24?h after WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. The anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of miR-100. After AMO-miR-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with WSSV or V. alginolyticus. The knockdown of miR-100 expression decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp from 24?h to 72?h post-infection and enhance...
Alapide-Tendencia, E.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Rose Sorio, L.
White spot syndrome virus is the most important among the shrimp diseases. It has been devastating the shrimp industry for more than 3 decades. Previous studies reported that greater percentage of yellow colonies on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (yellow vibrios) in the rearing water,
Full Text Available WSSV is one of the most dangerous pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. However, the molecular mechanism of how WSSV interacts with shrimp is still not very clear. In the present study, bioinformatic approaches were used to predict interactions between proteins from WSSV and shrimp. The genome data of WSSV (NC_003225.1 and the constructed transcriptome data of F. chinensis were used to screen potentially interacting proteins by searching in protein interaction databases, including STRING, Reactome, and DIP. Forty-four pairs of proteins were suggested to have interactions between WSSV and the shrimp. Gene ontology analysis revealed that 6 pairs of these interacting proteins were classified into “extracellular region” or “receptor complex” GO-terms. KEGG pathway analysis showed that they were involved in the “ECM-receptor interaction pathway.” In the 6 pairs of interacting proteins, an envelope protein called “collagen-like protein” (WSSV-CLP encoded by an early virus gene “wsv001” in WSSV interacted with 6 deduced proteins from the shrimp, including three integrin alpha (ITGA, two integrin beta (ITGB, and one syndecan (SDC. Sequence analysis on WSSV-CLP, ITGA, ITGB, and SDC revealed that they possessed the sequence features for protein-protein interactions. This study might provide new insights into the interaction mechanisms between WSSV and shrimp.
Brigitta M. Laksono
Full Text Available Measles virus is a highly contagious negative strand RNA virus that is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease in previously unexposed humans and non-human primates. Measles is characterised by fever and skin rash and usually associated with cough, coryza and conjunctivitis. A hallmark of measles is the transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. At the same time, the disease is paradoxically associated with induction of a robust virus-specific immune response, resulting in lifelong immunity to measles. Identification of CD150 and nectin-4 as cellular receptors for measles virus has led to new perspectives on tropism and pathogenesis. In vivo studies in non-human primates have shown that the virus initially infects CD150+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, both in circulation and in lymphoid tissues, followed by virus transmission to nectin-4 expressing epithelial cells. The abilities of the virus to cause systemic infection, to transmit to numerous new hosts via droplets or aerosols and to suppress the host immune response for several months or even years after infection make measles a remarkable disease. This review briefly highlights current topics in studies of measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis.
Gouma, Sigrid; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Binnendijk, Rob S
The recent mumps outbreaks among MMR vaccinated persons have raised questions about the biological mechanisms related to mumps symptoms and complications in the background of waning immunity. Contrary to other paramyxoviruses, the understanding of mumps virus pathogenesis is limited, and further in-depth clinical studies are required to provide answers to important research questions.
S. Gouma (Sigrid); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob)
textabstractThe recent mumps outbreaks among MMR vaccinated persons have raised questions about the biological mechanisms related to mumps symptoms and complications in the background of waning immunity. Contrary to other paramyxoviruses, the understanding of mumps virus pathogenesis is limited, and
Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.
Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Deng, Xie-Xiong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo
Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection. PMID:24376496
Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been devastating the shrimp industry for almost a decade. This study compares water parameters, alkalinity, and microflora in three ponds on a farm on Negros Island (Philippines) during two production cycles where WSSV infection resulted in an outbreak in 2006
Sun, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Gang; Chan, Siuming F
In this study, the activities of 5 immunity related enzymes namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD) and lysozyme phosphatase (LZM)) of Litopenaeus vannamei after they have been injected with different concentrations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were examined. The cumulative mortality at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h was obtained. Copy numbers of WSSV in L. vannamei after a single infection, secondary infection and concurrent infection were measured. Hemolymph samples of M. lysodeikticus and WSSV injected shrimp were collected at 0, 6, 12 24, 48, 72, 78, 84, 96 and 120 h. The results were: (i) The cumulative mortality of L. vannamei increased as the shrimp were infected with higher concentration of the bacteria; (ii) The most sensitive changes of ACP, AKP and LZM were in the 6.2 × 10(5), 6.2 × 10(6), 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/mL M. lysodeikticus group; (iii) ACP but LZM were more sensitive to M. lysodeikticus than WSSV, and AKP, PO and POD is more sensitive to WSSV; (iv) The copies of WSSV in the co-injected group were higher than WSSV-single infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection group at 48 h. The amount of WSSV in L. vannamei of concurrent infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection groups were higher than that of the WSSV-single infection group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sun, Baozhen; Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Fei
Crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans. In this study, we cloned the entire 660 bp crustin-like sequence with a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a 168 amino acid from Marsupenaeus japonicus. The crustin-like gene was primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus. After knockdown crustin-like gene using specific double-stranded RNA (CRU-dsRNA), IMD, Rab7, L-lectin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, p53, prophenoloxidase and Rho were down-regulated and nitric oxide synthase, myosin and tumor necrosis factor-α were up-regulated in hemocytes at 24 h post dsRNA treatment. After WSSV challenge, The mortality, WSSV copy number and expressions of WSSV immediate early genes (IE1, IE2, DNA polymerase, VP28) were both decreased but the apoptosis rate was increased in CRU-dsRNA-treated shrimps, indicating that WSSV may take advantage of crustin-like to benefit its replication. After silenced the crustin-like, the results of phagocytosis showed that the phagocytic rate of shrimp hemocytes on WSSV decreased significantly. In contrast, the absence of crustin-like in shrimps increased the mortality following V. alginolyticus challenge, indicating that crustin-like may play a positive role in the antibacterial process. The phagocytosis experiment showed there was a higher phagocytosis rate of hemocytes after CRU-dsRNA treatment. The result indicated that V. alginolyticus may be able to use crustin-like to avoid phagocytosis of shrimp hemocytes. These results further added to our understanding of the function of crustin-like peptide and also provided its potential role in innate immunity in shrimp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.
positive for WSSV by both immunodot test and 1-step PCR at various times post stocking, and their crops failed. In the 2 farms at Kumta (F13, F14), immunodot and 1-step PCR results were both negative, and harvests were successful. In contrast to 1-step PCR...
Oct 15, 2008 ... Recent studies on the isolation of HEV-like viruses from animal species also suggest zoonotic transfer of the virus. The absence of small animal models of infection and efficient cell culture systems has precluded virological studies on the replication cycle and pathogenesis of HEV. A vaccine against HEV ...
Wang, Anyou; Thurmond, Stephanie; Islas, Leonel; Hui, Kingyung; Hai, Rong
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenes...
B.M. Laksono (Brigitta); R.D. de Vries (Rory); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)
textabstractMeasles virus is a highly contagious negative strand RNA virus that is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease in previously unexposed humans and non-human primates. Measles is characterised by fever and skin rash and usually associated with cough, coryza and
Machupo virus (strain Carvallo) which had been passaged 3-4 times in suckling hamster brain and subsequently twice in Vero cell culture. For...values for clinical chemistry parameters across various species of animal models , as well as human infections, is needed. Total white blood cell ...available soon. A STAT-1 knockout mouse model for Machupo virus pathogenesis Virology Journal 2011, 8:300 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-300 Steven B Bradfute
Sulaiman Gosalam; Habson Batubara; Akbar Tahir
ABSTRAK AGROKOMPLEKS 2009 Research was conducted for inventing active substance from marine Actinomycetes having antiviral activities on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) with particular interest on the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). The WSSV (namely: white spot disease) could cause a 100% mortalities in only 3 ??? 10 days post infection, hence, a massive loss for the shrimp farmers. Actinobacteria is a class of microorganism which commonly known as Actinomycetes and belong to the family ...
Full Text Available Dengue is a viral disease that is mediated by a mosquito, which causes morbidity and mortality. Viruses can increase vascular permeability which can lead to hemorrhagic diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. In Indonesia, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by dengue virus infection which was found to be endemic accompanied by an explosion of extraordinary events that appear at various specified period. The diagnosis of dengue is determined based on the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1999, which are sudden high fever accompanied by a marked tendency to hemorrhage positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, mucosal hemorrhagic, hematemesis or melena and thrombocytopenia. The problem that still exists today is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with varying degrees of dengue involving levels of vWF (von Willebrand factor and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 can not be explained. The mechanism of hemorrhagic in dengue virus infections acquired as a result of thrombocytopenia, platelet disfunction decreased coagulation factors, vasculopathy with endothelial injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.
Kulkarni, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Singh, I.S.B.; Sudheer, N.S.; Vlak, J.M.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Brinchmann, M.; Kiron, V.
Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral
Nugent, Elizabeth K; Nugent, Anne K; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth
The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Multiple cases of Guillain-Barre´ syndrome occurred in French Polynesia and Columbia during outbreaks, and infections in pregnant women in Brazil have been associated with microcephaly and fetal loss. The viremic phase in humans is short, and diagnosis usually depends on positive immunoglobulin M titers with serum neutralization tests for confirmation. Treatment is directed at symptoms; there are no antiviral drugs available. Transmission can also occur through sexual contact with infected men and through blood transfusion. Prevention is important in women and includes limiting travel to endemic areas when possible, control of mosquito populations and condom use when appropriate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is actively involved in tracking these infections and providing up-to-date information. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tummamunkong, Phawida; Jaree, Phattarunda; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya
The viral responsive protein 15 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15), is highly up-regulated and produced in the hemocytes of shrimp with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. To investigate the differential expression of genes from P. monodon hemocytes that are involved in WSSV infection under the influence of PmVRP15 expression, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of PmVRP15-silenced shrimp infected with WSSV was performed. The 189 cDNA clones of the forward library were generated by subtracting the cDNAs from WSSV-infected and PmVRP15 knockdown shrimp with cDNAs from WSSV-infected and GFP knockdown shrimp. For the opposite subtraction, the 176 cDNA clones in the reverse library was an alternative set of genes in WSSV-infected shrimp hemocytes in the presence of PmVRP15 expression. The abundant genes in forward SSH library had a defense/homeostasis of 26%, energy/metabolism of 23% and in the reverse SSH library a hypothetical protein with unknown function was found (30%). The differential expressed immune-related genes from each library were selected for expression analysis using qRT-PCR. All selected genes from the forward library showed high up-regulation in the WSSV-challenged PmVRP15 knockdown group as expected. Interestingly, PmHHAP, a hemocyte homeostasis associated protein, and granulin-like protein, a conserved growth factor, are extremely up-regulated in the absence of PmVRP15 expression in WSSV-infected shrimp. Only transcript level of transglutaminase II, that functions in regulating hematopoietic tissue differentiation and inhibits mature hemocyte production in shrimp, was obviously down-regulated as observed from SSH results. Taken together, our results suggest that PmVRP15 might have a function relevant to hemocyte homeostasis during WSSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Rockx, Barry
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Henipaviruses can infect a wide range of species and human-to-human transmission has been observed for NiV. While the exact route of transmission in humans is not known, experimental infection in different animal species suggests that infection can be efficiently initiated after respiratory challenge. The limited data on histopathological changes in fatal human cases of HeV and NiV suggest that endothelial cells are an important target during the terminal stage of infection; however, it is unknown where these viruses initially establish infection and how the virus disseminates from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system and other organs. Here we review the current concepts in henipavirus pathogenesis in humans.
Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wang, Pei-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Li, Chao-zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Fan, Wen-Zhou; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; FrancisChan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo
Many viruses can hijack the host cell NF-κB as part of their life cycle, diverting NF-κB immune regulatory functions to favor their replications. There were several reports on the functions of Litopenaeus vannamei NF-κB (LvNF-κB) in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in vitro. Here, we studied the relationship between LvNF-κB family protein Dorsal (LvDorsal) and Relish (LvRelish) with WSSV replication in vivo. The expressions of LvDorsal and LvRelish were significantly upregulated by WSSV challenge. Virus loads and expression of viral envelope protein VP28 in LvDorsal or LvRelish silencing shrimps were significantly lower than the control shrimps injected with EGFP-dsRNA or PBS after challenge with 1×10(5) copies WSSV/shrimp. In addition to the LvDorsal activation of WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter that we have reported, LvRelish can also activate WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter by dual luciferase reporter assays through screening 40 WSSV gene promoters that have putative multiple NF-κB binding sites. The promoter activity of the WSV069 (ie1) by LvDorsal activation was significantly higher than that by LvRelish activation. WSSV replication in LvDorsal, LvRelish or WSV303 silencing shrimps were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the L. vannamei NF-κB family proteins LvDorsal and LvRelish expressions are significantly activated by WSSV challenge and WSSV replication partially relied on the activations of LvDorsal and LvRelish in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.
Messaoudi, Ilhem; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.
Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, members of the filovirus family, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in people, as highlighted by the latest Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Filovirus disease is characterized by uncontrolled virus replication and the activation of host responses that contribute to pathogenesis. Underlying these phenomena is the potent suppression of host innate antiviral responses, particularly the type I interferon response, by viral proteins, which allows high levels of viral replication. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms used by filoviruses to block host innate immunity and discuss the links between immune evasion and filovirus pathogenesis.
Morrison, Thomas E; Diamond, Michael S
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has received global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features, including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This past year has witnessed an intensive effort by the global scientific community to understand the biology of ZIKV and to develop pathogenesis models for the rapid testing of possible countermeasures. Here, we review the recent advances in and utility and limitations of newly developed mouse and nonhuman primate models of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has received global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features, including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This past year has witnessed an intensive effort by the global scientific community to understand the biology of ZIKV and to develop pathogenesis models for the rapid testing of possible countermeasures. Here, we review the recent advances in and utility and limitations of newly developed mouse and nonhuman primate models of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:28148798
Rubin, Steven; Eckhaus, Michael; Rennick, Linda J; Bamford, Connor G G; Duprex, W Paul
Mumps is caused by the mumps virus (MuV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses. Mumps is characterized by painful inflammatory symptoms, such as parotitis and orchitis. The virus is highly neurotropic, with laboratory evidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection in approximately half of cases. Symptomatic CNS infection occurs less frequently; nonetheless, prior to the introduction of routine vaccination, MuV was a leading cause of aseptic meningitis and viral encephalitis in many developed countries. Despite being one of the oldest recognized diseases, with a worldwide distribution, surprisingly little attention has been given to its study. Cases of aseptic meningitis associated with some vaccine strains and a global resurgence of cases, including in highly vaccinated populations, has renewed interest in the virus, particularly in its pathogenesis and the need for development of clinically relevant models of disease. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge on the virus, its pathogenesis and its clinical and pathological outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the virus-host cell interaction could inform us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus. Studies on viral attachment proteins (VAPs and candidate receptor proteins involved in WSSV infection, allow a better understanding of how these proteins interact in the viral life cycle. In this study, our aim was to find some host cellular membrane proteins that could bind with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Results Two proteins were evident by using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA with WSSV. A protein with molecular weight 53 kDa, named BP53, was analyzed in this study, which was homologous with the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit by mass spectrometry analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR was performed to identify the full-length cDNA of the bp53 gene. The resulting full-length gene consisted of 1836 bp, encoding 525 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.98 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained three conserved domains of the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit. BP53 was therefore designated the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit of L. vannamei. The binding of WSSV to BP53 were also confirmed by competitive ELISA binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation on magnetic beads. To investigate the function of BP53 in WSSV infection, it was mixed with WSSV before the mixture was injected intramuscularly into shrimp. The resulting mortality curves showed that recombinant (r BP53 could attenuate WSSV infection. Conclusions The results revealed that BP53 is involved in WSSV infection. Here is the first time showed the role of shrimp F1-ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection.
Liang, Yan; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jie
Knowledge of the virus-host cell interaction could inform us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus. Studies on viral attachment proteins (VAPs) and candidate receptor proteins involved in WSSV infection, allow a better understanding of how these proteins interact in the viral life cycle. In this study, our aim was to find some host cellular membrane proteins that could bind with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Two proteins were evident by using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) with WSSV. A protein with molecular weight 53 kDa, named BP53, was analyzed in this study, which was homologous with the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit by mass spectrometry analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR was performed to identify the full-length cDNA of the bp53 gene. The resulting full-length gene consisted of 1836 bp, encoding 525 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.98 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained three conserved domains of the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit. BP53 was therefore designated the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit of L. vannamei. The binding of WSSV to BP53 were also confirmed by competitive ELISA binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation on magnetic beads. To investigate the function of BP53 in WSSV infection, it was mixed with WSSV before the mixture was injected intramuscularly into shrimp. The resulting mortality curves showed that recombinant (r) BP53 could attenuate WSSV infection. The results revealed that BP53 is involved in WSSV infection. Here is the first time showed the role of shrimp F1-ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection.
Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.
Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Primavera, J.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been affecting the shrimp industry worldwide for two decades now. It continues to bring economic losses to affected farms. Despite the many studies on its epidemiology, there is no proven treatment or control measure. Diseases, like the WSSV, results from the
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.
Gavin C. Bowick
Full Text Available Developing vaccines to biothreat agents presents a number of challenges for discovery, preclinical development, and licensure. The need for high containment to work with live agents limits the amount and types of research that can be done using complete pathogens, and small markets reduce potential returns for industry. However, a number of tools, from comparative pathogenesis of viral strains at the molecular level to novel computational approaches, are being used to understand the basis of viral attenuation and characterize protective immune responses. As the amount of basic molecular knowledge grows, we will be able to take advantage of these tools not only to rationally attenuate virus strains for candidate vaccines, but also to assess immunogenicity and safety in silico. This review discusses how a basic understanding of pathogenesis, allied with systems biology and machine learning methods, can impact biodefense vaccinology.
Liu, Ling-Ke; Li, Wei-Dong; Gao, Yan; Chen, Rong-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Hong, Heng; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, which has been causing huge economic losses in global aquaculture. Laminin receptor (LR) is a cell surface receptor which participates in the interactions between cells as well as cells and extracellular matrix. Previously, we found that a CqLR-like gene was responsive to WSSV infection in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. To further reveal the role of CqLR-like gene involved in WSSV infection, the full-length cDNA of CqLR-like gene was cloned with 1000 bp, and the open reading frame encoded 308 amino acids with a conserved laminin-binding domain. Importantly, both the WSSV entry and viral replication were strongly reduced in Hpt cells after loss-of-function of CqLR-like gene by gene silencing. Protein interaction assay demonstrated that the recombinant CqLR-like protein could bind to WSSV virion in vitro by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the binding affinity was in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant CqLR-like protein was found to bind to WSSV envelop protein VP28, but not other envelop proteins tested including VP19, VP24, and VP26, by pull down assay in HEK293T cells. In regarding to that LR is mainly localized on many types of cells' membrane, these data together suggested that CqLR-like protein was likely to function as a putative recognition molecule towards WSSV and act in the viral entry into a crustacean host cell, which may benefit the elucidation of the WSSV pathogenesis and further the pharmaceutical target for the possibly effective control of WSSV disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R
Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.
Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection results in hepatitis E, an acute and self-limited disease. The virus is transmitted in a faecal-oral manner and is a major cause of viral hepatitis in much of the developing world, where it causes rampant sporadic infections and large epidemics. A curious feature of hepatitis E is the unusually high rates of mortality that are observed in pregnant women, in whom the disease is exacerbated by the development of fulminant liver disease. In the absence of viable in vitro propagation systems, several geographical isolates of HEV have been maintained in vivo in nonhuman primates and, subsequently,the viral genome has been cloned and sequenced. HEV has been classified provisionally into a separate family known as the HEV-like viruses, which has at least four recognised genotypes, but has only a single serotype. The viral genome is a positive-stranded (+)RNA of ~7.5 kb and encodes at least three proteins. Open reading frame 1 ( ORF1) encodes the viral nonstructural polyprotein, which has domains that are homologous to some of the replication and processing enzymes found in other +RNA viruses. The HEV protein itself remains poorly characterised. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2( ORF2) is the major HEV capsid protein, and the protein encoded by open reading frame 3 ( ORF3) appears to be involved in virus-host interactions. Several questions related to the biology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of HEV remain unanswered; the progress of a few of these is reviewed here.
Raphaël M. Zellweger
Full Text Available The development of a compelling murine model of dengue virus (DENV infection has been challenging, because dengue virus clinical isolates do not readily replicate or cause pathology in immunocompetent mice. However, research using immunocompromised mice and/or mouse-adapted viruses allows to investigate questions that may be impossible to address in human studies. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies are descriptive by nature; moreover, the strain, time, and sequence of infection are often unknown. In contrast, in mice, the conditions of infection are well defined and a large number of experimental parameters can be varied at will. Therefore, mouse models offer an opportunity to experimentally test hypotheses that are based on epidemiological observations. In particular, gain-of-function or loss-of-function models can be established to assess how different components of the immune system (either alone or in combination contribute to protection or pathogenesis during secondary infections or after vaccination. In addition, mouse models have been used for pre-clinical testing of antiviral drug or for vaccine development studies. Conclusions based on mouse experiments must be extrapolated to DENV infection in humans with caution due to the inherent limitations of animal models. However, research in mouse models is a useful complement to in vitro and epidemiological data, and may delineate new areas that deserve attention during future human studies.
Duraffour, Sophie; Matthys, Patrick; van den Oord, Joost J.; De Schutter, Tim; Mitera, Tania; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela
Camelpox virus (CMLV) is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n.) CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c.) infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c+CD8α+ lymphoid and CD11c+CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog) was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral therapies in an
Full Text Available Camelpox virus (CMLV is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n. CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c. infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c(+CD8α(+ lymphoid and CD11c(+CD11b(+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral
Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie
Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.
Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna
Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.
Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic flavivirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds but that can also infect humans, horses, and other vertebrate animals. In most humans, WNV infection remains subclinical. However, 20%–40% of those infected may develop WNV disease, with symptoms ranging from fever to meningoencephalitis. A large variety of WNV strains have been described worldwide. Based on their genetic differences, they have been classified into eight lineages; the pathogenic strains belong to lineages 1 and 2. Ten years ago, Beasley et al. (2002 found that dramatic differences exist in the virulence and neuroinvasion properties of lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV strains. Further insights on how WNV interacts with its hosts have recently been gained; the virus acts either at the periphery or on the central nervous system (CNS, and these observed differences could help explain the differential virulence and neurovirulence of WNV strains. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV. Moreover, we will discuss how WNV strains differentially interact with the innate immune system and CNS cells, thus influencing WNV pathogenesis.
Donadieu, Emilie; Bahuon, Céline; Lowenski, Steeve; Zientara, Stéphan; Coulpier, Muriel; Lecollinet, Sylvie
West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that cycles between mosquitoes and birds but that can also infect humans, horses, and other vertebrate animals. In most humans, WNV infection remains subclinical. However, 20%-40% of those infected may develop WNV disease, with symptoms ranging from fever to meningoencephalitis. A large variety of WNV strains have been described worldwide. Based on their genetic differences, they have been classified into eight lineages; the pathogenic strains belong to lineages 1 and 2. Ten years ago, Beasley et al. (2002) found that dramatic differences exist in the virulence and neuroinvasion properties of lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV strains. Further insights on how WNV interacts with its hosts have recently been gained; the virus acts either at the periphery or on the central nervous system (CNS), and these observed differences could help explain the differential virulence and neurovirulence of WNV strains. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV. Moreover, we will discuss how WNV strains differentially interact with the innate immune system and CNS cells, thus influencing WNV pathogenesis.
Okada, Kazuma; Ito, Naoto; Yamaoka, Satoko; Masatani, Tatsunori; Ebihara, Hideki; Goto, Hideo; Nakagawa, Kento; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okadera, Kota; Sugiyama, Makoto
Rabies virus (RABV) P gene mRNA encodes five in-frame start codons, resulting in expression of full-length P protein (P1) and N-terminally truncated P proteins (tPs), designated P2, P3, P4, and P5. Despite the fact that some tPs are known as interferon (IFN) antagonists, the importance of tPs in the pathogenesis of RABV is still unclear. In this study, to examine whether tPs contribute to pathogenesis, we exploited a reverse genetics approach to generate CE(NiP)ΔP2-5, a mutant of pathogenic CE(NiP) in which the P gene was mutated by replacing all of the start codons (AUG) for tPs with AUA. We confirmed that while CE(NiP) expresses detectable levels of P2 and P3, CE(NiP)ΔP2-5 has an impaired ability to express these tPs. After intramuscular inoculation, CE(NiP)ΔP2-5 caused significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates in mice than did CE(NiP), indicating that tPs play a critical role in RABV neuroinvasiveness. Further examinations revealed that this less neuroinvasive phenotype of CE(NiP)ΔP2-5 correlates with its impaired ability to replicate in muscle cells, indicative of the importance of tPs in viral replication in muscle cells. We also demonstrated that CE(NiP)ΔP2-5 infection induced a higher level of Ifn-β gene expression in muscle cells than did CE(NiP) infection, consistent with the results of an IFN-β promoter reporter assay suggesting that all tPs function to antagonize IFN induction in muscle cells. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that tPs promote viral replication in muscle cells through their IFN antagonist activities and thereby support infection of peripheral nerves. Despite the fact that previous studies have demonstrated that P2 and P3 of RABV have IFN antagonist activities, the actual importance of tPs in pathogenesis has remained unclear. Here, we provide the first evidence that tPs contribute to the pathogenesis of RABV, especially its neuroinvasiveness. Our results also show the mechanism underlying the neuroinvasiveness
The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...
Feng, Shuying; Li, Guangda; Feng, Wenpo; Huang, Jie
Using differential velocity centrifugation, cell membranes of Artemia sp. were prepared, and their binding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was analyzed in vitro. The results indicated that WSSV can specifically bind to Artemia cell membranes, and that WSSV receptor very likely existed in this membrane, which suggested that Artemia sp. may be a reservoir of WSSV. This study investigated the specific WSSV binding site by performing competitive inhibition experiments using shrimp gill cell membranes to bind WSSV to Artemia cell membranes. The results showed that shrimp gill cell membranes had a distinct inhibition effect on the specific binding of Artemia cell membranes to WSSV. Thus, potentially similar WSSV receptors or binding sites existed on Artemia sp. cell membranes and shrimp gill cell membranes. Taken together, these findings may provide experimental basis for the development of an effective approach to controlling WSSV, and theoretical basis for the study of WSSV receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yuan, Kai; Yuan, Feng-Hua; He, Hong-Hui; Bi, Hai-Tao; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong
The expression levels of 97 unigenes encoding heat shock proteins of Litopenaeus vannamei was scanned, and ten of them were significantly induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Among these genes, heat shock 70 kDa protein cognate 5 (LvHSC70-5) was upregulated to the highest extent and subjected to further studies. Subcellular localization assay revealed that LvHSC70-5 was located in the mitochondria. Aside from WSSV infection, unfolded protein response activation and thermal stress could also upregulate LvHSC70-5. Results of reporter gene assay demonstrated that promoter of LvHSC70-5 was activated by L. vannamei heat shock factor protein 1, activating transcription factor 4 and thermal stress. A decrease in the expression of LvHSC70-5 could reduce the aggregation of proteins in hemocytes and the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. LvHSC70-5 in L. vannamei hemocytes was upregulated by mild thermal stress. In addition, mild thermal stress, decreased the copy number of WSSV in shrimp muscle and the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Therefore, collecting results suggested that LvHSC70-5 should be involved in WSSV toleration of shrimp L. vannamei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shurtleff Amy C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Machupo virus (MACV, a member of the Arenaviridae, causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, with ~20% lethality in humans. The pathogenesis of MACV infection is poorly understood, and there are no clinically proven treatments for disease. This is due, in part, to a paucity of small animal models for MACV infection in which to discover and explore candidate therapeutics. Methods Mice lacking signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1 were infected with MACV. Lethality, viral replication, metabolic changes, hematology, histopathology, and systemic cytokine expression were analyzed throughout the course of infection. Results We report here that STAT-1 knockout mice succumbed to MACV infection within 7-8 days, and presented some relevant clinical and histopathological manifestations of disease. Furthermore, the model was used to validate the efficacy of ribavirin in protection against infection. Conclusions The STAT-1 knockout mouse model can be a useful small animal model for drug testing and preliminary immunological analysis of lethal MACV infection.
Routhu, Nanda Kishore; Byrareddy, Siddappa N
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging pathogen that has resulted in a worldwide epidemic. It primarily spreads either through infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitos leading to severe neurological disorders such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in susceptible individuals. The mode of ZIKV entry into specific cell types such as: epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, immature dendritic cells (iDCs), and stem-cell-derived human neural progenitors has been determined through its major surface envelope glycoprotein. It has been known that oligosaccharides that are covalently linked to viral envelope proteins are crucial in defining host-virus interactions. However, the role of sugars/glycans in exploiting host-immune mechanisms and aiding receptor-mediated virus entry is not well defined. Therefore, this review focuses on host-pathogen interactions to better understand ZIKV pathogenesis.
He, Yaodong; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaobo
Viral microRNAs (miRNAs), most of which are characterized in cell lines, have been found to play important roles in the virus life cycle to avoid attack by the host immune system or to keep virus in the latency state. Viral miRNAs targeting virus genes can inhibit virus infection. In this study, in vivo findings in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp revealed that the viral miRNAs could target virus genes and further promote the virus infection. The results showed that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-encoded miRNAs WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 were transcribed at the early stage of WSSV infection. When the expression of WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 was silenced with sequence-specific anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs), the number of copies of WSSV and the WSSV-infected shrimp mortality were significantly decreased, indicating that the two viral miRNAs had a great effect on virus infection. It was revealed that the WSSV wsv094 and wsv177 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-66 and that the wsv248 and wsv309 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-68. The data demonstrate that the four target genes play negative roles in the WSSV infection. The targeting of the four virus genes by WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 led to the promotion of virus infection. Therefore, our in vivo findings show a novel aspect of viral miRNAs in virus-host interactions.
Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-jian
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in crustaceans. During WSSV infection, multiple cell signaling cascades are activated, leading to the generation of antiviral molecules and initiation of programmed cell death of the virus infected cells. To gain novel insight into cell signaling mechanisms employed in WSSV infection, we have used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to elucidate the cellular response to WSSV challenge at the gene level in red claw crayfish haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) stem cell cultures. Red claw crayfish Hpt cells were infected with WSSV for 1h (L1 library) and 12h (L12 library), respectively, after which the cell RNA was prepared for SSH using uninfected cells as drivers. By screening the L1 and L12 forward libraries, we have isolated the differentially expressed genes of crayfish Hpt cells upon WSSV infection. Among these genes, the level of many key molecules showed clearly up-regulated expression, including the genes involved in immune responses, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction molecules, stress, metabolism and homestasis related genes, and unknown genes in both L1 and L12 libraries. Importantly, of the 2123 clones screened, 176 novel genes were found the first time to be up-regulated in WSSV infection in crustaceans. To further confirm the up-regulation of differentially expressed genes, the semi-quantitative RT-PCR were performed to test twenty randomly selected genes, in which eight of the selected genes exhibited clear up-regulation upon WSSV infection in red claw crayfish Hpt cells, including DNA helicase B-like, multiprotein bridging factor 1, apoptosis-linked gene 2 and an unknown gene-L1635 from L1 library; coatomer gamma subunit, gabarap protein gene, tripartite motif-containing 32 and an unknown gene-L12-254 from L2 library, respectively. Taken together, as well as in immune and stress responses are regulated during WSSV infection of crayfish Hpt cells, our results also
Huang, Ping-Han; Huang, Ting-Yi; Cai, Pei-Si; Chang, Li-Kwan
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc finger transcription factor that regulates many key cellular processes. In this study, we report the cloning of YY1 from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp (LvYY1). This study shows that LvYY1 is ubiquitously expressed in shrimp tissues, and knockdown of LvYY1 expression by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp reduced both mRNA levels of the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 as well as overall copy numbers of the WSSV genome. The cumulative mortality rate of infected shrimp also declined with LvYY1 dsRNA injection. Using an insect cell model, we observed that LvYY1 activates ie1 expression, and a mutation introduced into the ie1 promoter subsequently repressed this capability. Moreover, reporter assay results suggested that LvYY1 is involved in basal transcriptional regulation via an interaction with L. vannamei TATA-binding protein (LvTBP). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) results further indicated that LvYY1 binds to a YY1-binding site in the region between positions -119 and -126 in the ie1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also confirmed that LvYY1 binds to the ie1 promoter in WSSV-infected shrimp. Taken together, these results indicate that WSSV uses host LvYY1 to enhance ie1 expression via a YY1-binding site and the TATA box in the ie1 promoter, thereby facilitating lytic activation and viral replication.IMPORTANCE WSSV has long been a scourge of the shrimp industry and remains a serious global threat. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand how the interactions between WSSV and its host drive infection, lytic development, pathogenesis, and mortality. Our successful cloning of L. vannamei YY1 (LvYY1) led to the elucidation of a critical virus-host interaction between LvYY1 and the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 We observed that LvYY1 regulates ie1 expression via a consensus YY1-binding site and TATA box. LvYY1 was also found to interact with L
Hulten, van M.C.W.; Westenberg, M.; Goodall, S.D.; Vlak, J.M.
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 x 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end.
Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( Pvannamei.
Janke, B H
Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.
M.E. van der Ende (Marchina)
textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been identified as hither unknown primate members of the Lentivirinae subfamily of the family Retroviridae in 1983, 1986 and 1985 respectively, HIV-1
Cline, Troy D; Beck, Donald; Bianchini, Elizabeth
Macrophages are essential for protection against influenza A virus infection, but are also implicated in the morbidity and mortality associated with severe influenza disease, particularly during infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. While influenza virus infection of macrophages was once thought to be abortive, it is now clear that certain virus strains can replicate productively in macrophages. This may have important consequences for the antiviral functions of macrophages, the course of disease and the outcome of infection for the host. In this article, we review findings related to influenza virus replication in macrophages and the impact of productive replication on macrophage antiviral functions. A clear understanding of the interactions between influenza viruses and macrophages may lead to new antiviral therapies to relieve the burden of severe disease associated with influenza viruses.
Perales, Celia; Moreno, Elena; Domingo, Esteban
In the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. Most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. However, despite abundant recombination that may be linked to molecular events essential for genome replication, herein we provide evidence that generation of recombinants with altered biological properties is not essential for the completion of the replication cycles of viruses, and that viral lineages (near-clades) can be defined. We distinguish mechanistically active but inconsequential recombination from evolutionarily relevant recombination, illustrated by episodes in the field and during experimental evolution. In the field, recombination has been at the origin of new viral pathogens, and has conferred fitness advantages to some viruses once the parental viruses have attained a sufficient degree of diversification by point mutations. In the laboratory, recombination mediated a salient genome segmentation of foot-and-mouth disease virus, an important animal pathogen whose genome in nature has always been characterized as unsegmented. We propose a model of continuous mutation and recombination, with punctuated, biologically relevant recombination events for the survival of viruses, both as disease agents and as promoters of cellular evolution. Thus, clonality is the standard evolutionary mode for viruses because recombination is largely inconsequential, since the decisive events for virus replication and survival are not dependent on the exchange of genetic material and formation of recombinant (mosaic) genomes. PMID:26195777
Kulkarni, A.D.; Caipang, C.M.A.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Brinchmann, M.
In the present study RNA interference was used to elucidate the connection between two endogenous genes [Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) or P. monodon inhibitor of apoptosis (PmIAP)], and selected immune/apoptosis-related genes in orally ‘vaccinated’ shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)
Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen . For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...
C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees)
textabstractFeline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is classified as a member of the genus Lentivirus (subfamily Lentivirinae) of the Retroviridae family on basis of its morphology, biochemical characteristics, genomic organization, Mg'+ dependent reverse transcriptase, and nucleotide sequence homology
Bouvier, Nicole M.; Lowen, Anice C.
Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus infections, not all strains that can infect humans are able to transmit from person-to-person. Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans. These models furthermore allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses. Mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, cotton rats, hamsters and macaques have all been used to study influenza viruses and therapeutics targeting them. Each model presents unique advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed herein. PMID:21442033
Bouvier, Nicole M; Lowen, Anice C
Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus infections, not all strains that can infect humans are able to transmit from person-to-person. Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans. These models furthermore allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses. Mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, cotton rats, hamsters and macaques have all been used to study influenza viruses and therapeutics targeting them. Each model presents unique advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed herein.
Anice C. Lowen
Full Text Available Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus infections, not all strains that can infect humans are able to transmit from person-to-person. Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans. These models furthermore allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses. Mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, cotton rats, hamsters and macaques have all been used to study influenza viruses and therapeutics targeting them. Each model presents unique advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed herein.
Eisfeld, Amie J.; Halfmann, Peter J.; Wendler, Jason P.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Peralta, Zuleyma; Maemura, Tadashi; Walters, Kevin B.; Watanabe, Tokiko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Jacobs, Jon M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Tian, Mingyuan; Neumann, Gabriele; Reed, Jennifer L.; van Bakel, Harm; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Waters, Katrina M.; N' jai, Alhaji; Sahr, Foday; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
The pathogenesis of human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is complex. EVD is characterized by high levels of virus replication and dissemination, dysregulated immune responses, extensive virus- and host-mediated tissue damage, and disordered coagulation. To clarify how host responses contribute to EVD pathophysiology, we performed multi-platform ’omics analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma from EVD patients. Our results indicate that EVD molecular signatures overlap with those of sepsis, imply that pancreatic enzymes contribute to tissue damage in fatal EVD, and suggest that Ebola virus infection may induce aberrant neutrophils whose activity could explain hallmarks of fatal EVD. Moreover, integrated biomarker prediction identified putative biomarkers from different data platforms that differentiated survivors and fatalities early after infection. This work reveals insight into EVD pathogenesis, suggests an effective approach for biomarker identification, and provides an important community resource for further analysis of human EVD severity.
Monini, P; Rotola, A; de Lellis, L; Corallini, A; Secchiero, P; Albini, A; Benelli, R; Parravicini, C; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Cassai, E
We have analyzed by PCR skin lesions from classic, endemic and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), as well as from KS-derived cell lines, the presence of ubiquitous transforming viruses. BK virus (BKV), a transforming human papovavirus which has been associated with human tumors, was detected in 100% of KS skin lesions and 75% of KS cell lines. KS specimens contained a full-length, intact BKV early region, but minor rearrangements were observed in some tumors. BKV was also detected with a high prevalence (57-67%) in genital tissues and sperm, thus fulfilling the role of a sexually transmitted agent in KS. The closely related JC virus (JCV), which has never been associated with human malignancies, was present in 11-20% of KS specimens and was detected with a low prevalence (0-21%) in genital tissues and sperm. Simian virus 40 (SV40) was not detected in any KS lesions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences were detected in 20-25% of KS lesions. Malignant human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 and benign HPV types 6 and 11 were detected in KS specimens with a similar prevalence of 11-83%, suggesting that the presence of HPV-transforming sequences is not a specific trait of HPV interaction with KS tissue. Furthermore, JCV, SV40, HSV and HPV DNA sequences were not detected in KS cell lines, suggesting that these viruses are not associated to KS neoplastic cells in KS tissue. KS cell lines were also negative for DNA sequences of KS-HV, the novel herpesvirus detected in primary KS lesions. The constant association of BKV DNA with KS lesions and KS cell lines suggests that BKV-transforming functions may participate in the development of KS.
J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)
textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the
Full Text Available The M40 VSV recombinant was engineered to contain overlapping PTAP and PPxY L-domain motifs and flanking residues from the VP40 protein of Ebola virus. Replication of M40 in cell culture is virtually indistinguishable from that of control viruses. However, the presence of the Ebola PTAP motif in the M40 recombinant enabled this virus to interact with and recruit host Tsg101, which was packaged into M40 virions. In this brief report, we compared replication and the pathogenic profiles of M40 and the parental virus M51R in mice to determine whether the presence of the Ebola L-domains and flanking residues altered in vivo characteristics of the virus. Overall, the in vivo characteristics of M40 were similar to those of the parental M51R virus, indicating that the Ebola sequences did not alter pathogenesis of VSV in this small animal model of infection.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify white spot syndrome virus (WSSV entry into the host-cells of the cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon, we have attempted to localize PmRab7 (Ras-related in brain which is playing a vital role in the WSSV internalization. Methods: In this study, we have cloned PmRab7 and expressed in Escherichia coli, further purified rPmRab7 was used for antibody production, isolation of lysosomal sub-cellular fractions and western blot against lysosomal protein. Moreover, high fold-change in PmRab7 regulation with increasing copy number of WSSV has been studied by using real-time PCR. Results: 651 bp amplicon size gene was successfully amplified, ligated amplicon with pTZ T-tail vector confirmed by colony PCR and retriction enzyme digestion on agarose gel. Subcloned (pRSET-B 651 bp gene transformed successfully in Rosetta and after 6 h of induction expressed rPmRab7 was on SDS page, furthermore soluble fraction of rPmRab7 (26 kDa was purified by ni-NTA column. AntiPmRab7 antibody was received by Merk Pvt. Ltd., and western blot analysis revealed that PmRab7 is present in the lysosomal sub-cellular fraction. Copy number of WSSV was increased 5 fold in 24 h and 20 fold in 72 h of infection and subsequently transcrtipt of PmRab7 was Ct = 1.0 to Ct = 8.5. Conclusions: Presence of PmRab7 on lysosome clearly indicating PmRab7 participating in lysosomal maturation, other hand WSSV may follow the same route of entry. WSSV internalization has directly linked with regulation of PmRab7.
Li, Xiao-Yun; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Bi, Hai-Tao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong
Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATFβ. The full-length cDNA of LvATFβ was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATFβ was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATFβ expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATFβ had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATFβ could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATFβ resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATFβ may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fearns, Rachel; Graham, Barney S.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus of family Paramyxoviridae. RSV is the most complex member of the family in terms of the number of genes and proteins. It is also relatively divergent and distinct from the prototype members of the family. In the past 30 years, we have seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of the molecular biology of RSV based on a succession of advances involving molecular cloning, reverse genetics, and detailed studies of protein function and structure. Much remains to be learned. RSV disease is complex and variable, and the host and viral factors that determine tropism and disease are poorly understood. RSV is notable for a historic vaccine failure in the 1960s involving a formalin-inactivated vaccine that primed for enhanced disease in RSV naïve recipients. Live vaccine candidates have been shown to be free of this complication. However, development of subunit or other protein-based vaccines for pediatric use is hampered by the possibility of enhanced disease and the difficulty of reliably demonstrating its absence in preclinical studies. PMID:24362682
Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming
In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suyog Subhash Jain
Full Text Available Enhanced understanding about the way human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infects and causes infection in humans has led to invention and use of newer more effective antiretroviral drugs. As treatment for HIV is long term, side effects of the antiretrovirals become an important area of research focus. Antiretrovirals can cause severe metabolic abnormalities, collectively known as HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. If untreated, these metabolic abnormalities have the potential to increase stroke and cardiac ischemia. Management includes choice of nonoffending drugs, switch over to less toxic drugs, hypolipidemics, oral antidiabetics including thiazolidinediones, metformin and growth hormone analogs and finally facial surgeries. Updated knowledge about HIV lipodystrophy, and the hormone-related drugs used to treat it, is essential for physicians and endocrinologists to be able to diagnose the patients and effectively treat them.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus, is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions of the major WSSV structural proteins, including several envelope and tegument proteins that are known to be involved in the infection process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, we used coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays to elucidate and/or confirm all the interactions that occur among the WSSV structural (envelope and tegument proteins VP51A, VP19, VP24, VP26 and VP28. We found that VP51A interacted directly not only with VP26 but also with VP19 and VP24. VP51A, VP19 and VP24 were also shown to have an affinity for self-interaction. Chemical cross-linking assays showed that these three self-interacting proteins could occur as dimers. CONCLUSIONS: From our present results in conjunction with other previously established interactions we construct a 3D model in which VP24 acts as a core protein that directly associates with VP26, VP28, VP38A, VP51A and WSV010 to form a membrane-associated protein complex. VP19 and VP37 are attached to this complex via association with VP51A and VP28, respectively. Through the VP26-VP51C interaction this envelope complex is anchored to the nucleocapsid, which is made of layers of rings formed by VP664. A 3D model of the nucleocapsid and the surrounding outer membrane is presented.
Berri, Fatma; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Hanss, Michel; Albina, Emmanuel; Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Lê, Vuong B.; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E.; Gil, Patrica; Camerer, Eric; Martinez, Dominique; Lina, Bruno; Lijnen, Roger; Carmeliet, Peter; Riteau, Béatrice
Detrimental inflammation of the lungs is a hallmark of severe influenza virus infections. Endothelial cells are the source of cytokine amplification, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, using combined pharmacological and gene-deletion approaches, we show that plasminogen controls lung inflammation and pathogenesis of infections with influenza A/PR/8/34, highly pathogenic H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Reduction of virus replication was not responsible for the observed effect. However, pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, the main target of plasminogen reversed disease resistance of plasminogen-deficient mice or mice treated with an inhibitor of plasminogen-mediated fibrinolysis. Therefore, plasminogen contributes to the deleterious inflammation of the lungs and local fibrin clot formation may be implicated in host defense against influenza virus infections. Our studies suggest that the hemostatic system might be explored for novel treatments against influenza. PMID:23555246
Full Text Available Detrimental inflammation of the lungs is a hallmark of severe influenza virus infections. Endothelial cells are the source of cytokine amplification, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, using combined pharmacological and gene-deletion approaches, we show that plasminogen controls lung inflammation and pathogenesis of infections with influenza A/PR/8/34, highly pathogenic H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Reduction of virus replication was not responsible for the observed effect. However, pharmacological depletion of fibrinogen, the main target of plasminogen reversed disease resistance of plasminogen-deficient mice or mice treated with an inhibitor of plasminogen-mediated fibrinolysis. Therefore, plasminogen contributes to the deleterious inflammation of the lungs and local fibrin clot formation may be implicated in host defense against influenza virus infections. Our studies suggest that the hemostatic system might be explored for novel treatments against influenza.
Full Text Available The virus infections of the respiratory pathways represent an important cause of the emergence of the symptoms of the puffing (wheezing in the lungs of the patients of all age groups. In the patients suffering from asthma the virus respiratory infections are the main causes of asthmatic exarcebations. In 80 to 85 % of the school children and in 50 % of the adult asthmatics, the exarcebations are caused by the respiratory virus infection while the most frequent cause is the rhinovirus. It is believed that in the pathogenesis of the virus-induced asthmatic exarcebations the following mechanisms are involved: the damage of the epithelium, the inflammation increase in the respiratory pathways, the disturbance of the small respiratory pathways' geometry, the disturbance of the nerve controlling mechanisms and the disturbance of the IgE synthesis regulation.
The pathogenesis of bluetongue infection was studied by the titration of the virus in tissue samples taken from sheep inoculated subcutaneously in the auricula of the ear with 76 TC ID50 of the plaque-purified type 10 bluetongue virus. Tissue samples were taken from individual animals killed at daily intervals over a period of 11 days. The mean incubation time was 6.9 days and the first clinical sign was pyrexia. On the 4th day, bluetongue virus was demonstrated in the lymph nodes of the cephalic area, tonsils and spleen; viraemia became demonstrable on the 6th day post-inoculation and typical macroscopic lesions due to the virus were first observed on the 8th day. It was concluded that, post-infection, the virus entered the regional lymph nodes. From there it was disseminated via the lymph and/or the blood stream to the lymphoid tissues in other parts of the body where further replication occurred. From these primary sites the virus was carried via the blood stream and infected the majority of tissues. Humoral antibody, as detected by immunofluorescence, did not appear to have a direct influence on the concentration of virus in solid tissues. Persistence of the virus in infected sheep was not demonstrated when tissues were taken 6, 8 and 16 weeks after infection.
Ito, Naoto; Moseley, Gregory W.; SUGIYAMA, Makoto
Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by the Lyssavirus rabies virus (RABV) that can infect most mammals, including humans, where it has a case-fatality rate of almost 100%. Although preventable by vaccination, rabies causes c. 59,000 human fatalities every year worldwide. Thus, there exists an urgent need to establish an effective therapy and/or improve dissemination of vaccines for humans and animals. These outcomes require greater understanding of the mechanisms of RABV pathogenesis to ident...
Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Ng, Dianna L; Greer, Patricia W; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R
Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses include some of the most virulent and fatal pathogens known to humans. These viruses cause severe haemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates in the range 25-90%. The diagnosis of filovirus using formalin-fixed tissues from fatal cases poses a significant challenge. The most characteristic histopathological findings are seen in the liver; however, the findings overlap with many other viral and non-viral haemorrhagic diseases. The need to distinguish filovirus infections from other haemorrhagic fevers, particularly in areas with multiple endemic viral haemorrhagic agents, is of paramount importance. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge of filovirus infections and their pathogenesis, including histopathological findings, epidemiology, modes of transmission and filovirus entry and spread within host organisms. The pathogenesis of filovirus infections is complex and involves activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, with release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, endothelial dysfunction, alterations of the innate and adaptive immune systems, direct organ and endothelial damage from unrestricted viral replication late in infection, and coagulopathy. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of filovirus infections has rapidly increased in the past few years, many questions remain unanswered. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Environmental pollution could directly reduce water quality for shrimp cultivation. This study aims to determine how the environmental quality, shrimp population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in polluted waters in shrimp ponds in East Java associated with WSSV disease that often attacks on cultivated shrimp. The method used was a descriptive exploratory. Data collection was collected by observation and interview with farmers on disease history. Water was sampled for water quality study and characterize its suitability for shrimp cultivations. Shrimps were also sampled for morphological and genetical study for its susceptibility of WSSV. All samples were taken every week during shrimp cultivation in Malang ans Gresik. Morphological study using scoring method to determine the disease stages on shrimp, while for genetical study using specific primer for ICP11 for WSSV detection, since ICP 11 is expressed when WSSV infection is occur. Samples were taken from 2 shrimp ponds in South Malang and Gresik. The overall water quality is good, except for NO2 and TOM in both seawater shrimp ponds which higher than the freshwater/estuary shrimp ponds. Light infections of WSSV were detected in all seawater ponds both in morphology and genetics. However, in the freshwater/estuary pond only shrimps from freshwater/estuary Gresik which showing light WSSV infection genetically, but not in the morphological signs. Early disease detection is important to control the disease spread.
Zhiqiang Du; Yanhui Jin; Daming Ren
Crayfish has become one of the most important farmed aquatic species in China due to its excellent disease resistance against bacteria and viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of crayfish is still not very clear. In the present study, many high-quality sequence reads from crayfish intestine were obtained using Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing. For the normal group (GN), 44,600,142 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 125,394 contigs. For the WSSV-challenged ...
Chahar, Harendra Singh; Bao, Xiaoyong; Casola, Antonella
Exosomes are membrane-enclosed vesicles actively released into the extracellular space, whose content reflect the physiological/pathological state of the cells they originate from. These vesicles participate in cell-to-cell communication and transfer of biologically active proteins, lipids, and RNAs. Their role in viral infections is just beginning to be appreciated. RNA viruses are an important class of pathogens and affect millions of people worldwide. Recent studies on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV), and Dengue Virus (DENV) have demonstrated that exosomes released from infected cells harbor and deliver many regulatory factors including viral RNA and proteins, viral and cellular miRNA, and other host functional genetic elements to neighboring cells, helping to establish productive infections and modulating cellular responses. Exosomes can either spread or limit an infection depending on the type of pathogen and target cells, and can be exploited as candidates for development of antiviral or vaccine treatments. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding the role of exosomes in RNA virus infections with an emphasis on their potential contribution to pathogenesis. PMID:26102580
Perera, Nilanka; Miller, Joanna L; Zitzmann, Nicole
Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a prosurvival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. The UPR has complex interactions with the cellular autophagy machinery, apoptosis, and innate immunity. DENV has evolved to manipulate the UPR to facilitate its replication and to evade host immunity. Our knowledge of this intertwined network of events is continuously developing. A better understanding of the UPR mediated antiviral and proviral effects will shed light on dengue disease pathogenesis and may help development of anti-DENV therapeutics. This review summarizes the role of the UPR in viral replication, autophagy, and DENV-induced inflammation to describe how a host response contributes to DENV pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.
Kim, Seung Jae; Jin, Young-Hee; Kim, Byung S
Infection of various cells with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) activates the TLR- and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent pathways, resulting in the production of IL-1β via the activation of caspase-1 upon assembly of the node-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The role of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease was previously investigated. However, the signaling effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) downstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome on the immune responses to viral determinants and the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease are unknown. In this study, we investigated the levels of intermediate molecules leading to PGE2 signaling and the effects of blocking PGE2 signaling on the immune response to TMEV infection, viral persistence and the development of demyelinating disease. We demonstrate here that TMEV infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and PGE2 signaling much more vigorously in dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+ cells from susceptible SJL mice than in cells from resistant B6 mice. Inhibition of virus-induced PGE2 signaling using AH23848 resulted in decreased pathogenesis of demyelinating disease and viral loads in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, AH23848 treatment caused the elevation of protective early IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Because the levels of IFN-β were lower in AH23848-treated mice but the level of IL-6 was similar, over-production of pathogenic IFN-β was modulated and the generation of IFN-γ-producing T cell responses was enhanced by the inhibition of PGE2 signaling. These results strongly suggest that excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream PGE2 signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease.
Marks, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a. new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp, cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism
Mar 20, 2014 ... The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that β-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV ...
Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.
Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.
Gallichotte, Emily N; Dinnon, Kenneth H; Lim, Xin-Ni; Ng, Thiam-Seng; Lim, Elisa X Y; Menachery, Vineet D; Lok, Shee-Mei; Baric, Ralph S
With severe disease manifestations including microcephaly, congenital malformation, and Guillain-Barré syndrome, Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a persistent global public health threat. Despite antigenic similarities with dengue viruses, structural studies have suggested the extended CD-loop and hydrogen-bonding interaction network within the ZIKV envelope protein contribute to stability differences between the viral families. This enhanced stability may lead to the augmented infection, disease manifestation, and persistence in body fluids seen following ZIKV infection. To examine the role of these motifs in infection, we generated a series of ZIKV recombinant viruses that disrupted the hydrogen-bonding network (350A, 351A, and 350A/351A) or the CD-loop extension (Δ346). Our results demonstrate a key role for the ZIKV extended CD-loop in cell-type-dependent replication, virion stability, and in vivo pathogenesis. Importantly, the Δ346 mutant maintains similar antigenicity to wild-type virus, opening the possibility for its use as a live-attenuated vaccine platform for ZIKV and other clinically relevant flaviviruses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Iwakiri, Dai [Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7 Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known as an oncogenic herpesvirus that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies. EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) are non-coding RNAs expressed abundantly in latently EBV-infected cells. Herein, I summarize the current understanding of the functions of EBERs, including the interactions with cellular factors through which EBERs contribute to EBV-mediated pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBERs are responsible for malignant phenotypes in lymphoid cells, and can induce several cytokines that can promote the growth of various EBV-infected cancer cells. EBERs were also found to bind retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and thus activate its downstream signaling. Furthermore, EBERs induce interleukin-10, an autocrine growth factor for Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, by activating RIG-I/interferon regulatory factor 3 pathway, suggesting that EBER-mediated innate immune signaling modulation contributes to EBV-mediated oncogenesis. Recently, EBV-infected cells were reported to secret EBERs, which were then recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), leading to the induction of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines, and subsequent immune activation. Furthermore, EBER1 was detected in the sera of patients with active EBV-infectious diseases, suggesting that EBER1-meidated TLR3 signaling activation could account for the pathogenesis of active EBV-infectious diseases.
Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032
Full Text Available Arenaviruses include multiple human pathogens ranging from the low-risk lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV to highly virulent hemorrhagic fever (HF causing viruses such as Lassa (LASV, Junin (JUNV, Machupo (MACV, Lujo (LUJV, Sabia (SABV, Guanarito (GTOV, and Chapare (CHPV, for which there are limited preventative and therapeutic measures. Why some arenaviruses can cause virulent human infections while others cannot, even though they are isolated from the same rodent hosts, is an enigma. Recent studies have revealed several potential pathogenic mechanisms of arenaviruses, including factors that increase viral replication capacity and suppress host innate immunity, which leads to high viremia and generalized immune suppression as the hallmarks of severe and lethal arenaviral HF diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of each of the four viral proteins and some known cellular factors in the pathogenesis of arenaviral HF as well as of some human primary cell-culture and animal models that lend themselves to studying arenavirus-induced HF disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained from these studies can be applied towards the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines against these deadly human pathogens.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3% genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 14,941 (63.4% unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.
Meltzer, M S; Skillman, D R; Gomatos, P J; Kalter, D C; Gendelman, H E
We have presented evidence in this review for the following: (a) Macrophages are likely the first cell infected by HIV. Recovery of HIV from macrophages has been documented in the early stages of infection in which virus isolation in T cells is unsuccessful and detectable levels of antibodies against HIV are absent. (b) Macrophages are major reservoirs for HIV during all stages of infection. Unlike the lytic infection of T cells, HIV-infected macrophages show little or no virus-induced cytopathic effects. HIV-infected macrophages persist in tissue for extended periods of time (months) with large numbers of infectious particles contained within intracytoplasmic vacuoles. (c) Macrophages are a vector for the spread of infection to different tissues within the patient and between individuals. Several studies suggest a "Trojan horse" role for HIV-infected macrophages in the dissemination of infectious particles. The predominant cell in most bodily fluids (alveolar fluid, colostrum, semen, vaginal secretions) is the macrophage. In semen, for example, the numbers of macrophages exceed those of lymphocytes by more than 20-fold. (d) Macrophages are major regulatory cells that control the pace and intensity of disease progression in HIV infection. Macrophage secretory products are implicated in the pathogenesis of CNS disease and in control of viral latency in HIV-infected T cells. This litany of events in which macrophages participate in HIV-infection in humans parallels similar observations in such animal lentivirus infections as visna-maedi or caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses. HIV interacts with monocytes differently than with T cells. Understanding this interaction may more clearly define both the pathogenesis of HIV disease and strategies for therapeutic intervention.
Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.
secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and NO by infected RAW cells. Difference in survival rate in TLR4 mutant mice and nitric oxide inhibitor treated mice, confirmed the role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis. The result is significant in clinical management and designing antiviral intervention for Chandipura virus infection.
Pettis Jeffery S
Full Text Available Abstract Background For years, the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie honey bee viral diseases has been severely hindered because of the lack of a cell culture system for virus propagation. As a result, it is very imperative to develop new methods that would permit the in vitro pathogenesis study of honey bee viruses. The identification of virus replication is an important step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis process of viruses in their respective hosts. In the present study, we developed a strand-specific RT-PCR-based method for analysis of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV replication in honey bees and in honey bee parasitic mites, Varroa Destructor. Results The results shows that the method developed in our study allows reliable identification of the virus replication and solves the problem of falsely-primed cDNA amplifications that commonly exists in the current system. Using TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR incorporated with biotinylated primers and magnetic beads purification step, we characterized the replication and tissue tropism of DWV infection in honey bees. We provide evidence for DWV replication in the tissues of wings, head, thorax, legs, hemolymph, and gut of honey bees and also in Varroa mites. Conclusion The strategy reported in the present study forms a model system for studying bee virus replication, pathogenesis and immunity. This study should be a significant contribution to the goal of achieving a better understanding of virus pathogenesis in honey bees and to the design of appropriate control measures for bee populations at risk to virus infections.
De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Atanasova, Kalina; Van Borm, Steven
Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal......) to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused......, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further...
Cornish, T E; Stallknecht, D E; Brown, C C; Seal, B S; Howerth, E W
The pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection has not been investigated previously in native New World rodents that may have a role in the epidemiology of the disease. In the present study, 45 juvenile and 80 adult deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were inoculated intranasally with VSV New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) and examined sequentially over a 7-day period. Virus was detected by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in all tissues containing histologic lesions. Viral antigen and mRNA were observed initially in olfactory epithelium neurons, followed by olfactory bulbs and more caudal olfactory pathways in the brain. Virus also was detected throughout the ventricular system in the brain and central canal of the spinal cord. These results support both viral retrograde transneuronal transport and viral spread within the ventricular system. Other tissues containing viral antigen included airway epithelium and macrophages in the lungs, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages in cervical lymph nodes. In a second experiment, 15 adult, 20 juvenile, and 16 nestling deer mice were inoculated intradermally with VSV-NJ. Adults were refractory to infection by this route; however, nestlings and juveniles developed disseminated central nervous system infections. Viral antigen also was detected in cardiac myocytes and lymph node macrophages in these animals. Viremia was detected by virus isolation in 35/72 (49%) intranasally inoculated juvenile and adult mice and in 17/36 (47%) intradermally inoculated nestlings and juveniles from day 1 to day 3 postinoculation. The documentation of viremia in these animals suggests that they may have a role in the epidemiology of vector-borne vesicular stomatitis.
Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse
Host–virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classicalswinefevervirus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence...... in an experimental set-up, reducing the influence of host and environmental factors. Thus, weaner pigs were inoculated with one of 4 CSFV strains in order to compare the pathogenesis for a 3-week-period after infection. CSFV strains selected were 2 new and 2 previously characterized. None of these strains had been...... tested in Danish outbred pigs before. Clinical observations grouped the infected pigs into two different categories reflecting either non-specific, mainly gastro-intestinal, problems, or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied...
Valdez, A; Yepiz-Plascencia, G; Ricca, E; Olmos, J
Litopenaeus vannamei do not have an adaptive immune response system. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most severe pathogen in shrimps. Bacillus subtilis spores carrying heterologous antigens on its surface have been evaluated as a vaccine inducing specific systemic responses on vertebrates. Orally administrated Vp28 vaccines have been investigated in crustaceans. Vp26 is also an important constituent of WSSV structure but little is known about its oral vaccination capacity in L. vannamei. In this study, for first time, L. vannamei WSSV protection was carried out using B. subtilis recombinant spores (RS), displaying CotC::Vp26 fusion protein (FP) on its surface. RS-expressing FP were coated on shrimp food pellets and used to feed L. vannamei. Results have shown that orally administered B. subtilis RS protected 100% L. vannamei against WSSV infection. Bacillus subtilis spores orally administrated expressing CotC::Vp26 fusion protein on its surface demonstrated the great capacity of Vp26 to induce immune protection, equally or even greater than Vp28 in L. vannamei. The biotechnological process developed represents an easy to produce, practical to handle, environmentally stable, human-safe and economically feasible opportunity to apply a new Vp26 vaccine in a massively way in shrimp farms. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Full Text Available Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1 particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles. These observations postulated that HIV-resembled exosomes may contribute to HIV pathogenesis. Interestingly, recent reports illustrated that exosomes from body fluids could inhibit HIV infection, which then bring up a new paradigm for HIV/AIDS therapy. Accumulative findings suggested that the cellular origin of exosomes may define their effects towards HIV-1. This review summarizes the two distinctive roles of exosomes in regulating HIV pathogenesis. We also highlighted several additional factors that govern the exosomal functions. Deeper understanding on how exosomes promote or abate HIV infection can significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategy and vaccine designs.
Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans, which is unclassified taxonomically. A 2193 bp long open reading frame, encoding a putative protein kinase (PK), was found on a 8.4 kb EcoRI fragment of WSSV proximal to the gene for the major envelope protein
Bencherit, Djihad; Remy, Sylvie; Le Vern, Yves; Vychodil, Tereza; Bertzbach, Luca D; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Denesvre, Caroline; Trapp-Fragnet, Laëtitia
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens and causes a deadly neoplastic disease. We previously demonstrated that MDV infection arrests cells in S phase and that the tegument protein VP22 plays a major role in this process. In addition, expression of VP22 induces double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cellular DNA, suggesting that DNA damage and the associated cellular response might be favorable for the MDV life cycle. Here, we addressed the role of DNA damage in MDV replication and pathogenesis. We demonstrated that MDV induces DSBs during lytic infection in vitro and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of infected animals. Intriguingly, we did not observe DNA damage in latently infected MDV-induced lymphoblastoid cells, while MDV reactivation resulted in the onset of DNA lesions, suggesting that DNA damage and/or the resulting DNA damage response might be required for efficient MDV replication and reactivation. In addition, reactivation was significantly enhanced by the induction of DNA damage using a number of chemicals. Finally, we used recombinant viruses to show that VP22 is required for the induction of DNA damage in vivo and that this likely contributes to viral oncogenesis.IMPORTANCE Marek's disease virus is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that causes fatal T-cell lymphomas in chickens. MDV causes substantial losses in the poultry industry and is also used in small-animal models for virus-induced tumor formation. DNA damage not only is implicated in tumor development but also aids in the life cycle of several viruses; however, its role in MDV replication, latency, and reactivation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that MDV induces DNA lesions during lytic replication in vitro and in vivo DNA damage was not observed in latently infected cells; however, it was reinitiated during reactivation. Reactivation was significantly enhanced by the induction of DNA damage. Recombinant viruses that lacked the ability
, Yangzhou, China. Accepted 15 July, 2011. In this study, a virus similar to the causative agent of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus ...
Dong, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Cai, Hong; Lv, Chuang; Gao, Yu-Ran; Yu, Zuo; Xue, Fei
To date, three genotypes A, B, and C of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) have been isolated from cattle and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been conducted. The pathogenesis of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have not been reported. To alleviate the difficulties associated with sourcing suitable calves for infection studies, the establishment of BPIV3 infection model using laboratory model animals could aid in increasing the knowledge of the pathogenesis of this virus. Therefore thirty Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with a Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 which was classified as genotype C. Virus replications in mice were demonstrated by using virus isolation and titration, immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemistry and had occurred in the respiratory tissues as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation. The results of immunofluorescent staining and IHC implicated that the lungs and tracheas might be the major tissues in which the SD0835 infected and replicated. The histopathologic examinations revealed that alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were seen in the lungs of experimentally infected mice. The aforementioned results indicated that the SD0835 of the genotype C was pathogenic to Balb/c mice and the mouse infection model could cast light on the genotype C of BPIV3 infection process and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Espinoza, Janyra A; León, Miguel A; Céspedes, Pablo F; Gómez, Roberto S; Canedo-Marroquín, Gisela; Riquelme, Sebastían A; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Blancou, Phillipe; Simon, Thomas; Anegon, Ignacio; Lay, Margarita K; González, Pablo A; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children. The development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic antiviral drugs against hRSV is imperative to control the burden of disease in the susceptible population. In this study, we examined the effects of inducing the activity of the host enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on hRSV replication and pathogenesis on lung inflammation induced by this virus. Our results show that after hRSV infection, HO-1 induction with metalloporphyrin cobalt protoporphyrin IX significantly reduces the loss of body weight due to hRSV-induced disease. Further, HO-1 induction also decreased viral replication and lung inflammation, as evidenced by a reduced neutrophil infiltration into the airways, with diminished cytokine and chemokine production and reduced T cell function. Concomitantly, upon cobalt protoporphyrin IX treatment, there is a significant upregulation in the production of IFN-α/β mRNAs in the lungs. Furthermore, similar antiviral and protective effects occur by inducing the expression of human HO-1 in MHC class II+ cells in transgenic mice. Finally, in vitro data suggest that HO-1 induction can modulate the susceptibility of cells, especially the airway epithelial cells, to hRSV infection. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Davis, L. E.; Woodfin, B. M.; Tran, T. Q.; Caskey, L. S.; Wallace, J. M.; Scremin, O. U.; Blisard, K. S.
Up to 40% of children with Reye's syndrome have hypoglycaemia that could contribute to the patient's encephalopathy. We developed a mouse model in which intravenous inoculation of influenza B/Lee virus produced a non-permissive infection of hepatocytes and cerebral endothelial cells and caused many clinical, biochemical and pathologic features of Reye's syndrome. We used this model to study the pathogenesis of the hypoglycaemia. Beginning 6 hours after virus inoculation and persisting to death 18-30 hours later, blood glucose levels fell by 40% and glycogen disappeared from the liver. Gluconeogenesis in liver slices from a pyruvate substrate was significantly impaired. Pyruvate carboxylase, normally present in hepatocyte mitochondria, was largely displaced into the cytosol, rendering that enzyme fraction relatively useless in the gluconeogenesis pathway. Brain glucose levels fell proportionately to the depressed blood glucose level to a mean of 44 mg/100 g compared to 108 mg/100 g in control brains. We conclude that hypoglycaemia in the mouse model developed largely as a result of a non-permissive influenza viral infection of hepatocytes which impaired the mitochondrial phase of gluconeogenesis. The hypoglycaemia may have contributed to, but did not solely account for, the encephalopathy. A similar non-permissive influenza B infection may cause hypoglycaemia in Reye's syndrome. Images Figure 1 PMID:8392860
The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and ...
Ma, Yuanmei; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui; Zhu, Yang; Shilo, Konstantin; Oglesbee, Michael; Krakowka, Steven; Whelan, Sean P J; Li, Jianrong
of these viruses, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available. mRNA cap methylation is essential for mRNA stability and efficient translation. Our current understanding of mRNA modifications of NNS RNA viruses comes largely from studies of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In this study, we showed that recombinant VSVs (rVSVs) defective in mRNA cap methylation were attenuated in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these methyltransferase (MTase)-defective rVSVs triggered high levels of antibody responses and provided complete protection against VSV infection. Thus, this study will not only contribute to our understanding of the role of mRNA cap MTase in viral pathogenesis but also facilitate the development of new live attenuated vaccines for VSV, and perhaps other NNS RNA viruses, by inhibiting viral mRNA cap methylation.
Roby, J.A.; Pijlman, G.P.; Wilusz, J.; Khromykh, A.A.
Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are
Kommers, Glaucia D; King, Daniel J; Seal, Bruce S; Brown, Corrie C
The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens (Ckn-LBM and Ckn-Australia) and wild (Anhinga) and exotic (YN parrot, pheasant, and dove) birds was examined after the isolates had been passaged four times in domestic chickens. Groups of 10 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with each one of the isolates. The infected birds were observed for clinical disease and were euthanatized and sampled at selected times from 12 hr to 14 days postinoculation or at death. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect viral nucleoprotein (IHC/NP), and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA and were double labeled for apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling ([TUNEL] or IHC/caspase-3) and viral nucleoprorein (IHC/NP). Birds infected with the three low virulence viruses (Ckn-LBM, YN parrot, and Ckn-Australia) did not develop clinical disease. Microscopic lesions were observed only at the inoculation site and in organs of the respiratory system. The detection of viral nucleoprotein (N) was restricted to the inoculation site. The pheasant and dove isolates were highly virulent for chickens with marked tropism for lymphoid tissues, confirmed by the presence of large numbers of cells positive for viral N protein and viral mRNA. Viral N protein was detected early in the cytoplasm of cells in the center of the splenic ellipsoids. The apoptosis assays (TUNEL and IHC/caspase-3) showed increased apoptosis in the splenic ellipsoids as well. Apparently, apoptosis is an important mechanism in lymphoid depletion during NDV infection.
Yuni Kilawati; Yunita Maimunah; Arning W Ekawati
Environmental pollution could directly reduce water quality for shrimp cultivation. This study aims to determine how the environmental quality, shrimp population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in polluted waters in shrimp ponds in East Java associated with WSSV disease that often attacks on cultivated shrimp. The method used was a descriptive exploratory. Data collection was collected by observation and interview with farmers on disease history. Water was sampled for water qu...
Alix de Brogniez
Full Text Available Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis.
de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc
Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27023592
Claydon, Kerry; Cullen, Bradford; Owens, Leigh
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an intranuclear bacilliform virus (IBV) that is a serious, notifiable crustacean pathogen. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) PCR protocol for WSSV uses primer sets initially developed by Lo et al. (1996). It yields a first-step PCR amplicon of 1441 bp and a nested PCR amplicon of 941 bp. An amplicon (941 bp) purported to specifically detect WSSV was obtained when using template DNA extracted from Cherax quadricarinatus in a WSSV PCR detection protocol recommended by the OIE. Sequencing and analysis of the 941 bp amplicon and an occasional 550 bp amplicon from C. quadricarinatus revealed no phylogenetic relationship with WSSV, and suggested a possible lack of sufficient primer specificity for WSSV in the OIE test. This suggestion was supported by the fact that the OIE outer primer sequence (146F1) was present in both the forward and reverse position of the 941 bp and the forward position of the 550 bp nested amplicons from C. quadricarinatus. As WSSV is a notifiable pathogen, the consequences of false-positive results are harsh in WSSV-free zones and can lead to incorrect quarantine and unnecessary destruction of animals. Therefore, urgent attention and revision is necessary for the current OIE PCR protocol for WSSV detection.
Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Stojanoff, Vivian; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R
DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA). This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein). The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.
Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda
Full Text Available DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA. This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein. The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.
Don B Gammon
Full Text Available Ribonucleotide reductases (RRs are evolutionarily-conserved enzymes that catalyze the rate-limiting step during dNTP synthesis in mammals. RR consists of both large (R1 and small (R2 subunits, which are both required for catalysis by the R1(2R2(2 heterotetrameric complex. Poxviruses also encode RR proteins, but while the Orthopoxviruses infecting humans [e.g. vaccinia (VACV, variola, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses] encode both R1 and R2 subunits, the vast majority of Chordopoxviruses encode only R2 subunits. Using plaque morphology, growth curve, and mouse model studies, we investigated the requirement of VACV R1 (I4 and R2 (F4 subunits for replication and pathogenesis using a panel of mutant viruses in which one or more viral RR genes had been inactivated. Surprisingly, VACV F4, but not I4, was required for efficient replication in culture and virulence in mice. The growth defects of VACV strains lacking F4 could be complemented by genes encoding other Chordopoxvirus R2 subunits, suggesting conservation of function between poxvirus R2 proteins. Expression of F4 proteins encoding a point mutation predicted to inactivate RR activity but still allow for interaction with R1 subunits, caused a dominant negative phenotype in growth experiments in the presence or absence of I4. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that F4 (as well as other Chordopoxvirus R2 subunits form hybrid complexes with cellular R1 subunits. Mutant F4 proteins that are unable to interact with host R1 subunits failed to rescue the replication defect of strains lacking F4, suggesting that F4-host R1 complex formation is critical for VACV replication. Our results suggest that poxvirus R2 subunits form functional complexes with host R1 subunits to provide sufficient dNTPs for viral replication. Our results also suggest that R2-deficient poxviruses may be selective oncolytic agents and our bioinformatic analyses provide insights into how poxvirus nucleotide metabolism proteins may
Background Theiler’s virus infection induces chronic demyelinating disease in mice and has been investigated as an infectious model for multiple sclerosis (MS). IL-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the autoimmune disease model (EAE) and this viral model for MS. However, IL-1 is known to play an important protective role against certain viral infections. Therefore, it is unclear whether IL-1-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice and B6.129S7-Il1r1tm1Imx/J mice (IL-1R KO) were infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (1 x 106 PFU). Differences in the development of demyelinating disease and changes in the histopathology were compared. Viral persistence, cytokine production, and immune responses in the CNS of infected mice were analyzed using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Results Administration of IL-1β, thereby rending resistant B6 mice susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease, induced a high level of Th17 response. Interestingly, infection of TMEV into IL-1R-deficient resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice also induced TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. High viral persistence was found in the late stage of viral infection in IL-1R-deficient mice, although there were few differences in the initial anti-viral immune responses and viral persistent levels between the WT B6 and IL-1R-deficiecent mice. The initial type I IFN responses and the expression of PDL-1 and Tim-3 were higher in the CNS of TMEV-infected IL-1R-deficient mice, leading to deficiencies in T cell function that permit viral persistence. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of high IL-1 level exerts the pathogenic role by elevating pathogenic Th17 responses, whereas the lack of IL-1 signals promotes viral persistence in the spinal cord due to insufficient T cell activation by elevating the production of inhibitory cytokines and
Kim, Byung S; Jin, Young-Hee; Meng, Liping; Hou, Wanqiu; Kang, Hyun Seok; Park, Hey Suk; Koh, Chang-Sung
Theiler's virus infection induces chronic demyelinating disease in mice and has been investigated as an infectious model for multiple sclerosis (MS). IL-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the autoimmune disease model (EAE) and this viral model for MS. However, IL-1 is known to play an important protective role against certain viral infections. Therefore, it is unclear whether IL-1-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. Female C57BL/6 mice and B6.129S7-Il1r1tm1Imx/J mice (IL-1R KO) were infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (1 x 106 PFU). Differences in the development of demyelinating disease and changes in the histopathology were compared. Viral persistence, cytokine production, and immune responses in the CNS of infected mice were analyzed using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Administration of IL-1β, thereby rending resistant B6 mice susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease, induced a high level of Th17 response. Interestingly, infection of TMEV into IL-1R-deficient resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice also induced TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. High viral persistence was found in the late stage of viral infection in IL-1R-deficient mice, although there were few differences in the initial anti-viral immune responses and viral persistent levels between the WT B6 and IL-1R-deficiecent mice. The initial type I IFN responses and the expression of PDL-1 and Tim-3 were higher in the CNS of TMEV-infected IL-1R-deficient mice, leading to deficiencies in T cell function that permit viral persistence. These results suggest that the presence of high IL-1 level exerts the pathogenic role by elevating pathogenic Th17 responses, whereas the lack of IL-1 signals promotes viral persistence in the spinal cord due to insufficient T cell activation by elevating the production of inhibitory cytokines and regulatory molecules. Therefore, the balance of
Chopy, Damien; Pothlichet, Julien; Lafage, Mireille; Mégret, Françoise; Fiette, Laurence; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Lafon, Monique
The neurotropic rabies virus (RABV) has developed several evasive strategies, including immunoevasion, to successfully infect the nervous system (NS) and trigger a fatal encephalomyelitis. Here we show that expression of LGP2, a protein known as either a positive or negative regulator of the RIG-I-mediated innate immune response, is restricted in the NS. We used a new transgenic mouse model (LGP2 TG) overexpressing LGP2 to impair the innate immune response to RABV and thus revealed the role of the RIG-I-mediated innate immune response in RABV pathogenesis. After infection, LGP2 TG mice exhibited reduced expression of inflammatory/chemoattractive molecules, beta interferon (IFN-β), and IFN-stimulated genes in their NS compared to wild-type (WT) mice, demonstrating the inhibitory function of LGP2 in the innate immune response to RABV. Surprisingly, LGP2 TG mice showed more viral clearance in the brain and lower morbidity than WT mice, indicating that the host innate immune response, paradoxically, favors RABV neuroinvasiveness and morbidity. LGP2 TG mice exhibited similar neutralizing antibodies and microglia activation to those of WT mice but showed a reduction of infiltrating CD4(+) T cells and less disappearance of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells. This occurred concomitantly with reduced neural expression of the IFN-inducible protein B7-H1, an immunoevasive protein involved in the elimination of infiltrated CD8(+) T cells. Our study shows that the host innate immune response favors the infiltration of T cells and, at the same time, promotes CD8(+) T cell elimination. Thus, to a certain extent, RABV exploits the innate immune response to develop its immunoevasive strategy.
Pankuweit, S; Hufnagel, G; Eckhardt, H; Herrmann, H; Uttecht, S; Maisch, B
In the report of the 1995 WHO/ISFC task force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies a new entity within the dilated cardiomyopathies was introduced as "inflammatory cardiomyopathy". It is defined as myocarditis associated with cardiac dysfunction. Idiopathic, autoimmune and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy are now recognized through this definition. Dilated cardiomyopathy with inflammation (DCMi, chronic myocarditis) was also defined by a recent ISFC task force as > 14 lymphocytes/macrophages/mm3. Enteroviruses, adenoviruses and cytomegaloviruses are considered as main etiopathogenetic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart disease and have been demonstrated as important trigger for inflammatory cardiac disease. They may also cause dilated cardiomyopathy by viral persistence or secondary immunopathogenesis due to antigenic or molecular mimicry. For the detection of viral persistence the investigation of endomyocardial biopsies in patients with cardiomyopathy by the use of polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis is an important step for the standardization of diagnostic criteria on virally induced inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Present studies indicate an incidence of cytomegalovirus-DNA in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy in 10%, adenoviral-DNA in 17% and borreliosis only in rare cases (cardiomyopathy without inflammation the respective incidences were for cytomegalovirus 12%, 15% for adenovirus and only 0.5% of cases for borreliosis. In addition the results of immunohistochemical analysis and molecular biological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies may have implications for future therapeutic studies. Depending on the etiology of the disease, immunosuppression may have benefit for patients with virus-negative cardiomyopathy with inflammation in contrast to patients with cytomegalo-, adenovirus-DNA or enteroviral persistence, in whom immunomodulation with hyperimmunoglobulins or immunoglobulins
Analysis of expression, cellular localization, and function of three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) from Litopenaeus vannamei during WSSV infection and in regulation of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs).
Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo
Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) play important roles in apoptosis and NF-κB activation. In this study, we cloned and characterized three IAPs (LvIAP1-3) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei. LvIAP1-3 proteins shared signature domains and exhibited significant similarities with other IAP family proteins. The tissue distributions of LvIAP1-3 were studied. The expression of LvIAP1-3 was induced in the muscle after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. LvIAP1 expression in the gill, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and intestine was responsive to WSSV and Vibrioalginolyticus infections. LvIAP2 expression in the gill, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was also responsive to WSSV infection. The expression of LvIAP3 in the gill, hemocytes, and intestine was reduced after V. alginolyticus infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, GFP labeled-LvIAP2 was distributed in the cytoplasm and appeared as speck-like aggregates in the nucleus. Both LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 were widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. The expression of LvIAP1, LvIAP2, and LvIAP3 was significantly knocked down by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In the gill of LvIAP1- or LvIAP3-silenced shrimp, the expression of WSSV VP28 was significantly higher than that of the dsGFP control group, suggesting that LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 may play protective roles in host defense against WSSV infection. Intriguingly, the LvIAP2-silenced shrimp all died within 48 hours after dsLvIAP2 injection. In the hemocytes of LvIAP2-silenced shrimps, the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Penaeidins, lysozyme, crustins, Vibriopenaeicidae-induced cysteine and proline-rich peptides (VICPs), was significantly downregulated, while the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) was upregulated. Moreover, LvIAP2 activated the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled AMPs, such as shrimp Penaeidins and Drosophila drosomycin and attacin A, in Drosophila S2 cells. Taken together
Analysis of expression, cellular localization, and function of three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs from Litopenaeus vannamei during WSSV infection and in regulation of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs.
Full Text Available Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs play important roles in apoptosis and NF-κB activation. In this study, we cloned and characterized three IAPs (LvIAP1-3 from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei. LvIAP1-3 proteins shared signature domains and exhibited significant similarities with other IAP family proteins. The tissue distributions of LvIAP1-3 were studied. The expression of LvIAP1-3 was induced in the muscle after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. LvIAP1 expression in the gill, hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and intestine was responsive to WSSV and Vibrioalginolyticus infections. LvIAP2 expression in the gill, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was also responsive to WSSV infection. The expression of LvIAP3 in the gill, hemocytes, and intestine was reduced after V. alginolyticus infection. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, GFP labeled-LvIAP2 was distributed in the cytoplasm and appeared as speck-like aggregates in the nucleus. Both LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 were widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. The expression of LvIAP1, LvIAP2, and LvIAP3 was significantly knocked down by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In the gill of LvIAP1- or LvIAP3-silenced shrimp, the expression of WSSV VP28 was significantly higher than that of the dsGFP control group, suggesting that LvIAP1 and LvIAP3 may play protective roles in host defense against WSSV infection. Intriguingly, the LvIAP2-silenced shrimp all died within 48 hours after dsLvIAP2 injection. In the hemocytes of LvIAP2-silenced shrimps, the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs, including Penaeidins, lysozyme, crustins, Vibriopenaeicidae-induced cysteine and proline-rich peptides (VICPs, was significantly downregulated, while the expression of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs was upregulated. Moreover, LvIAP2 activated the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled AMPs, such as shrimp Penaeidins and Drosophila drosomycin and attacin A, in Drosophila S2 cells
Cousins, Emily; Nicholas, John
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the second identified human gammaherpesvirus. Like its relative Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-8 is linked to B-cell tumors, specifically primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, in addition to endothelial-derived KS. HHV-8 is unusual in its possession of a plethora of "accessory" genes and encoded proteins in addition to the core, conserved herpesvirus and gammaherpesvirus genes that are necessary for basic biological functions of these viruses. The HHV-8 accessory proteins specify not only activities deducible from their cellular protein homologies but also novel, unsuspected activities that have revealed new mechanisms of virus-host interaction that serve virus replication or latency and may contribute to the development and progression of virus-associated neoplasia. These proteins include viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), viral chemokines (vCCLs), viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs), and viral antiapoptotic proteins homologous to FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (FLIP) and survivin. Other HHV-8 proteins, such as signaling membrane receptors encoded by open reading frames K1 and K15, also interact with host mechanisms in unique ways and have been implicated in viral pathogenesis. Additionally, a set of micro-RNAs encoded by HHV-8 appear to modulate expression of multiple host proteins to provide conditions conducive to virus persistence within the host and could also contribute to HHV-8-induced neoplasia. Here, we review the molecular biology underlying these novel virus-host interactions and their potential roles in both virus biology and virus-associated disease.
The conserved herpesvirus fusion complex consists of glycoproteins gB, gH, and gL which is critical for virion envelope fusion with the cell membrane during entry. For Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), the complex is necessary for cell-cell fusion and presumed to mediate entry. VZV causes syncytia formation via cell-cell fusion in skin and in sensory ganglia during VZV reactivation, leading to neuronal damage, a potential contributory factor for the debilitating condition of postherpetic neuralgia. The gH cytoplasmic domain (gHcyt) is linked to the regulation of gB/gH-gL-mediated cell fusion as demonstrated by increased cell fusion in vitro by an eight amino acid (aa834-841) truncation of the gHcyt. The gHcyt regulation was identified to be dependent on the physical presence of the domain, and not of specific motifs or biochemical properties as substitution of aa834-841 with V5, cMyc, and hydrophobic or hydrophilic sequences did not affect fusion. The importance of the gHcyt length was corroborated by stepwise deletions of aa834-841 causing incremental increases in cell fusion, independent of gH surface expression and endocytosis. Consistent with the fusion assay, truncating the gHcyt in the viral genome caused exaggerated syncytia formation and significant reduction in viral titers. Importantly, infection of human skin xenografts in SCID mice was severely impaired by the truncation while maintaining the gHcyt length with the V5 substitution preserved typical replication in vitro and in skin. A role for the gHcyt in modulating the functions of the gB cytoplasmic domain (gBcyt) is proposed as the gHcyt truncation substantially enhanced cell fusion in the presence of the gB[Y881F] mutation. The significant reduction in skin infection caused by hyperfusogenic mutations in either the gHcyt or gBcyt demonstrates that both domains are critical for regulating syncytia formation and failure to control cell fusion, rather than enhancing viral spread, is severely detrimental to
Lee, Andrew M; Cruite, Justin; Welch, Megan J; Sullivan, Brian; Oldstone, Michael B A
Lassa virus (LASV) is a BSL-4 restricted agent. To allow study of infection by LASV under BSL-2 conditions, we generated a recombinant virus in which the LASV glycoprotein (Gp) was placed on the backbone of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Cl13 nucleoprotein, Z and polymerase genes (rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp). The recombinant virus displayed high tropism for dendritic cells following in vitro or in vivo infection. Inoculation of immunocompetent adults resulted in an acute infection, generation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and clearance of the infection. Inoculation of newborn mice with rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp resulted in a life-long persistent infection. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp immune memory cells into such persistently infected mice failed to purge virus but, in contrast, cleared virus from mice persistently infected with wt LCMV Cl13. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Du, Zhiqiang; Jin, Yanhui; Ren, Daming
Crayfish has become one of the most important farmed aquatic species in China due to its excellent disease resistance against bacteria and viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of crayfish is still not very clear. In the present study, many high-quality sequence reads from crayfish intestine were obtained using Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing. For the normal group (GN), 44,600,142 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 125,394 contigs. For the WSSV-challenged group (GW), 47,790,746 high-quality clean reads were randomly assembled to produce 148,983 contigs. After GO annotation, 39,482 unigenes were annotated into three ontologies: biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. In addition, 15,959 unigenes were mapped to 25 different COG categories. Moreover, 7,000 DEGs were screened out after a comparative analysis between the GN and GW samples, which were mapped into 250 KEGG pathways. Among these pathways, 36 were obviously changed (P-values < 0.05) and 28 pathways were extremely significantly changed (P-values < 0.01). Finally, five key DEGs involved in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway were chosen for qRT-PCR. The results showed that these five DEGs were obviously up-regulated at 36 h post WSSV infection in crayfish intestine. These results provide new insight into crayfish antiviral immunity mechanisms.
Silvers, L; Barnard, D; Knowlton, F; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Holland, M K; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J
The pathogenesis of South American and North American myxoma viruses was examined in two species of North American lagomorphs, Sylvilagus nuttallii (mountain cottontail) and Sylvilagus audubonii (desert cottontail) both of which have been shown to have the potential to transmit the South American type of myxoma virus. Following infection with the South American strain (Lausanne, Lu), S. nuttallii developed both a local lesion and secondary lesions on the skin. They did not develop the classical myxomatosis seen in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The infection at the inoculation site did not resolve during the 20-day time course of the trial and contained transmissible virus titres at all times. In contrast, S. audubonii infected with Lu had very few signs of disseminated infection and partially controlled virus replication at the inoculation site. The prototype Californian strain of myxoma virus (MSW) was able to replicate at the inoculation site of both species but did not induce clinical signs of a disseminated infection. In S. audubonii, there was a rapid response to MSW characterised by a massive T lymphocyte infiltration of the inoculation site by day 5. MSW did not reach transmissible titres at the inoculation site in either species. This might explain why the Californian myxoma virus has not expanded its host-range in North America. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oliver, Stefan L; Brady, Jennifer J; Sommer, Marvin H; Reichelt, Mike; Sung, Phillip; Blau, Helen M; Arvin, Ann M
Herpesvirus entry functions of the conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL have been delineated, but their role in regulating cell-cell fusion is poorly understood. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection provides a valuable model for investigating cell-cell fusion because of the importance of this process for pathogenesis in human skin and sensory ganglia. The present study identifies a canonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) in the gB cytoplasmic domain (gBcyt) and demonstrates that the gBcyt is a tyrosine kinase substrate. Orbitrap mass spectrometry confirmed that Y881, central to the ITIM, is phosphorylated. To determine whether the gBcyt ITIM regulates gB/gH-gL-induced cell-cell fusion in vitro, tyrosine residues Y881 and Y920 in the gBcyt were substituted with phenylalanine separately or together. Recombinant viruses with these substitutions were generated to establish their effects on syncytia formation in replication in vitro and in the human skin xenograft model of VZV pathogenesis. The Y881F substitution caused significantly increased cell-cell fusion despite reduced cell-surface gB. Importantly, the Y881F or Y881/920F substitutions in VZV caused aggressive syncytia formation, reducing cell-cell spread. These in vitro effects of aggressive syncytia formation translated to severely impaired skin infection in vivo. In contrast, the Y920F substitution did not affect virus replication in vitro or in vivo. These observations suggest that gB modulates cell-cell fusion via an ITIM-mediated Y881 phosphorylation-dependent mechanism, supporting a unique concept that intracellular signaling through this gBcyt motif regulates VZV syncytia formation and is essential for skin pathogenesis.
Felmlee, Daniel J.; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Lefevre, Mathieu; Baumert, Thomas F.; Schuster, Catherine
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore, virus production is dependent on hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and circulating virions are physically associated with lipoproteins in complexes termed lipoviral particles. Evidence has indicated several functional roles for the formation of these complexes, including co-opting of lipoprotein receptors for attachment and entry, concealing epitopes to facilitate immune escape, and hijacking host factors for HCV maturation and secretion. Here, we review the evidence surrounding pathogenesis of the hepatitis C infection regarding lipoprotein engagement, cholesterol and triglyceride regulation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:23698400
Genz, Berit; Nolden, Tobias; Negatsch, Alexandra; Teifke, Jens-Peter; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Finke, Stefan
The glycoprotein G of lyssaviruses is the major determinant of virus pathogenicity and serves as a target for immunological responses to virus infections. However, assessment of the exact contribution of lyssavirus G proteins to observed differences in the pathogenicity of lyssavirus species is challenging, since the direct comparison of natural lyssaviruses does not allow specific ascription to individual virus proteins or domains. Here we describe the generation and characterization of recombinant rabies viruses (RABV) that express chimeric G proteins comprising of a RABV cytoplasma domain fused to transmembrane and ectodomain G sequences of a virulent RABV (challenge virus standard; CVS-11) or two European bat lyssaviruses (EBLV- and EBLV-2). These "envelope-switched" recombinant viruses were recovered from cDNAs. Similar growth kinetics and protein expression in neuroblastoma cell cultures and successful targeting of primary neurons showed that the chimeric G proteins were able to replace the authentic G protein in a RABV based virus vector. Inoculation of six week old CD-1 mice by the intracranial (i. c.) route of infection further demonstrated that all recombinant viruses were able to spread in the brain and to induce disease. The "envelope-switched" RABV therefore represent an important tool to further investigate the influence of lyssavirus ectodomains on virus tropism, and pathogenicity.
Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W; Perez, Daniel R; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely
Development of a rapid method for identifying carryover contamination of positive control DNA, using a chimeric positive control and restriction enzyme for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus by nested PCR.
Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun
Chimeric positive plasmids have been developed to minimize false-positive reactions caused by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contamination. Here, we developed a rapid method for identifying false-positive results while detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by nested PCR, using chimeric positive plasmids. The results of PCRs using WSSV diagnostic primer sets showed PCR products of a similar size (WSSV 1st PCR product, 1,447 bp; WSSV 2nd PCR product, 941 bp) using WSSV chimeric plasmids or DNA from shrimp infected with WSSV. The PCR products were digested with DraI for 1 h at 37 °C. The digested chimeric DNA separated into two DNA bands; however, the WSSV-infected shrimp DNA did not separate. Thus, chimeric plasmid DNA may be used as positive control DNA instead of DNA from WSSV-infected shrimp, in order to prevent PCR contamination. Thus, the use of restriction enzyme digestion allowed us to rapidly distinguish between WSSV DNA and WSSV chimeric plasmid DNA.
Scoggins, R. M.; Taylor, J. R.; Patrie, J.; van't Wout, A. B.; Schuitemaker, H.; Camerini, D.
We studied the replication and cytopathicity in SCID-hu mice of R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) biological clones from early and late stages of infection of three patients who never developed MT-2 cell syncytium-inducing (SI; R5X4 or X4) viruses. Several of the late-stage non-MT-2
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent hepatitis and extensive lymphadenopathy. Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their peripheral blood and/or an unusual pattern of EBV-related antibodies. This disease is rare but severe with high morbidity and mortality. Nearly three decades have passed since this disease was first identified, and recent advances in technology have increased our understanding of CAEBV pathophysiology. There is accumulating evidence that the clonal expansion of EBV-infected T or natural killer (NK) cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of CAEBV. However, it remains unclear whether CAEBV is truly a monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorder. EBV-infected T or NK cells are able to evade the host cellular immune system due to the limited expression of viral proteins of reduced antigenicity. Recent studies suggest that infection of T or NK cells is a common event during primary EBV infection. A defect or single nucleotide polymorphism in host immune-modulating genes may allow for the expansion of virus infected cells giving rise to CAEBV. In this review, I summarise our current understanding of the pathogenesis of CAEBV and propose a model of CAEBV pathogenicity.
Corry van den Bosch
Full Text Available Certain infectious agents are associated with lymphomas, but the strength of the association varies geographically, suggesting that local environmental factors make important contributions to lymphomagenesis. Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma has well-defined environmental requirements making it particularly suitable for research into local environmental factors. The Epstein-Barr virus and holoendemic Malaria are recognized as important cofactors in endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma and their contributions are discussed. Additionally, infection with Chikungunya Fever, a potentially oncogenic arbovirus, was associated with the onset of endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma in one study and also with space-time case clusters of the lymphoma. Chikungunya Virus has several characteristics typical of oncogenic viruses. The Flavivirus, Hepatitis C, a Class 1 Human Carcinogen, closely related to the arboviruses, Yellow Fever, and Dengue, is also more distantly related to Chikungunya Virus. The mechanisms of oncogenesis believed to operate in Hepatitis C lymphomagenesis are discussed, as is their potential applicability to Chikungunya Virus.
Ryan, Eoin; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Durand, Stephanie
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep usually causes milder clinical signs than in cattle or pigs, and is often subtle enough to go undiagnosed. In contrast, FMD in lambs has been reported to cause high mortality during field outbreaks. In order to investigate the pathogenesis of FMD in lam...
Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates
Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei
Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for
I. V. Babachenko
Full Text Available The goal was to clarify the pathogenesis of the formation of frequent respiratory infections in children with Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infection on the basis of studying the microbial landscape of anti-infective and mucous membranes of the oropharynx resistance. The results of clinical and laboratory examination of 47 frequently and chronically ill children aged 6 months to 7 years with active Epstein-Barr virus and / or cytomegalovirus infection are presented. 19 children (40,4% had mono-CMV infection, 6 patients (12,8% – Mono-Epstein – Barr virus nfection, 22 children (46,8% – mixed herpesvirus infections. The carrier state of S. рneumoniae was revealed in 70,0% of cases, the carrier state of S. aureus – in 40,5% of cases against the background of decrease normal mouth microflora. Deficiency of nonspecific secretory immunoglobulin class A was established in 98% of cases, destructive changes of epiteliotsits on a mucous membrane of an oral cavity children was established in 93,9 % of cases. The presence of eosinophils in the mucosa of the oropharynx was reported in 29,8% of patients, in 78,7% of patients – the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes of more than 5 cells in a field of view. A scheme of the pathogenesis of recurrent respiratory diseases in often long-term ill children is desined.
Justin A. Roby
Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.
Full Text Available Abstract A new isolate of canine distemper virus (CDV, named ZJ7, was isolated from lung tissues of a dog suspected with CDV infection using MDCK cells. The ZJ7 isolate induced cytopathogenic effects of syncytia in MDCK cell after six passages. In order to evaluate pathogenesis of ZJ7 strain, three CDV sero-negative dogs were intranasally inoculated with its virus suspension. All infected dogs developed clinical signs of severe bloody diarrhea, conjunctivitis, ocular discharge, nasal discharge and coughing, fever and weight loss at 21 dpi, whereas the mock group infected with DMEM were normal. The results demonstrated that CDV-ZJ7 strain isolated by MDCK cell was virulent, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of strain ZJ7 had no change after isolation by MDCK cell when compared with the original virus from the fresh tissues. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses for the nucleocapsid (N, phosphoprotein (P and receptor binding haemagglutinin (H gene of the ZJ7 isolate clearly showed it is joins to the Asia 1 group cluster of CDV strains, the predominant genotype in China.
Chen, Yan Ping; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Corona, Miguel; Chen, Wei Ping; Li, Cong Jun; Spivak, Marla; Visscher, P. Kirk; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Boncristiani, Humberto; Zhao, Yan; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Delaplane, Keith; Solter, Leellen; Drummond, Francis; Kramer, Matthew; Lipkin, W. Ian; Palacios, Gustavo; Hamilton, Michele C.; Smith, Barton; Huang, Shao Kang; Zheng, Huo Qing; Li, Ji Lian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Ai Fen; Wu, Li You; Zhou, Ji Zhong; Lee, Myeong-L.; Teixeira, Erica W.; Li, Zhi Guo; Evans, Jay D.
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV–host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide. PMID:25079600
Melero, José A; Moore, Martin L
Molecular epidemiology studies have provided convincing evidence of antigenic and sequence variability among respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) isolates. Circulating viruses have been classified into two antigenic groups (A and B) that correlate with well-delineated genetic groups. Most sequence and antigenic differences (both inter- and intra-groups) accumulate in two hypervariable segments of the G-protein gene. Sequences of the G gene have been used for phylogenetic analyses. These studies have shown a worldwide distribution of RSV strains with both local and global replacement of dominant viruses with time. Although data are still limited, there is evidence that strain variation may contribute to differences in pathogenicity. In addition, there is some but limited evidence that RSV variation may be, at least partially, immune (antibody) driven. However, there is the paradox in RSV that, in contrast to other viruses (e.g., influenza viruses) the epitopes recognized by the most effective RSV-neutralizing antibodies are highly conserved. In contrast, antibodies that recognize strain-specific epitopes are poorly neutralizing. It is likely that this apparent contradiction is due to the lack of a comprehensive knowledge of the duration and specificities of the human antibody response against RSV antigens. Since there are some data supporting a group- (or clade-) specific antibody response after a primary infection in humans, it may be wise to consider the incorporation of strains representative of groups A and B (or their antigens) in future RSV vaccine development.
McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.
A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509
Jorge E Osorio
Full Text Available Monkeypox viruses (MPXV cause human monkeypox, a zoonotic smallpox-like disease endemic to Africa, and are of worldwide public health and biodefense concern. Using viruses from the Congo (MPXV-2003-Congo-358 and West African (MPXV-2003-USA-044 clades, we constructed recombinant viruses that express the luciferase gene (MPXV-Congo/Luc+and MPXV-USA-Luc+ and compared their viral infection in mice by biophotonic imaging. BALB/c mice became infected by both MPXV clades, but they recovered and cleared the infection within 10 days post-infection (PI. However, infection in severe combined immune deficient (SCID BALB/c mice resulted in 100% lethality. Intraperitoneal (IP injection of both MPXV-Congo and MPXV-Congo/Luc+resulted in a systemic clinical disease and the same mean time-to-death at 9 (+/-0 days post-infection. Likewise, IP injection of SCID-BALB/c mice with MPXV-USA or the MPXV-USA-Luc+, resulted in similar disease but longer (P<0.05 mean time-to-death (11+/-0 days for both viruses compared to the Congo strains. Imaging studies in SCID mice showed luminescence in the abdomen within 24 hours PI with subsequent spread elsewhere. Animals infected with the MPXV-USA/Luc+had less intense luminescence in tissues than those inoculated with MPXV-Congo/Luc+, and systemic spread of the MPXV-USA/Luc+virus occurred approximately two days later than the MPXV-Congo/Luc+. The ovary was an important target for viral replication as evidenced by the high viral titers and immunohistochemistry. These studies demonstrate the suitability of a mouse model and biophotonic imaging to compare the disease progression and tissue tropism of MPX viruses.
Planz, Oliver; Rentzsch, Christine; Batra, Anil; Batra, Arvind; Winkler, Tanja; Büttner, Mathias; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim; Stitz, Lothar
Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals. PMID:10400715
Xu, Pei; Luthra, Priya; Li, Zhuo; Fuentes, Sandra; D'Andrea, James Alexander; Wu, Jianguo; Rubin, Steven; Rota, Paul A.
Mumps virus (MuV) causes an acute infection in humans characterized by a wide array of symptoms ranging from relatively mild manifestations, such as parotitis, to more-severe complications, such as meningitis and encephalitis. Widespread mumps vaccination has reduced mumps incidence dramatically; however, outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. The V protein of MuV, when expressed in cell culture, blocks interferon (IFN) expression and signaling and interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling. In this work, we generated a recombinant MuV incapable of expressing the V protein (rMuVΔV). The rescued MuV was derived from a clinical wild-type isolate from a recent outbreak in the United States (MuVIowa/US/06, G genotype). Analysis of the virus confirmed the roles of V protein in blocking IFN expression and signaling and IL-6 signaling. We also found that the rMuVIowa/US/06ΔV virus induced high levels of IL-6 expression in vitro, suggesting that V plays a role in reducing IL-6 expression. In vivo, the rMuVIowa/US/06ΔV virus was highly attenuated, indicating that the V protein plays an essential role in viral virulence. PMID:22090137
Xu, Pei; Luthra, Priya; Li, Zhuo; Fuentes, Sandra; D'Andrea, James Alexander; Wu, Jianguo; Rubin, Steven; Rota, Paul A; He, Biao
Mumps virus (MuV) causes an acute infection in humans characterized by a wide array of symptoms ranging from relatively mild manifestations, such as parotitis, to more-severe complications, such as meningitis and encephalitis. Widespread mumps vaccination has reduced mumps incidence dramatically; however, outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. The V protein of MuV, when expressed in cell culture, blocks interferon (IFN) expression and signaling and interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling. In this work, we generated a recombinant MuV incapable of expressing the V protein (rMuVΔV). The rescued MuV was derived from a clinical wild-type isolate from a recent outbreak in the United States (MuV(Iowa/US/06), G genotype). Analysis of the virus confirmed the roles of V protein in blocking IFN expression and signaling and IL-6 signaling. We also found that the rMuV(Iowa/US/06)ΔV virus induced high levels of IL-6 expression in vitro, suggesting that V plays a role in reducing IL-6 expression. In vivo, the rMuV(Iowa/US/06)ΔV virus was highly attenuated, indicating that the V protein plays an essential role in viral virulence.
SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565
Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kinde, H; Daft, B M; Castro, A E; Bickford, A A; Gelb, J; Reynolds, B
Infectious bronchitis was diagnosed in 3-to-4-week-old pullets from an outbreak in a commercial flock in California. The disease was characterized by head swelling, watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils, and urates in kidneys. Mortality ranged from 1.8% to 12.5% per week. The isolation of a coronavirus from a suspension of pooled kidneys from clinically ill chickens at the fifth passage in 10-day-old chicken embryos, gross and histologic renal lesions, and seroconversion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in inoculated birds suggested that the virus isolated was a nephrotrophic strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus isolate was found to be a previously unrecognized serotype, based on virus neutralization tests performed in embryonated chicken eggs. Nephropathogenicity of the IBV isolate was confirmed by inoculation of the viral isolate into specific-pathogen-free chicks and demonstration of renal lesions. The isolation of nephrotropic strains of IBV has not been reported previously from poultry in California.
Yan Ping Chen
Full Text Available Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV-host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.
L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij); S.E. Vogelzang-van Trierum (Stella ); G. van Amerongen (Geert); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); N. Nieuwkoop; M. Ladwig (Mechtild); S. Banneke (Stefanie); H. Schaefer (Hubert); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)
textabstractTo elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the
Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig E; Morgan, Shannon M D; Rudd, Robert J
Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission.
for Guillain Barr Syndrome , an acute demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy. EAN is also suppressed by treatment with TGF-ß (29). The absence of...Schoneboom. 35 Guillain Barr Syndrome (GBS). GBS patients display elevated levels of IL-6 in their cerebrospinal fluid, but the significance of this...Deficiency Syndrome ALS Amylotrophic Lateral Scleropathy BDNF Brain derived neurotrophic factor BDV Borna Disease Virus CNTF Ciliary neurotrophic
Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Rudd, Robert J.
Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission. PMID:23741002
Chávez, Juliana H.; França, Rafael F. O.; Oliveira, Carlo J. F.; de Aquino, Maria T. P.; Farias, Kleber J. S.; Machado, Paula R. L.; de Oliveira, Thelma F. M.; Yokosawa, Jonny; Soares, Edson G.; da Silva, João S.; da Fonseca, Benedito A. L.; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.
Rocio virus (ROCV) caused an outbreak of human encephalitis during the 1970s in Brazil and its immunopathogenesis remains poorly understood. CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that binds to macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1 α). Both molecules are associated with inflammatory cells migration during infections. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of the CCR5 and MIP-1 α, in the outcome of viral encephalitis of ROCV-infected mice. CCR5 and MIP-1 α knockout mice survived longer than wild-type (WT) ROCV-infected animals. In addition, knockout mice had reduced inflammation in the brain. Assessment of brain viral load showed mice virus detection five days post-infection in wild-type and CCR5−/− mice, while MIP-1 α−/− mice had lower viral loads seven days post-infection. Knockout mice required a higher lethal dose than wild-type mice as well. The CCR5/MIP-1 α axis may contribute to migration of infected cells to the brain and consequently affect the pathogenesis during ROCV infection. PMID:24080631
Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng
Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2 × pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) reassortants by characterizing their in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1, identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics and fixing the CIV-H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA), we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high-growth phenotypes in vitro, and 13 of these replicated in mouse lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant was efficiently transmitted by contact but not by the airborne route and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs.IMPORTANCE IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. Dogs are a a potential mixing vessel for avian and
Franka, Richard; Wu, Xianfu; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Palmer, Dustyn P; Henderson, Heather; Hayat, Wajid; Green, Douglas B; Blanton, Jesse D; Greenberg, Lauren; Rupprecht, Charles E
Despite progress in vaccine development in the past century the mechanisms behind immune responses elicited by rabies biologics or via natural infection remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared protection elicited by standard, early, or delayed prophylaxis with a reduced number of vaccine doses using inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines. Two-month-old Syrian hamsters, 4-week-old ICR mice or adult rhesus macaques were inoculated with canine rabies virus variants. Thereafter, prophylaxis was initiated 6h, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 days post-exposure (p.e.). One or several doses of inactivated (HDCV), or reverse genetically attenuated (live), or gamma-irradiated (inactivated)-ERAG333 vaccines were administered intramuscularly. The dynamics of virus spread were measured over time in the rodent models. Rabies virus reached the spinal cord at day 4 and brain at day 6 p.e. All hamsters succumbed in groups in which live ERAG333 was delayed until days 5 and 6 p.e. However, 78%, 44%, 56% and 22% of hamsters survived when one dose of live ERAG333 was administered 6h, 1, 2, 3, and 4 days p.e., respectively. Similarly, 67% survived when inactivated ERAG333 was administered at 24h p.e. All hamsters succumbed when standard prophylaxis (the Essen regimen) was delayed until days 3-6, but 67% and 33% of hamsters survived when PEP began 1 or 2 days p.e., respectively. Macaques were protected by one dose of attenuated ERAG333 at 24h p.e. The highly attenuated (live) and inactivated ERAG333 vaccines elicited potent protective immune responses, even when prophylaxis initiation was delayed. When 2-5 doses of commercial vaccine and HRIG were administered according to the Essen scheme, 89-100% of the animals survived. Reduced vaccine schedules provided efficacious intervention, regardless of the total number of vaccine doses administered.
Jorquera, Patricia A; Anderson, Lydia; Tripp, Ralph A
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections causing bronchiolitis and some mortality in young children and the elderly. Despite decades of research there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the immune factors responsible for inducing vaccine-enhanced disease in animal models, less information is available for humans. In this review, we discuss the different types of RSV vaccines and their target population, the need for establishing immune correlates for vaccine efficacy, and how the use of different animal models can help predict vaccine efficacy and clinical outcomes in humans.
Schamberg, Neal J; Lake-Bakaar, Gerond V
Within the past decade, it has been recognized that a majority of patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, cryoglobulin formation is clearly linked to the attempt of the host to clear the significant quantities of virions generated daily by the chronic infection. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between chronic HCV infection and the development of MC, and discusses the interaction between the immune system and HCV and how this interaction can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.
Vidaña Mateo, Beatriz
La infección causada por el virus influenza A (VIA) causa una enfermedad aguda y recurrente con graves consecuencias sobre la salud pública mundial. El VIA es altamente contagioso y único entre las infecciones humanas presenta dos patrones epidemiológicos. Uno como epidemias estacionales anuales y otro como pandemias cada largo periodo de tiempo. En el 2009 se produjo la primera pandemia del siclo XXI, la cual presentó alta morbilidad causando más de 250.000 muertes alrededor del mundo. La mo...
Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; van Amerongen, Geert; van Run, Peter; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; Ladwig, Mechtild; Banneke, Stefanie; Schaefer, Hubert; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F
To elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the advantages of the mouse and ferret models for influenza virus infection. Strain 2 isogenic guinea pigs were inoculated with H1N1pdm09 influenza virus A/Netherlands/602/09 by the intranasal or intratracheal route. Viral replication kinetics were assessed by determining virus titers in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, which were also used to assess histopathologic changes and the number of infected cells. In all guinea pigs, virus titers peaked in nasal secretions at day 2 after inoculation. Intranasal inoculation resulted in higher virus excretion via the nose and higher virus titers in the nasal turbinates than intratracheal inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, infectious virus was recovered only from nasal epithelium; after intratracheal inoculation, it was recovered also from trachea, lung, and cerebrum. Histopathologic changes corresponded with virus antigen distribution, being largely limited to nasal epithelium for intranasally infected guinea pigs and more widespread in the respiratory tract for intratracheally infected guinea pigs. In summary, isogenic guinea pigs show promise as a model to investigate the role of humoral and cell-mediated immunities to influenza and their effect on virus transmission. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been identified as a putative environmental trigger of multiple sclerosis (MS, yet EBV's role in MS remains elusive. We utilized murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV-68, the murine homolog to EBV, to examine how infection by a virus like EBV could enhance CNS autoimmunity. Mice latently infected with γHV-68 developed more severe EAE including heightened paralysis and mortality. Similar to MS, γHV-68EAE mice developed lesions composed of CD4 and CD8 T cells, macrophages and loss of myelin in the brain and spinal cord. Further, T cells from the CNS of γHV-68 EAE mice were primarily Th1, producing heightened levels of IFN-γ and T-bet accompanied by IL-17 suppression, whereas a Th17 response was observed in uninfected EAE mice. Clearly, γHV-68 latency polarizes the adaptive immune response, directs a heightened CNS pathology following EAE induction reminiscent of human MS and portrays a novel mechanism by which EBV likely influences MS and other autoimmune diseases.
Toms C. Joseph
Full Text Available The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 67% were found to carry the virus. A total of 258 samples of crustaceans from the Cochin backwater system that forms a part of the Vembanad lake viz., Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus monoceros, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus were found to contain WSSV in 62% of the samples. Fifteen species of crustaceans caught from the seas off Cochin were also screened for the presence of WSSV. Out of these, twelve species had WSSV incidence levels ranging from 6–23%. WSSV was not detected from three species of deep sea crustaceans tested. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon had the highest incidence of WSSV among the species screened in farmed, estuarine and marine environments.
Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua, E-mail: email@example.com
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis.
Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mawson, Anthony R; Majumdar, Suvankar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9). Repeated episodes of malaria would therefore be expected to expose the tissues of affected individuals to potentially toxic doses of vitamin A. It is proposed that such episodes activate latent EBV infection, which in turn activates retinoid-responsive genes. Expression of these genes enhances viral replication and induces germinal center (GC) B cell expansion, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression, and c-myc translocation, which in turn predisposes to BL. Thus, an endogenous form of retinoid toxicity related to malaria infection may be the common factor linking frequent malaria, EBV infection and BL, whereby prolonged exposure of lymphatic tissues to high concentrations of retinoids may combine to induce B-cell translocation and increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma. © 2017 UICC.
Nadia F Gallardo-Romero
Full Text Available Volepox virus (VPXV was first isolated in 1985 from a hind foot scab of an otherwise healthy California vole (Microtus californicus. Subsequent surveys in San Mateo County, CA, revealed serological evidence suggesting that VPXV is endemic to this area, and a second viral isolate from a Pinyon mouse (Peromyscus truei was collected in 1988. Since then, few studies have been conducted regarding the ecology, pathology, and pathogenicity of VPXV, and its prevalence and role as a potential zoonotic agent remain unknown. To increase our understanding of VPXV disease progression, we challenged 24 California mice (Peromyscus californicus intranasally with 1.6 × 10(3 PFU of purified VPXV. By day five post infection (pi we observed decreased activity level, conjunctivitis, ruffled hair, skin lesions, facial edema, and crusty noses. A mortality rate of 54% was noted by day eight pi. In addition, internal organ necrosis and hemorrhages were observed during necropsy of deceased or euthanized animals. Viral loads in tissues (brain, gonad, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, submandibular lymph node, and adrenal gland, bodily secretions (saliva, and tears, and excretions (urine, and/or feces were evaluated and compared using real time-PCR and tissue culture. Viral loads measured as high as 2 × 10(9 PFU/mL in some organs. Our results suggest that VPXV can cause extreme morbidity and mortality within rodent populations sympatric with the known VPXV reservoirs.
Alcendor, Donald J
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the human renal compartment has not been reported. Several clinical reports have describe high-level persistent viral shedding in the urine of infected patients, but the associated mechanisms have not been explored until now. The current study examined cellular components of the glomerulus of the human kidney for ZIKV infectivity. I infected primary human podocytes, renal glomerular endothelial cells (GECs), and mesangial cells with ZIKV. Viral infectivity was analyzed by means of microscopy, immunofluorescence, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β, interferon β, and RANTES (regulated on activation of normal T cells expressed and secreted) were assessed using qRT-PCR. I show that glomerular podocytes, renal GECs, and mesangial cells are permissive for ZIKV infection. ZIKV infectivity was confirmed in all 3 cell types by means of immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, and qRT-PCR, and qRT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcriptional induction of interleukin 1β, interferon β, and RANTES in ZIKV-infected podocytes at 72 hours, compared with renal GECs and mesangial cells. The findings of this study support the notion that the glomerulus may serve as an amplification reservoir for ZIKV in the renal compartment. The impact of ZIKV infection in the human renal compartment is unknown and will require further study.
Gan, Esther Shuyi; Ting, Donald Heng Rong; Chan, Kuan Rong
Dengue is a prevalent disease in tropical and subtropical countries with an estimated 400 million people infected annually. While significant advancement has been made in the chase for an effective dengue vaccine, the recently licensed Sanofi vaccine was, in contrast to in vitro data, only partially protective. Areas covered: This suggests that our understanding of the serological correlates for dengue is currently inadequate. With growing evidence supporting the role of fragment crystalizable gamma receptors (FcγRs) in antibody-mediated neutralization or antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection, FcγR-expressing cells have been increasingly used for measuring neutralizing antibody responses elicited by dengue vaccines. Here, we review the mechanisms of how FcγRs modulates both DENV neutralization and enhanced infections via its interactions with antibodies. Expert commentary: This review provides insights on the importance of factoring FcγRs for in vitro neutralization assays. Bridging the gap between in vitro and clinical observations would allow researchers to more accurately predict in vivo vaccine efficacy.
Ellison, J A; Johnson, S R; Kuzmina, N; Gilbert, A; Carson, W C; VerCauteren, K C; Rupprecht, C E
Zoonotic disease surveillance is typically initiated after an animal pathogen has caused disease in humans. Early detection of potentially high-risk pathogens within animal hosts may facilitate medical interventions to cope with an emerging disease. To effectively spillover to a novel host, a pathogen may undergo genetic changes resulting in varying transmission potential in the new host and potentially to humans. Rabies virus (RABV) is one model pathogen to consider for studying the dynamics of emerging infectious diseases under both laboratory and field conditions. The evolutionary history of RABV is characterized by regularly documented spillover infections and a series of notable host shifts. Within this context, enhanced field surveillance to improve detection of spillover infections will require validated techniques to non-invasively differentiate infected from non-infected individuals. In this study, we evaluate the use of infrared thermography to detect thermal changes associated with experimental RABV infection in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in a captive colony. Our results indicated that 62% of rabid bats had detectable facial temperature decreases (-4.6°C, SD ± 2.5) compared with pre-inoculation baseline values. These data suggest potential utility for discriminating rabid bats in natural field settings. In addition, focusing upon RABV circulating in the United States between 2008 and 2011, we confirmed spillover events of bat RABV among carnivores and identified cross-species transmission events caused by four lineages of RABV associated with insectivorous bats. Additionally, our analysis of RABV glycoprotein sequences identified substitutions in antigenic sites that may affect neutralizing activity associated with monoclonal antibodies proposed for use in human post-exposure prophylaxis. This study provides a glimpse into RABV pathobiology and spillover dynamics among and between bats and a variety of mesocarnivores. Published 2012. This
Kwon, Young-Chan; Sasaki, Reina; Meyer, Keith; Ray, Ranjit
Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In a previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) state and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV-associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of an HCV core-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules. The status of phospho-SMAD1/5 and the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding protein 1 (ID1) were upregulated in HCV-infected cells or viral core gene-transfected cells. Additionally, we observed upregulation of endoglin/ID1 mRNA expression in chronic HCV patient liver biopsy samples. CSC generation by HCV core protein was dependent on the endoglin signaling pathway using activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) Fc blocking peptide and endoglin small interfering RNA (siRNA). Further, follow-up from in vitro analysis suggested that the antiapoptosis Bcl2 protein, proliferation-related cyclin D1 protein, and CSC-associated Hes1, Notch1, Nanog, and Sox2 proteins are enhanced during infection or ectopic expression of HCV core protein. IMPORTANCE Endoglin plays a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis and is an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. Endoglin enhances ALK1-SMAD1/5 signaling in different cell types, leading to increased proliferation and migration responses. We have observed endoglin expression on the HCV core-expressing cell surface of human hepatocyte origin and activation of phospho-SMAD1/5 and ID1 downstream signaling molecules. ID1 protein plays a role in CSC properties, and we found that
Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune response to acute RSV LRTI in infants, to characterize its specificity compared with influenza and human rhinovirus (HRV LRTI, and to identify biomarkers that can objectively assess RSV disease severity.This was a prospective observational study over six respiratory seasons including a cohort of infants hospitalized with RSV (n = 135, HRV (n = 30, and influenza (n = 16 LRTI, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39. A specific RSV transcriptional profile was identified in whole blood (training cohort, n = 45 infants; Dallas, Texas, US and validated in three different cohorts (test cohort, n = 46, Dallas, Texas, US; validation cohort A, n = 16, Turku, Finland; validation cohort B, n = 28, Columbus, Ohio, US with high sensitivity (94% [95% CI 87%-98%] and specificity (98% [95% CI 88%-99%]. It classified infants with RSV LRTI versus HRV or influenza LRTI with 95% accuracy. The immune dysregulation induced by RSV (overexpression of neutrophil, inflammation, and interferon genes, and suppression of T and B cell genes persisted beyond the acute disease, and immune dysregulation was greatly impaired in younger infants (<6 mo. We identified a genomic score that significantly correlated with outcomes of care including a clinical disease severity score and, more importantly, length of hospitalization and duration of supplemental O2.Blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allow specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and assessment of disease severity. This study opens new avenues for biomarker discovery and identification of
Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.
Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Rajan, L. Anbu; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K. V.
The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 6...
Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J
The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus.
Shawn Zheng Kai Tan
Full Text Available Saffold Virus (SAFV is a human cardiovirus that has been suggested to cause severe infection of the central nervous system (CNS. Compared to a similar virus, Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV, SAFV has a truncated Leader (L protein, a protein essential in the establishment of persistent CNS infections. In this study, we generated a chimeric SAFV by replacing the L protein of SAFV with that of TMEV. We then compared the replication in cell cultures and pathogenesis in a mouse model. We showed that both SAFV and chimeric SAFV are able to infect Vero and Neuro2a cells well, but only chimeric SAFV was able to infect RAW264.7. We then showed that mice lacking IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptors provide a good animal model for SAFV infection, and further identified the locality of the infection to the ventral horn of the spine and several locations in the brain. Lastly, we showed that neither SAFV nor chimeric SAFV causes persistence in this model. Overall, our results provide a strong basis on which the mechanisms underlying Saffold virus induced neuropathogenesis can be further studied and, hence, facilitating new information about its pathogenesis.
Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yong; Fei, Rong-Mei; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Wei, Kai-Jin
Variable genomic loci were examined in 4 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates (08HB, 09HB, 08JS and 09JS) from Procambarus clarkii crayfish collected from Jiangsu and Hubei Provinces in China in 2008 and 2009. In ORF75, sequence variation detected in the 4 isolates, as well as in isolates sequenced previously, suggested that WSSV might have segregated into 2 lineages since first emerging as a serious pathogen of farmed shrimp in East Asia in the early-mid 1990s, with one lineage remaining in East Asia and the other separating to South Asia. In ORF23/24, deletions of 9.31, 10.97, or 11.09 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Taiwan (WSSV-TW), and, in ORF14/15, deletions of 5.14 or 5.95 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Thailand with the largest genome size (TH-96-II). With respect to these genome characteristics, the crayfish isolates 08HB, 09HB and 08JS were similar to WSSV-TW and the isolate 09JS was similar to a reference isolate from China (WSSV-CN). In addition to these loci, sequence variation was evident in ORF94 and ORF125 that might be useful for differentiating isolates and in epidemiological tracing of WSSV spread in crayfish farmed in China. However, as all 4 crayfish isolates possessed a Homologous Region 9 sequence identical to isolate WSSV-TW and another Thailand isolate (WSSV-TH), and as their transposase sequence was identical to isolates WSSV-CN and WSSV-TH, these 2 loci were not useful in predicting their origins.
Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo
Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanfang; Sha, Xuejiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major threat to the shrimp farming industry and so far there is no effective therapy for it, and thus early diagnostic of WSSV is of great importance. However, at the early stage of infection, the extremely low-abundance of WSSV DNA challenges the detection sensitivity and accuracy of PCR. To effectively detect low-abundance WSSV, here we developed a pre-amplification PCR (pre-amp PCR) method to amplify trace amounts of WSSV DNA from massive background genomic DNA. Combining with normal specific PCR, 10 copies of target WSSV genes were detected from ~1010 magnitude of backgrounds. In particular, multiple target genes were able to be balanced amplified with similar efficiency due to the usage of the universal primer. The efficiency of the pre-amp PCR was validated by nested-PCR and quantitative PCR, and pre-amp PCR showed higher efficiency than nested-PCR when multiple targets were detected. The developed method is particularly suitable for the super early diagnosis of WSSV, and has potential to be applied in other low-abundance sample detection cases.
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.
Iarlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen. Silvia; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyol, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B.
CCR5-utilizing HIV-1 variants (R5) typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, whereas emergence of CXCR4-using (X4 or R5X4) HIV-1 is often associated with disease progression. However, such a switch in co-receptor usage can only be detected in approximately onehalf of HIV-infected patients (switch virus patients), and progression to immunodeficiency may also occur in patients without detectable switch in co-receptor usage (non-switch virus patients). Here, we used a system of ex vivo-infected tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogenesis of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from the switch and non-switch patients. Inoculation of ex vivo tissue with these R5 isolates resulted in viral replication and CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cell depletion. The levels of such depletion by HIV-1 isolated from non-switch virus patients were significantly higher than those by R5 HIV-1 isolates from switch virus patients. T cell depletion seemed to be controlled by viral factors and did not significantly vary between tissues from different donors. In contrast, viral replication did not correlate with the switch status of the patients; in tissues fiom different donors it varied 30-fold and seemed to be controlled by a combination of viral and tissue factors. Nevertheless, replication-level hierarchy among sequential isolates remained constant in tissues from various donors. Viral load in vivo was higher in switch virus patients compared to non-switch virus patients. The high cytopathogenicity of CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells by R5 HIV-1 isolates from non-switch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4(+) T cells in the absence of CXCR4 using virus; elimination of target cells by these isolates may limit their own replication in vivo.
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA
Marks, H.; Ren, X.Y.; Sandbrink, H.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.
Background: White Spot Syndrome Virus, a member of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustacean species. Although limited information is available on the mode of transcription, previous data suggest that WSSV gene expression occurs in a coordinated and
Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.
Lee, Sujin; Stokes, Kate L.; Currier, Michael G.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Celis, Esteban; Moore, Martin L.
CD8+ T cells may contribute to vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Compared to CD8+ T cells responding to RSV infection, vaccine-elicited anti-RSV CD8+ T cells are less well defined. We used a peptide vaccine to test the hypothesis that vaccine-elicited RSV-specific CD8+ T cells are protective against RSV pathogenesis. BALB/c mice were treated with a mixture (previously termed TriVax) of an M282-90 peptide representing an immunodominant CD8 epitope, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) ag...
Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.
virus carrier), different modes of virus transmission (perinatal, heterosexual , and homosexual ), and widely different numbers of exposures to the AIDS...PCR derived HIV-1 molecular clones from two different frozen specimens of brain tissue that were processed one year apart prove conclusively that the...DAMD1 7-87-C-7038) were to define the extent and nature of HIV-1 and HIV- 2 genetic variability in independent virus isolates from different
Hoa, Tran Thi Tuyet; Zwart, Mark P; Phuong, Nguyen T; Oanh, Dang T H; de Jong, Mart C M; Vlak, Just M
Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most variable. Here we examined the nature of these 2 indel regions in 313 WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp collected between 2006 and 2009 from 76 aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. In the Indel-I region, 2 WSSV genotypes with deletions of either 5950 or 6031 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Thailand (WSSV-TH-96-II) were detected. In the Indel-II region, 4 WSSV genotypes with deletions of 8539, 10970, 11049 or 11866 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Taiwan (WSSV-TW) were detected, and the 8539 and 10970 bp genotypes predominated. Indel-II variants with longer deletions were found to correlate statistically with WSSV-diseased shrimp originating from more intensive farming systems. Like Indel-I lengths, Indel-II lengths also varied based on the Mekong Delta province from which farmed shrimp were collected.
Dengue consists of a spectrum of disease manifestations caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus, the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans in the tropics and subtropics. The incidence of dengue and its geographical distribution have increased dramatically in the past 6 decades.
François, Sylvie; Sen, Nandini; Mitton, Bryan; Xiao, Xiangshu; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Arvin, Ann
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster upon reactivation from latency in sensory ganglion neurons. The replication of herpesviruses requires manipulation of cell signaling pathways. Notably, CREB, a factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, is activated upon infection of T cells with VZV. Here, we report that VZV infection also induced CREB phosphorylation in fibroblasts and that XX-650-23, a newly identified inhibitor of the phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) interaction with p300/CBP, restricted cell-cell spread of VZV in vitro CREB phosphorylation did not require the viral open reading frame 47 (ORF47) and ORF66 kinases encoded by VZV. Evaluating the biological relevance of these observations during VZV infection of human skin xenografts in the SCID mouse model of VZV pathogenesis showed both that pCREB was upregulated in infected skin and that treatment with XX-650-23 reduced infectious-virus production and limited lesion formation compared to treatment with a vehicle control. Thus, processes of CREB activation and p300/CBP binding are important for VZV skin infection and may be targeted for antiviral drug development. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common pathogen that causes chicken pox and shingles. As with all herpesviruses, the infection is acquired for life, and the virus can periodically reactivate from latency. Although VZV infection is usually benign with few or no deleterious consequences, infection can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. Otherwise healthy elderly individuals who develop zoster as a consequence of viral reactivation are at risk for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a painful and long-lasting complication. Current vaccines use a live attenuated virus that is usually safe but cannot be given to many immunodeficient patients and retains the capacity to establish latency and reactivate, causing zoster. Antiviral drugs are effective against
Wang, Li; Oliver, Stefan L.; Sommer, Marvin; Rajamani, Jaya; Reichelt, Mike; Arvin, Ann M.
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) has antiviral functions and many viruses encode gene products that disrupt PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs). However, evidence of the relevance of PML NB modification for viral pathogenesis is limited and little is known about viral gene functions required for PML NB disruption in infected cells in vivo. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes cutaneous lesions during primary and recurrent infection. Here we show that VZV disrupts PML NBs in infected cells in human skin xenografts in SCID mice and that the disruption is achieved by open reading frame 61 (ORF61) protein via its SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs). Three conserved SIMs mediated ORF61 binding to SUMO1 and were required for ORF61 association with and disruption of PML NBs. Mutation of the ORF61 SIMs in the VZV genome showed that these motifs were necessary for PML NB dispersal in VZV-infected cells in vitro. In vivo, PML NBs were highly abundant, especially in basal layer cells of uninfected skin, whereas their frequency was significantly decreased in VZV-infected cells. In contrast, mutation of the ORF61 SIMs reduced ORF61 association with PML NBs, most PML NBs remained intact and importantly, viral replication in skin was severely impaired. The ORF61 SIM mutant virus failed to cause the typical VZV lesions that penetrate across the basement membrane into the dermis and viral spread in the epidermis was limited. These experiments indicate that VZV pathogenesis in skin depends upon the ORF61-mediated disruption of PML NBs and that the ORF61 SUMO-binding function is necessary for this effect. More broadly, our study elucidates the importance of PML NBs for the innate control of a viral pathogen during infection of differentiated cells within their tissue microenvironment in vivo and the requirement for a viral protein with SUMO-binding capacity to counteract this intrinsic barrier. PMID:21901090
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs. However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322 was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate.
Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK, which has the same sequence as oncoprotein (OP in humans, can induce nucleoside triphosphates in DNA replication by maintenance of the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP's and is known to be regulated by viral infection in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. This paper describes the relationship between NDK and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. The recombinant NDK was produced by a prokaryotic expression system. WSSV copy numbers and mRNA levels of IE1 and VP28 were significantly increased in shrimp injected with recombinant NDK at 72 h after WSSV infection. After synthesizing dsRNA-NDK and confirming the efficacy of NDK silencing, we recorded the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp injected with NDK and dsRNA-NDK. A comparison between the results demonstrated that silencing NDK delayed the death of shrimps. These findings indicate that NDK has an important role influencing the replication of WSSV replication in shrimp. Furthermore, NDK may have potential target as a new therapeutic strategy against WSSV infection in shrimp.
Duan, Hu; Jin, Songjun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai
The hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus are classified by morphologic observation into the following types: hyalinocytes (H), semi-granulocytes (SG) and granulocytes (G). Density gradient centrifugation with Percoll was developed to separate these three subpopulations of hemocytes. Beads, Escherichia coli, and FITC labeling WSSV were used to investigate the characteristics of granulocytes by using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and laser scan confocal microscope. Results showed that granulocytes could phagocytose beads and E. coli by endocytic pathways. WSSV could rely on caveolae-mediated endocytosis to mainly enter into granulocytes. These results could elucidate the mechanism of the innate immunity function of granulocytes, and it also showed the mechanism by which WSSV invaded granulocytes in the red claw crayfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulten, van M.C.W.
Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect
Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are
Full Text Available The variation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in gradually increased virulence in poultry, and human cases continue to accumulate. The neuraminidase (NA stalk region of influenza virus varies considerably and may associate with its virulence. The NA stalk region of all N1 subtype influenza A viruses can be divided into six different stalk-motifs, H5N1/2004-like (NA-wt, WSN-like, H5N1/97-like, PR/8-like, H7N1/99-like and H5N1/96-like. The NA-wt is a special NA stalk-motif which was first observed in H5N1 influenza virus in 2000, with a 20-amino acid deletion in the 49(th to 68(th positions of the stalk region. Here we show that there is a gradual increase of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates from 2000 to 2007, and notably, the special stalk-motif is observed in all 173 H5N1 human isolates from 2004 to 2007. The recombinant H5N1 virus with the special stalk-motif possesses the highest virulence and pathogenicity in chicken and mice, while the recombinant viruses with the other stalk-motifs display attenuated phenotype. This indicates that the special stalk-motif has contributed to the high virulence and pathogenicity of H5N1 isolates since 2000. The gradually increasing emergence of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates, especially in human isolates, deserves attention by all.
Eyler, Y L; Pfau, C J; Broomhall, K S
Resistance to the acute lethal disease caused by the docile strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus varies widely between different mouse strains. In order to study the inheritance of host influence on susceptibility to this strain of LCM virus, we crossed the F1 to the parent...... susceptibility to the disease. When the parental strains carried similar MHC haplotypes but dissimilar background genes (B10.BR; CBA), 78% of the backcross mice succumbed, indicating that at least two non-MHC loci influenced disease susceptibility. It is unlikely, however, that the same two non-MHC loci...
Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui
Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181
Lee, Sujin; Stokes, Kate L; Currier, Michael G; Sakamoto, Kaori; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Celis, Esteban; Moore, Martin L
CD8(+) T cells may contribute to vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Compared to CD8(+) T cells responding to RSV infection, vaccine-elicited anti-RSV CD8(+) T cells are less well defined. We used a peptide vaccine to test the hypothesis that vaccine-elicited RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells are protective against RSV pathogenesis. BALB/c mice were treated with a mixture (previously termed TriVax) of an M2(82-90) peptide representing an immunodominant CD8 epitope, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist poly(I·C), and a costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody. TriVax vaccination induced potent effector anti-RSV CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Mice were challenged with RSV strain A2-line19F, a model of RSV pathogenesis leading to airway mucin expression. Mice were protected against RSV infection and against RSV-induced airway mucin expression and cellular lung inflammation when challenged 6 days after vaccination. Compared to A2-line19F infection alone, TriVax vaccination followed by challenge resulted in effector CD8(+) T cells with greater cytokine expression and the more rapid appearance of RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lung. When challenged 42 days after TriVax vaccination, memory CD8(+) T cells were elicited with RSV-specific tetramer responses equivalent to TriVax-induced effector CD8(+) T cells. These memory CD8(+) T cells had lower cytokine expression than effector CD8(+) T cells, and protection against A2-line19F was partial during the memory phase. We found that vaccine-elicited effector anti-RSV CD8(+) T cells protected mice against RSV infection and pathogenesis, and waning protection correlated with reduced CD8(+) T cell cytokine expression.
Lee, Sujin; Stokes, Kate L.; Currier, Michael G.; Sakamoto, Kaori; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Celis, Esteban
CD8+ T cells may contribute to vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Compared to CD8+ T cells responding to RSV infection, vaccine-elicited anti-RSV CD8+ T cells are less well defined. We used a peptide vaccine to test the hypothesis that vaccine-elicited RSV-specific CD8+ T cells are protective against RSV pathogenesis. BALB/c mice were treated with a mixture (previously termed TriVax) of an M282-90 peptide representing an immunodominant CD8 epitope, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist poly(I·C), and a costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody. TriVax vaccination induced potent effector anti-RSV CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Mice were challenged with RSV strain A2-line19F, a model of RSV pathogenesis leading to airway mucin expression. Mice were protected against RSV infection and against RSV-induced airway mucin expression and cellular lung inflammation when challenged 6 days after vaccination. Compared to A2-line19F infection alone, TriVax vaccination followed by challenge resulted in effector CD8+ T cells with greater cytokine expression and the more rapid appearance of RSV-specific CD8+ T cells in the lung. When challenged 42 days after TriVax vaccination, memory CD8+ T cells were elicited with RSV-specific tetramer responses equivalent to TriVax-induced effector CD8+ T cells. These memory CD8+ T cells had lower cytokine expression than effector CD8+ T cells, and protection against A2-line19F was partial during the memory phase. We found that vaccine-elicited effector anti-RSV CD8+ T cells protected mice against RSV infection and pathogenesis, and waning protection correlated with reduced CD8+ T cell cytokine expression. PMID:23015695
Brookes, Sharon M; Nunez, Alejandor; Choudhury, Bhudipa
The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment...
Kimberly K Gray
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a major human and animal pathogen associated with severe disease including hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but there is significant concern regarding its introduction into non-endemic regions and the potentially devastating effect to livestock populations with concurrent infections of humans. To date, there is little detailed data directly comparing the host response to infection with wild-type or vaccine strains of RVFV and correlation with viral pathogenesis. Here we characterized clinical and systemic immune responses to infection with wild-type strain ZH501 or IND vaccine strain MP-12 in the C57BL/6 mouse. Animals infected with live-attenuated MP-12 survived productive viral infection with little evidence of clinical disease and minimal cytokine response in evaluated tissues. In contrast, ZH501 infection was lethal, caused depletion of lymphocytes and platelets and elicited a strong, systemic cytokine response which correlated with high virus titers and significant tissue pathology. Lymphopenia and platelet depletion were indicators of disease onset with indications of lymphocyte recovery correlating with increases in G-CSF production. RVFV is hepatotropic and in these studies significant clinical and histological data supported these findings; however, significant evidence of a pro-inflammatory response in the liver was not apparent. Rather, viral infection resulted in a chemokine response indicating infiltration of immunoreactive cells, such as neutrophils, which was supported by histological data. In brains of ZH501 infected mice, a significant chemokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine response was evident, but with little pathology indicating meningoencephalitis. These data suggest that RVFV pathogenesis in mice is associated with a loss of liver function due to liver necrosis and hepatitis yet the long-term course of disease for those that
Zevallos-Giampietri, Eduardo-Alfredo; Yañes, Hugo Heinicke; Orrego Puelles, José; Barrionuevo, Carlos
We describe the clinical, radiologic, surgical, and pathologic findings of a 29-year-old Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus-infected man with a primary parasellar meningeal leiomyosarcoma involving the left lesser esphenoidal wing and the cavernous sinus. Over a period of 13 months, he developed headache, vomiting, insomnia, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left parasellar extra-axial mass that was isointense in T1, hypointense in T2, and gadolinium-enhanced. The patient underwent subtotal resection of the tumor. The neoplasm was composed of spindle cells with smooth-muscle features. It showed moderate atypia, inconspicuous nucleoli, and scanty mitosis. No tumor necrosis was detected. The immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity for vimentin, desmin, and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. A low-grade leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. The in situ hybridization showed positive nuclear reactivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. The immunohistochemistry was negative for Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. The main differential diagnosis of primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors includes meningioma and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Epstein-Barr virus has been demonstrated in most smooth-muscle tumors associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Primary meningeal smooth-muscle tumors, exceedingly rare neoplasms, remarkably affect young adults with AIDS. Comparatively, most AIDS-related visceral (nonmeningeal) smooth-muscle tumors have been reported in children. The permissiveness and tumorigenesis associated with Epstein-Barr virus may depend on the age of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Kristina S. Burrack
Full Text Available When an antiviral immune response is generated, a balance must be reached between two opposing pathways: the production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic effectors that drive a robust antiviral immune response to control the infection and regulators that function to limit or blunt an excessive immune response to minimize immune-mediated pathology and repair tissue damage. Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages, play an important role in this balance, particularly through the activities of the arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2; iNOS and arginase 1 (Arg1. Nitric oxide (NO production by iNOS is an important proinflammatory mediator, whereas Arg1-expressing macrophages contribute to the resolution of inflammation and wound repair. In the context of viral infections, expression of these enzymes can result in a variety of outcomes for the host. NO has direct antiviral properties against some viruses, whereas during other virus infections NO can mediate immunopathology and/or inhibit the antiviral immune response to promote chronic infection. Arg1 activity has important wound healing functions but can also inhibit the antiviral immune response during some viral infections. Thus, depending on the specific virus and the tissue(s involved, the activity of both of these arginine-hydrolyzing enzymes can either exacerbate or limit the severity of virus-induced disease. In this review, we will discuss a variety of viral infections, including HIV, SARS-CoV, LCMV, HCV, RSV, and others, where myeloid cells influence the control and clearance of the virus from the host, as well as the severity and resolution of tissue damage, via the activities of iNOS and/or Arg1. Clearly, monocyte/macrophage activation and arginine metabolism will continue to be important areas of investigation in the context of viral infections.
van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Huisman, E A; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a major cause of shrimp mortality in aquaculture in the past decade. In contrast to extensive studies on the morphology and genome structure of the virus, little work has been done on the defence reaction of the host after WSSV infection. Therefore, we examined the haemocyte response to experimental WSSV infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Haemolymph sampling and histology showed a significant decline in free, circulating haemocytes after WSSV infection. A combination of in situ hybridisation with a specific DNA probe for WSSV and immuno-histochemistry with a specific antibody against haemocyte granules in tissue sections indicated that haemocytes left the circulation and migrated to tissues where many virus-infected cells were present. However, no subsequent haemocyte response to the virus-infected cells was detected. The number of granular cells decreased in the haematopoietic tissue of infected shrimp. In addition, a fibrous-like immuno-reactive layer appears in the outer stromal matrix of tubule walls in the lymphoid organ of infected shrimp. The role of haemocytes in shrimp defence after viral infection is discussed.
More than a decade after its discovery in
MA Badhul Haq
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.
Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture. Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different. Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity. Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp. ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat
Jin, Jing; Liss, Nathan M; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liao, Maofu; Fox, Julie M; Shimak, Raeann M; Fong, Rachel H; Chafets, Daniel; Bakkour, Sonia; Keating, Sheila; Fomin, Marina E; Muench, Marcus O; Sherman, Michael B; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Simmons, Graham
We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs and chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G) at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rohde, V; Erles, K; Sattler, H P; Derouet, H; Wullich, B; Schlehofer, J R
To evaluate the occurrence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) DNA and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the semen of infertile men as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Descriptive pilot study. University-based diagnostic and research laboratory. Semen specimens were collected from 30 men with diagnosed infertility and from 8 control subjects. Diagnostic spermiograms were made and the semen specimens were separated into seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal cells, and spermatozoa using a Ficoll gradient technique. The presence of AAV and HPV DNA in the different fractions of the ejaculates from the infertile men and the control subjects was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Semen quality was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Adeno-associated virus DNA was detected in 30% (9/30) of the ejaculates from the infertile men. No AAV DNA was found in the ejaculates from the 8 control subjects. In 8 of 9 samples, AAV DNA could be found only in the spermatozoal fraction of the specimen. Seven of 9 semen specimens that contained viral DNA also demonstrated oligoasthenozoospermia. Both AAV and HPV DNA was found in the spermatozoal fraction of 3 of 30 specimens. The data demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of AAV infection in human semen. Sperm motility seems to be affected by the presence of AAV.
Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system
David H. Walker
Full Text Available Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae, is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.
Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H
Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents.
Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro; Flores, Ricardo
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) encodes a singular protein (p23, 209 amino acids) with multiple functions, including RNA silencing suppression (RSS). Confocal laser-scanning microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-p23 agroexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed its accumulation in the nucleolus, Cajal bodies, and plasmodesmata. To dissect the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) typically associated with basic motifs, seven truncated and 10 point-mutated versions of p23 were assayed. Deletion mutants showed that regions 50 to 86 and 100 to 157 (excluding fragment 106 to 114), both with basic motifs and the first with a zinc-finger, contain the (bipartite) NoLS. Alanine substitutions delimited this signal to three cysteines of the Zn-finger and some basic amino acids. RSS activity of p23 in N. benthamiana was abolished by essentially all mutants, indicating that it involves most p23 regions. The necrotic-inducing ability of p23 when launched in N. benthamiana from Potato virus X was only retained by deletion mutant 158-209 and one substitution mutant, showing that the Zn-finger and flanking basic motifs form part of the pathogenic determinant. Ectopic expression of p23 and some deletion mutants in transgenic Mexican lime demarcated a similar determinant, suggesting that p23 affects related pathways in citrus and N. benthamiana. Both RSS activity and pathogenicity of p23 appear related to its nucleolar localization.
Xu, Pei; Li, Zhuo; Sun, Dengyun; Lin, Yuan; Wu, Jianguo; Rota, Paul A.; He, Biao
Mumps virus (MuV) causes acute infections in humans. In recent years, MuV has caused epidemics among highly vaccinated populations. The largest outbreak in the U.S. in the past 20 years occurred in 2005–2006 with over reported 5,000 cases which the majority of the cases was in vaccinated young adults. We sequenced the complete genome of a representative strain from the epidemic (MuV-IA). MuV-IA is a member of genotype G, the same genotype of MuV that was associated with the outbreak in the UK in 2004–2005. We constructed a reverse genetics system for MuV-IA (rMuV-IA), and rescued a virus lacking the open reading frame (ORF) of the SH gene (rMuVΔSH). rMuVΔSH infection in L929 cells induced increased NF-κB activation, TNF-α production and apoptosis compared to rMuV-IA. rMuVΔSH was attenuated in an animal model. These results indicated that the SH ORF of MuV plays a significant role in interfering with TNF-α signaling and viral pathogenesis during virus infection. PMID:21676427
Xu, Pei; Li, Zhuo; Sun, Dengyun; Lin, Yuan; Wu, Jianguo; Rota, Paul A; He, Biao
Mumps virus (MuV) causes acute infections in humans. In recent years, MuV has caused epidemics among highly vaccinated populations. The largest outbreak in the U.S. in the past 20 years occurred in 2005-2006 with over 5000 reported cases in which the majority of the cases was in vaccinated young adults. We sequenced the complete genome of a representative strain from the epidemic (MuV-IA). MuV-IA is a member of genotype G, the same genotype of MuV that was associated with the outbreak in the UK in 2004-2005. We constructed a reverse genetics system for MuV-IA (rMuV-IA), and rescued a virus lacking the open reading frame (ORF) of the SH gene (rMuV∆SH). rMuV∆SH infection in L929 cells induced increased NF-κB activation, TNF-α production and apoptosis compared to rMuV-IA. rMuV∆SH was attenuated in an animal model. These results indicated that the SH ORF of MuV plays a significant role in interfering with TNF-α signaling and viral pathogenesis during virus infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brad A Goupil
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91% and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI. Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and μCT, respectively. μCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%, periosteal necrosis (66%, and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%. Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of μCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains.
Goupil, Brad A; McNulty, Margaret A; Martin, Matthew J; McCracken, Michael K; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N
Chikungunya virus is an arbovirus spread predominantly by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, and causes debilitating arthralgia and arthritis. While these are common manifestations during acute infection and it has been suggested they can recur in patients chronically, gaps in knowledge regarding the pathogenesis still exist. Two established mouse models were utilized (adult IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice) to evaluate disease manifestations in bones and joints at various timepoints. Novel lesions in C57BL/6J mice consisted of periostitis (91%) and foci of cartilage of necrosis (50% of mice at 21 DPI). Additionally, at 21 DPI, 50% and 75% of mice exhibited periosteal bone proliferation affecting the metatarsal bones, apparent via histology and μCT, respectively. μCT analysis did not reveal any alterations in trabecular bone volume measurements in C57BL/6J mice. Novel lesions demonstrated in IRF 3/7 -/- -/- mice at 5 DPI included focal regions of cartilage necrosis (20%), periosteal necrosis (66%), and multifocal ischemic bone marrow necrosis (100%). Contralateral feet in 100% of mice of both strains had similar, though milder lesions. Additionally, comparison of control IRF 3/7 -/- -/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice demonstrated differences in cortical bone. These experiments demonstrate novel manifestations of disease similar to those occurring in humans, adding insight into disease pathogenesis, and representing new potential targets for therapeutic interventions. Additionally, results demonstrate the utility of μCT in studies of bone and joint pathology and illustrate differences in bone dynamics between mouse strains.
Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304
Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.
Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Ebihara, Hideki; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W
Phylogenetic comparisons of known Marburg virus (MARV) strains reveal 2 distinct genetic lineages: Ravn and the Lake Victoria Marburg complex (eg, Musoke, Popp, and Angola strains). Nucleotide variances of >20% between Ravn and other MARV genomes suggest that differing virulence between lineages may accompany this genetic divergence. To date, there exists limited systematic experimental evidence of pathogenic differences between MARV strains. Uniformly lethal outbred guinea pig models of MARV-Angola (MARV-Ang) and MARV-Ravn (MARV-Rav) were developed by serial adaptation. Changes in genomic sequence, weight, temperature, histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical findings, hematologic profiles, circulating biochemical enzyme levels, coagulation parameters, viremia levels, cytokine levels, eicanosoid levels, and nitric oxide production were compared between strains. MARV-Rav infection resulted in delayed increases in circulating inflammatory and prothrombotic elements, notably lower viremia levels, less severe histologic alterations, and a delay in mean time to death, compared with MARV-Ang infection. Both strains produced more marked coagulation abnormalities than previously seen in MARV-infected mice or inbred guinea pigs. Although both strains exhibit great similarity to pathogenic markers of human and nonhuman primate MARV infection, these data highlight several key differences in pathogenicity that may serve to guide the choice of strain and model used for development of vaccines or therapeutics for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Caroline H. Seibert
Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture has been dramatically affected by many pathogenic diseases, mainly caused by five viruses: IHHNV, YHV, TSV, WSSV, and IMNV. Here we provide a state-of-the-art overview of these shrimp viruses, with emphasis on distribution, pathology, morphology, and genomic organization, in addition to current diagnostic methods and intervention practices.
Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a group of small molecule non-encoding RNAs, are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many biological processes. In the current study, miR-217 from Eriocheir sinensis was selected for studying its roles during host–virus interaction. Overexpression or silencing of miR-217 led to considerable effects on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV replication, implying that miR-217 played a positive role in WSSV infection. In insect High Five cells, miR-217 significantly inhibited Tube gene expression by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the Tube. Overexpression of miR-217 in crab led to downregulation of tube expression. Knockdown of Tube in vivo led to significant enhancement of WSSV infection and inhibited the expression of five antimicrobial peptide (AMP genes (Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF1, ALF2, ALF3; Crustin Crus1, Crus2 in WSSV-challenged crabs. Overexpression of miR-217 also led to downregulation of these AMP genes in WSSV-challenged crabs. Our results showed that host miRNA played positive roles in virus infection by regulation of host tube gene, which is the key component of Toll signaling pathway.
Translational Mini-Review Series on B cell subsets in disease. B cells in multiple sclerosis: drivers of disease pathogenesis and Trojan horse for Epstein-Barr virus entry to the central nervous system?
Meier, U-C; Giovannoni, G; Tzartos, J S; Khan, G
The recent success of therapies directed at B cells has highlighted their potential as central players in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Exciting new data showed that B cell depletion led to reduced clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease activity. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown, but could involve autoantibody production, antigen presentation and/or cytokine production by B cells. Another exciting line of investigation in the field of MS comes from latent infection of memory B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). These cells are hijacked as 'Trojan horses' and 'smuggle' the virus into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, these new anti B cell treatments will also be likely to have anti-viral effects. We briefly review recent findings in the field of MS pathogenesis, and highlight promising new targets for therapeutic intervention in MS. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.
Zhao, Meng-Ru; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Peng
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most prevalent and widespread viruses in both shrimp and crayfish aquaculture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial post-transcriptional regulators and play critical roles in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and immunity. In this study, miRNA expression profiles were identified via deep sequencing in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell cultures infected with WSSV at both early (i.e., 1 hpi) and late (i.e., 12 hpi) infection stages. The results showed that 2 known miRNAs, namely, miR-7 and miR-184 play key roles in immunity. Meanwhile, 106 novel miRNA candidates were predicted by software in these combined miRNA transcriptomes. Compared with two control groups, 36 miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels after WSSV challenge. Furthermore, 10 differentially expressed miRNAs in WSSV-exposed Hpt cells were randomly selected for expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Consistent with the expression profiles identified by deep sequencing, RT-PCR showed a significant increase or decrease in miRNA expression in Hpt cells after WSSV infection. Prediction of targets of miRNAs such as miR-7, cqu-miR-52, cqu-miR-126 and cqu-miR-141 revealed that their target genes have diverse biological roles, including not only immunity but also transcriptional regulation, energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death, autophagy, endocytosis and apoptosis. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection and highlight the function of miRNAs in the regulation of the immune response against WSSV infection in crustaceans. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long
In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the enzyme activities in the group treated with polysaccharides before challenge with WSSV (Group III) were higher than those in Group II. This phenomenon demonstrated that the polysaccharides could improve the immuno-enzyme activities and enhance the organism's antiviral defenses. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant WSSV particles and significant damage in the gills of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused parts of the gill epithelium and microvilli to be reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jitao; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Chen, Ping; Liu, Ping
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70 and HSP90, are a suite of highly conserved proteins produced in all cellular organisms when they are exposed to stresses. In aquatic animals, they have been proved to play important roles in response to environmental pollutants and particularly in the non-specific immune responses to pathogen infections. In the present study, the expression profiles of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas from the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda infected with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After WSSV challenge, the expression level of HSP 70 gene transcripts in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased to peak level at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. HSP90 gene transcripts in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated significantly at 12 h and 6 h, respectively. During V. anguillarum challenge, the mRNA content of HSP70 gene in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased significantly at 12 h and 6 h post-infection, respectively. The expression level of HSP90 gene both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated in the first 3 h. The expression patterns of HSP70 and HSP90 genes in hemocytes and hepatopancreas showed temporal and spatial differences after challenged with WSSV and V. anguillarum. The results suggested that HSPs might be involved in immune responses to pathogens challenge in E. carinicauda.
Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .
Dietzschold, Bernhard; LI, JIANWEI; Faber, Milosz; Schnell, Matthias
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains an important public health problem worldwide and causes more than 70,000 human deaths each year. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus (RV), a negative-stranded RNA virus of the rhabdovirus family. Neuroinvasiveness and neurotropism are the main features that define the pathogenesis of rabies. Although RV pathogenicity is a multigenic trait involving several elements of the RV genome, the RV glycoprotein plays a major role in RV pathogenesis b...
Kennedy, Joshua L; Turner, Ronald B.; Braciale, Thomas; Heymann, Peter W.; Borish, Larry
Summary Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function. PMID:22542099
Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao
Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thong Van Nguyen
Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.
Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.
Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most
R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. van Amerongen (Geert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); T. Kuiken (Thijs)
textabstractMost patients infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus develop severe pneumonia resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, with extrarespiratory disease as an uncommon complication. Intranasal inoculation of ferrets with influenza A/H5N1 virus causes lesions in
Halstead, Scott B
Research into the pathogenesis of dengue fever has exploded over the last half-century, with issues that were considered simple becoming more complex as additional data are found. This has led to the development of a number of controversies that are being studied across the globe and debated in the literature. In this paper, the following six controversies are analysed and, where possible, resolved: the 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not useful; DHF is not significantly associated with secondary dengue infection; DHF results from infection with a ‘virulent’ dengue virus; DHF is owing to abnormal T-cell responses; DHF results from auto-immune responses; and DHF results from direct infection of endothelial cells. PMID:22668442
Nguyen, Thong Van; Pham, Van Hung; Abe, Kenji
Development of congenital rubella syndrome associated with rubella virus infection during pregnancy is clinically important, but the pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. Pathological examination was conducted on 3 aborted fetuses with congenital rubella infection. At autopsy, all 3 aborted fetuses showed congenital cataract confirmed by gross observation. Rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs including circulating hematopoietic stem cells confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular investigations, and major histopathogical changes were found in the liver. It is noteworthy that the virus infected the ciliary body of the eye, suggesting a possible cause of cataracts. Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.
Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng
To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.
Background. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data suggests H5N1 influenza viruses are transmitted through and predominantly affect the respiratory system of mammals. Some data suggests digestive system involvement. However, direct evidence of alimentary transmission and infection in mammal...
Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing
Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host "arms race" and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses.
Full Text Available Influenza A viral infections have been identified as the etiologic agents for historic pandemics, and contribute to the annual mortality associated with acute viral pneumonia. While both innate and acquired immunity are important in combating influenza virus infection, the mechanism connecting these arms of the immune system remains unknown. Recent data have indicated that the Notch system is an important bridge between antigen-presenting cells (APCs and T cell communication circuits and plays a central role in driving the immune system to overcome disease. In the present study, we examine the role of Notch signaling during influenza H1N1 virus infection, focusing on APCs. We demonstrate here that macrophages, but not dendritic cells (DCs, increased Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1 expression following influenza virus challenge. Dll1 expression on macrophages was dependent on retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I induced type-I IFN pathway, and not on the TLR3-TRIF pathway. We also found that IFNα-Receptor knockout mice failed to induce Dll1 expression on lung macrophages and had enhanced mortality during influenza virus infection. Our results further showed that specific neutralization of Dll1 during influenza virus challenge induced higher mortality, impaired viral clearance, and decreased levels of IFN-γ. In addition, we blocked Notch signaling by using γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI, a Notch signaling inhibitor. Intranasal administration of GSI during influenza infection also led to higher mortality, and higher virus load with excessive inflammation and an impaired production of IFN-γ in lungs. Moreover, Dll1 expression on macrophages specifically regulates IFN-γ levels from CD4(+and CD8(+T cells, which are important for anti-viral immunity. Together, the results of this study show that Dll1 positively influences the development of anti-viral immunity, and may provide mechanistic approaches for modifying and controlling the immune response
Ouwendijk, Werner J.D.; Verjans, Georges M.G.M.
Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. PMID:25255989
Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Verjans, Georges M G M
Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue, simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and, although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario
Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the
Full Text Available B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1 exists as two major isoforms, α and β, which arise from alternate promoters. Inactivation of the full length BLIMP1α isoform is thought to contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis by blocking post-germinal centre (GC B cell differentiation. In contrast, the shorter β isoform is functionally impaired and over-expressed in several haematological malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL. We have studied the influence on BLIMP1β expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human herpesvirus that is implicated in the pathogenesis of several GC-derived lymphomas, including a subset of DLBCL and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL. We show that BLIMP1β expression is increased following the EBV infection of normal human tonsillar GC B cells. We also show that this change in expression is accompanied by hypomethylation of the BLIMP1β-specific promoter. Furthermore, we confirmed previous reports that the BLIMP1β promoter is hypomethylated in DLBCL cell lines and show for the first time that BLIMP1β is hypomethylated in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS cells of HL. Our results provide evidence in support of a role for BLIMP1β in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated B cell lymphomas.
Prakasha, B K; Ramakrishna, Raju P; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya
Viral diseases have become a major constraint on the growth of shrimp aquaculture in India. During a study of new diseases in cultured tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, diseased samples randomly collected from the southwestern and southeastern coasts of India were analyzed for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) by nested PCR, and for Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Of the 56 samples analyzed, 3 were positive for LSNV. These samples had signs of loose shell syndrome (LSS). Of the 3 samples that tested positive for LSNV, 2 were also positive for WSSV and MBV, and of these 2 samples, 1 was also positive for HPV. This is the first reported presence of LSNV in cultured shrimp in India.
de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome.
Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to study the pathogenesis of oral cancer and to see the role play of oncogenes, onco-suppressor genes in cancer growth and their mutation type. There are many predisposing factors which may influence the development ofcancer. The factors are divided intrinsic (hereditary and extrinsic factors (bacteria, viruses, fungi, chemical, drugs, radiation, trauma, heat, cold and nutrition. These agents may act individually, in combination with other carcinogen (co-carcinogen or in combination with other agents that do not in themselves causes cancer (promoters, but that help the carcinogens to mutate or depress cells, but in the mechanism still enigma. Oncogenes oncosuppressor genes are normal genes in human. Oncogenes functions are as growth factor (e.g. sis, growth factor receptor (e.g. erbB1, signal transducer (e.g. ras or nuclear factor (e.g. myc, jun. Tumor (oral cancer will be arises if oncogenes and onco-suppressor genes function are disturbed by some carcinogen and these genes have mutation, deletion, amplification or translocation. That was also related to the loss or inactivation of onco-suppressor genes such as p53, so that causes the loss of the normal growth regulation/strait control that associated with tumorigenesis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.66
Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del prebiótico inulina y ácido fúlvico, adicionados en el alimento, sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia, prevalencia de WSSV y sistema inmune de Litopenaeus vannamei. Para esto, se realizó un bioensayo, con tratamientos por triplicado, donde se probaron diferentes concentraciones de los aditivos. Se hizo un análisis de WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta utilizando la PCR sencilla y anidada. Al final del bioensayo se extrajo la hemolinfa y se estudió el sistema inmune en hemocitos a nivel bioquímico y genético (PCR cuantitativo. El peso final fue similar en todos los tratamientos y la supervivencia estuvo entre 66,7% y 93,3%. La prevalencia de WSSV disminuyó un 13% respecto al control. El número de hemocitos, la actividad de la fenoloxidasa y la concentración de anión superóxido fueron similares en todos los tratamientos. Los aditivos modularon la expresión de los genes transglutaminasa, superóxido dismutasa y profenoloxidasa, pero no la del receptor Toll. Los aditivos no afectan negativamente el crecimiento y protegen al camarón contra WSSV en organismos infectados con una carga viral relativamente alta. No se observó efecto de los aditivos en los efectores del sistema inmune estudiados a nivel bioquímico pero si modularon la expresión de algunos genes relacionados con el sistema inmune en L. vannamei.
Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus
Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For more than three decades, diseases caused by salmonid alphaviruses (SAV have become a major problem of increasing economic importance in the European fish-farming industry. However, experimental infection trials with SAV result in low or no mortality i.e very different from most field outbreaks of pancreas disease (PD. This probably reflects the difficulties in reproducing complex biotic and abiotic field conditions in the laboratory. In this study we looked at the relationship between SAV-infection in salmon and sub-lethal environmental hypoxia as a result of reduced flow-through in tank systems. Results The experiment demonstrated that constant reduced oxygen levels (60-65% oxygen saturation: 6.5-7.0 mg/L did not significantly increase the severity or the progress of pancreas disease (PD. These conclusions are based upon assessments of a semi-quantitative histopathological lesion score system, morbidities/mortalities, and levels of SAV RNA in tissues and water (measured by 1 MDS electropositive virus filters and downstream real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the fish population shed detectable levels of the virus into the surrounding water during viraemia; 4-13 days after i.p. infection, and prior to appearance of severe lesions in heart (21-35 dpi. After this period, viral RNA from SAV could not be detected in water samples although still present in tissues (gills and hearts at lasting low levels. Lesions could be seen in exocrine pancreas at 7-21 days post infection, but no muscle lesions were seen. Conclusions In our study, experimentally induced hypoxia failed to explain the discrepancy between the severities reported from field outbreaks of SAV-disease and experimental infections. Reduction of oxygen levels to constant suboptimal levels had no effect on the severity of lesions caused by SAV-infection or the progress of the disease. Furthermore, we present a modified VIRADEL method which can be used to
Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Zhang, Leiliang; McFadden, Grant
Myxoma virus (MYXV) M062R is a functional homolog of the C7L family of host range genes from orthopoxviruses. We constructed a targeted M062R-knockout-MYXV (vMyxM062-KO) and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. In European rabbits, infection by vMyxM062-KO was completely asymptomatic. The surviving rabbits did not gain full protection against the subsequent lethal-dose challenge with wild-type MYXV. We also looked for cellular tropism defects in a variety of cultured cells. In all of the rabbit cells tested, vMyxM062-KO conducts an abortive infection, although it initiates viral DNA replication. In many, but not all, human cancer cells that are permissive for wild-type MYXV, vMyxM062-KO exhibited a profound replication defect. We categorized human cells tested into two groups: (i) type A, which support productive replication for wild-type MYXV but are unable to produce significant levels of progeny virus by vMyxM062-KO, and (ii) type B, which are permissive to infections by both wild-type MYXV and vMyxM062-KO. Furthermore, using proteomic strategies, we identified sterile α motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9), an interferon-regulated cellular protein implicated in human inflammatory disorders, as a unique host binding partner of M062 in human cells. Significantly, knocking down SAMD9 in type A human cancer cells led to a substantial rescue of vMyxM062-KO infection. In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls productive MYXV replication in rabbit cells and in a wide variety of human cells. M062 also binds and antagonizes cellular SAMD9 in human cells, suggesting that SAMD9 is a novel innate antiviral factor against poxviruses.
Liu, Jia; Wennier, Sonia; Zhang, Leiliang; McFadden, Grant
Myxoma virus (MYXV) M062R is a functional homolog of the C7L family of host range genes from orthopoxviruses. We constructed a targeted M062R-knockout-MYXV (vMyxM062-KO) and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. In European rabbits, infection by vMyxM062-KO was completely asymptomatic. The surviving rabbits did not gain full protection against the subsequent lethal-dose challenge with wild-type MYXV. We also looked for cellular tropism defects in a variety of cultured cells. In all of the rabbit cells tested, vMyxM062-KO conducts an abortive infection, although it initiates viral DNA replication. In many, but not all, human cancer cells that are permissive for wild-type MYXV, vMyxM062-KO exhibited a profound replication defect. We categorized human cells tested into two groups: (i) type A, which support productive replication for wild-type MYXV but are unable to produce significant levels of progeny virus by vMyxM062-KO, and (ii) type B, which are permissive to infections by both wild-type MYXV and vMyxM062-KO. Furthermore, using proteomic strategies, we identified sterile α motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9), an interferon-regulated cellular protein implicated in human inflammatory disorders, as a unique host binding partner of M062 in human cells. Significantly, knocking down SAMD9 in type A human cancer cells led to a substantial rescue of vMyxM062-KO infection. In summary, M062 is a novel host range factor that controls productive MYXV replication in rabbit cells and in a wide variety of human cells. M062 also binds and antagonizes cellular SAMD9 in human cells, suggesting that SAMD9 is a novel innate antiviral factor against poxviruses. PMID:21248034
and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.
Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fantuzzi, Laura; Purificato, Cristina; Donato, Karim; Belardelli, Filippo; Gessani, Sandra
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in bridging innate and acquired immune responses to pathogens. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature DCs (iDCs) are also main targets for HIV-1 at the mucosal level. In this study, we evaluated the effects of HIV-1-DC interactions on the maturation and functional activity of these cells. Exposure of human monocyte-derived iDCs to either aldrithiol-2-inactivated HIV-1 or gp120 led to an upmodulation of activation markers indicative of functional maturation. Despite their phenotype, these cells retained antigen uptake capacity and showed an impaired ability to secrete cytokines or chemokines and to induce T-cell proliferation. Although gp120 did not interfere with DC differentiation, the capacity of these cells to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12) upon maturation was markedly reduced. Likewise, iDCs stimulated by classical maturation factors in the presence of gp120 lacked allostimulatory capacity and did not produce IL-12, in spite of their phenotype typical of activated DCs. Exogenous addition of IL-12 restores the allostimulatory capacity of gp120-exposed DCs. The finding that gp120 induces abnormal maturation of DCs linked to profound suppression of their activities unravels a novel mechanism by which HIV can lead to immune dysfunction in AIDS patients. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology
Yang, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Dai, He-Ping
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in aquaculture penaeid shrimp, which caused catastrophic economic losses in the worldwide. No adequate treatments against WSSV are available. In order to study infection mechanism of WSSV, a phage display scFv cDNA library against WSSV was constructed and a neutralizing antibody of scFv P1D3 was selected in our lab previously. In this study, scFv P1D3 was expressed successfully in yeast. Firstly, the original expression vector of P1D3, M13 phagmid, was used as a template to design primers with restriction sites of SnaB I and EcoR I . Then the gene of P1D3 was amplified by PCR. After digested by SnaB I and EcoR I , the fragment of scFv P1D3 with E-tag was inserted into yeast and E. coli shuttle plasmid pPIC9k. The recombinant plasmid pPIC9k-scFv P1D3-Etag was linearized with Bgl II and then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Positive clones were selected and verified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The scFv PID3 was induced to express in yeast by methanol. The results of ELISA demonstrate that scFv P1D3 expressed in yeast still has high specificity to bind on WSSV and the binding activity is higher than that expressed in E. coli TG1. After several optimizing experiments, the results show that the expression amount of scFv P1D3 can reach to 302 mg/L in yeast culture supernatant. This experiment has offered a new source of antibody for the researches on passive immunology for shrimp.
Yuan, Kai; He, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Chao-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Yun; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong
A previous study found that inositol-requiring enzyme-1-X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1-XBP1) pathway and the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase-eIF2α (PERK-eIF2α) pathway of shrimp play roles in the unfolded protein response (UPR). And they also be proved that was involved in white spot symptom virus (WSSV) infection. Yet the functions of the third branch in shrimp UPR are still unclear. In this study, we showed that upon UPR activation, activating transcription factor 6 alpha (LvATF6α) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cleaved and transferred from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in 293T cells, indicating that the ATF6 pathway in shrimp is also a branch of UPR. Furthermore, LvATF6α could reduce the apoptosis rate of Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells treated with actinomycin, and knock-down expression of LvATF6α increased the apoptosis rate of shrimp hemocytes. In vivo testing revealed that the short from LvATF6α (LvATF6α-s) was obviously increased after UPR activation or WSSV infection, indicating that the ATF6 pathway was activated in L. vannamei gills under such circumstances. Moreover, knock-down expression of LvATF6α could reduce the cumulative mortality and WSSV copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. Further study revealed that WSSV may profit from shrimp ATF6 pathway activation in two aspects. First, LvATF6α-s significantly upregulated the expression of the WSSV genes (wsv023, wsv045, wsv083, wsv129, wsv222, wsv249, and wsv343). Second, LvATF6α-s inhibited apoptosis by negatively regulating the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 - (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway. All of these evidences suggested that the ATF6 pathway is a member of the L. vannamei UPR, and it is also engaged in WSSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lu, Liqun; Kwang, Jimmy
To characterize the role of latency-associated ORF427 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a shrimp cDNA library was constructed to screen interacting proteins of ORF427. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, a novel shrimp protein phosphatase (named PPs), sharing 93% homology with human protein phosphatase 1, has been identified able to bind ORF427 in yeast. Through co-immunoprecipitation assays, the interaction between PPs and ORF427 was further confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the novel shrimp protein phosphatase consists of only 199 aa and contains almost all the functional catalytic domains of human protein phosphatase, while it lacks the corresponding C-terminal non-catalytic sequence. Transcription and translation products of the identified cDNA can be detected in both normal and WSSV-infected shrimps; and PPs was found to localize mainly in the lysosome of shrimp cells. To characterize its function, the PPs cDNA was highly expressed in bacteria and the purified protein showed phosphatase activity when tested against pNPP in a standard phosphatase assay. Our results suggest that the identified protein phosphatase, PPs, may represent a novel member of protein phosphatase family and might be involved in the regulation of WSSV's life cycle through interaction with latency-related ORF427 of WSSV.
Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Zhang, Yueqing; Sun, Hong; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Garofalo, Roberto P; Brasier, Allan R
Lower respiratory tract infections from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are due, in part, to secreted signals from lower airway cells that modify the immune response and trigger airway remodeling. To understand this process, we applied an unbiased quantitative proteomics analysis of the RSV-induced epithelial secretory response in cells representative of the trachea versus small airway bronchiolar cells. A workflow was established using telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells that revealed highly reproducible cell type-specific differences in secreted proteins and nanoparticles (exosomes). Approximately one third of secretome proteins are exosomal; the remainder are from lysosomal and vacuolar compartments. We applied this workflow to three independently derived primary human cultures from trachea versus bronchioles. A total of 577 differentially expressed proteins from control supernatants and 966 differentially expressed proteins from RSV-infected cell supernatants were identified at a 1% false discovery rate. Fifteen proteins unique to RSV-infected primary human cultures from trachea were regulated by epithelial-specific ets homologous factor. A total of 106 proteins unique to RSV-infected human small airway epithelial cells was regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB. In this latter group, we validated the differential expression of CCL20/macrophage-inducible protein 3α, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and CCL3-like 1 because of their roles in Th2 polarization. CCL20/macrophage-inducible protein 3α was the most active mucin-inducing factor in the RSV-infected human small airway epithelial cell secretome and was differentially expressed in smaller airways in a mouse model of RSV infection. These studies provide insights into the complexity of innate responses and regional differences in the epithelial secretome participating in RSV lower respiratory tract infection-induced airway remodeling. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of
Full Text Available Increasing number of vannamei shrimp (Litapenaeus vannamei ponds are switching from traditional to intensive farming systems, the more impact resulting among other potential environmental pollution. Pollution of the environment can directly degrade water quality cultivation and facilitate access of pathogens to infect the host. In this study examines how the quality of the environment, population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in some intensive pond associated with a disease that often affects farmed shrimp is White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. Acquisition and primary data collection is done by conducting interviews and direct observation in the measurement of water quality parameters of both physics and chemistry and morphology observation of shrimp as well as the ICP11 gene expression detection of WSSV disease in vannamei shrimp DNA in the laboratory.
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has caused mass mortality on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture and adversely affects prawn industry worldwide including Indonesia. It is well known that the protein structure of WSSV plays an important role in the virus infection and morphogenesis process. A viral protein structure called VP-15 is located in the nucleocapsid of virion virus. The protein structure involves in the life cycle of WSSV in host cells. A gene encoding VP-15 could be involved in constructing the RNA interference (RNAi, so it is needed to isolate and characterize for RNAi technology purpose. The study was aimed to isolate and characterize the VP-15 from the infected WSSV tiger shrimp. The characterization of VP-15 was undertaken through assessment of nucleotide sequence, amino acid deduction, alignment nucleotide/protein searches using Genetyx and BLAST program, and dendrogram construction analysis. The results showed that VP-15 was successfully isolated in form of ORFDNA with a fragment size of 243 bp. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed three clusters corresponding to the time (year of isolates collection. The VP-15 consisted of 80 amino acids, two start codons (ATG, one stop codon (TAA, and one Kozak context (AAAATGG. Hydrophilic amino acid was the highest composition (44.2%, followed by neutral (31.2% and hydrophobic (24.6% amino acid groups. The VP-15 was rich in amino acid of lysine (21.3%, arginine (22.9% and serine (24.6%. The successful isolation of VP-15 is a very important step in providing a basic yet suitable material in constructing the dsRNA vaccine to control shrimp diseases in aquaculture.
Karst, Stephanie M.; Tibbetts, Scott A.
Noroviruses constitute a family of ubiquitous and highly efficient human pathogens. In spite of decades of dedicated research, human noroviruses remain a major cause of gastroenteritis and severe diarrheal disease around the world. Recent findings have begun to unravel the complex mechanisms that regulate norovirus pathogenesis and persistent infection, including the important interplay between the virus, the host immune system, and commensal bacteria. Herein, we will summarize recent research developments regarding norovirus cell tropism, the use of M cells, and commensal bacteria to facilitate norovirus infection, and virus, host, and bacterial determinants of persistent norovirus infections. PMID:27110852
Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang
.... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...
M. Goeijenbier (Marco)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Het ontstaan van een bloeding of trombose gedurende of kort volgend op een infectie is een van de meest prominente oorzaken van morbiditeit en sterfte ten gevolge van infectieziekten. Hoewel aanzienlijke vooruitgang is geboekt in het ontrafelen van ziekte
Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J
The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.
Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz
Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223
Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas.
Timothy John Watts
Full Text Available Autism is well known as a complex developmental disorder with a seemingly confusing and uncertain pathogenesis. The definitive mechanisms that promote autism are poorly understood and mostly unknown, yet available theories do appear to focus on the disruption of normal cerebral development and its subsequent implications on the functional brain unit. This mini-review aims solely to discuss and evaluate the most prominent current theories regarding the pathogenesis of autism. The main conclusion is that although there is not a clear pathway of mechanisms directed towards a simple pathogenesis and an established link to autism on the symptomatic level; there are however several important theories (neural connectivity, neural migration, excitatory-inhibitory neural activity, dendritic morphology, neuroimmune; calcium signalling and mirror neurone which appear to offer an explanation to how autism develops. It seems probable that autism's neurodevelopmental defect is ‘multi-domain’ in origin (rather than a single anomaly and is hence distributed across numerous levels of study (genetic, immunopathogenic, etc.. A more definitive understanding of the pathogenesis could facilitate the development of better treatments for this complex psychiatric disorder.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more
Somboonna, Naraporn; Mangkalanan, Seksan; Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Krittanai, Chartchai; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Flegel, Tw
Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single
Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget
This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sudharsana, S; Rajashekar Reddy, C B; Dinesh, S; Rajasekhara Reddy, S; Mohanapriya, A; Itami, T; Sudhakaran, R
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an aquatic virus infecting shrimps and other crustaceans, is widely distributed in Asian subcontinents including India. The infection has led to a serious economic loss in shrimp farming. The WSSV genome is approximately 300 kb and codes for several proteins mediating the infection. The envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 play a major role in infection process and also in the interaction with the host cells. A comprehensive study on the viral proteins leading to the development of safe and potent antiviral therapeutic is of adverse need. The novel synthesized compound 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 is proved to have potent antiviral activity against WSSV. The compound antiviral activity is validated in freshwater crabs (Paratelphusa hydrodomous). An in silico molecular docking and simulation analysis of the envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 with the ligand 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 are carried out. The docking analysis reveals that the polar amino acids in the pore region of the envelope proteins were involved in the ligand binding. The influence of the ligand binding on the proteins is validated by the molecular dynamics and simulation study. These in silico approaches together demonstrate the ligand's efficiency in preventing the trimers from exhibiting their physiological function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.
Islam, Md Soriful; Greco, Stefania; Janjusevic, Milijana; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; D'Adderio, Assunta; Biagini, Alessandra; Fiorini, Rosamaria; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina
Growth factors are relatively small and stable, secreted or membrane-bound polypeptide ligands, which play an important role in proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, survival, inflammation, and tissue repair, or fibrosis. They exert multiple effects through the activation of signal transduction pathways by binding to their receptors on the surface of target cells. A number of studies have demonstrated the central role of growth factors and their signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas. Numerous differentially expressed growth factors have been identified in leiomyoma and myometrial cells. These growth factors can activate multiple signaling pathways (Smad 2/3, ERK 1/2, PI3K, and β-catenin) and regulate major cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis which are linked to uterine leiomyoma development and growth. In this chapter, we discuss the role of growth factors and their signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hilayda Karakök Güngör
Full Text Available Chronic urticaria is defined by the presence of urticaria on most days of the week for longer than six weeks. Appereance of the lesions is not triggered by any reasons. Mast cell and basophil degranulation and releasing of histamine is the main cause of apperance of hives. In 1960, it was first hypothesised that chronic urticaria is an autoimmune condition. This hypothesis is supported by autoloug serum skin test positivity in some cases. It is not clear whether autoantibodies or serum or plasma factors triggered autoreactivity in cases with autolog serum skin test positivity. Compleman activity as also one of the key factors in basophil degranulation. Functional differences in basophils has also been shown by studies. Absence of characteristics of allergic late phase reaction in dermathopathologic specimen, suggests clues for better understanding the pathogenesis. In this review theories about pathogenesis of chronic urticaria will be discussed.
Deborah Gnana Selvam
Full Text Available A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010 study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.
Full Text Available AIM: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common pathology that usually affects tennis players and athletes involved in overhead throwing, especially athletes between 30 and 50 years old. It is a painful condition that starts with swelling of the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and continues as a tendinosis. This pathology is related to a repetitive contraction of the extensor carpi radialis and it could also be associated with the conditions of the tennis racquet, an improper technique while playing tennis or with the frequency of play. The aim of this review is to analyze the different causes of suffering lateral epicondylitis in tennis players and its pathogenesis. METHODS: A bibliographic research has been performed with Medline database. In order to obtain as much as relevant literature possible, the key words used were: tennis elbow AND pathogenesis. Only manuscripts that had been published in the last five years and only English- written studies were selected, as well as studies that really mentioned pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis in adult tennis players. RESULTS: 434 results were obtained reducing to 81 manuscripts in the last five years. Following the selection criteria, four systematic reviews were obtained referring to tennis elbow in athletes and pathogenesis. These studies mentioned the possible causes of lateral epicondylitis, especially in tennis players due to their constantly exercise over the extensor muscles that have their origin in the humeral epicondyle in order to keep going with the tennis practice. CONCLUSIONS: A repetitive contraction of the extensor carpi radialis seems to cause lateral epicondylitis in tennis players. But, in fact, there are some aspects that differ: the conditions of the racquet could be a cause of this pathology, as well as an incorrect technique while playing tennis and the frequency of play.
de Vries, Rory D.; Mesman, Annelies W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.
Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Measles virus (MV) is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease. Over the last decade, identification of new cellular receptors and studies in animal models have challenged the
Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing
This dissertation includes a presentation of knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis achieved through a PhD programme at Aalborg University from 1.12.2011 - 1.12.2014. Work was carried out in the Laboratory of Medical Mass Spectrometry, headed by: Professor Svend Birkelund...... Associate Professor Allan Stensballe The output of this PhD programme, besides from this dissertation, includes 5 published papers, 30 ECTS PhD courses, oral presentations of posters in national and international research environment and a short-term scholarship at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy...
Lum, Fok-Moon; Ng, Lisa F P
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that causes chikungunya fever, a disease characterized by the onset of fever and rashes, with arthralgia as its hallmark symptom. CHIKV has re-emerged over the past decade, causing numerous outbreaks around the world. Since late 2013, CHIKV has reached the shores of the Americas, causing more than a million cases of infection. Despite concentrated efforts to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, further outbreaks remain a threat. This review highlights important findings regarding CHIKV-associated immunopathogenesis and offers important insights into future directions. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lakhundi, Sahreena; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp. are responsible for causing ocular disease. Clinical features include redness, pain, tearing, blur vision and inflammation but symptoms vary depending on the causative agent. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with microbial pathogenesis include virulence factors as well as the host factors that aid in the progression of keratitis, resulting in damage to the ocular tissue. The treatment therefore should focus not only on the elimination of the culprit but also on the neutralization of virulence factors to minimize the damage, in addition to repairing the damaged tissue. A complete understanding of the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis will lead to the rational development of therapeutic interventions. This is a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner. Coupled with the recently available genome sequence information and high throughput genomics technology, and the availability of innovative approaches, this will stimulate interest in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pemphigus, a group of bullous diseases affecting the oral mucosa and the skin, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmogleins (Dsg, desmosomal transmembrane glycoproteins, leading to acantholysis. Pemphigus has a worldwide distribution but the incidence in patients of Jewish origin is higher. The disease has a peak incidence of occurrence between the 4th and 6th decades. While various environmental factors have been implicated as triggering agents, HLA association is probably the most important predisposing factor. Pemphigus, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmosomal cadherins, Dsg1, and Dsg3. Recent molecular studies have shown that acantholysis can occur also in the presence of antibodies against 9a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pemphigus is currently divided into three distinct varieties, i.e., pemphigus vulgaris (PV, pemphigus foliaceus (PF and other variants of pemphigus, depending on clinical features, the level of separation in the epidermis, and immunologic characteristics of auto-antigens. Blistering pathogenesis differ for each of the types of pemphigus. PV is characterized by IgG autoantibodies against Dsg 3, whereas the target of PF is Dsg1, although about 50% of PV patients also have Dsg1 autoantibodies. Lesion distribution is related to the location of the antigen (Dgs 3 and/or Dgs 1 in the epithelium and specific autoantibody production. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathogenesis of pemphigus.
Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun
A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP1...
Weesendorp, E.; Stockhofe, N.; Rebel, J.M.J.
Vaccination against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses and pathogenesis elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. Differences in host response between the
Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne viral diseases. With climate change and the convenience of travel, dengue is spreading beyond its usual tropical and subtropical boundaries. Infection with dengue virus (DENV causes diseases ranging widely in severity, from self-limited dengue fever to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage are the major clinical manifestations associated with severe DENV infection, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Besides the direct effects of the virus, immunopathogenesis is also involved in the development of dengue disease. Antibody-dependent enhancement increases the efficiency of virus infection and may suppress type I interferon-mediated antiviral responses. Aberrant activation of T cells and overproduction of soluble factors cause an increase in vascular permeability. DENV-induced autoantibodies against endothelial cells, platelets, and coagulatory molecules lead to their abnormal activation or dysfunction. Molecular mimicry between DENV proteins and host proteins may explain the cross-reactivity of DENV-induced autoantibodies. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under development. For the development of a safe and effective dengue vaccine, the immunopathogenic complications of dengue disease need to be considered.
Vermout, Sandy; Tabart, Jérémy; Baldo, Aline; Mathy, Anne; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard
Despite the superficial localization of most dermatophytosis, host-fungus relationship in these infections is complex and still poorly elucidated. Though many efforts have been accomplished to characterize secreted dermatophytic proteases at the molecular level, only punctual insights have been afforded into other aspects of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis, such as fungal adhesion, regulation of gene expression during the infection process, and immunomodulation by fungal factors. However, new genetic tools were recently developed, allowing a more rapid and high-throughput functional investigation of dermatophyte genes and the identification of new putative virulence factors. In addition, sophisticated in vitro infection models are now used and will open the way to a more comprehensive view of the interactions between these fungi and host epidermal cells, especially keratinocytes.
Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is an enigmatic disease with a multifactorial and still unresolved pathogenesis. Postulated mechanisms include catecholamine excess, coronary artery spasm, and microvascular dysfunction, however catecholamines seem to play a central role in the pathophysiology of TTS. In facts catecholamines have relevant effects on the vasculature and myocardium. Toxic direct effects of catecholamine on myocardium are mediated by multiple pathway including functional hypoxia, metabolic changes and changes in membrane permeability leading to various electrolytic imbalances. Recently report of familial cases has suggested a genetic component. Further research is required to help clarify the proposed hypotheses and to increase our understanding of the cardiovascular responses to acute stress and the pathophysiology underpinning TTS.
Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the main cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world and a major health problem, owing to its close association with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. NASH progression results from numerous events originating within the liver, as well as from signals derived from the adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. In a fraction of NASH patients, disease may progress, eventually leading to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms leading to NASH and its evolution to cirrhosis is critical to identifying effective approaches for the treatment of this condition. In this review, we focus on some of the most recent data reported on the pathogenesis of NASH and its fibrogenic progression, highlighting potential targets for treatment or identification of biomarkers of disease progression.
Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian
Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is known to play key roles in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis, and virus infection. In the present study, a novel VEGFR gene (LvVEGFR2 was identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR2 possessed typical features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including six IG-like domains, a transmembrane motif, a protein kinase (PK domain, and one tyrosine-PK active site. The transcripts of LvVEGFR2 were mainly detected in hemocytes and lymphoid organ (Oka. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 was a membrane protein. Its expression level was obviously upregulated in hemocytes and Oka of the shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. Knockdown of LvVEGFR2 gene expression by double-strand RNA mediated interference could lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. The interaction between LvVEGFR2 and different LvVEGFs (LvVEGF1, LvVEGF2, and LvVEGF3 in shrimp was analyzed at the transcription level and protein level, respectively. Knockdown of LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could downregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2, and injection of the recombinant LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could upregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 could interact with LvVEGF2 and LvVEGF3 directly. The study improved our understanding on the VEGF signaling pathway of shrimp and its role during WSSV infection.
Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan
The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to
Full Text Available The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated-natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in
Liu, Yan-Ting; Chang, Chin-I; Hseu, Jinn-Rong; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Jyh-Ming
Prophenoloxidase (proPO) and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD) play crucial roles in crustacean innate immunity. In the present study, both of the above genes were cloned from hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed that C. quadricarinatus proPO and cytMnSOD were more closely related to the proPO and cytMnSOD of other crayfish than to those of penaeids, crabs, lobsters, or freshwater prawns. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that proPO was primarily expressed in hemocytes, gills, and the heart, while cytMnSOD was detected in all tissues examined. All of the crayfish artificially infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) died within 4 days. According to a non-lethal dose, there was no mortality in crayfish when infected deliberately with Aeromonas hydrophila. Total hemocyte counts (THCs) had significantly decreased in crayfish at 48 and 72 h after infection with WSSV compared to the control group. In contrast, THCs of crayfish after A. hydrophila challenge had recovered by 48 and 72 h from a lower level at 24 h. There were similar responses in enzyme activities toward WSSV and A. hydrophila infection. Phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities per hemocyte significantly increased from 48 to 72 h compared to the control group. After WSSV challenge, expressions of proPO and cytMnSOD transcripts in hemocytes significantly decreased at 12h, then had respectively recovered and increased at 24 h. At 48-72 h, transcript levels were finally downregulated. No significant differences in the expression profiles of proPO and cytMnSOD were observed between the A. hydrophila-infected and control groups, besides the significant upregulation at 24h post-infection. These results implicate proPO and cytMnSOD in the immune response, and they presented similar expression patterns, although different defense mechanisms may exist for crayfish induced by WSSV and A
Spellberg, Brad; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection that occurs in patients who are immunocompromised because of diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and/or increased serum levels of available iron. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cancer, and organ transplantation, the number of patients at risk for this deadly infection is increasing. Despite aggressive therapy, which includes disfiguring surgical debridement and frequently adjunctive toxic antifungal therapy, the overall mortality rate is high. New strategies to prevent and treat mucormycosis are urgently needed. Understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and the host response to invading hyphae ultimately will provide targets for novel therapeutic interventions. In this supplement, we review the current knowledge about the virulence traits used by the most common etiologic agent of mucormycosis, Rhizopus oryzae. Because patients with elevated serum levels of available iron are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis and these infections are highly angioinvasive, emphasis is placed on the ability of the organism to acquire iron from the host and on its interactions with endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Several promising therapeutic strategies in preclinical stages are identified. PMID:22247441
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently encountered member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci on human epithelial surfaces. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, especially in infections of indwelling medical devices. The mechanisms that S. epidermidis uses to survive during infection are in general of a passive nature, reflecting their possible origin in the commensal life of this bacterium. Most importantly, S. epidermidis excels in forming biofilms, sticky agglomerations that inhibit major host defense mechanisms. Furthermore, S. epidermidis produces a series of protective surface polymers and exoenzymes. Moreover, S. epidermidis has the capacity to secrete strongly cytolytic members of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family, but PSMs in S. epidermidis overall appear to participate primarily in biofilm development. Finally, there is evidence for a virulence gene reservoir function of S. epidermidis, as it appears to have transferred important immune evasion and antibiotic resistance factors to Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, S. epidermidis also has a beneficial role in balancing the microflora on human epithelial surfaces by controlling outgrowth of harmful bacteria such as in particular S. aureus. Recent research yielded detailed insight into key S. epidermidis virulence determinants and their regulation, in particular as far as biofilm formation is concerned, but we still have a serious lack of understanding of the in vivo relevance of many pathogenesis mechanisms and the factors that govern the commensal life of S. epidermidis.
Luciana Wanderley Myrrha
Full Text Available Feline coronavirus (FCoV is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.
Tizard, Ian; Ball, Judith; Stoica, George; Payne, Susan
Natural bornavirus infections and their resulting diseases are largely restricted to horses and sheep in Central Europe. The disease also occurs naturally in cats, and can be induced experimentally in laboratory rodents and numerous other mammals. Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), the cause of most cases of mammalian Borna disease, is a negative-stranded RNA virus that replicates within the nucleus of target cells. It causes severe, often lethal, encephalitis in susceptible species. Recent events, especially the discovery of numerous new species of bornaviruses in birds and a report of an acute, lethal bornaviral encephalitis in humans, apparently acquired from squirrels, have revived interest in this remarkable family of viruses. The clinical manifestations of the bornaviral diseases are highly variable. Thus, in addition to acute lethal encephalitis, they can cause persistent neurologic disease associated with diverse behavioral changes. They also cause a severe retinitis resulting in blindness. In this review, we discuss both the pathological lesions observed in mammalian bornaviral disease and the complex pathogenesis of the neurologic disease. Thus infected neurons may be destroyed by T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. They may die as a result of excessive inflammatory cytokine release from microglia. They may also die as a result of a 'glutaminergic storm' due to a failure of infected astrocytes to regulate brain glutamate levels.
Lawrence, Paul; Pacheco, Juan; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Arzt, Jonathan; Rai, Devendra K; Rieder, Elizabeth
A companion study reported Jumonji-C domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is involved in an integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. JMJD6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type A24-FMDV (A24-WT) or mutant FMDV (JMJD6-FMDV) carrying E95K/S96L and RGD to KGE mutations in VP1. Additionally, pathogenesis of mutant JMJD6-FMDV was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculation. Interestingly, JMJD6-FMDV pathogenesis was equivalent to A24-WT administered by IEL route. In contrast, JMJD6-FMDV aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest signs of FMD and animals showed no detectable viremia. Immunofluorescent microscopy of post-mortem tissue revealed JMJD6-FMDV exclusively co-localized with JMJD6(+) cells while A24-WT was occasionally found in JMJD6(+) cells. In vitro, chemical uptake inhibitors demonstrated JMJD6-FMDV entered cells via clathrin-coated pit endocytosis. In vivo, JMJD6-FMDV exhibited preference for JMJD6(+) cells, but availability of this alternative receptor likely depends on route of inoculation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W
The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.
Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP is an abundant, ubiquitous, and conserved protein which plays important roles in a number of biological processes. In the present study, the TCTP in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was analyzed. The TCTP of L.vannamei, a 168-amino-acid polypeptide, shares a high degree of similarity with TCTPs from other species, having two TCTP protein signatures at the 45-55 aa and 123-145 aa motif. The mRNA and protein levels from different tissues were detected with the highest in muscle and the lowest in heart among all examined tissues. In addition, temporal TCTP expression was significantly up-regulated at 16 h and 48 h following infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Lastly, silencing of TCTP with dsRNA led to a significant increase of WSSV loads. These results provide new insights into the importance of TCTP as an evolutionarily conserved molecule for shrimp innate immunity against virus infection.
Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco P
Even if osteoarthritis pathogenesis is still poorly understood, numerous evidences suggest that osteoblasts dysregulation plays a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. An abnormal expression of OPG and RANKL has been described in osteoarthritis osteoblasts, which is responsible for abnormal bone remodeling and decreased mineralization. Alterations in genes expression are involved in dysregulation of osteoblast function, bone remodeling, and mineralization, leading to osteoarthritis development. Moreover, osteoblasts produce numerous transcription factors, growth factors, and other proteic molecules which are involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection...... confers a higher risk of MS, and EBV reactivation also appears to be linked to disease activity in early MS. MS patients have elevated anti-EBV antibody responses, both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular mimicry is found between certain EBV and myelin epitopes in the cell-mediated immune response....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process....
Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many processes of eukaryotic cells. It is known that the expression profiles of host miRNAs can be reshaped by viruses. However, a systematic investigation of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection has not yet been performed. Results In this study, the shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus was challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Small RNA sequencing of WSSV-infected shrimp at different time post-infection (0, 6, 24 and 48 h identified 63 host miRNAs, 48 of which were conserved in other animals, representing 43 distinct families. Of the identified host miRNAs, 31 were differentially expressed in response to virus infection, of which 25 were up-regulated and six down-regulated. The results were confirmed by northern blots. The TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that most target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immune responses. Gene ontology analysis revealed that immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. Evolutionary analysis showed that three of them, miR-1, miR-7 and miR-34, are highly conserved in shrimp, fruit fly and humans and function in the similar pathways. Conclusions Our study provides the first large-scale characterization of marine invertebrate miRNAs that respond to virus infection. This will help to reveal the molecular events involved in virus-host interactions mediated by miRNAs and their evolution in animals.
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major component of the caveolae structure and is expressed in a variety of cell types including macrophages, which are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caveolae structures are present in abundance in mechanically stressed cells such as endothelial cells and adipocytes. HIV infection induces dysfunction of these cells and promotes pathogenesis. Cav-1 and the caveolae structure are believed to be involved in multiple cellular processes that include signal transduction, lipid regulation, endocytosis, transcytosis, and mechanoprotection. Such a broad biological role of Cav-1/caveolae is bound to have functional cross relationships with several molecular pathways including HIV replication and viral-induced pathogenesis. The current review covers the relationship of Cav-1 and HIV in respect to viral replication, persistence, and the potential role in pathogenesis.
Green Patrick L
Full Text Available Abstract Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and is also associated with a variety of lymphocyte-mediated diseases. The HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (HBZ gene, found to be consistently expressed in ATL, has recently been the subject of intensive research efforts. In this review, we summarize recent findings about HBZ and discuss its roles and functions not only in the virus life cycle, but also in HTLV-1 disease pathogenesis.
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.
Mohammed, Ghada F; Gomaa, Amal HA; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh
Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune hypothesis, followed by the reactive oxygen species model, zinc-α2-glycoprotein deficiency hypothesis, viral theory, intrinsic theory and biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations accounting for loss of functioning melanocytes in vitiligo. Many theories were elaborated to clarify vitiligo pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease involving the interplay of several factors. Future research is needed to clarify the interaction of these factors for better understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and subsequent successful treatment. PMID:25789295
Zakharova, N V; Fil', T S
The article reviews a pathogenesis of Pseudomembranous colitis. Questions of prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile--associated diarrhea are shown by the Evidence-based medicine. There is an accent on the rational prescription of antibiotics.
Madison, Marisa N.; Okeoma, Chioma M.
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26205405
Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a rare disorder in children, which is characterized by fever and hepatosplenomegaly associated with pancytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia. Increased levels of various cytokines and soluble IL-2 receptors are biological markers of HLH. HLH can be classified into two distinct forms; primary and secondary HLH. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL, one of primary HLHs, is an autosomal recessive disorder typically occurring in infancy and can be classified into five different subtypes (FHL1 to FHL5. In Japan, more than 80% of FHL patients have either PRF1 (FHL2 or UNC13D (FHL3 defect. It is now considered that FHL is a disorder of T-cell function, because activity of NK cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes for target cells is usually impaired. On the other hand, Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH is considered a major subtype of secondary HLH. Any genetic background could have a role in the pathogenesis of secondary HLH, because EBV-HLH is thought to be particularly prevalent in Asian countries. For primary HLH, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an only accepted curative therapy and cord blood transplantation with reduced-conditioning regimen has been used, with superior outcome. For secondary HLH including EBV-HLH, immune-chemotherapy based on HLH-2004 protocol has been used. In the near future, an entire pathogenesis should be clarified in order to establish less toxic therapies including immunotherapy and gene therapy.
Full Text Available The article presents possible molecular mechanisms for rosacea pathogenesis from current domestic and foreign clinical observations and laboratory research: regulation and expression defects of antimicrobial peptides, vascular endothelial growth factor, the effect of serine proteases, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species and ferritin on the occurrence and course of rosacea. New developments in molecular biology and genetics are advanced for researching the interaction of multiple factors involved in rosacea pathogenesis, as well as providing the bases for potentially new therapies.
Luciana Wanderley Myrrha; Fernanda Miquelitto Figueira Silva; Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira Peternelli; Abelardo Silva Junior; Maurício Resende; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present...
Zhdanov, K W; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fusin, A Ya
The data on the prevalence of disease caused by Ebola virus, biological features of its pathogen, character of the epidemiological process, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are presented. The disease is characterized by suppression of protective immunological mechanisms and systemic inflammatory reaction accounting for the lesions of vascular endothelium, hemostatic and immune systems. It eventually leads to polyorgan insufficiency and severe shock. Lethality amounts to 50%.
Witteveldt, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.
It has been generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response system comparable to that of vertebrates. However, in the last few years, several studies have suggested the existence of such a response in invertebrates. In one of these studies, the shrimp
Jamil, Khondoker Mahbuba; AHMED, Kamruddin; Hossain, Moazzem; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Hossain, Sohrab; Hossain, Shakhawat; Islam, Aminul; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira
Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ?32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh.
Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con β-1,3 glucano vitamina E y β-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca
Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de β-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y β-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en
Dayalu, Praveen; Albin, Roger L
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, culminating in death. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Even years before symptoms become overt, mutation carriers show subtle but progressive striatal and cerebral white matter atrophy by volumetric MRI. Although there is currently no direct treatment of HD, management options are available for several symptoms. A better understanding of HD pathogenesis, and more sophisticated clinical trials using newer biomarkers, may lead to meaningful treatments. This article reviews the current knowledge of HD pathogenesis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gottwein, Judith; Scheel, Troels; Callendret, Benoit
Previously, RNA transcripts of cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a (strains H77, HCV-1, and HC-TN), 1b (HC-J4, Con1, and HCV-N), and 2a (HC-J6 and JFH1) were found to be infectious in chimpanzees. However, only JFH1 was infectious in human hepatoma Huh7 cells. We performed genetic...... analysis of HCV genotype 3a (strain S52) and 4a (strain ED43) prototype strains and generated full-length consensus cDNA clones (pS52 and pED43). Transfection of Huh7.5 cells with RNA transcripts of these clones did not yield cells expressing HCV Core. However, intrahepatic transfection of chimpanzees...... animals became persistently infected. In conclusion, we generated fully functional infectious cDNA clones of HCV genotypes 3a and 4a. Proof of functionality of all genes might further the development of recombinant cell culture systems for these important genotypes....
So Young Kim
Full Text Available Flaviviruses are enveloped, positive single stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses with various routes of transmission. While the type and severity of symptoms caused by pathogenic flaviviruses vary from hemorrhagic fever to fetal abnormalities, their general mechanism of host cell entry is similar. All pathogenic flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus, bind to glycosaminglycans (GAGs through the putative GAG binding sites within their envelope proteins to gain access to the surface of host cells. GAGs are long, linear, anionic polysaccharides with a repeating disaccharide unit and are involved in many biological processes, such as cellular signaling, cell adhesion, and pathogenesis. Flavivirus envelope proteins are N-glycosylated surface proteins, which interact with C-type lectins, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN through their glycans. In this review, we discuss both host and viral surface receptors that have the carbohydrate components, focusing on the surface interactions in the early stage of flavivirus entry. GAG-flavivirus envelope protein interactions as well as interactions between flavivirus envelope proteins and DC-SIGN are discussed in detail. This review also examines natural and synthetic inhibitors of flaviviruses that are carbohydrate-based or carbohydrate-targeting. Both advantages and drawbacks of these inhibitors are explored, as are potential strategies to improve their efficacy to ultimately help eradicate flavivirus infections.
Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz
Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.
Hellebrekers, B.W.J.; Kooistra, T.
Background: Current views on the pathogenesis of adhesion formation are based on the "classical concept of adhesion formation", namely that a reduction in peritoneal fibrinolytic activity following peritoneal trauma is of key importance in adhesion development. Methods: A non-systematic literature
Andersen, Jesper Bøje
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an orphan cancer of the hepatobiliary tract, the incidence of which has increased in the past decade. The molecular pathogenesis of this treatment-refractory disease is poorly understood. Desmoplasia is a key causal feature of CCA; however, a majority of tumors develop...
Joshi, Lok R; Fernandes, Maureen H V; Clement, Travis; Lawson, Steven; Pillatzki, Angela; Resende, Talita P; Vannucci, Fabio A; Kutish, Gerald F; Nelson, Eric A; Diel, Diego G
Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus that has been associated with vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in swine. Many aspects of SVA infection biology and pathogenesis, however, remain unknown. Here the pathogenesis of SVA was investigated in finishing pigs. Animals were inoculated via the oronasal route with SVA strain SD15-26 and monitored for clinical signs and lesions associated with SVA infection. Viraemia was assessed in serum and virus shedding monitored in oral and nasal secretions and faeces by real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and/or virus isolation. Additionally, viral load and tissue distribution were assessed during acute infection and following convalescence from disease. Clinical signs characterized by lethargy and lameness were first observed on day 4 post-inoculation (pi) and persisted for approximately 2-10 days. Vesicular lesions were first observed on day 4 pi on the snout and/or feet, affecting the coronary bands, dewclaws, interdigital space and heel/sole of SVA-infected animals. A short-term viraemia was observed between days 3 and 10 pi, whereas virus shedding was detected between days 1 and 28 pi in oral and nasal secretions and faeces. Notably, RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) performed on tissues collected on day 38 pi revealed the presence of SVA RNA in the tonsils of all SVA-infected animals. Serological responses to SVA were characterized by early neutralizing antibody responses (day 5 pi), which coincided with decreased levels of viraemia, virus shedding and viral load in tissues. This study provides significant insights into the pathogenesis and infectious dynamics of SVA in swine.
Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian
Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.
Full Text Available Indole derivatives compounds (IDC are a new class of splicing inhibitors that have a selective action on exonic splicing enhancers (ESE-dependent activity of individual serine-arginine-rich (SR proteins. Some of these molecules have been shown to compromise assembly of HIV infectious particles in cell cultures by interfering with the activity of the SR protein SF2/ASF and by subsequently suppressing production of splicing-dependent retroviral accessory proteins. For all replication-competent retroviruses, a limiting requirement for infection and pathogenesis is the expression of the envelope glycoprotein which strictly depends on the host splicing machinery. Here, we have evaluated the efficiency of IDC on an animal model of retroviral pathogenesis using a fully replication-competent retrovirus. In this model, all newborn mice infected with a fully replicative murine leukemia virus (MLV develop erythroleukemia within 6 to 8 weeks of age. We tested several IDC for their ability to interfere ex vivo with MLV splicing and virus spreading as well as for their protective effect in vivo. We show here that two of these IDC, IDC13 and IDC78, selectively altered splicing-dependent production of the retroviral envelope gene, thus inhibiting early viral replication in vivo, sufficiently to protect mice from MLV-induced pathogenesis. The apparent specificity and clinical safety observed here for both IDC13 and IDC78 strongly support further assessment of inhibitors of SR protein splicing factors as a new class of antiretroviral therapeutic agents.
giving 96 © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Anaesthesia 2015, 70 (Suppl. 1), 96–101 doi:10.1111/anae.12914 Report...The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland 97 Cap and Hunt | Pathogenesis of traumatic coagulopathy Anaesthesia 2015, 70 (Suppl. 1...PA release from the endothelium by 98 © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Anaesthesia 2015, 70 (Suppl. 1), 96–101
Essential data about the physiology of colour vision are reminded, with a stress layed on the possible contribution of the rodes in perception of blue and green colours. The main features of the diabetic dyschromatopsia are reviewed, together with their pathomorphological support and the two existing theories regarding its pathogenesis: vascular origin versus neuronal origin of the defect. The contribution of the photocoagulation to these alterations is also discussed.
Simon, Viviana; Ho, David D; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool
The HIV-1 pandemic is a complex mix of diverse epidemics within and between countries and regions of the world, and is undoubtedly the defining public-health crisis of our time. Research has deepened our understanding of how the virus replicates, manipulates, and hides in an infected person. Although our understanding of pathogenesis and transmission dynamics has become more nuanced and prevention options have expanded, a cure or protective vaccine remains elusive. Antiretroviral treatment has transformed AIDS from an inevitably fatal condition to a chronic, manageable disease in some settings. This transformation has yet to be realised in those parts of the world that continue to bear a disproportionate burden of new HIV-1 infections and are most a% ected by increasing morbidity and mortality. This Seminar provides an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention interventions pertinent to HIV-1. PMID:16890836
Bereswill, Stefan; Kist, Manfred
The Campylobacter species jejuni and coli are leading causes of enteritis and enterocolitis worldwide. Arthritis, Reiter syndrome, and Guillain-Barré syndrome represent post-infectious sequelae. Although the acute and chronic clinical manifestations highlight Campylobacter species as excellent models for the identification of mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, detailed investigations at the molecular level are complicated by the fastidious growth requirements of the bacteria and by the tremendous variability displayed by Campylobacter isolates. Thus, research activities in this field constitute a substantial challenge for scientists of many different disciplines. The genome information has greatly stimulated investigations at the molecular level and the resulting modern research trends lead to a better understanding of Campylobacter-associated diseases providing the basis for new developments in prevention and therapy. This review summarizes results from the most recent investigations in the field of Campylobacter pathogenesis. Topics include genome analysis, surface structures and post-infectious complications, adaptation, host cell interaction and cell toxicity. During its coevolution with human and other vertebrate hosts, Campylobacter species have developed specific survival strategies, which are required for host adaptation and establishment in the intestinal environment. The bacterial factors involved in these processes are the subject of intensive research activities. With a focus on molecular aspects of the most important human pathogen, C. jejuni, this review intends to summarize the recent trends and developments in Campylobacter research by highlighting selected publications in the field of microbial pathogenesis.
Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin, E-mail: Kliu@gru.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, and Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy.
Barcley T. Pace
Full Text Available Profound loss of CD4+ T cells, progressive impairment of the immune system, inflammation, and sustained immune activation are the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection. Innate immune responses respond immediately from the day of HIV infection, and a thorough understanding of the interaction between several innate immune cells and HIV-1 is essential to determine to what extent those cells play a crucial role in controlling HIV-1 in vivo. Defensins, divided into the three subfamilies α-, β-, and θ-defensins based on structure and disulfide linkages, comprise a critical component of the innate immune response and exhibit anti-HIV-1 activities and immunomodulatory capabilities. In humans, only α- and β-defensins are expressed in various tissues and have broad impacts on HIV-1 transmission, replication, and disease progression. θ-defensins have been identified as functional peptides in Old World monkeys, but not in humans. Instead, θ-defensins exist only as pseudogenes in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. The use of the synthetic θ-defensin peptide “retrocyclin” as an antiviral therapy was shown to be promising, and further research into the development of defensin-based HIV-1 therapeutics is needed. This review focuses on the role of defensins in HIV-1 pathogenesis and highlights future research efforts that warrant investigation.
Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan
Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M
Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753
Full Text Available Pterygium is one of the common ocular surface diseases, characterized by local subconjunctival fibrovascular proliferation invading the cornea, not only influences facial beauty, but affects visual acuity and causes ocular dyskinesia. Surgical removal is the main treatment option. However, the recurrence rate is high(20%-40%. Many explanations are put forward by scientists, but the mechanism of pterygium still remains unclear. It is of great importance to study the pathogenesis of pterygium so as to prevent its occurrence and development. In this paper, we make a review about the domestic and international studies of the inhibition of apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase, oxidative stress and immunity in pterygium.
Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8 is one of the several carcinogenic viruses that infect humans. KSHV infection has been implicated in the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, and multicentric Castleman’s Disease (MCD. While KSHV infection is necessary for the development of KSHV associated malignancies, it is not sufficient to induce tumoriegenesis. Evidently, other co-factors are essential for the progression of KSHV induced malignancies. One of the most important co-factors, necessary for the progression of KSHV induced tumors, is immune suppression that frequently arises during co-infection with HIV and also by other immune suppressants. In this mini-review, we discuss the roles of co-infection with HIV and other pathogens on KSHV infection and pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary analysis may serve as a useful approach to identify and characterize host defense and viral proteins involved in genetic conflicts. We analyzed patterns of coding sequence evolution of genes with known (TRIM5α and APOBEC3G or suspected (TRIM19/PML roles in virus restriction, or in viral pathogenesis (PPIA, encoding Cyclophilin A, in the same set of human and non-human primate species. Results and conclusion This analysis revealed previously unidentified clusters of positively selected sites in APOBEC3G and TRIM5α that may delineate new virus-interaction domains. In contrast, our evolutionary analyses suggest that PPIA is not under diversifying selection in primates, consistent with the interaction of Cyclophilin A being limited to the HIV-1M/SIVcpz lineage. The strong sequence conservation of the TRIM19/PML sequences among primates suggests that this gene does not play a role in antiretroviral defense.
Li, Yan-Yao; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Lin, Feng-Yu; Chen, Qiu-Fan; Ma, Xing-Yuan; Liu, Hai-Peng
It is well known that Tolls/Toll like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors, play important roles in immune responses. Previously, we found that a Toll transcript was increased in a transcriptome library of haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus post white spot syndrome virus infection. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence of Toll receptor (named as CqToll) was identified with 3482 bp which contained an open reading frame of 3021 bp encoding 1006 amino acids. The predicted structure of CqToll protein was composed of three domains, including an extracellular domain of 19 leucine-rich repeats residues, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain of 138 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that CqToll was expressed widely in various tissues determined from red claw crayfish with highest expression in haemocyte but lowest expression in eyestalk. Importantly, significant lower expression of the anti-lipopolysacchride factor (CqALF), an antiviral antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in crustaceans, but not CqCrustin was observed after gene silencing of CqToll in crayfish Hpt cell cultures, indicating that the CqALF was likely to be positively regulated via Toll pathway in red claw crayfish. Furthermore, the transcription of both an immediate early gene and a late envelope protein gene VP28 of WSSV were clearly enhanced in Hpt cells if silenced with CqToll, suggesting that the increase of WSSV replication was likely to be caused by the lower expression of the CqALF resulted from the loss-of-function of CqToll. Taken together, these data implied that CqToll might play a key role in anti-WSSV response via induction of CqALF in a crustacean C. quadricarinatus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819
Simon A Broadley
Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is a rare autoimmune disorder, distinct from multiple sclerosis, causing inflammatory lesions in the optic nerves and spinal cord. An autoantibody (NMO IgG against aquaporin-4 (AQP4, a water channel expressed on astrocytes is thought to be causative. Peripheral production of the antibody is triggered by an unknown process in genetically susceptible individuals. Anti-AQP4 antibody enters the central nervous system (CNS when the blood brain barrier is made permeable and has high affinity for orthogonal array particles of AQP4. Like other autoimmune diseases, Th17 cells and their effector cytokines (such as interleukin 6 have been implicated in pathogenesis. AQP4 expressing peripheral organs are not affected by NMO IgG, but the antibody causes extensive astrocytic loss in specific regions of the CNS through complement mediated cytotoxicity. Demyelination occurs during the inflammatory process and is probably secondary to oligodendrocyte apoptosis subsequent to loss of trophic support from astrocytes. Ultimately, extensive axonal injury leads to severe disability. Despite rapid advances in the understanding of NMO pathogenesis, unanswered questions remain, particularly with regards to disease mechanisms in NMO IgG seronegative cases. Increasing knowledge of the molecular pathology is leading to improved treatment strategies.
The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.
Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences f...
rates and worse obstetric and fetal outcomes than those with other types of viral hepatitis (Patra et al 2007). There were increased levels of estrogen, progesterone and βHCG in HEV-positive pregnant patients with fulminant hepatitis compared to HEV-negative patients and controls (Jilani et al 2007). Selective suppression ...
L. Remeijer (Lies)
textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of different forms of human HSV keratitis. HSV infection of the corneal epithelium causes a classical dendritic shaped lesion. Many studies could explain the development and growth in dendritic keratitis, but none of these
Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika; Ogg, Graham S
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident 3-6 days after the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24-48 hr and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting that it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors. Dengue NS1, a soluble viral protein, has also been shown to disrupt the endothelial glycocalyx and thus contribute to vascular leak, although there appears to be a discordance between the timing of NS1 antigenaemia and occurrence of vascular leak. In addition, many inflammatory lipid mediators are elevated in acute dengue viral infection such as platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukotrienes. Furthermore, many other inflammatory mediators such as vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-2 have been shown to be elevated in patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever, exerting their action in part by inducing the activity of phospholipases, which have diverse inflammatory effects including generation of PAF. Platelets have also been shown to significantly contribute to endothelial dysfunction by production of interleukin-1β through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and also by inducing production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. Drugs that block down-stream immunological mediator pathways such as PAF may also be beneficial in the treatment of severe disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV, the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF, is endemic in West Africa, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality. In spite of ongoing research efforts, LF pathogenesis and mechanisms of LASV immune control remain poorly understood. While normal laboratory mice are resistant to LASV, we report that mice expressing humanized instead of murine MHC class I (MHC-I failed to control LASV infection and develop severe LF. Infection of MHC-I knockout mice confirmed a key role for MHC-I-restricted T cell responses in controlling LASV. Intriguingly we found that T cell depletion in LASV-infected HHD mice prevented disease, irrespective of high-level viremia. Widespread activation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, manifest through inducible NO synthase expression, and elevated IL-12p40 serum levels indicated a systemic inflammatory condition. The absence of extensive monocyte/macrophage activation in T cell-depleted mice suggested that T cell responses contribute to deleterious innate inflammatory reactions and LF pathogenesis. Our observations in mice indicate a dual role for T cells, not only protecting from LASV, but also enhancing LF pathogenesis. The possibility of T cell-driven enhancement and immunopathogenesis should be given consideration in future LF vaccine development.
Liu, Guang Bin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Kong-Nan
Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Currently, PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. In this review study, we first discuss the controversy of the contribution of virus infection to PCa, and subsequently summarize the development of oncolytic virotherapy for PCa in the past several years. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa. Traditional therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy are unable to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, which are a significant drawback and leads to toxicities for PCa patients undergoing treatment. So far, few other options are available for treating patients with advanced PCa. For PCa treatment, oncolytic virotherapy appears to be much more attractive, which uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cancer cell lysis through virus replication and expression of cytotoxic proteins. Virotherapy is being developed to be a novel therapy for cancers, which uses oncotropic and oncolytic viruses with their abilities to find and destroy malignant cells in the body. As oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents, several important barriers still exist on the road to the use of oncolytic viruses for PCa therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Over 1.2 million people in the United States are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Tremendous progress has been made over the past three decades on many fronts in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 disease. However, HIV-1 infection is incurable and antiretroviral drugs continue to remain the only effective treatment option for HIV infected patients. Unfortunately, only three out of ten HIV-1 infected individuals in the US have the virus under control. Thus, majority of HIV-1 infected individuals in the US are either unaware of their infection status or not connected/retained to care or are non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy (ART. This national public health crisis, as well as the ongoing global HIV/AIDS pandemic, is further exacerbated by substance abuse, which serves as a powerful cofactor at every stage of HIV/AIDS including transmission, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Clinical studies indicate that substance abuse may increase viral load, accelerate disease progression and worsen AIDS-related mortality even among ART adherent patients. However, confirming a direct causal link between substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in human patients remains a highly challenging endeavor. In this review we will discuss the recent and past developments in clinical and basic science research on the effects of cocaine abuse on HIV-1 pathogenesis.
McGinnis, Michael R
Mold growth within homes and other buildings has been associated to varying degrees with human health problems. These problems vary from allergenic disease to toxicosis. Case definitions for mold exposure have not been adequately defined to allow for a pathognomonic diagnosis of mold-caused disease following indoor exposure. Some important factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of indoor mold induced disease include beta (1,3)-D-glucans, outer cell wall fungal hydrophobins, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, fungal volatile organic compounds, mycotoxins, and stachylysin. The information in this contribution was presented as the ISHAM Presidential address as a means to clarify some of the confusing surrounding indoor mold-related health issues.
Albury, Cassie L; Stuart, Shani; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R
Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 12-20% of the general adult population. Migraine pathogenesis is complex and not wholly understood. Molecular genetic investigations, imaging and biochemical studies, have unveiled a number of interconnected neurological pathways which seem to have a cause and effect component integral to its cause. Much weight of migraine attack initiation can be placed on the initial trigger and the pathways involved in its neuronal counter reaction. Ion channels play a large role in the generation, portrayal and mitigation of the brains response to external triggers. Several genetic studies have identified and implicated a number of ion channelopathy genes which may contribute to this generalised process. This review will focus on the genetics of migraine with particular emphasis placed on the potentially important role genes HEPH (responsible for iron transport and homeostasis) and KCNK18 (important for the transport and homeostasis of potassium) play in migraine cause.
Louis, Chrystal U; Shohet, Jason M
Neuroblastoma is a developmental tumor of young children arising from the embryonic sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest. Neuroblastoma is the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer for children between the ages of one and five years and accounts for ∼13% of all pediatric cancer mortality. Its clinical impact and unique biology have made this aggressive malignancy the focus of a large concerted translational research effort. New insights into tumor biology are driving the development of new classification schemas. Novel targeted therapeutic approaches include small-molecule inhibitors as well as epigenetic, noncoding-RNA, and cell-based immunologic therapies. In this review, recent insights regarding the pathogenesis and biology of neuroblastoma are placed in context with the current understanding of tumor biology and tumor/host interactions. Systematic classification of patients coupled with therapeutic advances point to a future of improved clinical outcomes for this biologically distinct and highly aggressive pediatric malignancy.
Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627
Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...
Tang, Xiaoqian; Li, Wei; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin
In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO) and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9) were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF) of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W) of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb). Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.
Full Text Available In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9 were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb. Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.
C C Azodo; P Erhabor
The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...
Nipah viruses ..........................................................2 Pathogenesis ...many emerging viral diseases. Bats have long been known to serve as reservoirs for Rabies virus, and are now known to be reservoirs of the closely...purposes. Pathogenesis HeV and NiV are unusual paramyxoviruses in that they are zoonotic and highly pathogenic (reviewed (27)). Henipaviruses have
Full Text Available Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis.
Lupus nephritis is an immune complex GN that develops as a frequent complication of SLE. The pathogenesis of lupus nephritis involves a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. The extrarenal etiology of systemic lupus is based on multiple combinations of genetic variants that compromise those mechanisms normally assuring immune tolerance to nuclear autoantigens. This loss of tolerance becomes clinically detectable by the presence of antinuclear antibodies. In addition, nucleic acids released from netting or apoptotic neutrophils activate innate and adaptive immunity via viral nucleic acid-specific Toll-like receptors. Therefore, many clinical manifestations of systemic lupus resemble those of viral infection. In lupus, endogenous nuclear particles trigger IFN-α signaling just like viral particles during viral infection. As such, dendritic cells, T helper cells, B cells, and plasma cells all contribute to the aberrant polyclonal autoimmunity. The intrarenal etiology of lupus nephritis involves antibody binding to multiple intrarenal autoantigens rather than the deposition of circulating immune complexes. Tertiary lymphoid tissue formation and local antibody production add to intrarenal complement activation as renal immunopathology progresses. Here we provide an update on the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to lupus nephritis and provide the rationale for the latest and novel treatment strategies. PMID:23929771
Effective prevention of cancer in patients with a hereditary disposition to malignant tumours was made possible by intensive prevention programs and molecular diagnosis. Taken hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as an example this article deals with the pathogenesis and molecular diagnosis in hereditary dispositions to cancer. HNPCC is inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion and caused by germline mutations in genes responsible for detection an removal of DNA-basepair-mismatches (DNA-mismatch-repair-genes). The error rate in DNA replication is reduced thousandfold by these genes. A defective DNA-mismatch-repair results in tumours if the increased mutation rate causes alterations of tumour-suppressor- or oncogenes. HNPCC patients develop colorectal cancer but also tumours of the renal pelvis, the ureter, the small bowel, the endometrium and less often in other organs. The clinical presentation of these tumours may be characteristic, the clinical diagnosis may be guided by different clinical criteria catalogues. The suspicion is proven by the identification of a germline mutation in DNA-mismatch-repair-genes. This laborious diagnostic procedure is often preceded by prescreening procedures as the detection of microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical tests. Once the germline mutation is identified in a affected family member, the first degree relatives may be tested for this mutation. If they have inherited the mutation, they harbour a extremely high risk for developing cancer and therefore may be included in prevention programs. This so called predictive testing must be preceded by genetic counseling.
Jeswin, Joseph; Xie, Xiao-lu; Ji, Qiao-lin; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng
To elucidate proteomic changes of Hpt cells from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, we have carried out isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) of cellular proteins at both early (1 hpi) and late stage (12 hpi) post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Protein database search revealed 594 protein hits by Mascot, in which 17 and 30 proteins were present as differentially expressed proteins at early and late viral infection, respectively. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins include: 1) the metabolic process related proteins in glycolysis and glucogenesis, DNA replication, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis; 2) the signal transduction related proteins like small GTPases, G-protein-alpha stimulatory subunit, proteins bearing PDZ- or 14-3-3-domains that help holding together and organize signaling complexes, casein kinase I and proteins of the MAP-kinase signal transduction pathway; 3) the immune defense related proteins such as α-2 macroglobulin, transglutaminase and trans-activation response RNA-binding protein 1. Taken together, these protein information shed new light on the host cellular response against WSSV infection in a crustacean cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.
Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu
Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory illness (ARI due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, and human enterovirus (HEV infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.
Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M
Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.
Liao, Zhaoping; Xu, Siqi; Tang, Huqiang; Xie, Yiyi; Duan, Xiuzhi; Liu, Chunhua; Cheng, Yue; Chen, Yuhua; Wang, Deqiang; Luo, Miao; Tao, Zhihua
To explore the pathogenesis of a family with inherited dysfibrinogenemia. Coagulation parameters of peripheral venous blood of a family with inherited dysfibrinogenemia from November 2012 were measured. And platelet and fibrinogen functions were examined by thromboelastogram. The antigen concentration of fibrinogen was detected by immune nephelometry. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of FGA, FGB and FGG were amplified and subjected to mutation screening by direct/reverse sequencing. And the influences of mutant fibrinogen structure and function were analyzed and predicated by a molecular structure model. The values of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer and fibrinogen antigen of the propositus and his mother (I-2), younger brother (II-3), younger sister (II-2) and daughter (III-1) were all in normal reference value ranges.However thrombin time (TT) was significantly prolonged and the activity of fibrinogen was much lower compared to its antigenicity. Thromboelastogram indicated normal function of platelet and impaired function of fibrinogen of I-2, II-2 and III-1.However the fibrinogen functions of proband and II-3 became much more impaired. Mutation screening demonstrated the homozygous mutation of proband and II-3 while I-2, II-2 and III-1 showed heterozygous mutation of FGG c.1001 A>C (p. Asn308Thr). No mutation was detected among other family members and reducing SDS-PAGE immunoblot showed no variants. Asn308, located at the interface of fibrinogen dimmer, participated in the fibrous structure assembling from the structure model. And mutation at this position will affect the stability of fiber structure. FGG c.1001 A>C mutation may account for dominant genetic dysfibrinogenemia in these family members.
Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus and the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL, a fatal malignancy of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes. In recent years, cellular as well as virus-encoded microRNA (miRNA have been shown to deregulate signaling pathways to favor virus life cycle. HTLV-1 does not encode miRNA, but several studies have demonstrated that cellular miRNA expression is affected in infected cells. Distinct mechanisms such as transcriptional, epigenetic or interference with miRNA processing machinery have been involved. This article reviews the current knowledge of the role of cellular microRNAs in virus infection, replication, immune escape and pathogenesis of HTLV-1.
Full Text Available The interaction between galectin-9 and its receptor, Tim-3, triggers a series of signaling events that regulate immune responses. The expression of galectin-9 has been shown to be increased in a variety of target cells of many different viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, influenza virus, dengue virus (DENV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This enhanced expression of galectin-9 following viral infection promotes significant changes in the behaviors of the virus-infected cells, and the resulting events tightly correlate with the immunopathogenesis of the viral disease. Because the human immune response to different viral infections can vary, and the lack of appropriate treatment can have potentially fatal consequences, understanding the implications of galectin-9 is crucial for developing better methods for monitoring and treating viral infections. This review seeks to address how we can apply the current understanding of galectin-9 function to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infection and better treat viral diseases.
Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.
Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to
Full Text Available Abstract Autophagy, the major mechanism for degrading long-lived intracellular proteins and organelles, is essential for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Autophagy also defends the cell against invasion by microorganisms and has important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Increasingly evident is that HIV-1 replication is dependent on select components of autophagy. Fittingly, HIV-1 proteins are able to modulate autophagy to maximize virus production. At the same time, HIV-1 proteins appear to disrupt autophagy in uninfected cells, thereby contributing to CD4+ cell death and HIV-1 pathogenesis. These observations allow for new approaches for the treatment and possibly the prevention of HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on the relationship between autophagy and HIV-1 infection. Discussed is how autophagy plays dual roles in HIV-1 replication and HIV-1 disease progression.
Crow, Mary K.
Investigations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have applied insights from studies of the innate immune response to define type I interferon (IFN-I), with IFN-α the dominant mediator, as central to the pathogenesis of this prototype systemic autoimmune disease. Genetic association data identify regulators of nucleic acid degradation and components of TLR-independent, endosomal TLR-dependent, and IFN-I signaling pathways as contributors to lupus disease susceptibility. Together with a gene expression signature characterized by IFNI-induced gene transcripts in lupus blood and tissue, those data support the conclusion that many of the immunologic and pathologic features of this disease are a consequence of a persistent self-directed immune reaction driven by IFN-I and mimicking a sustained anti-virus response. This expanding knowledge of the role of IFN-I and the innate immune response suggests candidate therapeutic targets that are being tested in lupus patients. PMID:24907379
Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease resulting spectrum of clinical manifestations that vary from the lightest, dengue fever, hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever are accompanied by shock or dengue shock syndrome. Its caused by dengue virus, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The case is spread in the tropics, especially in Southeast Asia, Central America, America and the Caribbean, many causes of death in children 90% of them attacking children under 15 years old. Until now pathogenesis is unclear. There are two theories or hypotheses immuno-patogenesis DHF and DSS is still controversial which secondary infections (secondary heterologus infection and antibody-dependent enhancement. Risk factors for dengue transmission are rapid urban population growth, mobilization of the population because of improved transportation facilities and disrupted or weakened so that population control. Another risk factor is poverty which result in people not has the ability to provide a decent home and healthy, drinking water supply and proper waste disposal.
as smoking, periodontal disease were ascertained. Task 2. Local and governmental IRB approvals, and HRPO approval, were obtained for this project...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin D. Deane, MD/PhD...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT
C C Azodo
Full Text Available The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
Klimstra, W.B. 2014. RNA viruses can hijack vertebrate 642 microRNAs to suppress innate immunity . Nature. 506, 245-248. 643 TR-16-143 DISTRIBUTION...countermeasures. 37 Key words 38 Animal model, alphavirus, immunity , nonhuman primate, pathogenesis 39 TR-16-143 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...pathological changes (Reed, 2007). We describe the differential effects of dose on 83 the immune cell populations in the blood, blood chemistry, viral
McDermott, Jason E; Mitchell, Hugh D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Eisfeld, Amie J; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S; Katze, Michael G; Waters, Katrina M
The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ anti-immune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) promote pathogenesis, presumably through excessive inflammation. The current study provides validation of network modeling approaches for identifying important players in virus infection pathogenesis, and a step forward in understanding the host response to an important infectious disease. The results presented here suggest the role of Kepi in the host response to SARS-CoV, as well as inflammatory activity driving pathogenesis through TNFα signaling in SARS-CoV infections. Though we have reported the utility of this approach in bacterial and cell culture studies previously, this is the first comprehensive study to confirm that network topology can be used to predict phenotypes in mice with experimental validation.
Stefan W. Ryter
Full Text Available Autophagy, a cellular pathway for the degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, has gained increasing importance in human pulmonary diseases, both as a modulator of pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target. In this pathway, cytosolic cargos are sequestered into autophagosomes, which are delivered to the lysosomes where they are enzymatically degraded and then recycled as metabolic precursors. Autophagy exerts an important effector function in the regulation of inflammation, and immune system functions. Selective pathways for autophagic degradation of cargoes may have variable significance in disease pathogenesis. Among these, the autophagic clearance of bacteria (xenophagy may represent a crucial host defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. Our recent studies indicate that the autophagic clearance of mitochondria, a potentially protective program, may aggravate the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by activating cell death programs. We report similar findings with respect to the autophagic clearance of cilia components, which can contribute to airways dysfunction in chronic lung disease. In certain diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, autophagy may confer protection by modulating proliferation and cell death. In other disorders, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis, impaired autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. In lung cancer, autophagy has multiple consequences by limiting carcinogenesis, modulating therapeutic effectiveness, and promoting tumor cell survival. In this review we highlight the multiple functions of autophagy and its selective autophagy subtypes that may be of significance to the pathogenesis of human disease, with an emphasis on lung disease and therapeutics.
Bloch, Evan M.
Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus’s vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380
McDermott, Jason E.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.
The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ antiimmune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), promote pathogenesis through a parallel feed-forward circuit that promotes inflammation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the role of over-stimulation of the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV in pathogenesis. We conclude that the critical balance between immune response and inflammation can be manipulated to improve the outcome of the infection. Further, our study provides two potential therapeutic strategies for mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV infection, and may provide insight into treatment strategies for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3
The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae
WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus vannamei and moribund Procambarus clarkia. Contrary to previous reports, white spots were not observed on the carapace of the diseased P.
G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); M.M.J.W. Baars (Marianne); P. de Lijster; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractNitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mouse models. Here we show that replication of influenza A and B viruses in Mabin Darby canine kidney cells is severely impaired by the NO donor,
Full Text Available In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.
Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith
In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.
Kristina Brauburger; Adam J. Hume; Judith Olejnik; Elke Mühlberger
In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.
Full Text Available In the latest articles which were published during 2013-2014, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis was mentioned as a neglected sexual transmission disease (STD, while the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been cleared yet. Although trichomonasiasis is easy curable, there is concern that resistance to drug are increasing. This common infection as concerning the important public health implications needs more research to be done for understanding the diagnosis, treatment, immunology and pathogenesis. In this review we searched all valuable and relevant information considering the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis. We referred to the information databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar. The used keywords were the combinations of T. vaginalis and words associated with pathogenicity. This review discusses the host-parasite interaction and pathogenicity of this parasite.
KIMITSUKI, Kazunori; Yamada, Kentaro; SHIWA, Nozomi; Inoue, Satoshi; Nishizono, Akira; Park, Chun-Ho
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 106 focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spi...
Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro
The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411
Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.
Sep 25, 2012 ... School of Agricultural Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda. Accepted 7 ... CABMV were later confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of the viruses ... Key words: Vigna unguiculata, disease incidence, seed-borne viruses, ELISA, (RT-PCR).
Knutsen-Larson, Siri; Dawson, Annelise L; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition with substantial cutaneous and psychologic disease burden. Studies suggest that the emotional impact of acne is comparable to that experienced by patients with systemic diseases, like diabetes and epilepsy. In conjunction with the considerable personal burden experienced by patients with acne, acne vulgaris also accounts for substantial societal and health care burden. The pathogenesis and existing treatment strategies for acne are complex. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of acne vulgaris. The burden of disease in the United States and future directions in the management of acne are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melvin, Jeffrey A.; Scheller, Erich V.; Miller, Jeff F.; Cotter, Peggy A.
Pertussis, or whooping cough, has recently reemerged as a major public health threat despite high levels of vaccination against the etiological agent, Bordetella pertussis. In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis of this disease, with a focus on recent mechanistic insights into virulence factor function. We also discuss the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the challenges of vaccine development. Despite decades of research, many aspects of B. pertussis physiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed to develop improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24608338
Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Motairi, M I
The pathogenesis of ulnar polydactyly in humans is not known. There are numerous syndromes that are associated with ulnar polydactyly. We have noted that the genetic defects in these syndromes lead to a disturbance of the normal balance between the two forms of the Gli3 protein (the active and repressor forms of Gli3, which are known as Gli3-A and Gli3-R, respectively), leading to a relative increase in the Gli3-R protein. We offer the hypothesis of a unified pathogenesis of ulnar polydactyly through the relative predominance of Gli3-R.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus). Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV), as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections. PMID:22380523
Prapavorarat, Adisak; Pongsomboon, Siriporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee
Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify yellow head virus (YHV)-responsive genes from the hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two SSH cDNA libraries were constructed to identify viral responsive genes in the early (24I) and late (48/72I) phases of YHV infection. From 240 randomly selected clones from each library, 155 and 30 non-redundant transcripts were obtained for the early and late libraries, respectively. From these clones, 72 and 16, respectively, corresponded to known genes (E-values SSH library, but not in 48/72I SSH library implying that these immune molecules participate in viral defense immunity in the early phase of YHV infection whereas their expressions were suppressed in the late phase of infection. Novel YHV-responsive genes were uncovered from these SSH libraries including caspases, histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 2, Rab11, beta-integrin, tetraspanin, prostaglandin E synthase, transglutaminase, Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor and antimicrobial peptides. Among these YHV-responsive genes, several have been previously reported to participate in defense against white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) implying that YHV infection in shrimp induces similar host immune responses as observed during WSSV infection. The expression of four apparently upregulated immune-related genes identified from the two SSH libraries, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 6 (ALFPm6), crustin isoform 1 (crustinPm1), transglutaminase and Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor isoform 2 (SPIPm2), was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR to reveal differential expression in response to YHV infection at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection. The results confirmed their differential expression and upregulation, and thus verified the success of the SSHs and the likely involvement of these genes in shrimp antiviral mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seung Hoon Lee
Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.
Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.
The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was
Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Testa, A.; Oliver, R.
The interactions between fungi and plants encompass a spectrum of ecologies ranging from saprotrophy (growth on dead plant material) through pathogenesis (growth of the fungus accompanied by disease on the plant) to symbiosis (growth of the fungus with growth enhancement of the plant). We consider
Silva, Claudia; Puente, José Luis; Calva, Edmundo
A current view on the role of the Salmonella virulence plasmid in the pathogenesis of animal and human hosts is discussed; including the possible relevance in secondary ecological niches. Various strategies towards further studies in this respect are proposed within the One Health Concept. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Larsen, Joseph C; Johnson, Nathan H
Burkholderia pseudomallei and mallei are biological agents of military significance. There has been significant research in recent years to develop medical countermeasures for these organisms. This review summarizes work which details aspects of the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and mallei and discusses key scientific questions and directions for future research.
In this thesis, we analyzed the role of the different virulence factors of E. faecalis known in literature in the pathogenesis of infections. We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolates from different hosts as well as their role in biomaterial related infections. The
Schlösser, Tom P C; Colo, Dino; Castelein, RM
Despite many years of dedicated research into the etio-pathogenesis, not one single cause for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been identified. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current evidence and main etiological theories. Intrinsic causal mechanisms are
Mandigers, Paulus Justinus Johannes
The pathogenesis of Dobermann hepatitis has been under debate for several years. In this thesis two hypotheses were formulated and discussed. Hypothesis 1: In Dobermann dogs exists an autosomal genetic error in metabolism that leads to an abnormal copper metabolism which results in an increased
With modern civilization cancer pathogenesis has become a very serious problem in our society. There have been many causes of cancer that includes person’s life style and environmental factors. Successful management of life style and environmental pollution can reduce risks of cancer in our society.
Dups, Johanna; Middleton, Deborah; Long, Fenella; Arkinstall, Rachel; Glenn A Marsh; Wang, Lin-Fa
Background Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, research into the pathogenesis of henipavirus encephalitis has been limited by the lack of a suitable model. Recently we reported a wild-type mouse model of Hendra virus (HeV) encephalitis that should facilitate detailed investigations of its neuropathogenesis, including mecha...
Niu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hualei; Fu, Zhen F
Chemokines are a family of structurally related proteins that are expressed by almost all types of nucleated cells and mediate leukocyte activation and/or chemotactic activities. The role of chemokines in rabies pathogenesis and protection has only recently been investigated. Expression of chemokines is induced by infection with laboratory-adapted, but not street, rabies viruses (RABVs), and it has been hypothesized that expression of chemokines is one of the mechanisms by which RABV is attenuated. To further define the role of chemokines in rabies pathogenesis and protection, chemokine genes such as MIP-1α, RANTES, IP-10, and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) have been cloned into RABV genome. It has been found that recombinant RABVs expressing RANTES or IP-10 induce high and persistent expression of these chemokines, resulting in massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system (CNS) and development of diseases and death in the mouse model. However, recombinant RABVs expressing MIP-1α, MDC, as well as GM-CSF further attenuate RABV by inducing a transient expression of chemokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells, enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Yet, these recombinant RABVs show increased adaptive immune responses by recruiting/activating dendritic cells, T and B cells in the periphery as well as in the CNS. Further, direct administration of these recombinant RABVs into the CNS can prevent mice from developing rabies days after infection with street RABV. All these studies together suggest that chemokines are both protective and pathogenic in RABV infections. Those with protective roles could be exploited for development of future RABV vaccines or therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VanLeuven, James T; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Gonzalez, Andres J; Miller, Craig R; Miura, Tanya A
The severity of respiratory viral infections is partially determined by the cellular response mounted by infected lung epithelial cells. Disease prevention and treatment is dependent on our understanding of the shared and unique responses elicited by diverse viruses, yet few studies compare host responses to viruses from different families while controlling other experimental parameters. Murine models are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections, and in vitro studies using murine cells provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis observed in vivo. We used microarray analysis to compare changes in gene expression of murine lung epithelial cells infected individually by three respiratory viruses causing mild (rhinovirus, RV1B), moderate (coronavirus, MHV-1), and severe (influenza A virus, PR8) disease in mice. RV1B infection caused numerous gene expression changes, but the differential effect peaked at 12 hours post-infection. PR8 altered an intermediate number of genes whose expression continued to change through 24 hours. MHV-1 had comparatively few effects on host gene expression. The viruses elicited highly overlapping responses in antiviral genes, though MHV-1 induced a lower type I interferon response than the other two viruses. Signature genes were identified for each virus and included host defense genes for PR8, tissue remodeling genes for RV1B, and transcription factors for MHV-1. Our comparative approach identified universal and specific transcriptional signatures of virus infection that can be used to distinguish shared and virus-specific mechanisms of pathogenesis in the respiratory tract.
further support for he view that immunity to Norwalk virus is not determined by serum antibody. YAnothe_ collaborative study demonstrated the localization ...study demonstrated the localization of rotavirus to the small intestine as indicated by analysis of fluid specimens obtained by string capsule; this was...vitro cultivation of this virus is inefficient. Studies reveal that mechanisms of clinical immunity to rotavirus are complex (I). It seems likely
Peterson, Karin E; Du, Min
Neuroinflammation, including astrogliosis, microgliosis, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is a common response in the central nervous system (CNS) to virus infection, including retrovirus infection. However, the contribution of this innate immune response in disease pathogenesis remains unresolved. Analysis of the neuroinflammatory response to polytropic retrovirus infection in the mouse has provided insight into the potential contribution of the innate immune response to retrovirus-induced neurologic disease. In this model, retroviral pathogenesis correlates with the induction of neuroinflammatory responses including the activation of astrocytes and microglia, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Studies of the neurovirulent determinants of the polytropic envelope protein as well as studies with knockout mice suggest that retroviral pathogenesis in the brain is multifaceted and that cytokine and chemokine production may be only one mechanism of disease pathogenesis. Analysis of the activation of the innate immune response to retrovirus infection in the CNS indicates that toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a contributing factor to retrovirus-induced neuroinflammation, but that other factors can compensate for the lack of TLR7 in inducing both neuroinflammation and neurologic disease.
Mawson, Anthony R
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is the most significant mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide in terms of illness, mortality and economic cost, but the pathogenesis of DHF is not well understood and there is no specific treatment or vaccine. Based on evidence of liver involvement, it is proposed that dengue virus and retinoids interact to cause cholestatic liver damage, resulting in the spillage of stored retinoids into the circulation and in an endogenous form of hypervitaminosisis A manifested by the signs and symptoms of the disease, including: fever, severe joint and bone pain, capillary leakage, thrombocytopenia, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms. While retinoids in low concentration are essential for numerous biological functions, they are prooxidant, cytotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic in higher concentration, especially when unbound to protein, and an endogenous form of vitamin A intoxication is recognized in cholestasis. The model tentatively explains the observations that 1) repeat infections are more severe than initial dengue virus infections; 2) the incidence of denue has increased dramatically worldwide in recent decades; 3) DHF is less prevalent in people of African ancestry than those of other racial backgrounds; and 4) infants are protected from dengue. The retinoid toxicity hypothesis of DHF predicts the co-existence of low serum concentrations of retinol coupled with high concentrations of retinoic acid and an increased percentage of retinyl esters to total vitamin A. Subject to such tests, it may be possible to treat DHF effectively using drugs that target the metabolism and expression of retinoids. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options.
The pathogenesis of neuropathy and other late, degenerative complications of diabetes remains largely unresolved. Metabolic derangements thought to be responsible for their development are induced by chronic hyperglycaemia. The present studies concern as follows: sorbitol accumulation due to increased polyol pathway activity, altered myoinositol metabolism in diabetic nerve, followed by diminished sodium-potassium ATPase activity, nonenzymatic glycosylation of structural proteins and rheologic changes in microcirculation. These processes impair nerve metabolism, function and structure directly or indirectly, due to primary vascular alternations and endoneural hypoxia. Partial elucidation of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy has provoked emergence of new therapeutic approaches. So far their results are equivocal and require further studies. At present, improved glycaemia control is undoubtedly the most important factor in prevention and treatment of neuropathy and other late complications of diabetes.
Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J
Hypertension affects more than one-third of the adult population of the world. However, the cause of high blood pressure is unknown in the vast majority of patients, classified as patients with essential hypertension. Evidence accumulated over the past decade supports the participation of inflammation in the development of experimental hypertension. Investigations have also demonstrated that immune reactivity to overexpressed heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in the pathogenesis of salt-induced hypertension. This article reviews, first, the role of T cell-induced inflammation in the arteries, kidney and central nervous system in hypertension and the amelioration of hypertension induced by regulatory T cells. Second, experiments showing that autoimmunity directed to HSP70 in the kidney impairs the pressure natriuresis relationship and has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of salt sensitive hypertension. Finally, we highlight the clinical evidence that supports the participation of autoimmunity in essential hypertension.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presently one of the most investigated human disorders. Expansion of knowledge of its pathophysiology has helped in developing novel medications to combat gut inflammation with a considerably degree of success. Despite this progress, much more remains to be done in regard to gaining a more profound understanding of IBD pathogenesis, detecting inflammation before it clinically manifests, implementing lifestyle modifications, and developing agents that can modify the natural course of the disease. One of the limitations to achieve these goals is the lack of integration of the major components of IBD pathogenesis, that is the exposome, the genome, the gut microbiome, and the immunome. An "IBD integrome" approach that takes advantage of all functional information derived from the detailed investigation of each single pathogenic component through the use of systems biology may offer the solution to understand IBD and cure it. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Pterygium is one of the most common ocular surface diseases. Its exact etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood. At present, it is considered that its occurrence and development is the result of many factors.Current studies have indicated that the occurrence of pterygium is closely related to the environmental factors.Long time exposure to sunlight,dust, pollen and other long-term chronic stimulation are the main incentive factors.Various factors have caused limbal barrier dysfunction, induced the level of a variety of growth factors and inflammatory factors increased, so that the conjunctival tissue degenerate and proliferate to the cornea in the formation of pterygium. In this paper, the research progress of the pathogenesis of pterygium is reviewed.
Full Text Available Epigenome refers to "epi" meaning outside the "genome." Epigenetics is the field of study of the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications include changes in the promoter CpG Islands, modifications of histone protein structure, posttranslational repression by micro-RNA which contributes to the alteration of gene expression. Epigenetics provides an understanding of the role of gene-environment interactions on disease phenotype especially in complex multifactorial diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the supporting structures of the tooth. The role of the genome (in terms of genetic polymorphisms in periodontitis pathogenesis has been examined in numerous studies, and chronic periodontitis has been established as a polygenic disorder. The potential role of epigenetic modifications in the various facets of pathogenesis of periodontitis is discussed in this paper based on the available literature.
Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Annunziata, M. C.; D'Arco, V.; De Vita, V.; Lodi, G.; Mauriello, M. C.; Pastore, F.; Monfrecola, G.
Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but seve...
Full Text Available Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of
Liu, Yuxin; Sheikh, M Saeed
Malignant melanoma remains one of the fastest growing cancers worldwide. Although the primary cutaneous melanoma can be managed by surgery, the advanced metastatic melanoma cannot be managed by surgery alone and thus, requires better therapeutic approaches. In view of high mortality rates due to metastatic melanoma, better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of malignant melanoma is urgently needed. Such information is expected to prove very valuable in early detection of potential me...
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Cite as: Cao Z-G, Qin X-B, Liu F-F, Zhou L-L. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer. Afri Health Sci. 2015;15(3):982-5. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v15i3.36. Introduction. Breast cancer, developing from breast tissue, remains the top reason for death of women.
Full Text Available HCV (hepatitis C virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in formation of ROS in HCV replicating cells and describes the interference of HCV with ROS detoxifying systems. The relevance of ROS for HCV-associated pathogenesis is reviewed with a focus on the interference of elevated ROS levels with processes controlling liver regeneration. The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy.
Al, Jun; Wang, Shou-chuan; Dai, Ming; Chen, Sheng; Yi, Zhan-xiang; Dai, Qi-gang; Xu, Shan
To study the application of association rules in Chinese medical pathogeneses and pathologies of heat and phlegm in infantile viral pneumonia. Association rules were applied to analyze dynamic changes of heat and phlegm correlated symptoms and signs in 297 infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia, thus understanding its evolution or pathogenesis. Heat and phlegm co-exist in infantile viral pneumonia. In their relationship, heat was more likely to affect phlegm, but phlegm was less likely to affect heat. Under the intervention of drugs, the possibility of heat induced by phlegm was gradually reduced. But the possibility of phlegm induced by heat was not obvious as time went by. Heat and phlegm have a close relationship in the pathogenesis of infantile viral pneumonia. The intervention of drugs could reduce the pathologic evolution of phlegm causing heat. However, it has little effect on the pathologic evolution of heat causing phlegm.
Haverkos, Bradley M.; Coleman, Carrie; Gru, Alejandro A.; Pan, Zenggang; Brammer, Jonathan; Rochford, Rosemary; Mishra, Anjali; Oakes, Christopher C.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Freud, Aharon G.; Porcu, Pierluigi
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) universally associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). ENKTL most commonly occurs in non-elderly immune competent males in Asia and South America. A number of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) have been described in Asian and South American patients, but the majority of Caucasian ENKTL patients have no known preceding LPD or underlying immunodeficiency. Other than EBV, no environmental or extrinsic factor has been implicated in oncogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which EBV infects NK or T cells and the virus’ role in the pathogenesis of ENKTL have not been fully deciphered. However, a number of recent discoveries including disturbances in cell signaling and mutations in tumor suppressor genes have been identified, which are providing insights into the pathogenesis of ENKTL. In this review, we highlight the molecular, viral, and genetic underpinnings of ENKTL and discuss potential therapeutic implications. PMID:28472613
Lai-Cheong, Joey E.; Elias, Peter M.; Paller, Amy S.
During the past 20 years, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of many genetic skin conditions. The translation of these laboratory findings into effective therapies for affected individuals has been slow, however, in large part due to the risk of carcinogenesis from random viral genomic integration and the lack of efficacy of topically applied genetic material and most proteins. As intervention at the gene level still appears remote for most genetic disorders, increased knowledge about the cellular and biochemical pathogenesis of disease allows specific targeting of pathways with existing and/or novel drugs and molecules. In contrast to the requirement for personalization of most gene-based approaches, pathogenesis-based therapy is pathway specific, and in theory, it should have broader applicability. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the pathoetiology of the various types of ichthyoses and demonstrate how a pathogenesis-based approach can potentially lead to innovative treatments for these conditions. Notably, this strategy has been successfully validated for the treatment of the rare X-linked dominant condition, CHILD syndrome, in which topical applications of cholesterol and lovastatin together to affected skin resulted in marked improvement of the skin phenotype. PMID:23384020
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria is not well delineated and the treatment is palliative as it is not tied to the pathomechanism. The centrality of mast cells and their inappropriate activation and degranulation as the key pathophysiological event are well established. The triggering stimuli and the complexity of effector mechanisms remain speculative. Autoimmune origin of chronic urticaria, albeit controversial, is well documented. Numerical and behavioral alterations in basophils accompanied by changes in signaling molecule expression and function as well as aberrant activation of extrinsic pathway of coagulation are other alternative hypotheses. It is also probable that mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis through mechanisms that extend beyond high affinity IgE receptor stimulation. An increasing recognition of chronic urticaria as an immune mediated inflammatory disorder related to altered cytokine-chemokine network consequent to immune dysregulation resulting from disturbed innate immunity is emerging as yet another pathogenic explanation. It is likely that these different pathomechanisms are interlinked rather than independent cascades, acting either synergistically or sequentially to produce clinical expression of chronic urticaria. Insights into the complexities of pathogenesis may provide an impetus to develop safer, efficacious, and targeted immunomodulators and biological treatment for severe, refractory chronic urticaria.
Rowe, Martin; Fitzsimmons, Leah; Bell, Andrew I
In 1964, a new herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), was discovered in cultured tumor cells derived from a Burkitt lymphoma (BL) biopsy taken from an African patient. This was a momentous event that reinvigorated research into viruses as a possible cause of human cancers. Subsequent studies demonstrated that EBV was a potent growth-transforming agent for primary B cells, and that all cases of BL carried characteristic chromosomal translocations resulting in constitutive activation of the c-MYC oncogene. These results hinted at simple oncogenic mechanisms that would make Burkitt lymphoma paradigmatic for cancers with viral etiology. In reality, the pathogenesis of this tumor is rather complicated with regard to both the contribution of the virus and the involvement of cellular oncogenes. Here, we review the current understanding of the roles of EBV and c-MYC in the pathogenesis of BL and the implications for new therapeutic strategies to treat this lymphoma. PMID:25418195
Zhou, Bin; Jerzak, Greta; Scholes, Derek T.; Donnelly, Matthew E.; Li, Yan; Wentworth, David E.
Reverse genetics approaches that enable the generation of recombinant influenza A viruses entirely from plasmids are invaluable for studies on virus replication, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, or transmission. Furthermore, influenza virus reverse genetics is now critical for the development of new vaccines for this human and animal pathogen. Periodically, influenza gene segments are unstable within plasmids in bacteria. The PB2 gene segment of a highly pathogenic avian H5 influenza virus A/Turk...
Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum, which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and resultant white matter damage is an interesting area of current HIV research. In this review, we tentatively address recent progress on oligodendrocyte dysregulation and HAND pathogenesis.
V. F. Uchaykin
Full Text Available The concept of the pathogenesis of infectious disease is based on the teaching about the mode of entry of infection, the tropic organ and variability. The course of disease, immediate and long term consequences depend on the mode of entry. An infection that comes via oropharynx, airway, gastrointestinal tract or via skin leads to development of a proper portal of entry and the immune system provides adequate immune response. That results in typical symptoms, cyclical clinic progression and usually leads to the recovery with the formation of full sterile immunity. In case of parenteral route of infection, which includes perinatal way, there is no proper portal of entry and the disease can eventually become fulminant or take chronic course involving visceral organs. It can happen because of changes in the mechanism of tropism and emergence of new target visceral organs. For the complete recovery the pathogen or its mediators should be present in the primary focus of infection. It is suggested, that HIV, HCV, hepatitis B virus, tetanus, rabies and other infectious diseases with involvement of visceral organs, as well as all slow infections, should be treated as infectious diseases with the parental way of infection, progressing with changes in tropism. This leads to the emergence of new tropic substrates in visceral organs. The teaching about the portal of entry of infection, tropism, emergence of new target visceral organs must form the basis of contemporary infectology.
Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections of childhood. The clinical presentations are mostly non-specific or mild. As any episode of UTI can potentially damage the kidneys, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to prevent renal damage. Incidence of UTI varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the child. UTIs in children are commonly caused by bacteria, though viruses, fungi, and parasites are also occasionally involved. The pathogenesis of UTI is complex where several host and pathogen factors influence the course of the disease and its outcome. Urine culture is still considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of UTI. The means of obtaining urine samples from children for culture involves urethral catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The conventional methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing are labour intensive and time exhaustive. With the advent of technology, many automated platforms are available which are rapid, involve less volume of the culture or the sample, and have high accuracy.
Full Text Available Direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs are currently replacing antiviral therapy for Hepatitis C infection. Treatment related side effects are even worse and the emergence of resistant viruses must be avoided because of the direct-antiviral action. Altogether it remains a challenge to take treatment decisions in a clinical setting with cost restrictions. Genetic host factors are hereby essential to implement an individualized treatment concept. In recent years results on different genetic variants have been published with a strong association with therapy response, fibrosis and treatment-related side effects. Polymorphisms of the IL28B gene were identified as accurate predictors for therapy response and spontaneous clearance of HCV infection and are already used for diagnostic decisions. For RBV-induced side effects, such as hemolytic anemia, associations to genetic variants of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA were described and different SLC28 transporters for RBV-uptake have been successfully analyzed. Fibrosis progression has been associated with variants of Vitamin D receptor (VDR and ABCB11 (bile salt export pump. Cirrhotic patients especially have a high treatment risk and low therapy response, so that personalized antiviral treatment is mandatory. This review focuses on different host genetic variants in the pathogenesis of Hepatitis C at the beginning of a new area of treatment.
Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterised by the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and lymphocytes within the arterial wall in response to the release of proinflammatory molecules. Such accumulation results in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque, which would eventually evolve to complications such as total artery occlusion, rupture, calcification, or aneurysm. Although the molecular mechanism responsible for the development of atherosclerosis is not completely understood, it is clear that the immune system plays a key role in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque and in its complications. There are multiple antigenic stimuli that have been associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Most of these stimuli come from modified self-molecules such as oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs, beta2glycoprotein1 (ÃŽÂ²2GP1, lipoprotein a (LP(a, heat shock proteins (HSPs, and protein components of the extracellular matrix such as collagen and fibrinogen in the form of advanced glycation-end (AGE products. In addition, several foreign antigens including bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Chlamydia pneumoniae and viruses such as enterovirus and cytomegalovirus have been associated with atherosclerosis as potentially causative or bystander participants, adding another level of complexity to the analysis of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The present review summarises the most important scientific findings published within the last two decades on the importance of antigens, antigen stimulation, and adaptive immune responses in the development of atherosclerotic plaques.
Jing, F; Wei, D; Wang, D; Li, N; Cui, F; Yang, F; Chen, Z; Huang, X
There are three recent contradictory reports on the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, with all studies carried out in Caucasian patients. The current study evaluated whether Epstein-Barr virus infection had a role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis in a cohort of 30 Chinese patients. Serial paraffin sections of thymic hyperplasia obtained from myasthenia gravis patients were analyzed for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA -1 and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus(+) cervical lymph nodes from lymphoma patients and Epstein-Barr virus(-) thymus specimens obtained during cardiac surgery served as the positive and negative control groups, respectively. All the 30 myasthenia gravis specimens were negative for both Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA -1 and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 tests. However, we obtained well-characterized membrane and cytoplasmic immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization staining for both Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA -1, respectively, in the positive control samples. Our results therefore do not support a role of thymic Epstein-Barr virus infection in myasthenia gravis pathogenesis and calls for an integration of methodological and interpretation issues in detecting Epstein-Barr virus incidence in myasthenia gravis patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alejo, Alí; Ruiz-Argüello, M. Begoña; Ho, Yin; Smith, Vincent P.; Saraiva, Margarida; Alcami, Antonio
Variola virus (VaV) is the causative agent of smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases encountered by man, that was eradicated in 1980. The deliberate release of VaV would have catastrophic consequences on global public health. However, the mechanisms that contribute to smallpox pathogenesis are poorly understood at the molecular level. The ability of viruses to evade the host defense mechanisms is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Here we show that the tumor necrosis fact...
Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...
... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...
... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...
... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...
Zhang, Summer; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Ooi, Eng Eong
The early events in the interaction between virus and cell can have profound influence on the outcome of infection. Determining the factors that influence this interaction could lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and thus influence vaccine or therapeutic design. Hence, the development of methods to probe this interaction would be useful. Recent advancements in fluorophores development and imaging technology can be exploited to improve our current knowledge on dengue pathogenesis and thus pave the way to reduce the millions of dengue infections occurring annually. The enveloped dengue virus has an external scaffold consisting of 90 envelope glycoprotein (E) dimers protecting the nucleocapsid shell, which contains a single positive strand RNA genome. The identical protein subunits on the virus surface can thus be labeled with an amine reactive dye and visualized through immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we present a simple method of labeling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in a sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labeling. There is no standardized procedure for the labeling of live virus and existing manufacturer's protocol for protein labeling usually requires the reconstitution of dye in dimethyl sulfoxide. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, even in minute quantities, can block productive infection of virus and also induce cell cytotoxicity. The exclusion of the use of dimethyl sulfoxide in this protocol thus reduced this possibility. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labeled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.
Samim, Firoozeh; Auluck, Ajit; Zed, Christopher; Williams, P Michele
Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, immune-mediated disorder affecting the skin and/or mucous membranes, including the oral cavity. Target or iris lesions distributed symmetrically on the extremities and trunk characterize the condition. Infections are the most common cause of EM and the most frequently implicated infectious agent causing clinical disease is the herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis of EM is typically based on the patient's history and clinical findings. Management involves controlling the underlying infection or causative agent, symptom control, and adequate hydration. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EM are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bloch, Sune Land
, avoided or medically reversed as the pathogenesis remains unknown. Previously genetic research has failed to identify a specific otosclerosis-gene and earlier theories of virus infections, autoimmunity or association to generalized bone diseases have been unable to explain why otosclerosis only occurs...... in the bony otic capsule while the rest of the skeleton remains completely normal. Studies from the otopathological laboratory (RH) have revealed how the bone turnover rates increase centrifugally from a sub-normal 0.1% adjacent to the inner ear space towards a normal 10% per year at the capsular periphery...
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, and the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV. In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.
Piedade, Diogo; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.
Kirsty Renfree Short
Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an important cause of respiratory disease in humans. The original reservoirs of influenza A virus are wild waterfowl and shorebirds, where virus infection causes limited, if any, disease. Both in humans and in wild waterbirds, epithelial cells are the main target of infection. However, influenza virus can spread from wild bird species to terrestrial poultry. Here, the virus can evolve into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Part of this evolution involves increased viral tropism for endothelial cells. HPAI virus infections not only cause severe disease in chickens and other terrestrial poultry species but can also spread to humans and back to wild bird populations. Here, we review the role of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in wild birds, terrestrial poultry and humans with a particular focus on HPAI viruses. We demonstrate that whilst the endothelium is an important target of virus infection in terrestrial poultry and some wild bird species, in humans the endothelium is more important in controlling the local inflammatory milieu. Thus, the endothelium plays an important, but species-specific, role in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection.
A. M. Golubev
Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a common complication of many diseases. Its polyetiological pattern determines the specific features of lung morphological changes and the clinical course of ARDS. Objective: to analyze the pathogenesis of ARDS in the context of the general pathological processes underlying its development. Material and methods. More than 200 lungs from the people who had died from severe concomitant injury or ARDS-complicated pneumonia were investigated. More than 150 rat experiments simulated various types of lung injury: ventilator-induced lung injury with different ventilation parameters; reperfusion injuries (systemic circulation blockade due to 12-minute vascular fascicle ligation, followed by the recovery of cardiac performance and breathing; microcirculatory disorder (injection of a thromboplastin solution into the jugular vein; blood loss; betaine-pepsin aspiration; and closed chest injury. Different parts of the right and left lungs were histologically examined 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 3 days after initiation of the experiment. Lung pieces were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and using the van Gieson and Weigert procedures; the Schiff test was used. Results. The influence of aggression factors (trauma, blood loss, aspiration, infection, etc. results in damage to the lung and particularly air-blood barrier structures (endothelium, alveolar epithelium, their basement membrane. In turn the alteration of cellular and extracellular structures is followed by the increased permeability of hemomicrocirculatory bed vessels, leading to the development of non-cardiogenic (interstitial, alveolar pulmonary edema that is a central component in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Conclusion. The diagnosis of the early manifestations of ARDS must account for the nature of an aggression factor, the signs confirming the alteration of the lung
Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs are complex, multifactorial disorders characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. Although aetiology remains largely unknown, recent research has suggested that genetic factors, environment, microbiota and immune response are involved in the pathogenesis.Epidemiological evidence for a genetic contribution is defined: 15% of patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD have an affected family member with IBD, and twin studies for CD have shown 50% concordance in monozygotic twins compared to less than 10% in dizygotics. The most recent and largest genetic association studies, which employed genome-wide association data for over 75,000 patients and controls, identified 163 susceptibility loci for IBD. More recently, a trans-ethnic analysis, including over 20,000 individuals, identified an additional 38 new IBD loci.Although most cases are correlated with polygenic contribution toward genetic susceptibility, there is a spectrum of rare genetic disorders that can contribute to early onset IBD (before 5 years or very early IBD (before 2 years. Genetic variants that cause these disorders have a wide effect on gene function. These variants are so rare in allele frequency that the genetic signals are not detected in genome-wide association studies of patients with IBD. With recent advances in sequencing techniques, approximately 50 genetic disorders have been identified and associated with IBD-like immunopathology. Monogenic defects have been found to alter intestinal immune homeostasis through many mechanisms. Candidate gene resequencing should be carried out in early-onset patients in clinical practice.The evidence that genetic factors contribute in small part to disease pathogenesis confirms the important role of microbial and environmental factors. Epigenetic factors can mediate interactions between environment and genome. Epigenetic mechanisms could affect development and progression of IBD. Epigenomics is
Infection of insect larvae by a baculovirus leads to cessation of feeding and finally to the death of the larva. Under optimal conditions this process may take as little as five days during which the virus multiplies approximately a billion times and transforms 30% of the larval weight into
fixation tests for antibodies to ru- I y ; beola and herpes simplex viruses were not di- F7,7. agnostic, but the complement fixation test dem- onstrated...1978, A method ( metodo di micro-immunofluoresceszal, Giorn. for specific diagnosis of Rocks Mountain spot- Mal. Infert. Parassitol (In press.) ted
Gastrointestinal dysfunction has been recognised as a major manifestation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection since the earliest recognition of the syndrome, the acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It was originally thought that these disease manifestations were the sequelae of the immune.
Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ali, Ibne Karim M; Cope, Jennifer R; Khan, Naveed Ahmed
Naegleria fowleri is a protist pathogen that can cause lethal brain infection. Despite decades of research, the mortality rate related with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis owing to N. fowleri remains more than 90%. The amoebae pass through the nose to enter the central nervous system killing the host within days, making it one of the deadliest opportunistic parasites. Accordingly, we present an up to date review of the biology and pathogenesis of N. fowleri and discuss needs for future research against this fatal infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tatakis, Dimitris N; Kumar, Purnima S
The two most prevalent and most investigated periodontal diseases are dental plaque-induced gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. The last 10 to 15 years have seen the emergence of several important new findings and concepts regarding the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases. These findings include the recognition of dental bacterial plaque as a biofilm, identification and characterization of genetic defects that predispose individuals to periodontitis, host-defense mechanisms implicated in periodontal tissue destruction, and the interaction of risk factors with host defenses and bacterial plaque. This article reviews current aspects of the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.
Zhou, Dian; Chen, Wei; Xu, Kai-Lin
Essential thrombocythemia(ET) is one of the Ph chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Some studies discovered that the mutation of JAK2 V617F existed in 50%-70% patients with ET. Recently, many significant advances in researches about pathogenesis of ET, such as mutations of JAK2V617F, MPL, CALR and other related mutation; the epigenetic abnomalities in incidence of ET; the changes of bone marrow microenvironment of ET and the regulation of related cytokines were obtained. In this article, the advances of above mentioned aspects of ET are summarized.
Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. PMID:23429735
Pathogenesis of edema is in depth considered based on Starling's rule on capillary fluid dynamics. Edema can be divided into 4 types based on the mechanisms causing edema: increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, decreased plasma oncotic pressure, enhanced hydraulic permeability of capillary walls, and lymphatic obstruction. Each of the types can be further divided into generalized and local forms. Edema, defined as the expansion of interstitial fluid compartment, is initiated by imbalance of Starling forces across capillary walls between plasma and interstitium, but is maintained by enhanced sodium reabsorption from renal tubules.
McLellan, Lisa K; Hunstad, David A
The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McLellan, Lisa K.; Hunstad, David A.
The clinical syndromes comprising urinary tract infection (UTI) continue to exert significant impact on millions of patients worldwide, most of whom are otherwise healthy women. Antibiotic therapy for acute cystitis does not prevent recurrences, which plague up to one fourth of women after an initial UTI. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenic bacteria further complicates therapeutic decisions, necessitating new approaches based on fundamental biological investigation. In this review, we highlight contemporary advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis and how these might inform both our clinical perspective and future scientific priorities. PMID:27692880
Tsoucalas, G; Laios, K; Karamanou, M; Gennimata, V; Androutsos, G
For more than 100 years, the germ theory of cancer, proposing that microorganisms were at the origin of the disease, dominated medicine. Several eminent scientists like Etienne Burnet, Mikhail Stepanovich Voronin, Charles-Louis Malassez, and Francis-Peyton Rous argued on the pathogenesis presenting their theories that implicated cocci, fungi and parasites. The impact of these theories was culminated by the Nobel Prize in 1926 that was attributed to the Danish scientist Johannes Fibiger for his work on the nematode Spiroptera as a causative agent in cancer. Even if those theories were the result of fantasy and misinterpretation, they paved the way for the scientific research in oncology.
Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Florou, Zoe; Bizakis, John G; Petinaki, Efthymia; Skoulakis, Charalampos E
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6) and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4%) versus controls (4/38; 10.5%), but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.06). Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29%) versus controls (10/38; 26.32%, p=0.13). In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%), and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%), versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11). Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6 and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. METHODS: Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4% versus controls (4/38; 10.5%, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.06. Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29% versus controls (10/38; 26.32%,p = 0.13. In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%, and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%, versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11. CONCLUSION: Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Objectives: This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period.Material and methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed.Results: In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described.Conclusions: The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression.