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Sample records for virus serological responses

  1. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  2. Sero-immunity and serologic response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Gannon C; Choy, Perrin W W; Lee, W Y; Wong, Ann H; Ng, K C; Lim, Wilina

    2010-11-01

    To study the serologic response to the new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in Hong Kong, the level of immunity was measured before and after the occurrence of the outbreak, and the titer of antibody to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in serum samples of laboratory confirmed cases. The presence of pre-outbreak pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus antibodies in 37% of individuals older than >65 years suggested previous exposures to heterologous virus strains may have elicited cross-reacting antibody. Following large outbreaks of pandemic influenza A 2009 virus that peaked in September 2009, there is a change in immunity level in various age groups consistent with the attack rates among population in Hong Kong. Among individuals with mild clinical presentation, the antibody response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was stronger in those individuals aged ≤ 24 years but took more time to reach a titer of 40 when compared with those aged >24 years; however, the antibody level declined slower among individuals aged ≤ 24 years. Regardless of age, the antibody response rose rapidly and reached much higher titer among individuals with severe clinical presentation. Further study is required to collect additional data on antibody persistence and determine how much protection is conferred by previous exposure to seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents..., occurring in adults who were previously infected with varicella-zoster viruses. Zoster is the response...

  4. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Serological response to rabies virus induced by commercial vaccines in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Martins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The antibody response to rabies virus (RABV induced by commercial vaccines in heifers was investigated. For this, 84 heifers were vaccinated twice (30 days interval with each of four vaccines (G1 = 14 animals; G2 = 24; G3 = 22 and G4 = 24 and received a booster vaccination 360 days later. Serum samples collected at different intervals after vaccination and 30 days after booster were submitted to a virus neutralizing (VN assay for RABV antibodies. Thirty days after the second vaccine dose, 92% of the immunized animals presented VN titers ≥0.5UI/mL (geometric medium titers [GMT] 1.7 to 3.8UI/mL. At the day of the booster (360 days post-vaccination; however, the percentage of animals harboring antibody titers ≥0.5UI/mL had dropped to 31% (0-80% of the animals, depending on the vaccine, resulting in lower GMT (0.1 to 0.6UI/mL. Booster vaccination at day 360 resulted in a detectable anamnestic response in all groups, resulting in 83% of animals (65 to 100% harboring VN titers ≥0.5UI/mL thirty days later (GMT 0.6 to 4.3UI/mL. These results indicated that these vaccines were able to induce an adequate anti-RABV response in all animals after prime vaccination (and after booster as well. However, the titers decreased, reaching titers <0.5UI/mL in approximately 70% of animals within the interval before the recommended booster. Thus, booster vaccination for rabies in cattle using the current vaccines should be performed before the recommended one-year interval, as to maintain neutralizing antibodies levels in most vaccinated animals.

  6. ELISA for the serology of FIP virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Kroon; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja

    1979-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus serology is described. The assay is analogous to a previously developed indirect heterologous immunofluorescence test (IFT) in which transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) viral antigen was used.

  7. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mumps virus serological reagents consist of antigens and antisera...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices... herpes simplex virus in serum. Additionally, some of the assays consist of herpes simplex virus antisera...

  11. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  13. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.; Bess, J.W. Jr.; Gonda, M.A.; Kelliher, J.C.; Gilden, R.V.; Robey, W.G.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Gallo, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4/sup +/ and T8/sup +/ cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4/sup +/ cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine... tests to identify antobodies to equine encephalomyelitis virus in serum. The identification aids in the...

  15. Seroprevalence of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella, and serologic responses after vaccination among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected adults in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwarith, Romanee; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Nuket, Khanuengnit; Kotarathitithum, Wilai; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2016-04-30

    After the global implementation of national immunization programs for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), the prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses are high in general population. However, there are limited data among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these viruses, and the serologic responses after vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Northern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 500 HIV-infected adults, aged 20-59 years, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm(3), and plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-uninfected controls, aged 20-59 years, at Chiang Mai University Hospital during July and August 2011. Prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses as well as serologic responses after MMR vaccination in those without protective antibody to at least one of the three viruses were compared between groups. The prevalences of protective antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella were 94.2, 55.0, and 84.6 % among HIV-infected adults, and 97.7, 67.5, and 89.4 % among HIV-uninfected controls, respectively. The prevalence of protective antibody to mumps was significantly lower in HIV-infected adults (p-value = 0.010). MMR vaccination was done in 249 HIV-infected and 46 HIV-uninfected controls; at week 8 to 12 after vaccination, the seroprotective rates against measles, mumps, and rubella in HIV-infected adults were 96.4, 70.7, and 98.0 %, respectively, whereas those in HIV-uninfected controls were 100, 87, and 100 %, respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed. In contrast to measles and rubella, the prevalence of protective antibody to mumps was low in both HIV-infected adults and HIV-uninfected controls in northern Thailand. The seroprotective rates after MMR vaccination in both groups were considerably high, except only for mumps. Therefore, MMR vaccination should be considered in all

  16. Serology for human papillomavirus Serología para el virus del papiloma humano

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    Pierre Coursaget

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with serology for papillomavirus are associated with the large number of human papillomavirus, cross-reactions between papillomavirus, and to the diversity of lesions and target sites for infection. In addition, the expression of the papillomavirus in the superficial layers of the epithelium gives rise to the weak presentation to immunocompetent cells of viral antigens, which in turn gives rise to a weak serological response. Distinct efforts have been made in previous decades to develop more specific and sensitive serological assays. These former studies use fusion proteins and synthetic peptides, although they remain on the whole uninteresting, due to their lack of sensitivity and specificity. Only in the last few years, and principally due to the advent of various virus-like particles (VLP, have more sensitive and specific assays become available.Las limitaciones para la utilización de la serología para el estudio del virus del papiloma humano con fines clínicos están asociadas con la gran variedad de subtipos humanos, con las reacciones cruzadas que existen entre diversos genotipos, la diversidad de lesiones precursoras de cáncer y con los sitios blancos de infección. Asimismo, la expresión del virus del papiloma humano en las capas superficiales del epitelio dan origen a una débil presentación de células inmunocompetentes de antígenos virales, lo cual origina una elevación de la respuesta serológica. Distintos esfuerzos se han realizado en décadas previas para desarrollar ensayos serológicos más específicos y sensibles. En muchas investigaciones se ha utilizado una fusión de proteínas y péptidos sintéticos que tienen como principal limitación su escasa sensibilidad y especificidad. Sólo en los últimos años, y principalmente debido al arribo de partículas parecidas a este virus, tenemos disponibles ensayos más sensibles y específicos, ampliamente descritos en este artículo.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus specific serum antibodies in infants under six months of age: limited serological response upon infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Brandenburg (Afke); J. Groen (Jan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); E.C.J. Claas (Eric); Ph.H. Rothbarth (Philip); H.J. Neijens (Herman); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe decline of maternal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) specific serum antibodies was studied in 45 children during the first 6 months of life, using a virus neutralization assay and competition ELISAs measuring fusion protein and glycoprotein specific antibodies. In all children RSV

  18. Safety and serological response to a matrix gene-deleted rabies virus-based vaccine vector in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, James P; David, Frederic; Figueiredo, Monica Dias; Minke, Jules; Mebatsion, Teshome; Schnell, Matthias J

    2014-03-26

    Dogs account for the majority of human exposures and deaths due to rabies virus (RABV) worldwide. In this report, we show that a replication-deficient RABV-based vaccine in which the matrix gene is deleted (RABV-ΔM) is safe and induces rapid and potent VNA titers after a single inoculation in dogs. Average VNA titers peaked at 3.02 or 5.11 international units (IU/ml) by 14 days post-immunization with a single dose of 10(6) or 10(7) focus forming units (ffu), respectively, of RABV-ΔM. By day 70 post immunization, all dogs immunized with either dose of vaccine showed VNA titers >0.5IU/ml, the level indicative of a satisfactory immunization. Importantly, no systemic or local reactions were noted in any dog immunized with RABV-ΔM. The elimination of dog rabies through mass vaccination is hindered by limited resources, requirement for repeat vaccinations often for the life of a dog, and in some parts of the world, inferior vaccine quality. Our preliminary safety and immunogenicity data in dogs suggest that RABV-ΔM might complement currently used inactivated RABV-based vaccines in vaccination campaigns by helping to obtain 100% response in vaccinated dogs, thereby increasing overall vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased serologic response in vaccinated military recruits during 2011 correspond to genetic drift in concurrent circulating pandemic A/H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Faix

    Full Text Available Population-based febrile respiratory illness surveillance conducted by the Department of Defense contributes to an estimate of vaccine effectiveness. Between January and March 2011, 64 cases of 2009 A/H1N1 (pH1N1, including one fatality, were confirmed in immunized recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, suggesting insufficient efficacy for the pH1N1 component of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV.To test serologic protection, serum samples were collected at least 30 days post-vaccination from recruits at Fort Jackson (LAIV, Parris Island (LAIV and trivalent inactivated vaccine [TIV] at Cape May, New Jersey (TIV and responses measured against pre-vaccination sera. A subset of 78 LAIV and 64 TIV sera pairs from recruits who reported neither influenza vaccination in the prior year nor fever during training were tested by microneutralization (MN and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assays. MN results demonstrated that seroconversion in paired sera was greater in those who received TIV versus LAIV (74% and 37%. Additionally, the fold change associated with TIV vaccination was significantly different between circulating (2011 versus the vaccine strain (2009 of pH1N1 viruses (ANOVA p value = 0.0006. HI analyses revealed similar trends. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis revealed that the quantity, IgG/IgM ratios, and affinity of anti-HA antibodies were significantly greater in TIV vaccinees. Finally, sequence analysis of the HA1 gene in concurrent circulating 2011 pH1N1 isolates from Fort Jackson exhibited modest amino acid divergence from the vaccine strain.Among military recruits in 2011, serum antibody response differed by vaccine type (LAIV vs. TIV and pH1N1 virus year (2009 vs. 2011. We hypothesize that antigen drift in circulating pH1N1 viruses contributed to reduce vaccine effectiveness at Fort Jackson. Our findings have wider implications regarding vaccine protection from circulating pH1N1 viruses in 2011-2012.

  20. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Monze, Mwaka; Asombang, Akwi Wasi; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related deaths, but data from sub-Saharan Africa are very scanty. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) initiative confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related cancer as a distinct subtype, and we set out to look for serological evidence of its role in a sub-Saharan African patient group. We used stored serum samples obtained from a gastric cancer case-control study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 147 patients were included with 51 gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 96 age and sex matched controls. The presence of antibodies to EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and early antigen (EA) was determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Data were analysed in STATA Stata Corp, College Station TX. Over 90% of all the samples analysed were positive for antibodies to EBNA-1. The presence of antibodies to EBV EA was significantly higher in gastric cancer cases than in controls, (OR 4.38; 95% CI 1.53-13.06, P = 0.0027), with an attributable risk of 23%. HIV infection was also associated with EBV EA seroprevalence (OR 10.97; 95% CI 2.26 -13.06, P = 0.001) but not EBNA-1 (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.10 -38.75, P = 0.596). There was no association of EBV infection with age below 45 years, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy or inflammation. We therefore conclude that EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3310 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. 866... Hepatitis A virus (HAV) serological assays. (a) Identification. HAV serological assays are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of hepatitis A virus-specific IgM, IgG, or total...

  3. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus among healthy hepatitis B surface ... Journal Home > Vol 16, No 3 (2016) > ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed ...

  4. ROLE OF THE SEROLOGIC TEST FOR DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Sinta Purnama Dewi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Dengue virus infection is infection disease cause by dengue virus. Dengue virus infection can cause a broad spectrum disease such as : dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Currently dengue virus ranks eighth as a cause of illness in the State of South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur each year in Indonesia with a tendency incident and the affected area is increasing. Laboratory tests can be done to detect the dengue virus infection: a complete blood count and serology. Of serology test, positive IgM antibody showed that patients had a primary infection, whereas patients with secondary infections showed positive IgG antibodies, usually accompanied by antibody IgM positive. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Serologic evidence of human influenza virus infections in swine populations, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith, Sareth; Netrabukkana, Punnaporn; Sorn, San; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mey, Channa; Holl, Davun; Goutard, Flavie; Y, Bunthin; Fenwick, Stan; Robertson, Ian; Roger, François; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted from 2006 to 2010 and investigated the seroprevalence of influenza A viruses in Cambodian pigs, including human H1N1, H3N2, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09), and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses. A total of 1147 sera obtained from pigs in Cambodia were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays for antibody to human influenza A viruses along with both HI and microneutralization (MN) tests to assess immunological responses to H5N1 virus. The results were compared by year, age, and province. Antibodies against a human influenza A virus were detected in 14·9% of samples. A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were dominant over the study period (23·1%), followed by those to human H1N1 (17·3%) and H3N2 subtypes (9·9%). No pigs were serologically positive for avian H5 influenza viruses. The seroprevalence of human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses peaked in 2008, while that of A(H1N1)pdm09 reached a peak in 2010. No significant differences in seroprevalence to human influenza subtypes were observed in different age groups. Cambodian pigs were exposed to human strains of influenza A viruses either prior to or during this study. The implications of these high prevalence rates imply human-to-swine influenza virus transmission in Cambodia. Although pigs are mostly raised in small non-commercial farms, our preliminary results provide evidence of sustained human influenza virus circulation in pig populations in Cambodia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Development of envelope protein antigens to serologically differentiate Zika from dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Collins, Matthew; Graham, Stephen; Liou, Guei-Jiun Alice; Lopez, Cesar A; Jadi, Ramesh; Balmaseda, Angel; Brackbill, James A; Dietze, Reynaldo; Camacho, Erwin; De Silva, Aruna D; Giuberti, Camila; Dos Reis, Helena Lucia; Singh, Tulika; Heimsath, Holly; Weiskopf, Daniela; Sette, Alessandro; Osorio, Jorge E; Permar, Sallie R; Miley, Michel J; Lazear, Helen M; Harris, Eva; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-12-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that can cause birth defects and neurologic complications. Molecular tests are effective in diagnosing acute ZIKV infection, although the majority of infections produce no symptoms at all or present after the narrow window in which molecular diagnostics are dependable. Serology is a reliable method for detecting infections after the viremic period; however, most serological assays have limited specificity due to cross-reactive antibodies elicited by flavivirus infections. Since ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) widely co-circulate, distinguishing ZIKV from DENV infection is particularly important for diagnosing individual cases or surveillance to coordinate public health response. Flaviviruses also elicit type-specific antibodies directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes of the infecting virus; such epitopes are attractive targets for designing antigens to develop serologic tests with greater specificity. Guided by comparative epitope modeling of ZIKV envelope protein, we designed two recombinant antigens displaying unique antigenic regions on domain I (Z-EDI) and domain III (Z-EDIII) of ZIKV envelope protein. Both Z-EDI and Z-EDIII antigens consistently detected ZIKV-specific IgG in ZIKV-immune sera but not cross-reactive IgG in DENV-immune sera in late convalescence (>12 weeks post-infection). In contrast, during early convalescence (2-12 weeks post-infection), secondary DENV-immune sera and some primary DENV-immune sera cross-reacted with Z-EDI and Z-EDIII antigens. Analysis of sequential samples from DENV-immune individuals demonstrated that Z-EDIII cross-reactivity peaked in the early convalescence and steeply declined over time. The Z-EDIII antigen has much potential as a diagnostic antigen for population level surveillance and for detecting past infections in patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  8. Factors Influencing the Serological Response in Hepatic Echinococcus granulosus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissandrin, Raffaella; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Piccoli, Luca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Mariconti, Mara; Meroni, Valeria; Genco, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variables influencing serology is crucial to evaluate serology results for the diagnosis and clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE). We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of patients with hepatic CE followed in our clinic in 2000-2012 to evaluate the influence of several variables on the results of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Sera from 171 patients with ≥ 1 hepatic CE cyst, and 90 patients with nonparasitic cysts were analyzed. CE cysts were staged according to the WHO-IWGE classification and grouped by activity. A significant difference in ELISA optical density (OD) values and percentage of positivity was found among CE activity groups and with controls (P < 0.001). The serological response was also influenced by age (P < 0.001) and cyst number (P = 0.003). OD values and cyst size were positively correlated in active cysts (P = 0.001). IHA test showed comparable results. When we analyzed the results of 151 patients followed over time, we found that serology results were significantly influenced by cyst activity, size, number, and treatment ≤ 12 months before serum collection. In conclusion, serological responses as assessed by commercial tests depend on CE cyst activity, size and number, and time from treatment. Clinical studies and clinicians in their practice should take this into account. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Investigation into the presence of and serological response to XMRV in CFS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Erlwein

    Full Text Available The novel human gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV, originally described in prostate cancer, has also been implicated in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. When later reports failed to confirm the link to CFS, they were often criticised for not using the conditions described in the original study. Here, we revisit our patient cohort to investigate the XMRV status in those patients by means of the original PCR protocol which linked the virus to CFS. In addition, sera from our CFS patients were assayed for the presence of xenotropic virus envelope protein, as well as a serological response to it. The results further strengthen our contention that there is no evidence for an association of XMRV with CFS, at least in the UK.

  10. Serological diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection: Problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paschale, Massimo; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2012-01-01

    Serological tests for antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens are frequently used to define infection status and for the differential diagnosis of other pathogens responsible for mononucleosis syndrome. Using only three parameters [viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 IgG],it is normally possible to distinguish acute from past infection: the presence of VCA IgM and VCA IgG without EBNA-1 IgG indicates acute infection, whereas the presence of VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG without VCA IgM is typical of past infection. However, serological findings may sometimes be difficult to interpret as VCA IgG can be present without VCA IgM or EBNA-1 IgG in cases of acute or past infection, or all the three parameters may be detected simultaneously in the case of recent infection or during the course of reactivation. A profile of isolated EBNA-1 IgG may also create some doubts. In order to interpret these patterns correctly, it is necessary to determine IgG avidity, identify anti-EBV IgG and IgM antibodies by immunoblotting, and look for heterophile antibodies, anti-EA (D) antibodies or viral genome using molecular biology methods. These tests make it possible to define the status of the infection and solve any problems that may arise in routine laboratory practice. PMID:24175209

  11. Atypical prediagnosis Epstein-Barr virus serology restricted to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Lennette, Evelyne T.; Rubertone, Mark V.; Mann, Risa B.; Borowitz, Michael; Weir, Edward G.; Abbondanzo, Susan L.; Mueller, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    An altered anti–Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologic profile preceding diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. It is unknown whether this atypical pattern predicts Hodgkin lymphoma risk further subdivided by determination of EBV in tumor cells. A nested case-control study of 128 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 368 matched controls from active-duty military personnel with archived serum in the US Department of Defense Serum Repository was conducted to determine whether a panel of anti-EBV antibody titers differed in EBV+ and EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 40 EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma cases and matched controls, statistically significant increased risks were associated with elevated anti-EBV VCA IgG antibody titers (relative risk = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.7), and an anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio ≤ 1.0 versus > 1.0 (relative risk = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8). In contrast, no significant associations were found among 88 EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma cases relative to their matched controls. In case-case analysis, EBV+ disease was significantly associated with a low anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio. This distinc-tive serologic response to EBV latent antigens, indicative of immune dysfunction in other clinical settings, is associated with an increased risk of developing EBV+ but not EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:22972983

  12. Serological screening for Schmallenberg virus in exotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-09-04

    Sep 4, 2015 ... Abstract. Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a recently emerged Orthobunyavirus, is associated with abortions, stillbirths and congenital ... Keywords: Abortions, Antibodies, Cattle, Congenital malformations, Nigeria, Schmallenberg virus. Received: .... Azkur AK, Albayrak H, Risvanli A, Pestil Z, Ozan E,. Yilmaz O ...

  13. Serological and Molecular Characterization of a High Temperature-recovered Virus Belonging to Tospovirus Serogroup IV

    OpenAIRE

    Hei-Ti, HSU; Peter P., UENG; Fang-Hua, CHU; Zhaohui, YE; Shyi-Don, YEH; U.S.Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung-Hsing University

    2000-01-01

    A serologically and cytologically distinct gloxinia tospovirus(HT-1)previously isolated from a gloxinia plant infected with Impatiens necrotic spot virus(INSV)when propagated in a high-temperature environment was characterized. Rabbit antisera produced for INSV and Tomato spotted wilt virus(TSWV)nucleocapsids(N)failed to react with HT-1 proteins in western blot analysis. The HT-1 antibodies reacted strongly with homologous antigen but failed to react with INSV and TSWV. However, the HT-1 anti...

  14. Serological evidence of influenza A viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Stephanie Freidl

    Full Text Available Bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes--H17N10 and H18N11--in Central and South American fruit bats. The identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza A viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza A virus ecology and possible public health relevance. As molecular testing can be limited by a short time window in which the virus is present, serological testing provides information about past infections and virus spread in populations after the virus has been cleared. This study aimed at screening available sera from 100 free-ranging, frugivorous bats (Eidolon helvum sampled in 2009/10 in Ghana, for the presence of antibodies against the complete panel of influenza A haemagglutinin (HA types ranging from H1 to H18 by means of a protein microarray platform. This technique enables simultaneous serological testing against multiple recombinant HA-types in 5 μl of serum. Preliminary results indicate serological evidence against avian influenza subtype H9 in about 30% of the animals screened, with low-level cross-reactivity to phylogenetically closely related subtypes H8 and H12. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serological evidence of influenza A viruses other than H17 and H18 in bats. As avian influenza subtype H9 is associated with human infections, the implications of our findings from a public health context remain to be investigated.

  15. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  16. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and...

  17. Molecular and Serological Survey of Selected Viruses in Free-Ranging Wild Ruminants in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhid Hemmatzadeh

    Full Text Available A molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in Iran. Samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 Mouflon (Ovis orientalis, 22 wild goat (Capra aegagrus, nine Indian gazelle (Gazella bennettii and eight Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa during the national survey for wildlife diseases in Iran. Serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody tests for Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pestiviruses [Border Disease virus (BVD and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV], Bluetongue virus (BTV, Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1, and Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3. Sera were also ELISA tested for Pestivirus antigen. Tissue samples including spleen, liver, lung, tonsils, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and white blood cells (WBCs were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PPRV, Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV, Pestivirus, BTV, Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2 and BHV-1. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against PPRV (17%, Pestiviruses (2% and BTV (2%. No antibodies were detected for BHV-1 or PI3, and no Pestivirus antigen was detected. PCR results were positive for PPRV (7.8%, FMDV (11%, BTV (3%, OvHV-2 (31% and BHV-1 (1.5%. None of the samples were positive for Pestiviruses.

  18. Serological profiles of Herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the major cause of genital ulcer diseases (GUD) consequently a significant factor for the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite its importance there is paucity of data regarding the magnitude of HSV-2 in non-HIV infected population in ...

  19. Serological Evidence Of Rabies Virus Infection Of Slaughter Camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of antibodies against rabies virus was carried out in camels imported for slaughter at Maiduguri municipal abattoir in Borno State, Nigeria. Out of the 256 camel sera tested, 18 (7%) had complement-fixing antibody against rabies virus antigen. Significant difference (P<0.05) in antibody prevalence was observed ...

  20. Association of bovine respiratory disease or vaccination with serologic response in dairy heifer calves up to three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M Claire; Leslie, Ken E; Godden, Sandra M; Hodgins, Douglas C; Lissemore, Kerry D; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) or vaccination with serologic response in calves. 94 Holstein calves. To assess the association between BRD and antibody titers, 38 calves bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 2 weeks of age (n = 6), 5 weeks of age (6), and both 2 and 5 weeks of age (6) or were assigned to be unvaccinated controls (6). Blood samples were obtained at I, 2, 5, and 12 weeks for determination of serum neutralization antibody titers against the vaccine viruses, bovine coronavirus, and Mannheimia haemolytica. Antibody rates of decay were calculated. Calves with initial antibody titers against BRSV < 1:64 that were treated for BRD had a slower rate of anti-BRSV antibody decay than did similar calves that were not treated for BRD. Calves with high initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1 had lower odds of BRD than did calves with low initial antibody titers against those 2 pathogens. Vaccination at 2 or 5 weeks of age had no effect on the rate of antibody decay. Clinical BRD and the serologic response of dairy calves were associated with initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1. Serologic or clinical responses to viral exposure may differ in calves with low passive immunity.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  2. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  3. [Follow-up serological study of herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus in Cuban patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resik, S; Santana, E; Rivero, J; Pérez, A B; Kourí, V; Larralde, O

    1997-01-01

    The evolution serological response against the herpes simplex virus and citomegalovirus in HIV infected patients grouped into different stages of the disease was studied. Fluctuations in the TPG of antibodies were observed in these values in a cyclical way through time. There was a greater significant difference among the TPG of antibodies against HSV in the group of asymptomatic patients compared with AIDS patients and with those who died. There is a marked decrease in the TPG of antibodies against HSV and CMV approximately one year before the death of patients.

  4. Problem of immunoglobulin M co-detection in serological response to bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens among children suspected of legionellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pancer, Katarzyna Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was an analysis of the serological response to respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens, in 156 children admitted to hospital in Warsaw with a suspicion of legionellosis. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) t. 1-4 and influenza t. A + B viruses were determined retrospectively by ELISAs. In the prospective examinations (only Legionella pn...

  5. Molecular characterization and coat protein serology of watermelon leaf mottle virus (Potyvirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, P B; Hiebert, E; Purcifull, D E

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA library was generated from purified RNA of watermelon leaf mottle virus (WLMV) (Genus Potyvirus). Two overlapping clones totaling 2,316 nucleotides at the 3' terminus of the virus were identified by immunoscreening with coat protein antiserum. The sequence analyses of the clones indicated an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,050 nucleotides which encoded part of the replicase and the coat protein, a 243-nucleotide non-coding region (3'UTR), and 23 adenine residues of the poly (A) tail. The taxonomic status of WLMV was determined by comparisons of the sequence of the cloned coat protein gene and 3'UTR with potyvirus sequences obtained from GenBank. The nucleotide sequence identities of WLMV compared with 17 other potyviruses ranged from 55.6 to 63.5% for the coat protein, and from 37.2 to 48.3% for the 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein region and the 3'UTR indicated that WLMV did not cluster with other potyviruses in a clade with high bootstrap support. The coat protein gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared to the expressed coat protein. In immunodiffusion tests, WLMV was found to be serologically distinct from papaya ringspot virus type W, watermelon mosaic virus 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus. In Western blots and ELISA, serological cross-reactivity with other cucurbit potyviruses was observed. Serological and sequence comparisons indicated that watermelon leaf mottle virus is a distinct member of the Potyvirus genus.

  6. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection among volunteer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection causes as an acute, self-limiting hepatitis that is associated with high mortality, especially in pregnant women. We previously reported high sero-prevalence of HEV among pregnant women and persons who worked with pigs. Therefore we evaluated the prevalence of anti-HEV IgM and ...

  7. Serological Evidence of Bluetongue Virus Antibodies in Sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the presence and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection in sheep and goats at different geographical regions of North Somalia, a competitive enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in clinically healthy sheep and goats was carried out in Northern ...

  8. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 sera sample using Agar Gel precipitation test (AGPT). The results showed that local chickens had the highest distribution with 446 (9.58%) followed by ducks 218 (4.68%), guinea fowl 131 ...

  9. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent. Objective: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

  10. serological survey of infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    3%BSA/0.05%Tween 20 (pH7.2)). Fifty microlitres of each diluted sample was added to each well of IBD virus pre-coated microtitre plates and incubated for one hour at 380C. Positive control serum (Post IBD serum) and negative control serum ...

  11. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed viral infections were few, PVY + PVMV occurring only in one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss.

  12. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 ... imply that the birds have the potentials of becoming carriers and serve as source of spread of the disease to other ..... In Nigeria we have some militating factors against the infectious bursa ...

  13. serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mosaic virus genus Potyvirus, which is of great economic importance in germplasm conservation and exchange between ... onto hormone free medium composed of 4.43 g MS basal salt, 30 g sucrose and 8 g of agar. ... la conservation du germoplasme et l'échange entre les pays eu égard aux pertes qu'il entraîne.

  14. Serological detection of seed borne viruses in cowpea regenerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... conservation and exchange between countries as it causes great loss. Southern bean mosaic virus was not detected in any of the accessions evaluated. Seeds were harvested from the infected mother plants at maturity and the embryos excised in vitro onto hormone free medium composed of 4.43 g MS basal salt, 30 g ...

  15. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  16. Evaluation of serological diagnostic methods for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenburg, Jesse; Baz, Mariana; Hamelin, Marie-Ève; Rhéaume, Chantal; Carbonneau, Julie; Ouakki, Manale; Rouleau, Isabelle; De Serres, Gaston; Boivin, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Serology improves influenza diagnosis by capturing cases missed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). We prospectively evaluated microneutralization and hemagglutination inhibition assays for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus diagnosis among 24 RT-PCR-confirmed cases and 98 household contacts. Compared to hemagglutination inhibition, microneutralization demonstrated a higher level of concordance with RT-PCR (kappa = 0.69 versus kappa = 0.60) and greater sensitivity (83% versus 71%; P = 0.016).

  17. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed)...

  18. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  19. Serologic evidence of avian influenza virus infections among Nigerian agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, John; Eze, Didacus; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-04-01

    Nigeria has had multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus into its poultry population since 2006. This study aimed to determine if Nigerians exposed to poultry had evidence of avian influenza virus transmission to man. Between 2008 and 2010, 316 adult farmers and open market workers and 54 age-group matched, non-animal exposed controls were enrolled in a prospective, population-based study of zoonotic influenza transmission in four towns in southeastern Nigeria. Questionnaire data and sera obtained at the time of enrollment were examined for evidence of previous infection with 10 avian influenza virus strains. Serologic studies on sera collected at the time of enrollment showed modest evidence of previous infection with three avian-origin influenza viruses (H5N1, H5N2, and H11N1) and one avian-like H9N2 influenza virus, with eight (2.4%) of animal-exposed subjects and two (3.7%) unexposed subjects having elevated microneutralization assay antibody titer levels (ranging from 1:10 to 1:80). Statistical analyses did not identify specific risk factors associated with the elevated antibody titers observed for these zoonotic influenza viruses. These data suggested only occasional virus transmission to humans in areas thought to have been enzootic for avian influenza virus. Prospective data from this cohort will help the authors to better understand the occurrence of zoonotic infections due to avian influenza viruses in Nigeria. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial, season (warm and cold, location (North, South, East, and West, cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years. The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 % were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (χ2 = 8.29, df = 3, p 2 years showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06. No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05. The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran.

  1. High prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus-capsid antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men: a serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcletti Mario

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%. Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%. The highest antibody detection rate (88,8% was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of

  2. Serological evidence for infections with Borna disease virus in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Herzog, Sibylle; Kennerman, Engin; Tuncer, Pelin; Schmid, Susanne; Kaya, Güney; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection outside endemic areas has been studied in several countries. We examined serum samples for anti-BDV antibodies in purebred racing horses and other domestic animals in Turkey. In total serum samples of 437 animals including 282 horses, 50 sheep, 25 goats, 50 cattle, and 30 cats were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Anti-BDV antibodies were detected in 4.9% of horses, 12% of sheep, 4% of goats, 14% of cattle and 6.6% of cats. No statistical difference was observed between seroprevalence in Arabic and English purebred horses from four different racing centers (p > 0.05). Antibody titers ranged between 1:10 and 1:320. The highest antibody titers were found in sheep and horses and the lowest titer in cattle. Clinical symptoms of Borna disease were not observed in any animal of any species examined. This study confirms the presence of anti-BDV antibodies in racing horses as well as cat population in Turkey. Moreover anti-BDV antibodies are demonstrated for the first time in sheep, goats and cattle in Turkey.

  3. [Serology of the human immunodeficiency virus in saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcaba, V; Fernández, E; Rodríguez Junquera, M; García Amorín, Z; Alfonso, J; García Alonso, S

    1993-07-03

    The presence of immunoglobulins in saliva has allowed it to be proven that they are specific against certain antigens. Antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been observed in saliva. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of the same by commercial enzymoinmmunoassay (EIA) and standardize the technique. In 78 intravenous drug user patients the presence of antibodies against HIV in serum and saliva were determined by recombinant EIA (Abbott HIV-1/HIV-2 recombinant EIA). The determinations in saliva were made taking volumes of 10 and 50 microliters. In 43 patients the presence of antibodies against HIV-1 was demonstrated in serum, 42 of which were positive in saliva in the determination with 50 microliters and 16 with 10 microliters. No false positives were reported. With the use of 50 microliters of saliva the test showed a sensitivity of 0.98, specificity of 1, predictive value of a positive result of 1, predictive value of negative result of 0.98 and diagnostic efficacy of 0.99. The determination of antibodies against HIV in saliva in intravenous drug users is a highly sensitive and specific method with the use of volumes of 50 microliters in the tests.

  4. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  5. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus on hepatitis B virus serologic status in co-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Landrum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with serologic hepatitis B virus (HBV outcomes in HIV-infected individuals remain incompletely understood, yet such knowledge may lead to improvements in the prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection.HBV-HIV co-infected cohort participants were retrospectively analyzed. HBV serologic outcomes were classified as chronic, resolved, and isolated-HBcAb. Chronic HBV (CHBV was defined as the presence of HBsAg on two or more occasions at least six months apart. Risk factors for HBV serologic outcome were assessed using logistic regression. Of 2037 participants with HBV infection, 281 (14% had CHBV. Overall the proportions of HBV infections classified as CHBV were 11%, 16%, and 19% for CD4 cell count strata of > or =500, 200-499, and or =500 cells/microL where 21% of those with HBV after HIV diagnosis had CHBV compared with 9% for all other cases of HBV infection in this stratum (p = 0.0004. Prior receipt of HAART was associated with improved HBV serologic outcome overall (p = 0.012, and specifically among those with HBV after HIV (p = 0.002. In those with HBV after HIV, HAART was associated with reduced risk of CHBV overall (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.04-0.79; including reduced risk in the subsets with CD4 > or =350 cells/microL (p or =500 cells/microL (p = 0.01 where no cases of CHBV were seen in those with a recent history of HAART use.Clinical indicators of immunologic status in HIV-infected individuals, such as CD4 cell count, are associated with HBV serologic outcome. These data suggest that immunologic preservation through the increased use of HAART to improve functional anti-HBV immunity, whether by improved access to care or earlier initiation of therapy, would likely improve HBV infection outcomes in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, Robert S; Kosoy, Olga L; Laven, Janeen J; Velez, Jason O; Lambert, Amy J; Johnson, Alison J; Stanfield, Stephanie M; Duffy, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated with ZIKV was detected in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. We report the genetic and serologic properties of the ZIKV associated with this epidemic.

  7. Development of monoclonal antibodies and serological assays specific for Barley yellow dwarf virus GAV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2015-09-04

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses and belongs to a ubiquitous plant virus group. In China, four BYDV strains (GPV, GAV, PAV and RMV) have been identified based on their specific aphid vectors and serological properties. Among the four identified strains, the GAV is the most common BYDV strain in China. To diagnose, forecast of BYDV GAV, two reliable serological assays for BYDV GAV detection were established. We purified virion from a confirmed BYDV GAV source and used it as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies against the virus. Using the hybridoma technology, three highly specific murine monoclonal antibodies were produced and two serological assays [antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA)] were established for the BYDV GAV detection. All three monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly and specifically with the BYDV GAV strain in crude leaf extracts. Titers of the monoclonal antibodies in ascitic fluids were up to 10(-7) by indirect-ELISA. These three monoclonal antibodies (18A1, 18A9 and 12A11) all belonged to the isotype IgG1, kappa light chain. The highest dilution points for the three antibodies during the ACP-ELISA using infected crude leaf extracts were 1:163,840, 1:81,920 and 1:81,920 (w/v, g · mL(-1)), respectively. Result of dot-ELISA showed a successful detection of BYDV GAV strain in 1:5,120 (w/v, g · mL(-1)) diluted wheat leaf crude extracts. Analysis of 22 field wheat leaf samples and 33 aphid samples from the Shaanxi Province in China, using the two newly developed assays confirmed the presence of BYDV GAV in about 80 % of the wheat samples and 18 % of the aphid samples. All three monoclonal antibodies are highly sensitive and specific to the BYDV GAV. The two newly developed serological assays are simple and effective. These two assays, particularly the dot-ELISA, are useful for high throughput detection of

  8. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  9. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy.

  10. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detecting Citrus tristeza virus in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2016-08-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.

  11. Serological relationships among subgroups in bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Gizem; Yeşilbağ, Kadir

    2015-01-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has various economic impacts associated with diarrhea, poor performance, an increase in the frequency of other infections and lethal outcomes. Both genotypes, namely BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, as well as different subgroups within these genotypes have been reported worldwide. Understanding the serological differences among the BVDV subgroups is important for disease epidemiology and prevention as well as vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to determine the serological relatedness among the subgroups in BVDV-1. For that purpose, sheep hyperimmune sera were collected against representative strains from 6 of the subgroups of BVDV-1 (BVDV-1a, -1b, -1d, -1f, -1h and -1l). The serum samples that gave the peak antibody titer to the homologous strains were used to perform cross neutralization assays. The highest homologous antibody titer (1:5160) was obtained against BVDV-1h. Regarding the cross neutralizing (heterologous) antibodies, the lowest titer (1:20) was produced by the BVDV-1f antiserum against the BVDV-1a and BVDV1-b viruses. The highest cross neutralizing titer (1:2580) achieved by the BVDV-1h antiserum was against the BVDV-1b strain. The cross neutralization results indicated particular serological differences between the recently described subgroup (BVDV-1l) and BVDV-1a/-1b, which are widely used in commercial vaccines. Considering the cross neutralization titers, it is concluded that selected BVDV-1l and BVDV-1h strains can be used for the development of diagnostic and control tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and serological analysis of the epidemiology of myxoma virus in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, P J; Hone, J; Perrin, L; French, N; Williams, C K

    2010-07-14

    The epidemiology of myxoma virus was studied by serology and molecular analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in genomic DNA. 159 isolates of myxoma virus were made over a period of 5 spring/summer epidemics from 12 field sites in south-eastern Australia. Virus isolates were classified into 10 genetic types using RFLPs detected with a panel of nine restriction endonucleases. Between 3 and 6 different genetic types were found during spring/summer periods across all sites and up to 3 different genetic types were isolated during an epidemic on a single site. The predominant type tended to change each year. A widespread mutation was identified in two genetic types with replacement of the 3' two-thirds of the M009L gene at the left hand inverted terminal repeat junction with a duplication of the region containing the M156R, M154L and M153R genes from the right hand end of the genome. This demonstrated how myxoma virus can potentially evolve by expansion of the inverted terminal repeat boundaries. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of the Serologic Response to the Treatment of Syphilis During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Galan, Henry L.; Montalvo, Juan F.; Deaver, John

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of several maternal variables on the serologic response following the treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. Methods: A 5-year chart review identified 95 patients coded with syphilis at Hermann Hospital. Inclusion criteria were 1) serologically confirmed syphilis infection during the index pregnancy, 2) complete treatment during the index pregnancy, and 3) minimum of one follow-up rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer. Forty-nine of 95 pati...

  14. False-positive hepatitis C virus serology after placement of a ventricular assistance device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, C M; Marr, K A; Ostrander, D; Subramanian, A; Valsamakis, A; Cox, A; Neofytos, D

    2016-02-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been associated with immune activation and sensitization. We observed several cases of false-positive (FP) hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (Ab) tests in patients being evaluated for orthotopic heart transplant (OHT), prompting us to investigate this further. We reviewed all VAD and OHT cases at Johns Hopkins from 2005 to 2012. FP HCV serology was defined as an equivocal or low-positive HCV Ab, plus either (i) a negative recombinant immunoblot (RIBA) and/or HCV nucleic acid test (NAT), or (ii) an indeterminate RIBA and negative NAT. In 53 patients with available HCV testing, nearly 40% of patients (21/53: 39.6%) developed FP HCV Ab tests after VAD placement: 4 patients had negative NAT, 12 had negative RIBA, and 5 had an indeterminate RIBA and negative NAT. All patients with indeterminate RIBA tests had isolated reactivity to the same HCV protein, c100p/5-1-1p (NS4b protein). In 3 of 4 VAD patients who had OHT and repeat HCV Ab testing after VAD removal, repeat HCV Ab was negative (699-947 days after OHT); in 1 case, FP HCV serology persisted (5 days after OHT). Thirteen patients had OHT alone and none developed a FP HCV Ab. FP HCV Ab results following VAD placement are very common. Reversal of FP serology in several patients after VAD removal is suggestive of a possible association with the VAD hardware. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon, as it could lead to delays in determining eligibility for OHT and increased costs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus serological markers among pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Henrietta Oneh; Aminu, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection is a global problem; however, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are most affected by it. Hepatitis B status of pregnant women is essential for the effective management of the disease and prevention of mother to child transmission. The study was conducted at the antenatal care unit of four hospitals within Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria, between August and December 2011. After obtaining ethical clearance, blood samples were collected from 800 consenting pregnant women, the plasma were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using first response HBsAg card and the reactive sera were confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Other serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were detected using the one-step HBV multi-5 test kit. Of the 800 pregnant women screened, 31 (3.9%) tested positive for HBsAg. Only one of the 31 HBsAg positive women had developed the hepatitis B surface antibody, 16 (51.6%) had the envelop antibody, 18 (58.1%) had the hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), and two (6.5%) had hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg). The highest prevalence of HBsAg was recorded among women in age group 21-25 years old (P = 0.968). Similarly, married women (P = 0.772), women in their second trimester of pregnancy (P = 0.938), women with tertiary education (P = 0.972), women from the South-East geopolitical zone (P = 0.250) and those whose husbands were in polygamous relationships (P = 0.944) had the highest seroprevalence of HBsAg. HBV was detected with a prevalence of 3.9% among pregnant women in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. About 96.8% (29) of the reactive women had HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis while 6.5% (2) had HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B infection. About 58.1% of the women had anti-HBc, hence, did not have immunity and probably had chronic infection with reduced risk of vertical transmission. Pregnant women should be screened for HBsAg at the first antenatal clinic visit for appropriate clinical management and

  16. Linear Multiepitope (Glyco)peptides for Type-Specific Serology of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, Christian; Sørensen, Kasper K; Jensen, Knud J; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bergström, Tomas; Blixt, Ola

    2017-05-12

    Detection of type-specific antibodies is an important and essential part of accurate diagnosis, even in silent carriers of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 (oral) and HSV-2 (genital) infections. Serologic assays that identify HSV-1 and HSV-2 type-specific antibodies have been commercially available for more than a decade but often face problems related to cross-reactivity and similar issues. Attempts to identify type-specific peptide epitopes for use in serology for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 have been limited. We recently demonstrated epitope mapping of envelope glycoprotein G2 and identified a type-specific glycopeptide epitope that broadly recognized HSV-2 infected individuals. In the present work we have performed a comprehensive glycopeptide synthesis and microarray epitope mapping of 14 envelope proteins from HSV-1 and HSV-2, namely, gB, gC, gD, gE, gG, gH, and gI, using sera from HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected individuals and control sera. Several unique type-specific peptide epitopes with high sensitivity were identified and synthesized as one large linear multiepitope sequence using microwave-assisted solid-phase (glyco)peptide synthesis. Microarray validation with clinically defined HSV and Varicella Zoster (VZV) sera confirmed excellent cumulative specificities and sensitivities.

  17. Serological surveillance studies confirm the Rift Valley fever virus free status in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Cho, Yun-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Ji-Youn; Cho, In-Soo; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants. This disease causes abortions in pregnant animals, and it has a high mortality rate in newborn animals. Recently, a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula increased its potential spread to new regions worldwide. In non-endemic or disease-free countries, early detection and surveillance are important for preventing the introduction of RVFV. In this study, a serological surveillance was conducted to detect antibodies against RVFV. A total of 2382 serum samples from goats and cattle were randomly collected from nine areas in South Korea from 2011 to 2013. These samples were tested for antibodies against RVFV, using commercial ELISA kits. None of the goats and cattle were positive for antibodies against RVFV. This finding suggests that this disease is not present in South Korea, and furthermore presents the evidence of the RVFV-free status of this country.

  18. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  19. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  20. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  1. Development of a microarray for simultaneous detection and differentiation of different tospoviruses that are serologically related to Tomato spotted wilt virus

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Yuan; Ye, He-Yi; Chen, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Background Tospoviruses, the plant-infecting genus in the family Bunyaviridae, are thrips borne and cause severe agricultural losses worldwide. Based on the serological relationships of the structural nucleocapsid protein (NP), the current tospoviruses are divided into six serogroups. The use of NP-antisera is convenient for virus detection, but it is insufficient to identify virus species grouped in a serogroup due to the serological cross-reaction. Alternatively, virus species can be identi...

  2. Initial Serological Response after Prime-boost Pneumococcal Vaccination in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Mai T T; Lindegaard, Hanne; Hendricks, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial serological responses to pneumococcal vaccination with the 13-valent protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) followed by the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with biological disease...... serological response to prime-boost vaccination with PCV13 followed by PPV23 was very similar among participants receiving bDMARD and csDMARD. However, notable differences in response were observed according to individual bDMARD. It is important to consider the RA treatment when planning pneumococcal...

  3. Dynamics of the serologic response in vaccinated and unvaccinated mumps cases during an epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Gouma, Sigrid; Hulscher, Hinke I; Han, Wanda G; Kleijne, Deborah E; van Binnendijk, Rob S; van Els, Cécile A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, several mumps outbreaks were reported in various countries despite high vaccination coverage. In most cases, young adults were affected who have acquired immunity against mumps solely by vaccination and not by previous wild-type mumps virus infection. To investigate mumps-specific antibody levels, functionality and dynamics during a mumps epidemic, blood samples were obtained longitudinally from 23 clinical mumps cases, with or without a prior history of vaccination, and from 20 healthy persons with no serological evidence of recent mumps virus infection. Blood samples from mumps cases were taken 1–2 months and 7–10 months after onset of disease. Both vaccinated and unvaccinated mumps cases had significantly higher geomean concentrations of mumps-specific IgG (resp. 13,617 RU/ml (95% CI of 9,574–19,367 RU/ml) vs. 1,552 (445–5412) RU/ml at 1–2 months; and 6,514 (5,247–8,088) RU/ml vs. 1,143 (480–2,725) RU/ml at 7–10 months) than healthy controls (169 (135–210) RU/ml) (p = 0.001). Patterns in virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody responses against the mumps vaccine virus were similar, vaccinated and unvaccinated mumps cases had significantly higher ND50 values at both time points of sampling (resp 4,695 (3,779–5,832) RU/ml vs. 1,533 (832–2,825) RU/ml at 1–2 months; 2,478 (1,968–3,122) RU/ml vs. 1,221 (1,029–1,449) RU/ml at 7–10 months) compared with (previously vaccinated) healthy controls (122 (196–76)) RU/ml) (p = 0.001) The unvaccinated mumps cases had significantly lower mumps-specific IgG and VN antibody concentrations at both sampling points compared with previously vaccinated cases, but their antibody concentrations did not differ significantly at the 2 time points. In contrast, the mumps-specific IgG and VN antibody concentrations of the previously vaccinated mumps cases were significantly higher within the first 2 months after onset of mumps and declined thereafter, characteristic for a secondary

  4. Effect of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status on Serological Response to Influenza Vaccine in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224

  5. Response of cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus to bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Westcott, D

    1988-03-26

    Six cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and seronegative, and two control, virus negative seropositive cattle were inoculated with lymphocytes infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The two controls produced a normal immune response to BLV, developing antibodies at four and five weeks after inoculation. Two of the six cattle persistently infected with BVDV developed a strong antibody response by six weeks after inoculation with BLV. Four developed a depressed response to BLV, characterised in three by a 'hooking' reaction in the immunodiffusion test which persisted in successive bleedings but was interspersed occasionally by a weak positive reaction. In one of these animals, a series of 'hooking' reactions was followed by a number of negative results. The fourth animal remained serologically negative until 16 weeks after inoculation when a 'hooking' reaction was observed followed by a series of negative results. BLV was isolated from all the cattle persistently infected with BVDV at 42 or 58 weeks after inoculation regardless of whether the serum samples gave negative, 'hooking', weak positive or positive reactions in the immunodiffusion test. BLV was consistently isolated from the nasal secretions of a steer which was BVDV negative but seropositive. The possibility of decreased immune responsiveness to BLV in animals persistently infected with BVDV should be considered when formulating regulations governing the testing of animals for freedom from BLV.

  6. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Velez, Diana Carolina; Trujillo, Andrea; Egurrola, Jorge; Lee, Kang Sung; Kaufman, Jay S; DaSilva, Luiz Jacinto; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem worldwide. A vaccine has recently been licensed in some countries of Latin America and Asia. Recommendations for dengue vaccine introduction include endemicity and a high serological prevalence of dengue in the territories considering its introduction. A community-based survey was conducted to estimate dengue seroprevalence and age-specific seroconversion rates in a community in Medellin, Colombia, using a dengue serological test (IgG indirect ELISA). Residents were selected at random and were first screened for dengue infection; they were then followed over 2.5 years. A total of 3684 individuals aged between 1 and 65 years participated in at least one survey. The overall dengue seroprevalence was 61%, and only 3.3% of seropositive subjects self-reported a past history of dengue. Among dengue virus (DENV)-naïve subjects with more than two visits (n=1002), the overall seroconversion rate was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 7.3-10.4) per 1000 person-months, over the study period. Overall, the mean age of DENV prevalent subjects was significantly higher than the mean age of seroconverted subjects. Specifically, DENV seropositivity over 70% was observed in participants over 21 years old. Serotype-specific plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) revealed that all four dengue serotypes were circulating, with DENV4 being most prevalent. These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV in serologically negative animals

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    María I Craig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.. Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5′ UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b, and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2.

  8. Serologic prevalence of antibodies against canine influenza virus (H3N8) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, David E; Mover, Michael R; Brown, Dorothy Cimino

    2010-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of exposure to canine influenza virus (CIV) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter. Serologic survey. 74 dogs. Dogs were randomly selected from the canine shelter population. A physical examination was performed, and blood samples were obtained and submitted for serologic testing for the detection of antibodies against CIV. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of factors (body condition score, nasal discharge, coughing, rectal temperature, number of days in the shelter, and relinquished vs stray) with positive results. 31 of 74 (42%) dogs were seropositive for antibodies against CIV. Positive serologic test results were detected for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs housed in the shelter for dogs housed in the shelter for > 8 days. Number of days in the shelter was the only factor significantly associated with positive serologic test results. For every 3 days in the shelter, the odds of a positive serologic test result increased significantly by 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4). Analysis of the results suggested that more dogs were exposed to CIV in the shelter than were exposed in the urban environment. This has serious implications for design and management of animal shelters.

  9. Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Tanja; Lussy, Helga; Bakonyi, Tamás; Sikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Vogl, Wolfgang; Winkler, Hans; Frey, Hans; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-03-18

    Usutu virus (USUV), family Flaviviridae, has been responsible for avian mortality in Austria from 2001 to 2006. The proportion of USUV-positive individuals among the investigated dead birds decreased dramatically after 2004. To test the hypothesis that establishment of herd immunity might be responsible, serological examinations of susceptible wild birds were performed. Blood samples of 442 wild birds of 55 species were collected in 4 consecutive years (2003--2006). In addition, 86 individuals from a birds of prey rehabilitation centre were bled before, at the peak, and after the 2005 USUV transmission season in order to identify titre dynamics and seroconversions. The haemagglutination inhibition test was used for screening and the plaque reduction neutralization test for confirmation. While in the years 2003 and 2004 the proportion of seropositive wild birds was 50% in 2005 and 2006. At the birds of prey centre, almost three quarters of the owls and raptors exhibited antibodies before the 2005 transmission season; this percentage dropped to less than half at the peak of USUV transmission and raised again to almost two thirds after the transmission season. These data show a from year to year continuously increasing proportion of seropositive wild birds. The owl and raptor data indicate significant viral exposure in the previous season(s), but also a number of new infections during the current season, despite the presence of antibodies in some of these birds. Herd immunity is a possible explanation for the significant decrease in USUV-associated bird mortalities in Austria during the recent years.

  10. Comparison of serological assays for detecting antibodies in ducks exposed to H5 subtype avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibawa Hendra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken red blood cells (RBCs are commonly used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI tests to measure hemagglutinating antibodies against influenza viruses. The use of horse RBCs in the HI test can reportedly increase its sensitivity when testing human sera for avian influenza antibodies. This study aims to compare the proportion of positives detected and the agreement between two HI tests using either chicken or horse red blood cells for antibody detection in sera of ducks experimentally infected or naturally exposed to Indonesian H5 subtype avian influenza virus. In addition, comparison with a virus neutralisation (VN test was conducted with the experimental sera. Results In the experimental study, the proportion of HI antibody-positive ducks increased slightly, from 0.57 when using chicken RBCs to 0.60 when using horse RBCs. The HI tests indicated almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.86 when results were dichotomised (titre ≥ 4 log2, and substantial agreement (weighted kappa = 0.80 for log titres. Overall agreements between the two HI tests were greater than between either of the HI tests and the VN test. The use of horse RBCs also identified a higher proportion of antibody positives in field duck sera (0.08, compared to chicken RBCs 0.02, with also almost perfect agreements for dichotomized results (Prevalence and bias adjusted Kappa (PABAK = 0.88 and for log titres (weighted PABAK = 0.93, respectively. Factors that might explain observed differences in the proportion of antibody-positive ducks and in the agreements between HI tests are discussed. Conclusion In conclusion, we identified a good agreement between HI tests. However, when horse RBCs were used, a higher proportion of sera was positive (titre ≥ 4 log2 than using chicken RBCs, especially during the early response against H5N1 virus. The HRBC-HI might be more responsive in identifying early H5N1 HPAI serological response and could be a

  11. Serologic evidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in northern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Ip, Hon S.; Frost, Jessica F.; White, C. LeAnn; Murray, Michael J.; Carney, Paul J.; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Stevens, James; Levine, Min Z.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic epizootics of pneumonia among marine mammals have been associated with multiple animal-origin influenza A virus subtypes (1–6); seals are the only known nonhuman host for influenza B viruses (7). Recently, we reported serologic evidence of influenza A virus infection in free-ranging northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) captured off the coast of Washington, USA, in August 2011 (8). To investigate further which influenza A virus subtype infected these otters, we tested serum samples from these otters by ELISA for antibody-binding activity against 12 recombinant hemagglutinins (rHAs) from 7 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 2 lineages of influenza B virus (Technical Appendix Table 1). Estimated ages for the otters were 2–19 years (Technical Appendix Table 2); we also tested archived serum samples from sea otters of similar ages collected from a study conducted during 2001–2002 along the Washington coast (9).

  12. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH

  13. Serovar D and E of serogroup B induce highest serological responses in urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Verweij (Stephan); E. Lanjouw; C.J. Bax (Caroline); K.D. Quint (Koen); P.M. Oostvogel (Paul); P.J. Dörr (Joep); J. Pleijster (Jolein); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); R.P.H. Peters (Remco); S. Ouburg (Sander); S.A. Morré (Servaas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previous preliminary study. The aim of the current study was to

  14. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus serologic markers in pregnant patients in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamahazo, T R; Raherinaivo, A A; Rakotoarivelo, Z H; Contamin, B; Rakoto Alson, O A; Andrianapanalinarivo, H R; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in Madagascar. Its severity is related to the risk of chronicity, especially in case of neonatal contamination. Our objectives were to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant patients at the Befelatanana obstetrics and gynecology teaching hospital department (BOGTH) by detecting HBsAg and to evaluate the risk of HBV mother to child transmission by screening for HBeAg. We conducted a 6-month prospective study in the BTHOGD from February 2012 to July 2012. All pregnant patients consulting for antenatal care were screened for HBV serologic markers. The prevalence of HBsAg was 1.9% (20 out 1050 screened patients). The average age was 26.51 years (25-30 years). Most patients tested were unaware of their hepatitis B status and only 0.38% had been vaccinated before pregnancy. Only 1 (5%) of the 20 patients with HBsAg was positive for HBeAg. Hepatitis B is very frequent in pregnant patients in Madagascar and it is recommended that all pregnant patients be routinely screened for HBsAg. This screening of maternal infection would allow applying prophylactic measures to neonates to decrease the risk of disease chronicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays for detection of Potato virus S in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ge; Wu, Jia-Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Yong; Qian, Ya-Juan; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Wu, Jian-Xiang

    Potato virus S (PVS) often causes significant losses in potato production in potato-growing countries. In this study, the ordinary strain of PVS (PVSO) was purified from PVS-infected potato plants and used as the immunogen to produce hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Five highly specific and sensitive murine MAbs (1A3, 16C10, 18A9, 20B12, and 22H4) against PVS were prepared using conventional hybridoma technology. Using these MAbs, tissue print-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, and double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA were developed for sensitive and specific detection of PVS infection in potato plants. The results of sensitivity assays revealed that PVS could be reliably detected in PVS-infected leaf crude extracts diluted at 1:10 240 and 1:163 840 (w/v, g/ml) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA, respectively. Twenty-two samples collected from potato fields in Yunnan Province, China were tested for PVS infection using the serological assays we had developed, and 14 of them were found to be positive. This indicates that PVS is now prevalent in potato fields in Yunnan Province.

  17. Viral serological and molecular data on possible involvement of herpes viruses in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Cristiana; Bleotu, Coralia; Grancea, Camelia; Rosu, Andreea Oana; Anton, Gabriela; Ruta, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that latent herpes virus infections can be associated with chronic periodontal sites that exhibit a predisposition to disease progression. The aim of this study was to identify the possible relationship between infections with CMV and EBV and the severity of periodontal disease. Fifty two patients aged between 27 and 70 years, diagnosed with periodontal disease were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. Quantitative immunoenzymatic assays were used to determine the concentration of anti CMV and EBV antibodies. The presence of CMV and EBV DNA was tested in biopsies from periodontal tissues using an in-house PCR adapted after a method described previously. Higher titers of the anti CMV antibodies appear to be correlated with the severity of the periodontal lesions (pperiodontal treatment (pperiodontal disease. Although the molecular biology data from the present study do not support the pathogenic involvement of EBV or CMV in the development of chronic periodontitis lesions, the serological data might be important markers for the evolution and severity of the periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Serologic responses to somatic O and colonization-factor antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, T R; Evans, D J; Evans, D G; DuPont, H L

    1979-07-01

    To improve the retrospective diagnoses of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as a cause of travelers' diarrhea, as well as to determine the presence of colonization-factor antigens in these infections, a study of serologic responses to antigens of ETEC was done. Paired sera from 60 United States students in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, were analyzed for rises in titer of antibody to heat-labile toxin, eight somatic antigen O serogroups associated with ETEC, and two colonization-factor antigens, CFA/I and CFA/II. Only 9% had a response to O antigens, while 20% had responses to the colonization-factor antigens. Response to the colonization-factor antigens correlated significantly with response to the heat-labile toxin and with culture evidence of ETEC infection. Serologic studies confirmed that colonization-factor antigen has a role in naturally acquired cases of travelers' diarrhea and that it can be used as an additional determinant of infection with ETEC.

  19. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  20. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses (VEEV) in Argentina: Serological Evidence of Human Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, María Belén; Oria, Griselda; Beskow, Geraldine; Aguilar, Javier; Konigheim, Brenda; Cacace, María Luisa; Aguirre, Luis; Stein, Marina; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason, many cases remain without certain diagnosis. Seroprevalence studies for VEEV subtypes IAB, ID, IF (Mosso das Pedras virus; MDPV), IV (Pixuna virus; PIXV) and VI (Rio Negro virus; RNV) were conducted in persons from Northern provinces of Argentina: Salta, Chaco and Corrientes, using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RNV was detected in all studied provinces. Chaco presented the highest prevalence of this virus (14.1%). Antibodies against VEEV IAB and -for the first time- against MDPV and PIXV were also detected in Chaco province. In Corrientes, seroprevalence against RNV was 1.3% in the pediatric population, indicating recent infections. In Salta, this was the first investigation of VEEV members, and antibodies against RNV and PIXV were detected. These results provide evidence of circulation of many VEE viruses in Northern Argentina, showing that surveillance of these infectious agents should be intensified. PMID:24349588

  1. Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV in Argentina: serological evidence of human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Pisano

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason, many cases remain without certain diagnosis. Seroprevalence studies for VEEV subtypes IAB, ID, IF (Mosso das Pedras virus; MDPV, IV (Pixuna virus; PIXV and VI (Rio Negro virus; RNV were conducted in persons from Northern provinces of Argentina: Salta, Chaco and Corrientes, using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT. RNV was detected in all studied provinces. Chaco presented the highest prevalence of this virus (14.1%. Antibodies against VEEV IAB and -for the first time- against MDPV and PIXV were also detected in Chaco province. In Corrientes, seroprevalence against RNV was 1.3% in the pediatric population, indicating recent infections. In Salta, this was the first investigation of VEEV members, and antibodies against RNV and PIXV were detected. These results provide evidence of circulation of many VEE viruses in Northern Argentina, showing that surveillance of these infectious agents should be intensified.

  2. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Serological survey of bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection in South American camelids in Switzerland (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, P; Chaignat, V; Kaufmann, C; Mudry, M; Griot, C; Thuer, B; Meylan, M

    2010-01-01

    Outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype-8 (BTV-8) infection in domestic ruminants in Northern Europe. To investigate the South American camelids' (SAC) susceptibility to BTV-8 infection, their role in the epidemiology of the disease, and the use of currently available serological screening tests in SAC in an endemic region. Three hundred and fifty-four unvaccinated and 27 vaccinated SAC (170 llamas, 201 alpacas), ranging in age from 1 month to 17 years between June and August 2008. The SAC originated from 44 herds throughout the country, representing 10% of the Swiss SAC population. Prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of SAC. Serum samples were analyzed with 2 serological screening tests. When results diverged, a 3rd ELISA was carried out for confirmation (ID Screen Bluetongue Competition ELISA kit). All sera from the 354 unvaccinated animals were negative in the endemic region. Reliable seroconversion was observed after administration of 2 doses of vaccine. This study suggests a low susceptibility of SAC to BTV-8 despite the presence of the virus in the cattle and small ruminant population, indicating that SAC do not play a major role in the epidemiology of BTV-8. Furthermore, these results indicate that commercially available serological tests for BTV-8 can be used in SAC.

  4. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, T.; Einer-Jensen, K.; Batts, W.; Ahrens, P.; Bjorkblom, C.; Kurath, G.; Bjorklund, H.; Lorenzen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and compared with IHNV isolates from the North American genogroups U, M and L. In phylogenetic studies the N gene of the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, though in a different subgroup than the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D divided the European isolates into 2 groups. MAb 1DW14D reacted more strongly with DE-DF 13/98 11621 and RU-FR1 than with IT-217A, FR- 32/87, DE-DF 4/99-8/99 and AU-9695338. In the phylogenetic studies, the Italian, French, German and Austrian isolates clustered in the M genogroup, whereas in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  5. Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515

  6. Schistosoma mattheei in the ox: the serological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J A

    1977-11-01

    Thirty Friesian steers were infected with Schistosoma mattheei and the antibody response was followed for up to 76 weeks by the complement fixation (CF), indirect haemagglutination (IH) and indirect immunofluorescent (IF) tests. CF and IF antibodies rose to a peak at about 25 weeks and then fell, while IH antibodies rose more slowly and remained high. Peak IH and IF titres were proportional to the level of infection. Peak CF titres were reduced in animals on a low plane of nutrition. There was a strong cross-reaction to Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium in the CF test while the IH and IF tests were specific. The IF test proved of value in the diagnosis of naturally occurring clinical schistosomiasis.

  7. SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE TO VACCINES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Anahita Sanaei; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Musavi, Zahra; Faramarzi, Raheleh; Mansouri, Farhad; Nasimfar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to infections. Deficiency in some domains of immune system could be one of the main reasons, which increases the risk of infections. The aim of this study was to assess antibody responses to vaccines in a group of children with diabetes and in the controls. A cross-sectional study was performed among 90 children under 15 years of age with a history of type 1 DM, referred to endocrinology clinics of university hospitals; Mofid Children Hospital and Loghman Hospital. Also, we enrolled ninety healthy children as the control group. Antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis B (HB) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among 90 patients with diabetes, 48% were male and 52% were female and in the control group 49% were male and 51% were female. Regarding IgG antibody levels against measles, there was not any significant difference between the two groups, but according to the applied kit, IgG levels against measles vaccine were positive in 62% of the diabetic and 84% of the controls. Also, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IgG antibody level against rubella, but consistent with the applied kit, there was not any significant difference between the two the groups. Given the results of the study, no difference was found between patients with diabetes and controls who were vaccinated with pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, mumps and HB vaccines. But there are some concerns about measles and rubella vaccinations that need further investigation.

  8. Heteroclitic serological response in esophageal and prostate cancer patients after NY-ESO-1 protein vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Junji; Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Gnjatic, Sacha; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Jungbluth, Achim A; Okazaki, Nami; Uenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Yurika; Fujiwara, Shinichi; Mizuno, Naoaki; Saika, Takashi; Ritter, Erika; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Ritter, Gerd; Murphy, Roger; Venhaus, Ralph; Pan, Linda; Old, Lloyd J; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2012-02-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a prototypic cancer/testis antigen. In a recent phase I clinical trial, we vaccinated 13 patients bearing NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors with a complex of cholesterol-bearing hydrophobized pullulan (CHP) and NY-ESO-1 protein (CHP-NY-ESO-1) and showed efficient induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody, and CD4 and CD8 T cell responses using peripheral blood from the patients. In our study, we analyzed heteroclitic serological responses in those patients after vaccination. Serological response against 11 tumor antigens including MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, CT7/MAGEC1, CT10/MAGEC2, CT45, CT46/HORMAD1, SOX2, SSX2, XAGE1B and p53 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from ten vaccinated patients. Expression of tumor antigens was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or immunohistochemistry. Eight of nine patients who showed antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 also showed an antibody response against at least 1 of these 11 tumor antigens after vaccination. In one patient, seven tumor antigens were recognized. Specificity analysis of the antibody response by ELISA using control recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides and by Western blot showed that the response was not against His6-tag and/or bacterial products included in a preparation of CHP-NY-ESO-1 used for vaccination. Thus, heteroclitic serological responses appear to be indicative of the overall immune response against the tumor, and their analysis could be useful for immune monitoring in cancer vaccine. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  9. Serological diagnosis of infections sustained by Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus, a comparison between two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Moretti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The serological diagnosis of infections from Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus is of a great importance especially during pregnancy for the risk of maternal-fetal infections. Serological testing have evolved with time and are many on the market with different levels of specificity and sensivity. The aim of the study was to determine the analytical and clinical concordance between two methods for the determination of specific IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus. The total numbers of samples evaluated for T. gondii, Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM were 124 and 127, 83 and 87, 129 and 103, respectively. The comparison methods used for this study were Diamedix® enzime imunoassay run in MAGO-Plus Delta Biologicals® Immunodiagnostics System (routinely used and Vitros© Eci chemiluminescence immunoassay run in Vitros ECiQ Immunodiagnostics System ORTHO-Clinical Diagnostics Johnson & Johnson company.Vidas bioMérieux was take as referee method to evaluate discrepant results. Analytical concordance ranged between 87 and 97%, clinical concordance ranged between 93 and 99%. Despite differences in detection antibodies (specific IgG and IgM and revelation of signal the methods evaluated show generally good levels of clinical concordance.The results are consistent with references and External Quality Assurance Programs.

  10. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90 for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3% equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8% for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2% for WNV, two (0.3% for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1% for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  11. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  12. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis with Doxycycline Compared with Penicillin in HIV-infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Steen; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Serological response to treatment of syphilis with orally administered doxycycline or intramuscularly administered penicillin was assessed in patients with concurrent HIV. All HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with syphilis attending 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark were included. Odds ratios......%) treated with doxycycline and in 8 cases (17%) treated with penicillin (OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.16-3.88), p = 0.76). The serological cure rate at 12 months was highest in patients with primary syphilis (100%), followed by patients with secondary (89%), early latent (71%) and late latent (67%) syphilis (p = 0.......006). In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the use of doxycycline as a treatment option when treating a HIV-infected population for syphilis....

  13. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic approach for the identification of novel, serologically reactive recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV antigens

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    Lueking Angelika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella-Zoster virus causes chickenpox upon primary infection and shingles after reactivation. Currently available serological tests to detect VZV-specific antibodies are exclusively based on antigens derived from VZV-infected cells. Results We present a systematic approach for the identification of novel, serologically reactive VZV antigens. Therefore, all VZV open reading frames were cloned into a bacterial expression vector and checked for small scale recombinant protein expression. Serum profiling experiments using purified VZV proteins and clinically defined sera in a microarray revealed 5 putative antigens (ORFs 1, 4, 14, 49, and 68. These were rearranged in line format and validated with pre-characterized sera. Conclusions The line assay confirmed the seroreactivity of the identified antigens and revealed its suitability for VZV serodiagnostics comparable to commercially available VZV-ELISA. Recombinant ORF68 (gE proved to be an antigen for high-confidence determination of VZV serostatus. Furthermore, our data suggest that a serological differentiation between chickenpox and herpes zoster may be possible by analysis of the IgM-portfolio against individual viral antigens.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus serology and PCR: conflicting results in an immunocompetent host. A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattoir, L; Van Hende, V; De Paepe, P; Padalko, E

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent man who progressively developed a generalized lymphadenopathy and B symptoms. Results of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology were suggestive for a past infection, but the EBV viral load in whole blood was high. Also, core needle biopsy of the largest lymph node showed an image which could fit an EBV-driven reactive lymphoproliferation. Despite the absence of an immune disorder, all medical evidence points to an EBV-driven lymphoproliferative proces. In immunocompetent patients, it seems extremely uncommon to detect a high EBV viral load in the absence of serological evidence of an acute EBV infection or reactivation. We reviewed literature on this topic and on the selection of the appropriate sample type for EBV PCR, as this is known to be a critical point. Serological testing for the diagnosis of EBV infection is the gold standard in immunocompetent patients. Measuring EBV viral load is only recommended when dealing with immunocompromised patients. Although extremely rare, this case report shows that there is a place for EBV PCR in certain situations in immunocompetent patients. Besides, there is still no consensus regarding the specimen of choice for the determination of the EBV viral load. The preferred specimen type seems to depend on the patient's underlying condition.

  16. Robust pro-inflammatory immune response is associated with serological cure in patients with syphilis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszczak, Maciej; Gozdzialska, Anna; Jakiela, Bogdan; Obtulowicz, Aleksander; Jaskiewicz, Jerzy; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 15% of adequately treated patients with early syphilis remain serofast. Pathogenesis and clinical significance of this phenomenon is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is any association between host immune response and treatment outcome (serofast state or proper serological response). Forty-four patients with secondary syphilis were enrolled to this study. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured before treatment and 8 hours after injection of antibiotic. After 1 year, based on the serological response patients were stratified into two groups: (1) proper serological response (n=31) and (2) serofast state (n=9). The serological cure rate was 77.5% at 12 months after treatment. Patients with proper serological response had significantly higher levels of analysed cytokines (at baseline and 8 hours after treatment) compared with the serofast state group (p<0.05). We showed that robust host pro-inflammatory immune response to infection may be the predictive factor of serological cure. The treatment outcome may be also associated with the magnitude of immune reaction occurring during the treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Clinical values of multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV serological biomarkers detected by xMAP technology

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    Chen Li-Zhen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological examination of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies has been performed for screening nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and other EBV-associated diseases. Methods By using xMAP technology, we examined immunoglobulin (Ig A antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV VCA-gp125, p18 and IgA/IgG against EA-D, EBNA1 and gp78 in populations with distinct diseases, or with different genetic or geographic background. Sera from Cantonese NPC patients (n = 547 and healthy controls (n = 542, 90 members of high-risk NPC families and 52 non-endemic healthy individuals were tested. Thirty-five of NPC patients were recruited to observe the kinetics of EBV antibody levels during and after treatment. Patients with other EBV-associated diseases were collected, including 16 with infectious mononucleosis, 28 with nasal NK/T cell lymphoma and 14 with Hodgkin's disease. Results Both the sensitivity and specificity of each marker for NPC diagnosis ranged 61–84%, but if combined, they could reach to 84.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Almost half of NPC patients displayed decreased EBV immunoactivities shortly after therapy and tumor recurrence was accompanied with high EBV antibody reactivates. Neither the unaffected members from high-risk NPC families nor non-endemic healthy population showed statistically different EBV antibody levels compared with endemic controls. Moreover, elevated levels of specific antibodies were observed in other EBV-associated diseases, but all were lower than those in NPC. Conclusion Combined EBV serological biomarkers could improve the diagnostic values for NPC. Diverse EBV serological spectrums presented in populations with different EBV-associated diseases, but NPC patients have the highest EBV activity.

  18. Serological and Molecular Biological Studies of Parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B Viruses, and Adenoviruses as Potential Cardiotropic Viruses in Bulgaria

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    Ivanova Stefka Kr.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory diseases of the heart (myocarditis, pericarditis are commonly caused by viruses. Among the human cardiotropic viruses, parvovirus B19, Coxsackie B viruses, and adenoviruses play a leading role.

  19. Absence of Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates among avians, but can also affect other species, particularly humans and horses. The virus is transmissible via blood transfusion. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the West Nile virus among blood donors in Nigeria. Materials and ...

  20. Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Elias; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Lbacha, Hicham Ait; Oliva, Justine; Awoume, Félix; Aplogan, Gilbert L; Hymann, Emmanuel Couacy; Muloi, Dishon; Deem, Sharon L; Alali, Said; Zouagui, Zaid; Fèvre, Eric M; Meyer, Gilles; Ducatez, Mariette F

    2017-09-01

    Influenza D virus has been identified in America, Europe, and Asia. We detected influenza D virus antibodies in cattle and small ruminants from North (Morocco) and West (Togo and Benin) Africa. Dromedary camels in Kenya harbored influenza C or D virus antibodies, indicating a potential new host for these viruses.

  1. Retrospective analysis of the serologic response to the treatment of syphilis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, H L; Montalvo, J F; Deaver, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of several maternal variables on the serologic response following the treatment of syphilis in pregnancy. A 5-year chart review identified 95 patients coded with syphilis at Hermann Hospital. Inclusion criteria were 1) serologically confirmed syphilis infection during the index pregnancy, 2) complete treatment during the index pregnancy, and 3) minimum of one follow-up rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer. Forty-nine of 95 patients met the inclusion criteria. Treatment response was evaluated by comparing each post-treatment titer of a patient to her pretreatment titer. Each comparison was considered an "observation." Each observation was classified as either a positive response (>/=4-fold titer decline) or a negative response (syphilis untreated or incompletely treated prior to the index pregnancy, 2) gestational age, 3) titer level, 4) unknown duration, 5) positive response at 1 month, 6) positive response at 2 months, 7) positive response at >3 months, and 8) race. A positive response following treatment was significantly more likely if there was no prior history of syphilis or if there was a high initial RPR titer (>32). Only 33/54 (61%) observations at or greater than 3 months had a positive response. Our study suggests that an absence of a history of syphilis and an initial high RPR titer are predictive of a positive response following appropriate treatment. Given the low percentage of observations with a positive response at 3 months, we speculate that we may be undertreating our pregnant patients with syphilis infection.

  2. Influence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Uneven Distribution on Its Serological Detection in Tomato, Pepper and Ornamentals

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    Ivana Đekić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable detection of plant pathogens does not only mean the development of sufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques for their routine testing. Regardless of the sensitivity of applied methods, the proper selection of samples to be tested has crucial influence on method reliability. Due to uneven distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in naturally infected systemic host plants, the collection and sampling of material for assaying is acritical moment upon which the reliability of laboratory procedure depends. The effect of irregular virus distribution on its serological detection was examined in tomato, pepper and four ornamental species, as its most important host plants in our country.The reliability of virus detection, depending on its uneven distribution, was assessed by serological testing of tomato and pepper symptomatic leaves and fruits, and symptomatic and asymptomatic young and old leaves, as well as flower petals of ornamentals. Although TSWV was detected using ELISA in the majority of plants included in the experiment, the tests indicated an uneven distribution and unequal concentrations of TSWV in different parts of the plants. The virus could not be detected in a certain number of subsamples, prepared from infected tomato and pepper fruits and older ornamental leaves. The virus also could not be detected in some ornamentals and tomato plants with intensive symptoms. Conversely, the virus was detected in three ornamental plants without any symptoms. Examining the virus distribution in different plant parts indicated that the reliability of ELISA could be reached not only by sampling younger ornamental leaves, but also by preparing compound samples with as much leaves as possible, or by testing a greater number of subsamples of the tested plant. Considering a small possibility of TSWV detection in tomato and pepper fruits, the infection of these should be established by testing their leaves. Besides, the data show that

  3. Serological and parasitological response in chronic Chagas patients 3 years after nifurtimox treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Chatelain, Eric; Mauris, Anne; Holst, Marylise; Miao, Qianqian; Chappuis, Francois; Ndao, Momar

    2013-02-13

    With declining vectorial transmission, Chagas disease predominantly affects adults nowadays. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the chronic phase in adult patients is poorly known, particularly in regions where there is no risk of reinfection. Recommendations for treatment outcome assessment rely on serological follow-up. We evaluated the serological and parasitological response to nifurtimox in a cohort of adult patients three years post-treatment in Switzerland. Patients treated with nifurtimox in 2008 during a cross-sectional study in Geneva, Switzerland, were contacted for follow-up in 2011. Two ELISAs and a rapid immunochromatographic test were used to test 2008 and 2011 serum samples simultaneously. In addition, conventional and real-time PCR were performed on 2011 samples. Thirty-seven (84.1%) of 44 eligible patients, predominantly female, middle-aged, Bolivians at the indeterminate stage, were enrolled. All 2011 ELISA and immunochromatographic tests were positive. Twenty-eight (75.7%) patients presented a lower optical density (OD) in 2011 compared to 2008. This OD difference was significant in both commercial (P < 0.001) and in-house (P = 0.002) ELISAs. Agreement between the two ELISAs was low (Kappa = 0.469). All patients had negative conventional PCR results but one (2.7%) was positive with real-time PCR. Our results highlight the inadequacy of serology for assessing response in adults, three years after treatment. In our cohort, 97.3% had results that could either indicate treatment failure or persistant humoral response despite treatment. The lack of accurate early post-treatment tests of cure prevents appropriate patients information and councelling. New follow-up tests are needed to assess treatments efficacy given the large adult population in need of antiparasitic therapy.

  4. The serological response to heartwater immunization in cattle is an indicator of protective immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, J A; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A P

    1995-01-01

    A significant correlation was demonstrated in Friesian-cross steers between the serological response to previous vaccination with the Ball 3 strain of Cowdria ruminantium and the development of protective immunity against the Kalota isolate from Malawi. Of 10 animals which seroconverted after...... vaccination, all were completely or partially immune to challenge. Ten of the 14 animals which failed to seroconvert were immune but the proportion was not significantly different from that in the unvaccinated controls (4/10). Of 29 animals vaccinated and treated simultaneously with a slow-release doxycycline...

  5. [Serological response of the dog after primary antirabies vaccination using adjuvant or non-adjuvant vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutchoukali, M A; Blancou, J; Chappuis, G; Tixier, G; Eloit, M; Ganiere, J P; Chantal, J; Simon, S; Berthier, A; Toma, B

    1985-01-01

    The serological responses following a primary vaccination carried out one year before in two groups of dogs which received an inactivated cell culture vaccine containing or not an adjuvant (alumine-hydroxide) are compared. Neutralizing antibody titers assayed in mice, obtained with only one injection of the adjuvanted vaccine are at the same or a greater level than those induced by two injections of the non-adjuvanted vaccine administered two to four weeks apart (statutory schedule of rabies primary vaccination applied in France).

  6. Serological and genetic characterization of newly isolated Peaton virus in Japan. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumori, Y; Inai, K; Yanase, T; Ohashi, S; Kato, T; Yoshida, K; Tsuda, T

    2002-01-01

    The viruses were isolated from the blood of sentinel cattle and Culicoides biting midges in the Kyushu district, southwestern Japan, in 1999 and identified by neutralization tests as Peaton (PEA) viruses. Before this study, PEA virus had been isolated in Australia only. The nucleotide identity of the nucleocapsid (N) protein encoded by the S segment ranged from 91.1 to 91.6% between the Australian and Japanese strains. A phylogenetic analysis of the N protein sequence revealed that the PEA virus strains are closely related to Aino (AIN) virus and suggested reassortment events for PEA and AIN viruses.

  7. Serologic and Molecular Survey of Hepatitis E Virus in German Deer Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Stephan; Hackl, Sybille S; Piepenschneider, Meike; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Dremsek, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. The virus is endemic in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. In western Europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of HEV from domestic and wild animals. In Germany, animal reservoirs for HEV have been mainly assigned to domestic pigs and wild boars. To investigate the potential role of deer as a reservoir of HEV, we surveyed HEV-specific antibodies and RNA in deer samples from geographic regions in Germany. We sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during active surveillance in three forest districts in northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Additionally, archived samples of red, roe, and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in 2000-01 in German national parks, were included in the study. Antibody prevalence ranged from 2-3.3% in red deer to 5.4-6.8% in roe deer. Viral RNA was detected in red deer and fallow deer at prevalences of 2.0-6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The investigation confirmed the presence of HEV infections in three deer species in Germany. Red, roe, and fallow deer should be further monitored to assess their role as hosts and potential reservoirs of HEV in Germany.

  8. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  9. Serologic control against hepatitis B virus among dental students of the University of Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, M-T; Rojas, L; Liébana-Cabanillas, F; Bernal, C; Castillo, F; Rodríguez-Archilla, A; Castillo, A; Liébana, J

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the immunological situation against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of a cohort of dentistry students, to analyze the behavior of the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) after the administration of one or three vaccine doses, and to determine the influence of age and sex on the immune response. This retrospective cohort study included students attending the School of Dentistry of the institution where the study was performed from 2005 to 2012 who had completed the public health vaccination calendar for HBV at the age of 12-13. Data on age, sex, basal anti-HBs levels, post-vaccination anti-HBs results and final anti-HBs levels were collected. Comparisons of the basal and final levels, as well as associations regarding age and sex, were performed by means of the Student t and Chi-square tests. Of the 359 students, 97 (27.02%) had basal antibody concentrations Dentistry students.

  10. Detection and serological identification of adeno-associated virus in avian adenovirus stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mishad, A M; McCormick, K J; Yates, V J; Trentin, J J

    1975-02-01

    Eleven avian adenovirus strains were tested for the presence of avian adeno-associated viruses (AAAV). Six strains contained AAAV. Electron microscopy using rabbit anti-AAAV serum was useful in detecting the satellite virus. The AAAV previously isolated from guail bronchitis virus was related to each of the six new isolates by immunoagglutination, complement fixation, immunodiffusion, and neutralization tests.

  11. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among the general population in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional population-based serological survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B. van; Hoek, W. van der; Borlée, F.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Mooi, S.H.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Yzermans, C.J.; Rockx, B.; Smit, L.A.M.; Reimerink, J.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent serological studies indicate that hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in industrialised countries. The increasing trend in the number of autochthonous cases of HEV genotype 3 in Western European countries, stresses the importance to get insight in the exact routes of exposure.

  12. Outcome of patients with serology suggestive of past hepatitis B virus infection during antitumor necrosis factor therapy for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raquel; Concha-Garzón, María José; Castaño, Carlos; Casal, Cristina; Guiu, Alba; Daudén, Esteban

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the reactivation during treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers has exceptionally been described in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen-negative (HBsAg). The objective was to evaluate the influence of anti-TNF agents in patients with psoriasis and serology suggesting past hepatitis B state. The inclusion criteria were chronic plaque psoriasis treated with anti-TNF therapy, HBsAg-negative, and HBcAb-positive. We gathered the demographic data and type and duration of anti-TNF agent. Serum aminotransferase levels and HBV serologic status were requested at baseline and during follow-up. We have included 13 patients (four women, nine men) (mean age of 62.1 years). The agent was etanercept in seven cases, infliximab in four patients, and adalimumab in the other two. The mean duration of TNF therapy was 28.6 months. None of them became HBsAg-positive. Neither signs nor symptoms of acute hepatitis were reported. The management of HBsAg-negative patients is unresolved. Only nine cases of HBV reactivation during treatment with TNF blockers have been reported. Despite the low risk of reactivation in these patients, we recommend the monitoring of serum aminotransferase levels, HBsAb titers, HBsAg and, if possible, viral load. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Serological study of influenza viruses in veterinarians working with swine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Sánchez-Betancourt, Iván; Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2017-06-01

    Humans and swine are both affected by influenza viruses, and swine are considered a potential source of new influenza viruses. Transmission of influenza viruses across species is well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of different influenza virus subtypes in veterinarians working for the Mexican swine industry, using a hemagglutination inhibition test. All sera tested were collected in July 2011. The data were analysed using a generalized linear model and a linear model to study the possible association of seroprevalence with the age of the veterinarian, vaccination status, and biosecurity level of the farm where they work. The observed seroprevalence was 12.3%, 76.5%, 46.9%, and 11.1% for the human subtypes of pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1), seasonal human influenza virus (hH1N1), the swine subtypes of classical swine influenza virus (swH1N1), and triple-reassortant swine influenza virus (swH3N2), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that age was associated with hH1N1 seroprevalence (P virus; hence, they would have been at risk for infection with this virus if this subtype had been circulating in swine in Mexico prior to 2011.

  14. Exploiting serological data to understand the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Kammon, Abdulwahab; Sharif, Monier; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Bartels, Christianus; Sumption, Keith; King, Donald P; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have occurred in Libya for almost fifty years. During the spring of 2013, a countrywide serosurvey was undertaken to assess the level of FMD virus circulation and identify FMD virus serotypes in the country. A total of 4221 sera were collected, comprising samples from large ruminants (LR; n=1428 samples from 357 farms) and small ruminants (SR; n=2793 samples from 141 farms). FMD sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies determined by ELISA were 19.0% (271/1428) with 95% CI (16.9 - 21.0) and 13.5% (378/2793) with 95% CI (12.3 - 14.8) for LR and SR samples, respectively. The sero-prevalence of NSP antibodies in LR was 12.3% and 19.8% for age group 2 year, respectively (X2= 118.1, P= 0.000). These observed NSP serologic profiles support the hypothesis of an endemic level of FMD circulation in Libya. All positive sera were tested for SP antibodies for O, A and SAT-2 FMD virus serotypes. Serotype O was the dominant circulating serotype followed by serotype A, while evidence of SAT-2 was not found. These data provide an insight into the wider epidemiology of FMD in Libya, and contribute to field and laboratory investigations that during 2013 serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage) was isolated from clinical samples collected from the country.

  15. A novel immunochromatographic test applied to a serological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus on pig farms in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Woon Cha

    Full Text Available Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8% and specificity (97.7% when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8% were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs.

  16. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  17. Serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nuno; Almendra, Cláudia; Tavares, Luís

    2009-01-01

    A serologic survey for Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from Portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. Antibodies to CDV were detected in wolf (Canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes; 2/22). Antibodies to CPV were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (Felis silvestris;1/8), genet (Genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (Martes foina; 3/17). Antibodies to CPV were detected throughout the study, whereas for CDV antibodies were detected in 3 of 10 yr and only during winter. The extremely high CPV antibody prevalence in genets is unprecedented. Although based on a limited sample, these data suggest widespread exposure of free-ranging Iberian carnivores to CDV and CPV.

  18. Serologic responses to recombinant Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein among Ugandan patients with respiratory symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Blount

    Full Text Available Little is known about the serologic responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg antigen in African cohorts, or the IgM responses to Msg in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with respiratory symptoms.We conducted a prospective study of 550 patients, both HIV-positive (n = 467 and HIV-negative (n = 83, hospitalized with cough ≥2 weeks in Kampala, Uganda, to evaluate the association between HIV status, CD4 cell count, and other clinical predictors and antibody responses to P. jirovecii. We utilized ELISA to measure the IgM and IgG serologic responses to three overlapping recombinant fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein: MsgA (amino terminus, MsgB (middle portion and MsgC1 (carboxyl terminus, and to three variations of MsgC1 (MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9.HIV-positive patients demonstrated significantly lower IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 compared to HIV-negative patients. We found the same pattern of low IgM antibody responses to MsgC1, MsgC3, MsgC8 and MsgC9 among HIV-positive patients with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl compared to those with a CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/µl. HIV-positive patients on PCP prophylaxis had significantly lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC9, and lower IgG responses to MsgA, MsgC1, MsgC3, and MsgC8. In contrast, cigarette smoking was associated with increased IgM antibody responses to MsgC1 and MsgC3 but was not associated with IgG responses. We evaluated IgM and IgG as predictors of mortality. Lower IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 were both associated with increased in-hospital mortality.HIV infection and degree of immunosuppression are associated with reduced IgM responses to Msg. In addition, low IgM responses to MsgC3 and MsgC8 are associated with increased mortality.

  19. Retrospective Serology Study of Respiratory Virus Infections in Captive Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Buitendijk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orang-utans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.

  20. Development of a microarray for simultaneous detection and differentiation of different tospoviruses that are serologically related to Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-Yuan; Ye, He-Yi; Chen, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-10

    Tospoviruses, the plant-infecting genus in the family Bunyaviridae, are thrips borne and cause severe agricultural losses worldwide. Based on the serological relationships of the structural nucleocapsid protein (NP), the current tospoviruses are divided into six serogroups. The use of NP-antisera is convenient for virus detection, but it is insufficient to identify virus species grouped in a serogroup due to the serological cross-reaction. Alternatively, virus species can be identified by the N gene amplification using specific primers. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type species of the genus Tospovirus and one of the most destructive plant viruses. Eight known tospoviruses, Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV), Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Melon severe mosaic virus (MeSMV), Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV), Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV), sharing serological relatedness with TSWV in NP, are grouped in the TSWV serogroup. Most of the TSWV-serogroup viruses prevail in Europe and America. An efficient diagnostic method is necessary for inspecting these tospoviruses in Asia, including Taiwan. A microarray platform was developed for simultaneous detection and identification of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses. Total RNAs extracted from Chenopodium quinoa leaves separately inoculated with ANSV, CSNV, GRSV, INSV, TCSV and TSWV were used for testing purposes. The 5'-biotinylated degenerate forward and reverse primers were designed from the consensus sequences of N genes of TSWV-serogroup tospoviruses for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. Virus-specific oligonucleotide probes were spotted on the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chips to hybridize with PCR products. The hybridization signals were visualized by hydrolysis of NBT/BCIP with streptavidine-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. The

  1. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  2. Serological evidence of influenza a viruses in frugivorous bats from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); T. Binger (Tabea); M.A. Müller (Marcel); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); J. van Beek (Janko); V.M. Corman (Victor); A. Rasche (Andrea); J.-F. Drexler (Jan-Felix); Sylverken, A. (Augustina); S. Oppong (Samuel); Y. Adu-Sarkodie (Yaw); M. Tschapka (Marco); V.M. Cottontail (Veronika); C. Drosten (Christian); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as Marburg, Ebola, Rabies, as well as for various Corona- and Paramyxoviruses. In 2009/10, researchers discovered RNA of two novel influenza virus subtypes - H17N10 and H18N11 - in Central and South American fruit bats.

  3. Viral and serological kinetics in Zika virus-infected patients in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Eui; Cha, Go-Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Jee, Youngmee; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-04-07

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes clinical symptoms similar to those observed in dengue and chikungunya virus infections. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated laboratory testing using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in January 2016. More than 1,000 suspected cases of infection were tested and nine were confirmed as imported cases of Zika virus infection from January to July 2016. The travel destinations of the infected individuals were Brazil, Philippines, Viet Nam, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial envelope gene indicated that the viruses belonged to the Asian genotype circulating in South America. We further investigated the duration for which the viral RNA and virus-specific antibodies were detectable after the symptom onset. After the day of symptom onset, Zika virus was detectable until 6 days in serum, 14 days in urine and saliva, and 58 days in semen. Immunoglobulin M against Zika virus was detected as early as 2 days after the symptom onset and was maintained at these levels until 41 days, whereas Immunoglobulin G was detectable from 8 days after the symptom onset and was maintained until 52 days. These findings would help diagnostic laboratories improve their testing programs for Zika virus infection.

  4. Serological Detection of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Fmdv) Sat 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For SAT 2 virus, Borno and Adamawa States had the highest prevalence with CF, (41.00 and 30.50%) and with NT (46.50 and 29.50%) respectively. These results are of economic significant, since the animals were not vaccinated against FMD. Further studies on other FMD virus serotypes in other states are advocated.

  5. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in patients with exanthema in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szomor, Katalin N; Rigó, Zita; Bán, Eniko; Nagy, Lívia; Szalkai, Teodóra; Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Ferenczi, Emoke; Takács, Mária

    2011-06-01

    The presence of WNV in Europe has been well known for decades, although the first human infections and avian outbreaks were diagnosed in Hungary only in 2003. An annual average of 6-8 cases of the neuroinvasive form of WNV infection has been detected in the region since then, but a higher number (17) of WNV associated neuroinvasive disease occurred in 2008. In 2004, a surveillance system was established for monitoring WNV-associated meningo-encephalitis cases in Hungary, but a milder type of illness (with fever, rash and/or influenza like symptoms) is not followed. Fifty-two sera of 45 patients with mild clinical symptoms (fever, exanthema) were tested for anti-WNV antibodies in 2008 in a retrospective study by immunofluorescence test and ELISA. Seven patients had antibodies against WNV, serologic evidence of recent WNV infection was found in 4 out of the 7 patients. Infections could be acquired predominantly in August and in September, which seems to be a risk period for WNV in Hungary. The possibility of a recent WNV infection should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of fever and rush at late summer. Differential diagnosis of exanthematous patients should include WNV serology tests and should be done routinely.

  6. Serological association between Leishmania infantum and sand fly fever Sicilian (but not Toscana) virus in sheltered dogs from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Alwassouf, Sulaf; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ayhan, Nazli; Pereira, André; Charrel, Remi N; Campino, Lenea

    2017-03-13

    Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal. Seventy-six (13.1%) out of 581 dogs were seropositive for L. infantum, 327 (56.3%) for SFSV and 36 (6.2%) for TOSV. Six dogs were co-exposed with L. infantum and TOSV, 51 with L. infantum and SFSV and 25 with TOSV and SFSV. One dog had antibodies to the three pathogens. Leishmania infantum seroprevalence was significantly higher in pure breed dogs than in mongrels and in dogs with clinical signs while SFSV positivity was significantly higher in males, in pure and cross-breed dogs than in mongrels and in those not treated with insecticides. Seroprevalence for both viruses was significantly higher in dogs over than 7 years-old than in those aged 1-7. A significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies to L. infantum and SFSV. The presence of antibodies to several phlebotomine sand fly-borne pathogens in dogs, reinforces the need to implement efficient prophylactic measures to prevent infection among vertebrate hosts including humans. The results also indicate that dogs are good sentinels for assessing human exposure to TOSV and SFSV. Further studies must be performed to elucidate the role of dogs in the dynamics of transmission and if they can play a role as amplifying or reservoir hosts in the natural cycle of these viruses. Public and animal health impacts of these phleboviruses in Portugal should be addressed via serological and virological studies on both phlebotomine sand flies and vertebrate hosts, especially on humans.

  7. Serological Identification of Virus in Watermelon Production Fields in the Tocantins State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cultivated in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the world, has its largest output in China, and then, according to FAO data, Turkey, Iran and Brazil, being one of the main crops cultivated in State of Tocantins, Brazil. In this work was investigated the occurrence and distribution of the watermelon viruses, totaling 752 samples taken in a stratified experimental design in four representative regions of production: Gurupi (150, Lagoa da Confusao (232, Formoso do Araguaia (265 and Porto Nacional (105. The sampling and collecting the leaves of plants with the presence of symptoms were performed once a week during the entire cultivation cycle. As a result, were observed by Dot-ELISA method, different types of viruses, such as Papaya ringspot W (PRSV-W, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV (potyvirus, Cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV (Cucumovirus and Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV (Tospovirus. Of these, PRSV-W was predominant (22%, followed by WMV (15%, ZLCV (11%, CMV (5% and ZYMV (4%. Mixed infections with PRSV-W + WMV and PRSV-W + ZLCV were also observed around 20% frequency (expressed with symptoms differently from a single infection. The results provide important support for the program management viruses.

  8. Genetic and serological typing of European infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tove; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Batts, William

    2009-01-01

    the isolates from the USA. Analyses of the partial G gene of these European isolates clustered them in the M genogroup close to the root while the Russian isolate clustered in the U genogroup. The European isolates together with US-WRAC and US-Col-80 were also tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the N protein. MAbs 136-1 and 136-3 reacted equally at all concentrations with the isolates tested, indicating that these antibodies identify a common epitope. MAb 34D3 separated the M and L genogroup isolates from the U genogroup isolate. MAb 1DW14D...... in the serological studies using MAbs, the European M genogroup isolates could not be placed in the same specific group. These results indicate that genotypic and serotypic classification do not correlate....

  9. Development and validation of a genotype 3 recombinant protein-based immunoassay for hepatitis E virus serology in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.M. van der Poel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is classified within the family Hepeviridae, genus Hepevirus. HEV genotype 3 (Gt3 infections are endemic in pigs in Western Europe and in North and South America and cause zoonotic infections in humans. Several serological assays to detect HEV antibodies in pigs have been developed, at first mainly based on HEV genotype 1 (Gt1 antigens. To develop a sensitive HEV Gt3 ELISA, a recombinant baculovirus expression product of HEV Gt3 open reading frame-2 was produced and coated onto polystyrene ELISA plates. After incubation of porcine sera, bound HEV antibodies were detected with anti-porcine anti-IgG and anti-IgM conjugates. For primary estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the assay, sets of sera were used from pigs experimentally infected with HEV Gt3. For further validation of the assay and to set the cutoff value, a batch of 1100 pig sera was used. All pig sera were tested using the developed HEV Gt3 assay and two other serologic assays based on HEV Gt1 antigens. Since there is no gold standard available for HEV antibody testing, further validation and a definite setting of the cutoff of the developed HEV Gt3 assay were performed using a statistical approach based on Bayes' theorem. The developed and validated HEV antibody assay showed effective detection of HEV-specific antibodies. This assay can contribute to an improved detection of HEV antibodies and enable more reliable estimates of the prevalence of HEV Gt3 in swine in different regions.

  10. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    with responses of B. suis biovar 2-inoculated pigs. FPSR were limited to 2-9 weeks post-YeO:9 inoculation, while B. suis-infected pigs were test-positive throughout the 21-week period of investigation. Although YeO:9-inoculated pigs exhibited FPSR in Brucella tests for a limited period of time, the serological...

  11. Cutaneous and serological responses to cat allergen in adults exposed or not to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Martín, Santiago; Lombardero, Manuel; D'Amato, Maria; Barber, Domingo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cazzola, Mario

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between pet ownership and the risk of developing respiratory allergic sensitization to pet allergens is still controversial. To determine the degree of cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity and the levels of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to cat allergen in cat sensitized patients directly or indirectly exposed to this animal. We studied 112 adolescents and adults sensitized to cat allergens (43 with and 69 without a cat at home). There were also 52 control subjects, 27 atopic non-sensitized to cat and 25 non-atopic. The degree of immediate hypersensitivity was assessed by using, in duplicate, skin prick test with four five-fold dilutions of cat hair allergen extract with the content of its major allergen Fel d 1 quantified in micrograms plus positive (10 mg/ml histamine chlorhydrate) and negative (saline solution) controls. The resulting wheal areas were analysed by means of Parallel Line Assay. A blood sample was collected from every patient and control subjects for the evaluation of serological cat specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies. Patients with cat at home had a lower cutaneous response than patients without this pet. The difference in the skin sensitivity was estimated in 3.4 times (Presponse to cat allergenic extract, assessed by SPT and compared with indirect exposure. In patients with cat at home mean levels of specific IgE are statistically comparable whereas the levels of IgG4 are higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats. The role of indirect exposure to cat allergens in airways sensitization also in adults is emphasized. Moreover, patients with cat at home show a cutaneous and serological sensitization to cat allergen not higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats.

  12. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 prevalence and quantitative detection of DNA proviral load in individuals with indeterminate/positive serological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Isabella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-1 infection is currently restricted to endemic areas. To define the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients living in Italy, we first carried out a retrospective serological analysis in a group of people originating from African countries referred to our hospital from January 2003 to February 2005. We subsequently applied a real time PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with positive or indeterminate serological results. Methods All the sera were first analysed by serological methods (ELISA and/or Western Blotting and then the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with positive or inconclusive serological results were analyzed for the presence of proviral DNA by a sensitive SYBR Green real time PCR. In addition, twenty HTLV-I ELISA negative samples were assayed by real time PCR approach as negative controls. Results Serological results disclosed serum reactivity by ELISA (absorbance values equal or greater than the cut-off value in 9 out of 3408 individuals attending the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and/or Oncology Department, and 2 out 534 blood donors enrolled as a control population. Irrespective of positive or inconclusive serological results, all these subjects were analyzed for the presence of proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by SYBR real time PCR. A clear-cut positive result for the presence of HTLV-1 DNA was obtained in two subjects from endemic areas. Conclusion SYBR real time PCR cut short inconclusive serological results. This rapid and inexpensive assay showed an excellent linear dynamic range, specificity and reproducibility readily revealing and quantifying the presence of virus in PBMCs. Our results highlight the need to monitor the presence of HTLV-1 in countries which have seen a large influx of immigrants in recent years. Epidemiological surveillance and correct diagnosis are recommended to verify the prevalence and incidence of a new

  13. Rat hepatitis E virus: geographical clustering within Germany and serological detection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, Reimar; Dremsek, Paul; Kindler, Eveline; Schielke, Anika; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Gregersen, Henrike; Wessels, Ute; Schmidt, Katja; Rietschel, Wolfram; Groschup, Martin H; Guenther, Sebastian; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-07-01

    Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialised countries is thought to be caused by transmission from wild boar, domestic pig and deer as reservoir hosts. The detection of HEV-specific antibodies in rats and other rodents has suggested that these animals may represent an additional source for HEV transmission to human. Recently, a novel HEV (ratHEV) was detected in Norway rats from Hamburg, Germany, showing the typical genome organisation but a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence to other mammalian and to avian HEV strains. Here we describe the multiple detection of ratHEV RNA and HEV-specific antibodies in Norway rats from additional cities in north-east and south-west Germany. The complete genome analysis of two novel strains from Berlin and Stuttgart confirmed the association of ratHEV to Norway rats. The present data indicated a continuing existence of this virus in the rat populations from Berlin and Hamburg. The phylogenetic analysis of a short segment of the open reading frame 1 confirmed a geographical clustering of the corresponding sequences. Serological investigations using recombinant ratHEV and genotype 3 capsid protein derivatives demonstrated antigenic differences which might be caused by the high amino acid sequence divergence in the immunodominant region. The high amount of animals showing exclusively ratHEV RNA or anti-ratHEV antibodies suggested a non-persistent infection in the Norway rat. Future studies have to prove the transmission routes of the virus in rat populations and its zoonotic potential. The recombinant ratHEV antigen generated here will allow future seroepidemiological studies to differentiate ratHEV and genotype 3 infections in humans and animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SEROLOGI DAN VIROLOGI VIRUS AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 PADA KUCING JALANAN DI KOTA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus is a known pathogen in birds. Recently, the virus has been reported to cause sporadic fatal disease in tigers, leopards, and other exotic felids as well as domestic cats in Thailand. The present study was carried out to investigate the presence of AI H5N1 virus infection in stray cats roaming around residential, traditional and chicken farms in Bogor, West Java. Ninety serum samples were tested using HI test to screened for the presence of antibody to AI H5N1. Virus isolation was done in SPF embrionated chicken eggs and identify using HI, AGP and RT-PCR. The results showed that 18,9% of stray cats developed antibodies against H5 with geometric mean titre 23,1 . Stray cats lived in traditional markets 18–40% developed antibodies in the titre ranging from 22,8 to 24,5. Only two out of nine stray cats which lived in chicken farm developed low antibody titres again H5 (21. None of the stray cats lived in residencial area have developed antibodies against H5. This study revealed that stray cats have been contact with AI H5. Avian influenza H5 viruses were isolated in eight out of 33 pooled of rectal swab samples. The viral cleavage site sequences are CCTCAAAGAGAGAGC AGAAGAAAGAAGAGAGGT which represent amino acid sequences of PQRESRRKKRG. Based on the cleavage site sequence, the isolates are similar with the AI H5 virus subtype isolated from human in Indonesia during 2005–2007

  15. [Serological evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus circulation in birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Díaz, Luis A; Konigheim, Brenda; Molina, José; Beaudoin, Juan B; Contigiani, Marta; Spinsanti, Lorena I

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the presence of neutralizing antibodies against St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in sera of wild and domestic birds from Buenos Aires City, Argentina. From October 2012 to April 2013, 180 samples were collected and processed by the microneutralization technique. A 7.2% of the sampled birds were seropositive for SLEV, while no seropositive birds for WNV were detected. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Serological survey of maedi-visna virus infection in highland sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion tests were employed in parallel to determine the presence of antibodies against maedi-visna virus infection. The overall individual animal-and flock-level prevalence was 15.6% (95%CI: 14.1-17.1) and 25.9% (95%CI: 20.8-31.5), respectively.

  17. Serological Evidence of Influenza A virus serotypes (H1 N1 and H5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A, chicken Sera, Nigeria. One hundred sera samples from chicken flocks showing respiratory distress but failed to respond to treatment against chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were tested for avian influenza virus antibodies. The sera samples were collected from 5, 32, and 21 weeks ...

  18. serologic evidence of equine h7 influenza virus in polo horses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Chen et al., 2006; Normile, 2006; Ducatez et al.,. 2007; Garten et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2009). Further studies are recommended in order to isolate and characterize H7 influenza viruses from equine and avian host species which may prove to be.

  19. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  20. Serological diagnosis of Taenia solium in pigs: No measurable circulating antigens and antibody response following exposure to Taenia saginata oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Dermauw, V; Van Hul, A; Trevisan, C; Gabriël, S

    2017-10-15

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonosis included in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases. Accurate diagnostic tools for humans and pigs are needed to monitor intervention outcomes. Currently used diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis all have drawbacks. Serological tests are mainly confronted with problems of specificity. More specifically, circulating antigen detecting tests cross-react with Taenia hydatigena and the possibility of transient antigens as a result of aborted infections is suspected. Furthermore, the hypothesis has been raised that hatched ingested eggs of other Taenia species may lead to a transient antibody response or to the presence of circulating antigen detectable by serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. Here we describe the results of a study that consisted of oral administration of Taenia saginata eggs to five piglets followed by serological testing during five weeks and necropsy aiming at studying possible cross reactions in serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. The infectivity of the eggs was verified by in vitro hatching and by experimental infection of a calf. One piglet developed acute respiratory disease and died on day 6 post infection. The remaining four piglets did not show any clinical signs until euthanasia. None of the serum samples from four piglets collected between days 0 and 35 post infection gave a positive reaction in the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and in a commercial Western blot for antibody detection. In conclusion, this study showed that experimental exposure of four pigs to T. saginata eggs did not result in positive serologies for T. solium. These results may help interpreting serological results in monitoring of T. solium control programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event.

  2. Serological evidence of Hepatitis E Virus infection in Antioquia, Colombia slaughtered pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Forero D; Cristian Gutiérrez V; Jaime Parra S; Guillermo Correa L; Berardo Rodríguez; Lina Gutiérrez B; Albeiro López-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To detect the presence of specific antibodies against Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs slaughtered in Antioquia, the department where the greatest amount of pork is produced and consumed in Colombia. Materials and methods. Between September 2011 and May 2012, blood samples from pigs were obtained in five slaughterhouses of Antioquia, four of them located in the Aburrá Valley subregion and other located in northern subregión. Serum were evaluated with a commercial ELISA kit f...

  3. First Serological Evidence of West Nile Virus in Horses and Dogs from Corsica Island, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, Marianne; Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Gravier, Patrick; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Davoust, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed over the world, including Europe, Africa, and Asia and spread over the past two decades to North and South America. In the south of France, sporadic cases are frequently described and the virus is endemic in Italy with frequent cases and outbreaks. The aim of this study was to identify a possible WNV circulation in Corsica (French island in the Mediterranean Sea) in sheep, horses, and dogs as sentinel animals for the virus surveillance. In 2014, 386 blood samples were collected from 219 sheep, 96 horses, and 71 dogs, in 12 localities in Corsica, in the oriental coast of Corsica. Each sample was systematically tested for WNV immunoglobulin G using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with inactivated WNV as antigen. The result of the ELISA for the WNV antibody test on the sheep sera was all negative, whereas 9 of 96 horses (9.4%) and 6 of 71 dogs (8.4%) presented WNV antibodies. All the positive samples from horses and dogs were confirmed by serum neutralization test. Although no clinical case in humans and horses was reported to date, this report highlights the necessity to improve WNV surveillance in animals and humans, as well as in blood donors in Corsica.

  4. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T

    2012-02-01

    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.

  5. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST LARYNGOTRACHEITIS VIRUS IN BROILERS AND LAYER BREEDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yauris S., Gabriela; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Icochea D’A., Eliana; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; González V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Falcón P., Néstor; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva,Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima

    2012-01-01

    A total of 360 serum samples from eighteen flocks of broiler and layer breeders in phase of production were used in order to detect the presence of Laryngotracheitis virus (VLT) antibodies using a commercial ELISA test. The poultry farms were located in the region of Lima and in the northern coast of Peru. Samples were collected from July 2004 till September 2005 and were processed as a group. Eight samples out of 360 in 6 flocks were positive to antibodies against VLT. Due to the small numbe...

  6. Serological Survey of West Nile Virus in Pet Dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, M Casey; Waldner, Cheryl; Taylor, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples collected from 143 dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 were evaluated for seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV). WNV antibodies were identified in 40/143 dogs (28%). Dogs that were primarily housed in the yard were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-14.5) more likely to have antibodies than dogs housed in the house or garage. Dogs were more likely to be positive with increasing time spent outside. The results of this study document WNV seroprevalence in dogs from Saskatchewan and suggest that pet dogs might be useful as a sentinel species for WNV surveillance.

  7. Assessment of serological evidence for mumps virus infection in vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Hahné, Susan; van Lier, Alies; Kohl, Robert; Boot, Hein; Koopmans, Marion; van Binnendijk, Robert

    2011-11-15

    It is estimated that at least one-third of mumps virus infections in non-vaccinated individuals are asymptomatic. Little information is available whether this proportion is the same among those vaccinated. We validated a commercial oral fluid mumps IgG-specific Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA) with vaccinated control groups to identify symptomatic and asymptomatic mumps virus infections in vaccinated individuals during a mumps outbreak in The Netherlands. A vaccinated control group was required to define a new cutoff value for the assay, because of the presence of low but significant levels of IgG antibodies in oral fluid as a result of mumps vaccination in the past. With a new cutoff, calculated using receiver operator characteristic analysis, we identified an attack rate of 7-10% compared to 2.7% based on clinical symptoms among vaccinated children. This finding has important implications when studying transmission patterns, strain virulence, as well as mumps vaccine effectiveness to protect from infection rather than disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serology based disease status of Pakistani population infected with Hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Salmaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The infection rate of hepatitis B virus is continuously increasing in Pakistan. Therefore, a comprehensive study of epidemiological data is the need of time. Methods A total of 1300 individuals were screened for HBV infection markers including HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBcAg. The association of these disease indicators was compared with patients' epidemiological characteristics like age, socio-economic status and residential area to analyze and find out the possible correlation among these variables and the patients disease status. Results 52 (4% individuals were found positive for HBsAg with mean age 23.5 ± 3.7 years. 9.30%, 33.47% and 12% individuals had HBeAg, antibodies for HBsAg, and antibodies for HBcAg respectively. HBsAg seropositivity rate was significantly associated (p = 0.03 with the residing locality indicating high infection in rural areas. Antibodies titer against HBsAg decreased with the increasing age reflecting an inverse correlation. Conclusion Our results indicate high prevalence rate of Hepatitis B virus infection and nationwide vaccination campaigns along with public awareness and educational programs are needed to be practiced urgently.

  9. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, William E; Cassini, Andrew G; Meece, Jennifer K; Papp, Joseph M; Rosenfield, Robert N; Reed, Kurt D

    2005-09-01

    We assayed for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of WNV infection in three raptor populations in southeast Wisconsin during 2003-04. This study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before WNV was introduced to the study area. For 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling Cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) tested positive for WNV antibodies by the constant virus-serum dilution neutralization test. Samples that tested positive for WNV antibodies were collected across a wide variety of habitat types, including urban habitats (both high and low density), roads, parking areas, recreational areas, croplands, pastures, grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands. Based on the increased prevalence and significantly higher WNV antibody titers in adults compared with nestlings, we suggest that nestlings with detectable antibody levels acquired these antibodies through passive transmission from the mother during egg production. Low levels of WNV antibodies in nestlings could serve as a surrogate marker of exposure in adult raptor populations. Based on breeding population densities and reproductive success over the past 15 yr, we found no apparent adverse effects of WNV infections on these wild raptor populations.

  10. A serological survey on hepatitis C virus Antibody in blood donors with an ELISA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajbakhsh E.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis type C virus (HCV is one of the important threatened infectious blood born viruses in different populations. More than 300 million people were suffered form different HCV clinical complications all around the world. It is estimated that only 20% of HCV infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected. The majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, but approximately 10-/30% of these patients will eventually develop severe liver complications. In this research the prevalence of HCV Ab and the role of some demographic data in HCV incidence and clinical outcomes were determined. Methods: In this retrospective study 11472 blood samples from, Iranian blood donors, Shahrekord city were collected for one year. The frequency of HCV Ab was analyzed with a third generation EIA method. The statistical relationships of different possible risk factors of HCV infection were analyzed by Instat software. Results: The HCV Ab was diagnosed in 69 of 11472 (0.6% serum samples. Significant correlations were detected between the history of HCV infection with marriage, tattooing, and doubtful sexual contact. Significant relationships were not defined between HCV infection with age, history of liver disease, and record of travel to abroad.Conclusions: Significant relationships were find between HCV infection with marital status, history of tattooing and sexual contact, but significant correlations were not find between HCV infections with sex, history of liver disease and traveling to other countries.

  11. Development and evaluation of a Luminex multiplex serology assay to detect antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, with comparison to existing ELISA detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steve; Wakeley, Phil; Wibberley, Guy; Webster, Kath; Sawyer, Jason

    2011-03-07

    Detection of circulating antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) using ELISA is widely used for veterinary diagnostics and surveillance. In this paper, the potential of a multiplex serology test based on Luminex technology, where all antibodies are simultaneously detected in a single assay was investigated. The performance of "in-house" separate ELISAs which use relatively crude lysates of cultured virus as capture antigens, was compared to the multiplex assay where the same antigens were covalently bound to the fluorescent beads used in the Luminex platform. A panel of field serum samples was tested by the multiplex assay in parallel with the separate routine ELISAs to provide a comparison between tests. The BHV-1 and PI3V components of the multiplex test showed similar sensitivities and specificities to the separate "in-house" ELISAs. The performance of the BVDV and BRSV components was less successful and was attributed to relatively low signal strength for these antigens, leading to higher assay variability and a reduced ability to distinguish positive and negative samples compared to the "in-house" ELISAs. The results illustrated that antigens commonly used successfully in ELISAs cannot always be transferred for use in alternative assay systems. The use of recombinant BVDV E2 protein was investigated and was shown to lead to an appreciable increase in signal strength compared to the use of crude BVDV antigen in the Luminex system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serological profiles of commercial broiler breeders and their progeny. 2. Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D J

    1986-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were determined for serum samples from eight commercial broiler breeder flocks and their progeny. The chickens sampled had been vaccinated and reared by different producers in different regions of the United States. Breeder flocks had the highest number of NDV-positive HI titers (greater than or equal to 1:10). Eighty percent or more of the samples from six of eight breeder flocks were positive; the geometric mean titers (GMTs) for those six breeder flocks ranged from 19 to 92. Only 3 of 8 broiler flocks had an increased frequency of positive titers and higher GMTs after vaccination. The frequency of positive titers was greater than 80% in only 2 of 8 of the oldest broiler flocks. The number of NDV-negative titers (less than 1:10) increased with age in most broiler flocks, even though all had been vaccinated once or more with live NDV vaccines.

  13. PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Brent C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a retrovirus implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Press releases have suggested that it could contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In this study we used two PCR assays and one antibody assay to screen 25 blood samples from autistic children born to mothers with CFS and from 20 mixed controls including family members of the children assayed, people with fibromyalgia and people with chronic Lyme disease. Using a real-time PCR assay, we screened an additional 48 South Carolina autism disorder samples, 96 Italian ASD samples, 61 South Carolina ASD samples and 184 healthy controls. Despite having the ability to detect low copy number XMRV DNA in a large background of cellular DNA, none of the PCR assays found any evidence of XMRV infection in blood cells from patients or controls. Further, no anti-XMRV antibodies were detected, ruling out possible low level or abortive infections in blood or in other reservoirs. These results imply that XMRV is not associated with autism.

  14. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Serological and molecular characterization of Syrian Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz ISMAEIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four Syrian isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV collected from tomato and pepper were tested against five specific monoclonal antibodies using TAS-ELISA. The isolates were in two serogroups. Fourteen tomato and sixteen pepper isolates were similar in their reaction with MAb-2, MAb-4, MAb-5 and MAb-6, but did not react with MAb-7 (Serogroup 1. Meanwhile, four isolates collected from pepper reacted with all the MAbs used (Serogroup 2. The expected 620 bp DNA fragment was obtained by RT-PCR from six samples using a specific primer pair designed to amplify the nucleocapsid protein (NP gene of TSWV. The PCR products were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Sequence analysis revealed that the Syrian TSWV isolates were very similar at the nucleotide (97.74 to 99.84% identity and amino acid (96.17 to 99.03% identity sequences levels. The phylogenetic tree showed high similarity of Syrian TSWV isolates with many other representative isolates from different countries.

  16. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  17. Serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in the horse population of northern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medić, Strahinja; van den Hoven, Rene; Petrović, Tamaš; Lupulović, Diana; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-07-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the horse population of northern Serbia. Furthermore, it aimed to provide insight and an updated overview on the circulation of this re-emerging pathogen in this part of southeastern Europe. At the time of manuscript preparation, no clinical cases of WNV infection in horses were reported in this area. Between 2007 and 2011, a total of 252 equine serum samples were collected from seven different locations in northern Serbia. The presence of WNV-reactive IgG antibodies was examined by using commercial and in-house ELISAs. Selected ELISA-positive samples were re-tested by a WNV lineage 2 plaque reduction neutralization test 90% (PRNT-90). In 28.6% of the 252 tested equine serum samples antibodies against WNV were detected. The results obtained with the in-house ELISA corresponded to the outcome of the commercial kit in 90% of the samples. All selected WNV antibody ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by PRNT-90 with neutralizing antibody titers of 1:23 to > 1:512. This study confirms the circulation of WNV in northern Serbia. No striking regional differences in seroprevalences were identified suggesting WNV circulation also in other parts of Serbia. Distances between wetlands or forests and stud farms do not appear to have an influence on WNV seroprevalence.

  18. Serological evidence of Hepatitis E Virus infection in Antioquia, Colombia slaughtered pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Forero D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To detect the presence of specific antibodies against Hepatitis E virus (HEV in pigs slaughtered in Antioquia, the department where the greatest amount of pork is produced and consumed in Colombia. Materials and methods. Between September 2011 and May 2012, blood samples from pigs were obtained in five slaughterhouses of Antioquia, four of them located in the Aburrá Valley subregion and other located in northern subregión. Serum were evaluated with a commercial ELISA kit for diagnosing HEV in humans but adapted to detect IgG and IgM antibodies in pigs. Results. A 100.0% seropositivity for IgG antibodies was found in 1000 samples evaluated, and 82.06% for IgM antibodies were found in 740 samples. Conclusions. These results indicate that pigs in slaughter age in Antioquia, and possibly in Colombia, have been exposed to HEV at some point in their production process and a high percentage of them can arrive to slaughterhouses with recent infection.

  19. Serological evidence of natural exposure of camels (Camelus dromedaries to foot and mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE Code chapter on FMD includes camelids as being susceptible species to FMD similar to cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. A total of 376 field camel sera, collected from different regions of Riyadh and Al-Qassim Province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were screened for the presence of antibodies produced against 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP of FMDV using a commercially available kit , PrioCHECK® FMDV NS. Sera that tested positive on NSP were screened for serotype-specific antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus using liquid phase blocking ELISA. Only 24 out of 376 (6.3% serum samples were positive for antibodies against NSP. All sera that tested positive on NSP and screened for antibodies against all the seven FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were found positive for antibodies against serotype O. This lower seroprevalence of (6.3% reveals that dromedaries appear however as being susceptible to infection with FMDV serotype O, but they are unlikely to play any significant role in the natural epidemiology of FMD. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 197-200

  20. In vitro growth, pathogenicity and serological characteristics of the Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V Muar strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shigeru; Yagasaki, Kazumi; Kotaki, Akira; Tomikawa, Takumi; Nakayama, Eri; Moi, Meng Ling; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Saijo, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of genotype V Japanese encephalitis virus (GV JEV) remain poorly understood as only two strains have been isolated to date. In this study, we examined the effects of the GV JEV Muar strain on in vitro growth and pathogenicity in mice; we also evaluated the efficacy of inactivated JEV vaccines against the Muar strain. Although growth of the Muar strain in mouse neuroblastoma N18 cells was clearly worse than that of the GIII Beijing-1 and GI Mie/41/2002 strains, neuroinvasiveness of the Muar strain was similar to that of the Beijing-1 strain and significantly higher than that of the Mie/41/2002 strain. The results of a plaque reduction neutralization test suggested that the neutralization ability of the JEV vaccines against the Muar strain was reduced compared with the GI and GIII strains. However, the protection potency of the JEV vaccine against the Muar strain was similar to that for the Beijing-1 strain in mice. Our data indicate that GV JEV has unique growth, virulence and antigenicity features.

  1. Serological and molecular identification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Khuzestan province of Iran

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    Shahrokh MALEKZADEH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted from 2006 to 2007 to identify the causal agent of leaf curling of tomato in eight major tomato-growing areas of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. Tomato leaf samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and stunting were collected and screened for the presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by TAS-ELISA. Further confi rmation was completed using graft transmission onto healthy tomato plants and PCR. Results confi rmed that TYLCV is a causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD and is widely distributed in all the major tomato growing areas in southwest of Iran. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP gene of four isolates (Dezfoul, Shoush, Behbahan, and Ramhormoz were determined and deposited in GenBank (EF199814-7. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP gene further showed that all four Iranian isolates have very close relationship and formed a Compact cluster together with previously sequenced Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  2. Serological versus biochemical detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    Serological versus molecular diagnosis. Diseases caused by viruses are a constant and major problem for crop and livestock production worldwide. The diseases range from highly contagious acute forms with high mortality, to chronic disabling ones with an insidious effect on production. Considerable efforts are needed to.

  3. Serological and molecular epidemiological outcomes after two decades of universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chris; Minuk, Gerald Y; Uhanova, Julia; Baikie, Maureen; Wong, Thomas; Osiowy, Carla

    2017-08-16

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era. Anonymized serum specimens scheduled for destruction following medical testing were collected between April 2013 and April 2014 from individuals granting consent. Specimens were tested for HBV antibodies, surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBV DNA to perform molecular characterization. Four thousand eight hundred and two specimens (13% of the population) were collected, with a resulting median age of 29years (range 1week to 93years). The prevalence of antibody to the HBV core protein was 9.4%; however, a 10-fold decrease in the rate of HBV exposure was noted among those born after 1980 compared to those born before (1.8% vs. 19.8%, pHBV subgenotype B5 (previously B6) was the most prevalent genotype observed (81.8%) indicating persistence of locally acquired infection. Vaccine-based antibody as the sole serological marker was evident in the vaccine age cohort, although the rate of decay with increasing age was much greater than predicted (less than 10% in those aged 5-19years). Nearly two decades after the advent of HBV vaccination in Nunavut, HBV prevalence has decreased to 1.2%, indicating non-endemic prevalence. However, the persistence of infection and a lower than expected prevalence of vaccine-based immunity in the vaccine age cohort will require further investigation to understand the causes and consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Paraná State, Brazil

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    D.A. Bertolini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV in Brazil increases from South to North but moderate to elevated prevalence has been detected in the Southwest of Paraná State. The prevalence of serological markers of HBV was evaluated in 3188 pregnant women from different counties in Paraná State and relevant epidemiological features were described. The prevalence of HBV markers in pregnant women for the state as a whole was 18.5% (95% CI = 17.2-19.9, ranging from 7.2% in Curitiba to 38.5% in Francisco Beltrão. The endemicity of HBV marker prevalence in pregnant women was intermediate in Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu, and Francisco Beltrão, and low in Curitiba, Londrina, Maringá, and Paranaguá. Multiple logistic regression showed that HBV marker prevalence increased with age, was higher among black women, among women of Italian and German descent, and among women who had family members in neighboring Rio Grande do Sul State. Univariate analysis showed that HBV marker prevalence was also higher among women with no education or only primary education, with a lower family income and whose families originated from the South Region of Brazil. Pregnant women not having positive HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg or anti-HBs detected by ELISA corresponded to 73.7% of the population studied, implying that HBV vaccination needs to be reinforced in Paraná State. The highest prevalence was found in three counties that received the largest number of families from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, where most immigrants were of German or Italian ascendance. This finding probably indicates that immigrants that came to this area brought HBV infection to Southwestern Paraná State.

  5. Serologic testing for avian influenza viruses in wild birds: comparison of two commercial competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Rodríguez, Vanessa; Sommer, Dagmar; Blanco, Juan Manuel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Höfle, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Serologic testing of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance poses problems due to species differences and nonspecific inhibitors that may be present in sera of wild birds. Recently available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits offer a new species-independent approach. In this study we compare two commercial competitive cELISAs, using a total of 184 serum and plasma samples from 23 species of wild birds belonging to 10 orders. Thirteen samples were from experimentally high pathogenicity AI and low pathogenicity AI infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), 77 samples were from a flock of sentinel hybrid ducks confirmed infected by AI by real-time PCR, and 94 samples were from wild birds admitted to a rehabilitation center. Both ELISAs detected AI antibodies in the experimentally infected partridges, whereas hemagglutination inhibition (HI) was negative. Concordance in results between the two ELISAs was 51.5%. When specific subtype-H5/H7 HI-positive samples were considered for comparison, ELISA 1 appeared to perform better on ducks, whereas ELISA 2 appeared to perform better in other wild bird species. Overall, 68.2% of H5/H7 positive samples tested positive by ELISA 1 and 36% by ELISA 2. Both ELISAs detected AIV-antibody-positive samples negative by specific HI against 9 of the 16 existing hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. Presumably this reflects either higher sensitivity of cELISA when compared to HI, presence of antibodies against HA subtypes not tested, or unspecific reactions. Performance of ELISA 1 on ducks appears to be comparable to in-house cELISA previously used by other authors in wild birds, but requires a relatively large sample volume. Alternatively, although ELISA 2 required a smaller sample volume, it was less effective at identifying HI-positive samples. The results reflect the necessity of validation of cELISA tests for individual species or at least families, as required by the OIE.

  6. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos; Harris, Paul R.; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N.; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least 2-fold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted-odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p=0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42, and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (ROC area under curve <0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  7. Antibody Responses to Zika Virus Infections in Environments of Flavivirus Endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keasey, Sarah L; Pugh, Christine L; Jensen, Stig M R; Smith, Jessica L; Hontz, Robert D; Durbin, Anna P; Dudley, Dawn M; O'Connor, David H; Ulrich, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus cocirculate. The envelope (E) proteins of these closely related flaviviruses induce specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV, and YFV infections of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Using printed microarrays, we detected very specific antibody responses to primary infections with probes of recombinant E proteins from 15 species and lineages of flaviviruses pathogenic to humans, while high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and DENV was observed with 11 printed native viruses. Notably, antibodies from human primary ZIKV or secondary DENV infections that occurred in areas where flavivirus is endemic broadly recognized E proteins from many flaviviruses, especially DENV, indicating a strong influence of infection history on immune responses. A predictive algorithm was used to tentatively identify previous encounters with specific flaviviruses based on serum antibody interactions with the multispecies panel of E proteins. These results illustrate the potential impact of exposure to related viruses on the outcome of ZIKV infection and offer considerations for development of vaccines and diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Serologic Detection of Subtype-specific Antibodies to Influenza A Viruses in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Alyssa M; Miller, Melissa; Stallknecht, David E; Moriarty, Megan; Plancarte, Magdalena; Dodd, Erin; Batac, Francesca; Boyce, Walter M

    2017-10-01

    There are approximately 3,000 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in the nearshore environment along the California coast, US, and the species is classified as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We tested sera from 661 necropsied southern sea otters sampled from 1997 to 2015 to determine overall exposure to influenza A viruses (IAVs) and to identify subtype-specific antibody responses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibodies to IAV nucleoproteins were detected in 160 (24.2%) otters, with seropositive animals found in every year except 2008. When the ELISA-positive samples were tested by virus microneutralization, antibody responses were detected to avian-origin hemagglutinin subtypes H1, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, and H11. Strong antibody responses to pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) were also detected, indicating that epizootic transmission of pdmH1N1 occurred among the southern sea otter population after the emergence of this human-origin virus in 2009. We conclude that southern sea otters are susceptible to infection with avian and human-origin IAV and that exposure to a wide array of subtypes likely occurs during a given otter's 10- to 15-yr life span. Important unanswered questions include what effect, if any, IAV infection has on sea otter health, and how these animals become infected in their nearshore environment.

  9. Immune responses to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2011-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of respiratory tract infection with attack rates of 5-10%. This means that humans are infected repeatedly with intervals of, on average, 10-20 years. Upon each infection subjects develop innate and adaptive immune responses which aim at clearing the infection. Strain-specific antibody responses are induced, which exert selective pressure on circulating influenza viruses and which drive antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, especially in the hemagglutinin molecule. This antigenic drift necessitates updating of seasonal influenza vaccines regularly in order to match the circulating strains. Upon infection also virus-specific T cell responses are induced, including CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cells are mainly directed to conserved proteins and therefore display cross-reactivity with a variety of influenza A viruses of different subtypes. T cell mediated immunity therefore may contribute to so-called heterosubtypic immunity and may afford protection against antigenically distinct, potentially pandemic influenza viruses. At present, novel viral targets are identified that may help to develop broad-protective vaccines. Here we review the various arms of the immune response to influenza virus infections and their viral targets and discuss the possibility of developing universal vaccines. The development of such novel vaccines would imply that also new immune correlates of protection need to be established in order to facilitate assessment of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch commercial poultry population for the presence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J J; Koch, G; Fabri, T H F; Elbers, A R W

    2004-12-01

    After the discovery of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of subtype H7N7 in the central area of The Netherlands on 28 February 2003, the hypothesis was put forward that an outbreak of the low pathogenic (LP) variant of H7N7 had preceded, unnoticed, the occurrence of the HPAI virus. Consequently, a cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch poultry population was executed in the second week of March 2003. The basic requirements set were detection of a 5% prevalence of flocks exposed to LPAI virus with 95% confidence within the production type stratification level within each province in The Netherlands. Because of supposed higher risk of avian influenza infections in ducks, turkeys and free-range poultry, all the commercial flocks of these production types present in The Netherlands were sampled. The serological screening of 28018 sera from 1193 randomly selected poultry farms, located outside surveillance zones showed that LPAI H7 virus infections had occurred on three neighbouring farms all located in the southwest of The Netherlands. No antibodies against the neuraminidase N7 subtype were detected in the sera of these farms, indicating that the subtype was different from the HPAI H7N7 subtype that caused the avian influenza epidemic in 2003. In addition, evidence of infections with non-H5 or non-H7 subtypes of influenza A virus were obtained in two other farms located in the northeast and the southeast of The Netherlands. It was concluded that the HPAI subtype H7N7 outbreak was most likely not preceded by a significant circulation of a LPAI subtype H7N7 virus. Based on the Dutch experience, recommendations are made to detect avian influenza infections faster in the future.

  11. Sorologia e sobrevivência do vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro Serology and surviving characteristics of Papaya lethal yellowing virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Lopes do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O vírus do amarelo letal do mamoeiro (Papaya lethal yellowing virus, PLYV é responsável por uma das principais doenças do mamoeiro (Carica papaya no Nordeste brasileiro. O PLYV pode ser transmitido através do solo, água, instrumento de corte e mãos contaminadas. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar as características biológicas, sorológicas e físicas de um isolado do vírus e avaliar sua sobrevivência em tecido seco infetado. O PLYV foi detectado por "Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" (ELISA indireto e isolado em mudas de mamoeiro, através da inoculação mecânica. A sobrevivência do PLYV em folhas e raízes secas de mamoeiro infetado foi avaliada por sorologia e inoculação em plantas sadias. A presença do vírus foi detectada em folhas e raízes de mamoeiro secas, indicando que o vírus pode permanecer ativo em restos de cultura por até 120 dias. A purificação do PLYV permitiu a obtenção de 309.5 mg de vírus/kg de folha e o anti-soro obtido mostrou-se altamente específico, com títulos de 1:128 em dupla difusão em Agar e 1:1.024.000 em Elisa indireto. Estudos das propriedades físicas do PLYV em mamoeiro revelaram um ponto de inativação térmica (PIT em torno de 80 ºC, um ponto máximo de diluição (PMD de ac. 10-6 e uma longevidade in vitro (LIV acima de 50 dias.The Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV is responsible for one of the most important disease of papaya (Carica papaya in the Northeast of Brazil. The PLYV can be transmitted through the soil, irrigation water, agriculture tools and contaminated hands. The present research had the objective to characterize biologically, serologically and physically a PLYV isolate and evaluates how long it survives in infected dried tissues. The PLYV was identified by indirect enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, isolated in young papaya plants by mechanical inoculations and maintained at green house conditions for virus purification. Approximately 309.5 mg

  12. Serological evidence indicates that foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, C and SAT1 are most dominant in eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eritrea and in most parts of Africa. To be able to control FMD using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in Eritrea is needed. In this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from FMD infected and recovered animals in Eritrea. These samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against FMD non-structural proteins (NSP) and neutralizing antibodies against six of the seven (all but SAT 3) serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Of these, 67.0% tested positive to non-structural protein antibodies in the FMD NS ELISA. By virus neutralization, FMDV serotype O antibodies were shown to be the most dominant (approximately 50%). Virus neutralization test results indicate that infection with serotype C and SAT 1 might have occurred, although there are no reports of isolation of these two serotypes. Because the samples were not randomly selected, further random serological surveillance in all age group animals is necessary both to estimate the prevalence of FMD in the country and to confirm the serological results with serotype C and SAT 1. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Performance characteristics of serologic tests for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody among Minnesota blood donors. Public health and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, K L; Jackson, J B; Bowman, R J; Polesky, H F; Rhame, F S; Balfour, H H; Osterholm, M T

    1989-04-15

    To evaluate performance characteristics of sequential enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing in a low-risk population. Three-year prospective study of a selected sample from a community-based population. Two blood collection facilities in Minnesota. Minnesota blood donors. During the study period, 630,190 units of blood (donations) from an estimated 290,110 Minnesota-resident donors were screened for HIV-1 antibody. Seventeen Minnesota-resident donors were identified as positive for HIV-1 antibody. Sixteen donors were available for follow-up HIV-1 culture: all were culture positive. The other donor, who was not available for follow-up culture, was likely infected with HIV-1 based on a history of high-risk behavior and positive serologic findings for hepatitis B surface antigen. Using 95% binomial confidence intervals, performance characteristics for sequential EIA and Western blot HIV-1 antibody serology were as follows: false-positive rate by number of donations, 0% to 0.0006%; specificity by number of donations, 99.9994% to 100%; predictive value of a positive test, 81% to 100%. In this low-risk population, the false-positive rate of serologic tests for HIV-1 antibody, using HIV-1 culture as the definitive standard for infection status, was extremely low and test specificity was extremely high.

  14. Serological profiling of the EBV immune response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using a peptide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Madlen; Eckey, Maren; Sotzny, Franziska; Hahn, Elisabeth; Bauer, Sandra; Grabowski, Patricia; Zerweck, Johannes; Holenya, Pavlo; Hanitsch, Leif G; Wittke, Kirsten; Borchmann, Peter; Rüffer, Jens-Ulrich; Hiepe, Falk; Ruprecht, Klemens; Behrends, Uta; Meindl, Carola; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reimer, Ulf; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV) plays an important role as trigger or cofactor for various autoimmune diseases. In a subset of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) disease starts with infectious mononucleosis as late primary EBV-infection, whereby altered levels of EBV-specific antibodies can be observed in another subset of patients. We performed a comprehensive mapping of the IgG response against EBV comparing 50 healthy controls with 92 CFS patients using a microarray platform. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cancer-related fatigue served as controls. 3054 overlapping peptides were synthesised as 15-mers from 14 different EBV proteins. Array data was validated by ELISA for selected peptides. Prevalence of EBV serotypes was determined by qPCR from throat washing samples. EBV type 1 infections were found in patients and controls. EBV seroarray profiles between healthy controls and CFS were less divergent than that observed for MS or SLE. We found significantly enhanced IgG responses to several EBNA-6 peptides containing a repeat sequence in CFS patients compared to controls. EBNA-6 peptide IgG responses correlated well with EBNA-6 protein responses. The EBNA-6 repeat region showed sequence homologies to various human proteins. Patients with CFS had a quite similar EBV IgG antibody response pattern as healthy controls. Enhanced IgG reactivity against an EBNA-6 repeat sequence and against EBNA-6 protein is found in CFS patients. Homologous sequences of various human proteins with this EBNA-6 repeat sequence might be potential targets for antigenic mimicry.

  15. Serological profiling of the EBV immune response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using a peptide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Loebel

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV plays an important role as trigger or cofactor for various autoimmune diseases. In a subset of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS disease starts with infectious mononucleosis as late primary EBV-infection, whereby altered levels of EBV-specific antibodies can be observed in another subset of patients.We performed a comprehensive mapping of the IgG response against EBV comparing 50 healthy controls with 92 CFS patients using a microarray platform. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and cancer-related fatigue served as controls. 3054 overlapping peptides were synthesised as 15-mers from 14 different EBV proteins. Array data was validated by ELISA for selected peptides. Prevalence of EBV serotypes was determined by qPCR from throat washing samples.EBV type 1 infections were found in patients and controls. EBV seroarray profiles between healthy controls and CFS were less divergent than that observed for MS or SLE. We found significantly enhanced IgG responses to several EBNA-6 peptides containing a repeat sequence in CFS patients compared to controls. EBNA-6 peptide IgG responses correlated well with EBNA-6 protein responses. The EBNA-6 repeat region showed sequence homologies to various human proteins.Patients with CFS had a quite similar EBV IgG antibody response pattern as healthy controls. Enhanced IgG reactivity against an EBNA-6 repeat sequence and against EBNA-6 protein is found in CFS patients. Homologous sequences of various human proteins with this EBNA-6 repeat sequence might be potential targets for antigenic mimicry.

  16. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484117X

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  17. Comparison of two automated instruments for Epstein-Barr virus serology in a large adult hospital and implementation of an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-based testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sidairi, Hilal; Binkhamis, Khalifa; Jackson, Colleen; Roberts, Catherine; Heinstein, Charles; MacDonald, Jimmy; Needle, Robert; Hatchette, Todd F; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2017-11-01

    Serology remains the mainstay for diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This study compared two automated platforms (BioPlex 2200 and Architect i2000SR) to test three EBV serological markers: viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulins of class M (IgM), VCA immunoglobulins of class G (IgG) and EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Using sera from 65 patients at various stages of EBV disease, BioPlex demonstrated near-perfect agreement for all EBV markers compared to a consensus reference. The agreement for Architect was near-perfect for VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG, and substantial for VCA IgM despite five equivocal results. Since the majority of testing in our hospital was from adults with EBNA-1 IgG positive results, post-implementation analysis of an EBNA-based algorithm showed advantages over parallel testing of the three serologic markers. This small verification demonstrated that both automated systems for EBV serology had good performance for all EBV markers, and an EBNA-based testing algorithm is ideal for an adult hospital.

  18. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Jenny; Dunn, J Lawrence; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Smith, Cynthia R; Sidor, Inga; Jensen, Eric D; Van Bonn, William G; Pugh, Roberta; Ficht, Thomas; Adams, L Garry; Nielsen, Klaus; Romano, Tracy A

    2012-12-03

    Marine-origin Brucella infections and serologic evidence of exposure have been documented in multiple cetacean species. A dolphin-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to screen bottlenose dolphin sera for anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 131 serum samples collected over a 2 to 18 yr period from 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with confirmed Brucella infections were analyzed for the presence and magnitude of antibody titers against marine-origin Brucella to compare individual antibody responses to various disease manifestations. Additionally, an epidemiologic serologic survey of a managed population of 64 bottlenose dolphins was performed to evaluate for the presence of antibodies and to determine whether there were any clinical pathology predictors for exposure or infection. The serologic results revealed that the dolphins with Brucella-associated abortions were seronegative for 7 to 18 yr until after the abortion and maintained positive titers for several years, with 2 of 3 animals returning to seronegative status. In contrast, the dolphins with Brucella-associated pulmonary or bone lesions maintained persistent positive titers for 2 to 18 yr. The population serosurvey revealed no significant differences in antibody levels among males and females, and dolphins between the ages of 17 and 25 yr were 6.8 times more likely to be Brucella antibody positive compared to those that were younger or older. Seropositive dolphins did not have significant inflammation compared to seronegative dolphins but were more likely to have higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Among 16 dolphins that tested seropositive, 13 (81.3%) had previously been seropositive for at least 3 to 5 yr.

  19. SEROLOGICAL SCREENING FOR INFECTIOUS CATTLE DISEASES: II. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PREVALENCE AND LEVEL OF ELISA RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfonso Barajas- Rojas

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A herd of cattle (Holstein-Zebu crosses was screened every two months by ELISA during a period of two years for IgG antibodies against 19 infectious disease agents. Two hundred and ninety five sera were collected from 157 young animals (0-4 months of age, 1037 sera from 292 developing animals (4-36 months of age and 1468 sera from 259 producing animals (> 36 months of age. The results indicate that the difference in ELISA between positive and negative tests is associated with the overall prevalence of positive tests. When the prevalence of positive tests is low the difference between positive and negative tests is greater than when the prevalence is intermediate or high. This means that ELISA, presumably other serological tests for IgG antibodies, is more reliable at low disease (antibody prevalence. This will tend to offset the declining predictive value of positive tests at low prevalence and may contribute to the successful use of serological tests in disease eradication.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  1. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russier, Marion; Pannetier, Delphine; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23202504

  2. Characterizing environmental risk factors for West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, using clinical data in humans and serology in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data in humans and serological data in pet dogs. Environmental risk factors were estimated in humans by negative binomial regression based on a dataset of 191 human WNV clinical cases reported in the study area between 2011 and 2014. Risk factors for infection in dogs were evaluated by logistic and negative binomial models based on a dataset including WNV serological results from 1442 dogs sampled from the same geographical area in 2013. Forested lands were identified as low-risk environments in humans. Agricultural lands represented higher risk environments for dogs. Environments identified as impacting risk in the current study were somewhat different from those identified in other studies conducted in north-eastern USA, which reported higher risk in suburban environments. In the context of the current study, combining human and animal data allowed a more comprehensive and possibly a more accurate view of environmental WNV risk factors to be obtained than by studying aggregated human data alone.

  3. [The determination of serological markers of the hepatitis B virus in high-risk areas of the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of anti-HBc and anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalence of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  4. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Stonier, Spencer W; Herbert, Andrew S; Ochayon, David E; Kuehne, Ana I; Eskira, Yael; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Egesa, Moses; Cose, Stephen; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Yavelsky, Victoria; Dye, John M; Lobel, Leslie

    2016-05-11

    Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV) outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000-2001). Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  5. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors

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    Ariel Sobarzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000–2001. Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  6. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  7. Prospective study of human herpesvirus 8 oral shedding, viremia, and serological status among human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and seronegative individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz-Silva, Paulo H; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania R; Sumita, Laura M; Freire, Wilton; Palmieri, Michelle; do Canto, Alan M; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Gallottini, Marina; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2017-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a gamma-herpesvirus and etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Saliva may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission in specific populations. Little is known about HHV-8 oral shedding pattern and the possible correlation with the HHV-8 serological profile and viremia. A prospective study was conducted of HHV-8 salivary excretion among human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seronegative (n = 47) and -seropositive (n = 44) homosexual men and HIV-seropositive women (n = 32) over a 6-month period with monthly HHV-8 serologies (immunofluorescence assays to identify antibodies to latent and lytic HHV-8 viral proteins, and a whole-virus HHV-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), monthly HHV-8 DNA serum/plasma detection, and daily self-collected oral rinses for HHV-8-DNA detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction. HHV-8 seropositivity was 51.1%, 63.6%, and 37.5%, in the three studied groups. There was no case of HHV-8 DNA detection in serum/plasma. Intermittent detection of oral HHV-8 DNA was observed during 5.1% (110/2,160) of visits among 28% (18/64) of HHV-8-seropositive individuals, all of whom were males and HHV-8 ELISA seropositive. In immunologically controlled populations of Brazil, HHV-8 oral shedding was limited to HHV-8-seropositive men, occurred infrequently and intermittently, and was not linked to HHV-8 viremia, suggesting a limited potential for oral or blood transmission.

  8. Dynamics of the serologic response in vaccinated and unvaccinated mumps cases during an epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kaaijk (P.); S. Gouma (Sigrid); H.I. Hulscher (Hinke I.); W.G. Han (Wanda G.); D.E. Kleijne (Deborah E.); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); C.A.C.M. van Els (Cécile)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the last decade, several mumps outbreaks were reported in various countries despite high vaccination coverage. In most cases, young adults were affected who have acquired immunity against mumps solely by vaccination and not by previous wild-type mumps virus infection. To investigate

  9. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  10. Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Ernst, Timo; Alpers, Michael P; Garruto, Ralph; Smith, David; Imrie, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We assessed dengue virus (DENV)-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua) and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades.

  11. Serological evidence for transmission of multiple dengue virus serotypes in Papua New Guinea and West Papua prior to 1963.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwin Luang-Suarkia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the natural history of dengue in Papua New Guinea (PNG. We assessed dengue virus (DENV-specific neutralizing antibody profiles in serum samples collected from northern and southern coastal areas and the highland region of New Guinea between 1959 and 1963. Neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sera from the northern coast of New Guinea: from Sabron in Dutch New Guinea (now known as West Papua and from four villages in East Sepik in what is now PNG. Previous monotypic infection with DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-4 was identified, with a predominance of anti-DENV-2 neutralizing antibody. The majority of positive sera demonstrated evidence of multiple previous DENV infections and neutralizing activity against all four serotypes was detected, with anti-DENV-2 responses being most frequent and of greatest magnitude. No evidence of previous DENV infection was identified in the Asmat villages of the southern coast and a single anti-DENV-positive sample was identified in the Eastern Highlands of PNG. These findings indicate that multiple DENV serotypes circulated along the northern coast of New Guinea at different times in the decades prior to 1963 and support the notion that dengue has been a significant yet neglected tropical infection in PNG for many decades.

  12. Assessment of the Combined Effect of Epstein–Barr Virus and Plasmodium falciparum Infections on Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Using a Multiplex Serological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is a necessary cause of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL, while the role of Plasmodium falciparum in eBL remains uncertain. This study aimed to generate new hypotheses on the interplay between both infections in the development of eBL by investigating the IgG and IgM profiles against several EBV and P. falciparum antigens. Serum samples collected in a childhood study in Malawi (2005–2006 from 442 HIV-seronegative children (271 eBL cases and 171 controls between 1.4 and 15 years old were tested by quantitative suspension array technology against a newly developed multiplex panel combining 4 EBV antigens [Z Epstein–Barr replication activator protein (ZEBRA, early antigen-diffuse component (EA-D, EBV nuclear antigen 1, and viral capsid antigen p18 subunit (VCA-p18] and 15 P. falciparum antigens selected for their immunogenicity, role in malaria pathogenesis, and presence in different parasite stages. Principal component analyses, multivariate logistic models, and elastic-net regressions were used. As expected, elevated levels of EBV IgG (especially against the lytic antigens ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18 were strongly associated with eBL [high vs low tertile odds ratio (OR = 8.67, 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.81–15.64]. Higher IgG responses to the merozoite surface protein 3 were observed in children with eBL compared with controls (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02–1.64, showing an additive interaction with EBV IgGs (OR = 10.6, 95% CI = 5.1–22.2, P = 0.05. Using elastic-net regression models, eBL serological profile was further characterized by lower IgM levels against P. falciparum preerythrocytic-stage antigen CelTOS and EBV lytic antigen VCA-p18 compared with controls. In a secondary analysis, abdominal Burkitt lymphoma had lower IgM to EBV and higher IgG to EA-D levels than cases with head involvement. Overall, this exploratory study confirmed the strong role of EBV in eBL and identified

  13. Serologic testing for protection against hepatitis B virus infection among students at a health sciences university in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Philip R; Williams, Roxanne E; Xing, Jian; Soyemi, Kenneth; Towers, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate hepatitis B vaccination coverage and documentation of vaccine-induced immunity. Retrospective cohort analysis. Graduate school in the United States with programs in osteopathic medicine, dentistry, and allied health. Data collected included demographics, dates of hepatitis B vaccine doses, and postvaccination concentrations of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), with dates. The proportions of students with anti-HBs of 10 IU/L or more by demographics, age at vaccination, interval since completion of the primary series, and response to additional vaccine doses were compared. Of 3,452 students who matriculated during 2004-2009, 2,643 had complete data; 2,481 (93.9%) received 3 primary doses. Most were women (64.6%), US-born (85.6%), and white (63.2%); median age at receipt of the primary series was 14.5 years (interquartile range, 11.6-20.2 years) and at postvaccination testing was 23.2 years (interquartile range, 22.1-24.8 years). Of those who received 3 primary doses, 2,306 (92.9%) had an anti-HBs postvaccination concentration of 10 IU/L or more. Younger age at vaccination and longer time interval from vaccination to anti-HBs testing were associated with a postvaccination concentration of less than 10 IU/L (Phepatitis B virus infection; most were vaccinated as adolescents and were tested more than 10 years after vaccination. Among students with anti-HBs concentrations of less than 10 IU/L, nearly all had 10 IU/L or more after at least 1 additional vaccine dose.

  14. Factors associated with post-seasonal serological titer and risk factors for infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in the French general population.

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    Nathanael Lapidus

    Full Text Available The CoPanFlu-France cohort of households was set up in 2009 to study the risk factors for infection by the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm in the French general population. The authors developed an integrative data-driven approach to identify individual, collective and environmental factors associated with the post-seasonal serological H1N1pdm geometric mean titer, and derived a nested case-control analysis to identify risk factors for infection during the first season. This analysis included 1377 subjects (601 households. The GMT for the general population was 47.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 45.1, 49.2. According to a multivariable analysis, pandemic vaccination, seasonal vaccination in 2009, recent history of influenza-like illness, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, social contacts at school and use of public transports by the local population were associated with a higher GMT, whereas history of smoking was associated with a lower GMT. Additionally, young age at inclusion and risk perception of exposure to the virus at work were identified as possible risk factors, whereas presence of an air humidifier in the living room was a possible protective factor. These findings will be interpreted in light of the longitudinal analyses of this ongoing cohort.

  15. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Baize

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis.

  16. Serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with two doses of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Anil; Diptee, Michael; Asgarali, Zinora; Campbell, Mervyn; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-two water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves aged 6–10 months were used to evaluate serological responses to Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccination in a dose-response study and to compare the use of two selective media for the isolation of RB51. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Groups I-III received the recommended vaccine dose (RD) twice 4 weeks apart, RD twice 18 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Lymph nodes were excised from the three groups and subjected to bacteriological examination to determine the frequency of detection of RB51. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were collected and tested for B. abortus antibodies using the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and dot-blot assay. Sera taken at all post-inoculation weeks (PIW) were negative for field strain B. abortus using the BPAT. Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in controls by CFT and dot-blot assay from 1 PIW up to 16 weeks following booster vaccination. The agreement for both assays was 80.7% and there was a linear interdependence with a Pearson's correlation coefficient value of 0.578. The frequency of isolation of RB51 from the two selective media used was not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  17. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2 were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social

  18. Serological diagnostic of maedi-visna (MVV in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV in goats in Macedonia

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    Mitrov Dine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Maedi-Visna in sheep and CAEV in goats are diseases caused by lentiviruses with very similar antigenic characteristics. This diseases are very important for the animal husbandry because of the economical losses they cause (reduced milk yield, lower body weight, deaths, therapy expenses. The results in this article, represents the first serological confirmation for the existence of this diseases in Macedonia. Investigations showed high percent of seroprevalence in the examined herds. The seroprevalence ranges from 60.3% for Maedi-Visna to 55.8% for CAEV. Despite the presence of clinical signs of the disease, the mortality is low, witch is related to the presence of the causal agent in the field i.e. the endemic character of this diseases.

  19. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  20. A large-scale serological survey of Akabane virus infection in cattle, yak, sheep and goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Blasdell, Kim R; Yin, Hong; Walker, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is a member of the Simbu serogroup, classified in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. AKAV infection can cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in cattle and sheep. The distribution and prevalence of AKAV infection in China is still unknown. A total of 2731 sera collected from 2006 to 2015 in 24 provinces of China from cattle, sheep, goats and yak were examined by serum neutralisation test. The overall seroprevalence rates for AKAV antibodies were 21.3% in cattle (471/2215) and 12.0% (17/142) in sheep or goats, and 0% in yak (0/374). The results indicated widespread AKAV infection in China among cattle and sheep but yak appear to have a low risk of infection. Using a selection of 50 AKAV-positive and 25 AKAV-negative cattle sera, neutralisation tests were also conducted to detect antibodies to several other Simbu serogroup bunyaviruses and closely related Leanyer virus. Although inconclusive, the data suggest that both Aino virus and Peaton virus, which have been reported previously in Japan and Korea, may also be present in cattle in China. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Type-specific serologic diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection, based on a synthetic peptide of the attachment protein G

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, J.P.M.; Middel, W.G.J.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Meloen, R.H.; Kramps, J.A.; Brandenburg, A.H.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Peptides deduced from the central hydrophobic region (residues 158-189) of the G protein of bovine and ovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and of human RSV subtypes A and B were synthesized. These peptides were used to develop ELISAs to measure specifically antibodies against these types and

  2. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among the general population in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional population-based serological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; van der Hoek, Wim; Borlée, Floor; Heederik, Dick J J; Mooi, Sofie H; Maassen, Catharina B M; Yzermans, C Joris; Rockx, Barry; Smit, Lidwien A M; Reimerink, Johan H J

    2017-01-05

    Recent serological studies indicate that hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in industrialised countries. The increasing trend in the number of autochthonous cases of HEV genotype 3 in Western European countries, stresses the importance to get insight in the exact routes of exposure. Pigs are the main animal reservoir, and zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV is proven. However, infected pigs can excrete large amounts of virus via their faeces enabling environmental transmission of HEV to humans. This might pose a risk for of neighbouring residents of livestock farming. Within a large study on the health of people living in the vicinity of livestock farming we performed a cross-sectional population-based serological survey among 2,494 non-farming adults from the general population in a livestock-dense area in the south of the Netherlands. Participants completed risk factor questionnaires and blood samples of 2,422 subjects (median age 58 years, range 20-72) were tested for anti-HEV IgG using an enzyme immune assay (Wantai). The aim of this study was to determine the HEV seroprevalence and to assess whether seropositivity in adults was associated with living in the vicinity of pig farms. The average seroprevalence of HEV was 28.7% (95% CI: 26.9-30.5). Determinants associated with an increased risk for HEV seropositivity were male gender and low level of education. There was a clear trend of increasing prevalence with increasing age (Chi-square test for linear trend, X(2) = 83.1; p Netherlands, but presence of antibodies was not associated with residential proximity to pig farms. The prevalence increased with age from 10% in adolescents to 33% among those aged 50 and above, supporting the assumption of a cumulative lifetime exposure to HEV in the Netherlands as well as a higher infection pressure in the past. Our findings cannot refute the assumption that transmission is primarily food-borne.

  3. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  4. Serologic profile of a cohort of pigs and antibody response to an autogenous vaccine for Actinobacillus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, L; D'Allaire, S; Lacouture, S; Gottschalk, M

    2001-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis is a commensal opportunistic pathogen in swine. However, in recent years, an increasing prevalence of clinical signs associated with A. suis has been observed in high health status herds in North America. The objectives of the study were to assess the kinetics of antibodies to A. suis in pigs from a herd showing clinical signs of A. suis infection and, to evaluate the antibody response in gilts following vaccination with an autogenous vaccine. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a saline extract of boiled-formalinized whole cells of a field strain as the coating antigen was standardized. This ELISA was used as a tool for monitoring, in a comparative way, the variations in A. suis antibody levels. The herd selected for the serologic profile was negative for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection and showed clinical signs of A. suis infection in 16 to 19-week-old pigs. A cohort of 20 pigs was blood sampled at 5, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. The lowest level of serum antibodies was observed between weeks 8 and 12, this probably corresponding to a decrease in maternal immunity. A marked increase in the antibody response was seen at 16-week of age, at the approximate time of onset of A. suis clinical signs in the herd. The evaluation of serum antibody responses to an autogenous vaccine revealed that the humoral immunity of gilts further increased following vaccination although the level of antibodies was already high prior to vaccination. The magnitude of the response to vaccination was higher when the level of antibodies was low prior to the first injection. The ELISA test seems to detect antibodies against the O-chain LPS.

  5. Comparison of serological response to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin G in the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected patients: a multi-center observational study.

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    Jen-Chih Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While doxycycline is recommended as an alternative treatment of syphilis in patients with penicillin allergy or intolerance, clinical studies to compare serological response to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin in treatment of early syphilis among HIV-infected patients remain sparse. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HIV-infected patients with early syphilis who received doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 14 days (doxycycline group and those who received 1 dose of benzathine penicillin (2.4 million units (penicillin group between 2007 and 2013. Serological responses defined as a decline of rapid plasma reagin titer by 4-fold or greater at 6 and 12 months of treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: During the study period, 123 and 271 patients in the doxycycline and penicillin group, respectively, completed 6 months or longer follow-up. Ninety-one and 271 patients in the doxycycline and penicillin group, respectively, completed 12 months or longer follow-up. Clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups, except that, compared with penicillin group, doxycycline group had a lower proportion of patients with secondary syphilis (65.4% versus 41.5%, P<0.0001 and a higher proportion of patients with early latent syphilis (25.3% versus 49.6%, P<0.0001. No statistically significant differences were found in the serological response rates to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin at 6 months (63.4% versus 72.3%, P = 0.075 and 12 months of treatment (65.9% versus 68.3%, P = 0.681. In multivariate analysis, secondary syphilis, but not treatment regimen, was consistently associated with serological response at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The serological response rates to a 14-day course of doxycycline and a single dose of benzathine penicillin were similar in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Patients with secondary

  6. Serological response to filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G; Baraff, L J; Peppler, M S; Leake, R D; St Geme, J; Manclark, C R

    1983-01-01

    Serum antibody responses to the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin of Bordetella pertussis after vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, adsorbed, were assayed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of early immunization, during the first week of life, on the antibody response also was determined. After vaccination, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM directed against both the filamentous hemagglutinin and the lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected. Generally, antibody titers increased with subsequent injections and the age of the children. Maternal antibodies against filamentous hemagglutinin and lymphocytosis-promoting toxin were detected in cord blood. The ability of an infant to produce serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin after vaccination with pertussis vaccine was inversely related to the cord blood serum IgG anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin titer at birth. A good antibody response was observed in infants with low cord blood titers, and a poor antibody response was seen in infants with high cord blood values. The IgM anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin response was good in groups with both low and high cord blood titer, with no significant difference observed between the two groups. No IgA anti-lymphocytosis-promoting toxin or IgA anti-filamentous hemagglutinin titers were observed in vaccines. IgA antibodies were observed in convalescent sera from two adults and may be presumptive evidence of infection with B. pertussis. PMID:6309662

  7. Genetic appraisal of serological response post vaccination against enterotoxaemia (ET) in Malpura and Avikalin sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowane, G R; Akram, Najif; Prince, L L L; Prakash, Ved; Kumar, Arun

    2017-04-01

    Enterotoxaemia (ET) is a fatal enteric disease of small ruminants attributable to a toxigenic type of Clostridium perfringens. The key strategy for prevention of ET is the management and vaccination. Present study aimed at identifying the sources of variation for ET vaccine response especially against epsilon toxin in 173 sheep that included 83 Avikalin and 90 Malpura lambs raised at the institute flock in the semi-arid region of India. The mean age at vaccination was 90 days. Sera were tested by blocking ELISA. Study showed significant variability for response to ET vaccine. 5.2% animals had + positivity, 20.8% animals had ++ positivity, 51.4% animals had +++ positivity and 22.5% animals had ++++ positivity. Amongst environmental determinants, breed, season, sex and age at vaccination proved to be non-significant sources of variation (P > 0.05). MHC genotypes with DRB1 gene and DQA2 genes also revealed non-significant association with ET vaccine response; however, a trend of decreasing PI values with increasing ranks was observed. Study revealed strong response of epsilon toxin along with complexity of the ET vaccine response as phenotype to be explained by genetic and non-genetic factors. The importance of better management practices and vaccination is suggested for preventive measures.

  8. Serological Status of Rubella Virus in Cord Blood Samples of Newborn in Hospitals Affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    S.H. Monavari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rubella is a disease caused by the rubella virus and is usually mild and self-limiting. Infection of a developing fetus is serious and important because the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome. Its symptoms include mental retardation, heart defects, cataract, etc. In 2003, mass vaccination against measles and rubella in individuals 5-25 years old was done. One of the main objectives of this study was to survey congenital rubella infection status with the presence of IgM antibodies against rubella virus in cord blood samples and also the immunity assessment of maternal IgG antibodies against rubella virus in the samples.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 358 cord blood samples were collected in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed by two ELISA methods for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and RT-nested PCR tests on samples of IgG–negative and IgM-positive. In this study two groups of mothers were tested, one consisted of the ones29 with the frequency of 29.1%.Results: The mean age of subjects was 22.6 years old. Out of 358 samples, 326 (91.1% were IgG positive, and 10 (2.8% were IgM positive against rubella virus. All of the samples with negative result for IgG antibody, and positive result for IgM antibody against rubella virus were tested for the presence of rubella genome with RT-nested PCR method. None of these samples were positive according to the presence of the virus genome.Conclusion: According to the high immunity of mothers, the probability of congenital rubella transmission is low, but because of low immunity of mothers being >29 years old, it is highly reccommended to upgrade the age of vaccination to 28.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:16-21

  9. Use of detergent extracts of Brucella abortus RB51 to detect serologic responses in RB51-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, S M; Koster, N A

    2001-09-01

    Serologic responses to the newly introduced rough Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 have been determined in a dot-blot format using gamma-irradiated RB51 cells as the antigen. Because gamma-irradiated cells are not easily prepared and the signal from cells was not always reliable, an alternative antigen was sought. Detergent extracts of B. abortus RB51 were prepared using zwittergent 3-14, Triton X-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and examined in a dot-blot format. Zwittergent 3-14 extracts and gamma-irradiated RB51 cells gave the same titers. Unlike gamma-irradiated RB51 cells, zwittergent 3-14 extracts produced signals consistently, and the signals were easily interpreted. Triton X-100 extracts interfered with signal development, and SDS extracts resulted in a high background signal. Western blot analyses revealed several outer membrane proteins in the zwittergent 3-14 extract. The major antigens in the extract had apparent molecular weights of <20,000.

  10. Vaccine failure and serologic response to live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children during the 2013-2014 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer P; McLean, Huong Q; Meece, Jennifer K; Levine, Min Z; Spencer, Sarah M; Flannery, Brendan; Belongia, Edward A

    2018-02-21

    Recent observational studies in the United States indicated live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was less effective in children against clinical influenza infection caused by A(H1N1)pdm09 relative to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). During the 2013-2014 influenza season, we conducted an observational study among children aged 5-17 years to compare serologic responses to LAIV and IIV and explore factors associated with vaccine failure. One hundred and sixty-one children received one dose of trivalent IIV or quadrivalent LAIV according to parental preference. Baseline and postvaccination serum samples were tested with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against vaccine reference strains. Geometric mean titers (GMT), geometric mean fold rise (GMFR), seroconversion, and seroprotection (HI titer ≥ 40) were used to assess response to vaccine. Active surveillance for acute respiratory illness was conducted during the influenza season and influenza cases were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between vaccine type and vaccine failure. LAIV and IIV recipients were similar with respect to demographics and baseline GMT for each vaccine strain. RT-PCR confirmed influenza (vaccine failure) occurred in 8 (13%) of 62 LAIV recipients and 3 (3%) of 99 IIV recipients (p = .02). Postvaccination GMFR for A(H1N1)pdm09 was higher for IIV vs LAIV receipt (GMFR 3.3 vs. 0.8, p vaccine failure in the age-adjusted multivariable model (odds ratio 4.5, 95% CI 1.1-18.2). Receipt of LAIV generated minimal HI antibody response in children, including among those seronegative at baseline. LAIV recipients had significant increased risk of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection compared to IIV recipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serologic survey for antibodies against three genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Neill, John D; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Zhang, Yijing; Passler, Thomas; Velayudhan, Binu T; Walz, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine titers of serum antibodies against 3 genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama. ANIMALS 62 cattle, goats, and New World camelids from 5 distinct herds and 21 captured white-tailed deer. PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from all animals for determination of anti-BPI3V antibody titers, which were measured by virus neutralization assays that used indicator (reference) viruses from each of the 3 BPI3V genotypes (BPI3V-A, BPI3V-B, and BPI3V-C). The reference strains were recent clinical isolates from US cattle. Each sample was assayed in triplicate for each genotype. Animals with a mean antibody titer ≤ 2 for a particular genotype were considered seronegative for that genotype. RESULTS Animals seropositive for antibodies against BPI3V were identified in 2 of 3 groups of cattle and the group of New World camelids. The geometric mean antibody titer against BPI3V-B was significantly greater than that for BPI3V-A and BPI3V-C in all 3 groups. All goats, captive white-tailed deer, and cattle in the third cattle group were seronegative for all 3 genotypes of the virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant genotype circulating among ungulates in Alabama. This may be clinically relevant because BPI3V is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease complex, current vaccines contain antigens against BPI3V-A only, and the extent of cross-protection among antibodies against the various BPI3V genotypes is unknown.

  12. Evaluation of antibody response to vaccination against West Nile virus in thick billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavis, Jennifer; Larsen, R Scott; Lamberski, Nadine; Gaffney, Patricia; Gardner, Ian

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first documented in North America in New York City in 1999. Several deaths attributable to WNV have been reported in captive thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), an endangered psittacine native to North America. The serologic responses in 12 captive adult thick-billed parrots after a series of three initial WNV vaccine injections with annual boosters over 6 yr was evaluated. In addition, the serologic responses of 11 thick-billed parrot chicks following an initial vaccination series to determine if there were seroconversions were also reported. Most adults (67%) had seroconverted after 5 yr of annual vaccination, with a median titer of 1:80 (range 1:40-1:160) for those that seroconverted. After the first year, birds were likely naturally exposed to WNV, which limited interpretation of titers. None of the chicks seroconverted during the initial three-vaccine series; only two of four chicks (50%) had seroconverted when tested at the 1-yr yearly booster, and at 2 yr, three of four chicks had seroconverted. Although some birds had detectable antibody titers, it is unclear whether this vaccine can reliably provide protection against WNV in thick-billed parrots.

  13. Establishment of the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Esper Georges Kallas

    Full Text Available Several strategies aim at characterizing the AIDS epidemic in different parts of the world. Among these, the identification of recent HIV-1 infections using the recently described serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy was employed in four testing sites of the City of São Paulo Public Health Department (CSPPHD. Those identified as recently infected were invited to participate in a prospective clinical and laboratory evaluation study. We describe the establishment of the patient identification network and the success in enrolling the participants, as well as their clinical and laboratory characteristics. From May to December 2002, 6,443 persons were tested for HIV in the four participating sites, of whom 384 (5.96% tested HIV-1 positive; 43 (11.2% of them were identified as recently infected. Twenty-two were successfully enrolled in the follow-up study, but three of them did not meet clinical and/or laboratory criteria for recent HIV-1 infection. After these exclusions, the laboratory findings revealed a median CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 585 cells/muL (inter-quartile range 25-75% [IQR], 372-754, a CD8+ T lymphocyte count of 886 cells/muL (IQR, 553-1098, a viral load of 11,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (IQR, 3,650-78,150, log10 of 4.04 (IQR 3.56-4.88. The identification of recent HIV infections is an extremely valuable way to evaluate the spread of the virus in a given population, especially when cohort studies, considered the gold standard method to evaluate incidence, are not available. This work demonstrated that establishing a network to identify such patients is a feasible task, even considering the difficulties in a large, resource-limited country or city.

  14. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays and immunocapture-RT-PCR for detecting Rice dwarf virus in field rice plants and leafhopper vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianxiang; Ni, Yuequn; Liu, Huan; Ding, Ming; Zhou, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) causes Rice dwarf disease, which leads to considerable losses in rice production in Asia. Purified RDV virions were used as the immunogen to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Three murine mAbs against RDV were prepared. Plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA), dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of RDV in rice and leafhopper samples obtained in the field using the mAbs. The PTA-ELISA, dot-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR detected the virus in infected tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:81,920, 1:10,240 and 1:655,360 (w/v, g mL(-1)), in individual viruliferous rice green leafhopper crude extracts diluted at 1:25,600, 1:6400 and 1:3,276,800 (individual leafhopper/μL), respectively. 878 rice field samples and 531 leafhopper field samples from ten provinces of China were screened for the presence of RDV using the two serological assays and the IC-RT-PCR and the results indicated that 37 of the 878 rice samples and 22 of the 531 leafhopper samples were infected by RDV. All positive samples were from Yunnan Province, indicating that RDV is prevalent in this province, but not in the other nine provinces. The dot-ELISA is suitable for routine detection of large-scale rice and leafhopper samples in field surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Diagnosis of Genital Herpes – Beyond Culture: An Evidence-Based Guide for the Utilization of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-Specific Serology

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    S Ratnam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and HSV type 2 (HSV-2. Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS. PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners.

  16. Comparison of Abbott Architect®, Siemens Immulite®, and Diasorin Liaison®for determination of Epstein-Barr virus serological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Catherine; Segard, Christine; Bouvier, Maryline; Stefanski, Martine; Pannier, Christine; Zawadzki, Patricia; Roussel, Catherine; Hecquet, Denise; Duverlie, Gilles; Brochot, Etienne; Castelain, Sandrine

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the performance of 3 automated immunoassays, Architect ® (Abbott), Immulite ® (Siemens) and Liaison ® (Diasorin), for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology. Ninety-one serum samples collected in Amiens University Hospital were analyzed for the presence of Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) IgG. The agreement between the 3 assays was calculated for each marker individually and for determination of the EBV profile, based on interpretation of the combination of these 3 EBV markers. Although similar results were obtained with Architect ® and Liaison ® , several discordant results were observed with Immulite ® , particularly for EBNA IgG. A large number of EBNA IgG-positive results were observed, which interfered with interpretation of the EBV profile. In contrast, Immulite ® performed similarly to the 2 other assays for detection of VCA IgM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Carrascosa, A L; De Mia, G M; Bishop, R P; Martins, C; Fasina, F O; Couacy-Hymman, E; Heath, L; Pelayo, V; Martín, E; Simón, A; Martín, R; Okurut, A R; Lekolol, I; Okoth, E; Arias, M

    2013-02-22

    The presence of antibodies against African swine fever (ASF), a complex fatal notifiable OIE disease of swine, is always indicative of previous infection, since there is no vaccine that is currently used in the field. The early appearance and subsequent long-term persistence of antibodies combined with cost-effectiveness make antibody detection techniques essential in control programmes. Recent reports appear to indicate that the serological tests recommended by the OIE for ASF monitoring are much less effective in East and Southern Africa where viral genetic and antigenic diversity is the greatest. We report herein an extensive analysis including more than 1000 field and experimental infection sera, in which the OIE recommended tests are compared with antigen-specific ELISAs and immuno-peroxidase staining of cells (IPT). The antibody detection results generated using new antigen-specific tests, developed in this study, which are based on production of antigen fractions generated by infection and virus purification from COS-1 cells, showed strong concordance with the OIE tests. We therefore conclude that the lack of success is not attributable to antigenic polymorphism and may be related to the specific characteristics of the local breeds African pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of serological tests for antibody to hepatitis A antigen, using coded specimens from individuals infected with the MS-1 strain of hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienstag, J L; Krugman, S; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1976-01-01

    To compare serological tests for antibody to hepatitis A antigen (anti-HA), we tested 15 paired serum specimens, submitted under code, from individuals infected with the MS-1 strain of hepatitis A virus. Immune electron microscopy (IEM), immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA), and solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) tests for anti-HA were performed with hepatitis A antigen (HA Ag) derived from human stool; results were also compared with previously reported titers determined by IAHA with HA Ag derived from marmoset liver. Antibody titers (IAHA and RIA) and ratings (IEM) determined with stool-derived HA Ag compared favorably, and a seroresponse to HA Ag was detected by all three methods for every serum pair tested. Differences in titers were noted between IAHA tests with liver-derived and with stool-derived HA Ag, but the discrepancies could be accounted for by differences in test technique. The agreement found in this study among the three techniques was quite good and confirms the specificity and sensitivity of tests for anti-HA that are done with stool-derived HA-Ag. PMID:186409

  19. Inhibitors of the interferon response enhance virus replication in vitro.

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    Claire E Stewart

    Full Text Available Virus replication efficiency is influenced by two conflicting factors, kinetics of the cellular interferon (IFN response and induction of an antiviral state versus speed of virus replication and virus-induced inhibition of the IFN response. Disablement of a virus's capacity to circumvent the IFN response enables both basic research and various practical applications. However, such IFN-sensitive viruses can be difficult to grow to high-titer in cells that produce and respond to IFN. The current default option for growing IFN-sensitive viruses is restricted to a limited selection of cell-lines (e.g. Vero cells that have lost their ability to produce IFN. This study demonstrates that supplementing tissue-culture medium with an IFN inhibitor provides a simple, effective and flexible approach to increase the growth of IFN-sensitive viruses in a cell-line of choice. We report that IFN inhibitors targeting components of the IFN response (TBK1, IKK2, JAK1 significantly increased virus replication. More specifically, the JAK1/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib enhances the growth of viruses that are sensitive to IFN due to (i loss of function of the viral IFN antagonist (due to mutation or species-specific constraints or (ii mutations/host cell constraints that slow virus spread such that it can be controlled by the IFN response. This was demonstrated for a variety of viruses, including, viruses with disabled IFN antagonists that represent live-attenuated vaccine candidates (Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, Influenza Virus, traditionally attenuated vaccine strains (Measles, Mumps and a slow-growing wild-type virus (RSV. In conclusion, supplementing tissue culture-medium with an IFN inhibitor to increase the growth of IFN-sensitive viruses in a cell-line of choice represents an approach, which is broadly applicable to research investigating the importance of the IFN response in controlling virus infections and has utility in a number of practical applications

  20. The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (HBsAg Variations and Correlation with the Clinical and Serologic Pictures in Chronic Carriers from Khorasan Province, North-East of Iran

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    Alireza Namazi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the correlation of hepatitis B virus surface Ag (HBsAg variations with the clinical/serological pictures among chronic HBsAg positive patients. The surface gene (S-gene was amplified and directly sequenced in twenty-five patients. Eight samples (group I contained at least one mutation at the amino acid level. Five showed alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels above the normal range of which only one sample was anti-HBe positive. Group II (17 samples did not contain any mutation, 4 were anti-HBe positive and 9 had increased ALT levels. In both groups, from a total of 18 mutations, 5 (27.5% and 13 (72.5% occurred in anti-HBe and HBeAg positive groups respectively. The small number of amino acid mutations might belong to either the initial phase of chronicity in our patients; or that even in anti-HBe positive phase in Iranian genotype D-infected patients, a somehow tolerant pattern due to the host genetic factors may be responsible.

  1. Virological and serological findings in Rousettus aegyptiacus experimentally inoculated with vero cells-adapted hogan strain of Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Masumu, Justin; Leman, Patricia A; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Birkhead, Monica; Clift, Sarah; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is currently regarded as a potential reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). However, the modes of transmission, the level of viral replication, tissue tropism and viral shedding pattern remains to be described. Captive-bred R. aegyptiacus, including adult males, females and pups were exposed to MARV by different inoculation routes. Blood, tissues, feces and urine from 9 bats inoculated by combination of nasal and oral routes were all negative for the virus and ELISA IgG antibody could not be demonstrated for up to 21 days post inoculation (p.i.). In 21 bats inoculated by a combination of intraperitoneal/subcutaneous route, viremia and the presence of MARV in different tissues was detected on days 2-9 p.i., and IgG antibody on days 9-21 p.i. In 3 bats inoculated subcutaneously, viremia was detected on days 5 and 8 (termination of experiment), with virus isolation from different organs. MARV could not be detected in urine, feces or oral swabs in any of the 3 experimental groups. However, it was detected in tissues which might contribute to horizontal or vertical transmission, e.g. lung, intestines, kidney, bladder, salivary glands, and female reproductive tract. Viremia lasting at least 5 days could also facilitate MARV mechanical transmission by blood sucking arthropods and infections of susceptible vertebrate hosts by direct contact with infected blood. All bats were clinically normal and no gross pathology was identified on post mortem examination. This work confirms the susceptibility of R. aegyptiacus to infection with MARV irrespective of sex and age and contributes to establishing a bat-filovirus experimental model. Further studies are required to uncover the mode of MARV transmission, and to investigate the putative role of R. aegyptiacus as a reservoir host.

  2. A serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Namatovu, Alice; Sangula, Abraham K.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in FMD-free areas. This study investigated the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for FMD...... neutralisation test (VNT). Due to high degree of agreement between the two ELISAs, it was concluded that positive pigs had been infected with FMDV. Implications of these results for the role of pigs in the epidemiology of FMD in Kenya are discussed, and in-depth studies are recommended....

  3. Serological evidence for the circulation of Rift Valley Fever Virus in domestic small ruminants in Southern Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Maganga, G. D.; Ndong, A. L. A.; Okouyi, C. S. M.; Mandanda, S. M.; N'Dilimabaka, N.; Pinto, A.; Agossou, E.; Cossic, B.; Akue, J. P.; Leroy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease, which caused several epidemics in humans in many countries of Africa. Using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time reverse transcription PCR, and nested one-step reverse transcription PCR, we conducted a cross-sectional study in populations of sheep and goats from the Mongo County in 2014 to determine the circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in small ruminants from this area. From a total of 201 small rumi...

  4. Production and diagnostic application of a purified, E. coli-expressed, serological-specific chicken anaemia virus antigen VP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-S; Chou, Y-M; Lien, Y-Y; Lin, M-K; Chang, W-T; Lee, H-Z; Lee, M-S; Lai, G-H; Chen, H-J; Huang, C-H; Lin, W-H

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of chicken anaemia virus VP3 protein in different Escherichia coli strains and to address the diagnostic application of purified E. coli-expressed VP3 protein for the detection of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) infection and the development of an ELISA kit. Three E. coli strains, BL21, BL21 codonplus RP and BL21 pLysS, each harbouring a VP3 protein expressing plasmid, were investigated after induction to produce recombinant VP3 protein. After isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, VP3 protein was successfully expressed in all three E. coli strains. The BL21 pLysS strain gave the best performance in terms of protein productivity and growth profile. In addition, the optimal culture temperature and IPTG concentration were found to be 0.25 mM and 20 °C, respectively. Using Ni-NTA-purified VP3 protein as an ELISA coating antigen, the purified VP3 was shown to be highly antigenic and able to discriminate sera from chickens infected with CAV from those that were uninfected during an evaluation of CAV infection serodiagnosis. A VP3-based ELISA demonstrated 100% (6/6 x 100%) specificity and sensitivities of 91.3% (21/23 x 100%) and 82.6% (19/23 x 100%) using cut-off values of the mean plus 2 SD and the mean plus 3 SD, respectively. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  6. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  7. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus and Pasteurella multocida infections in free-range indigenous chickens in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunde, Paula; Timbe, Palmira; Lucas, Ana Felicidade; Tchamo, Cesaltina; Chilundo, Abel; Dos Anjos, Filomena; Costa, Rosa; Bila, Custodio Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    A total of 398 serum samples from free-range indigenous chickens originating from four villages in Southern Mozambique were tested for the presence of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. AEV and PM antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed. The proportion of positive samples was very high: 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 51.7-67.7%) for AEV and 71.5% (95% CI 67.7-77.3%) for PM. Our findings revealed that these pathogens are widespread among free-range indigenous chickens in the studied villages and may represent a threat in the transmission of AEV and PM to wild, broiler or layer chickens in the region. Further research is warranted on epidemiology of circulating strains and impact of infection on the poultry industry.

  8. An indirect ELISA to detect the serologic response of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) inoculated with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Lesley A; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Elzer, Philip H

    2002-10-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to identify elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51)-specific antibodies using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for bovine IgG1. This test was relatively easy to perform, accurate, and easily reproducible; therefore it could be standardized for use between laboratories. In addition, we attempted to compensate for inherent variabilities encountered when comparing ELISA readings from multiple samples taken from many animals over time. Optical density (OD) readings for each sample were converted into a percent positivity value for analysis. A negative cutoff value was determined above which a sample was considered to have a significantly elevated anti-RB51 antibody level. Pre- and postvaccination sera from 64 6-8 mo old elk, divided into four groups (females subcutaneously inoculated with saline (control animals), females ballistically inoculated with RB51, females subcutaneously inoculated with RB51, and males subcutaneously inoculated with RB51) were used. All serum samples were collected between 27 April and 15 November 1995. Values for all saline controls were appropriately below the negative cutoff value. All subcutaneously and ballistically inoculated elk were serologically positive to RB51 for at least two sampling periods during the study. The difference in percent positivity values for the ballistically compared to the subcutaneously inoculated groups was not statistically significant at 8, 10, 14, or 18 wk postvaccination. This suggests that processing RB51 into lactose based pellets and ballistically inoculating elk with these pellets does not alter the detectable elk antibody response. Also, inoculated and control animals can be accurately identified with ELISA at 4-8 weeks postvaccination.

  9. Serological evaluation of possible exposure to Ljungan virus and related parechovirus in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A-L; Vaziri-Sani, F; Broberg, P; Elfaitouri, A; Pipkorn, R; Blomberg, J; Ivarsson, S-A; Elding Larsson, H; Lernmark, Å

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) is implicated in the risk of autoimmune (type 1) diabetes but possible contribution by other parechoviruses is not ruled out. The aim was to compare children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2005-2011 (n = 69) with healthy controls (n = 294), all from the Jämtland County in Sweden, using an exploratory suspension multiplex immunoassay for IgM and IgG against 26 peptides of LV, human parechoviruses (HPeV), Aichi virus and poliovirus in relation to a radiobinding assay (RBA) for antibodies against LV and InfluenzaA/H1N1pdm09. Islet autoantibodies and HLA-DQ genotypes were also determined. 1) All five LV-peptide antibodies correlated to each other (P RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with young age at diagnosis (P RBA LV antibodies (P = 0.009); 5) HPeV3-peptide-IgM and -IgG showed inter-peptide correlations (P RBA LV antibodies without relation to insulin autoantibody positivity (P = 0.072 and P = 0.486, respectively). Both exploratory suspension multiplex IgG to LV-peptide VP1_31-60 and RBA detected LV antibodies correlated with insulin autoantibodies and HLA-DQ8 suggesting possible role in type 1 diabetes. It remains to be determined if cross-reactivity or concomitant exposure to LV and HPeV3 contributes to the seroprevalence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Impact of hepatitis C virus coinfection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome in HIV-infected individuals: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Nina Margrethe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø.; Kronborg, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients may decrease the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We determined the impact of HCV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome among...... Danish patients with HIV-1 infection. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included all adult Danish HIV-1-infected patients who started highly active antiretroviral therapy from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2004. Patients were classified as HCV positive (positive HCV serological test and/or HCV PCR...

  11. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  12. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  13. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  14. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  15. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  16. Characterizing areas of potential human exposure to eastern equine encephalitis virus using serological and clinical data from horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J-P; Arsenault, J; Ogden, N H; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Michel, P

    2017-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada. According to logistic models, being located near wooded swamps was a risk factor for seropositivity or disease in horses [odds ratio (OR) 4·15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·16-14·8) whereas being located on agricultural lands was identified as protective (OR 0·75, 95% CI 0·62-0·92). A better understanding of the environmental risk of exposure to EEEV in Canada provides veterinary and public health officials with enhanced means to more effectively monitor the emergence of this public health risk and design targeted surveillance and preventive measures.

  17. Serological Prevalence Against Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Serocomplex Flaviviruses in Commensal and Field Rodents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Wei; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Li, Xing; Ke, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Japanese encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an endemic zoonotic disease of high public health importance in the Asian Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JEV infection in commensal and field rodents in South China. RNA copies of JEV were detected in brain samples of rodents using real-time RT-PCR. Detection of serum against JEV-reactive antibodies was performed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microneutralization test. In total, 198 rodents were collected from Guangzhou City and Xiamen City between November 2013 and May 2014. JEV RNA was not detected in 188 brain samples. Forty-four in 96 serum samples (45.8%) were positive for JEV-reactive IgG antibodies. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to against JEV-reactive in these serum samples was 61.5% (24/39), with titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:56. Rodents are not known to play a role in transmission of JEV in Asia, nor is there an evidence to support a role for rodents in transmission of other related flaviviruses in China. However, in the current study, we detected evidence of JEV-reactive antibodies in large numbers of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus losea Swinhoe. Further studies of rodents as potential hosts of JEV or other related flaviviruses are warranted.

  18. Serological assays for emerging coronaviruses: challenges and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A

    2014-12-19

    More than a decade after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002/2003 the occurrence of a novel CoV termed Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV challenges researchers and public health authorities. To control spread and finally contain novel viruses, rapid identification and subsequent isolation of infected individuals and their contacts is of utmost importance. Next to methods for nucleic acid detection, validated serological assays are particularly important as the timeframe for antibody detection is less restricted. During the SARS-CoV epidemic a wide variety of serological diagnostic assays were established using multiple methods as well as different viral antigens. Even though the majority of the developed assays showed high sensitivity and specificity, numerous studies reported on cross-reactive antibodies to antigens from wide-spread common cold associated CoVs. In order to improve preparedness and responsiveness during future outbreaks of novel CoVs, information and problems regarding serological diagnosis that occurred during the SARS-CoV should be acknowledged. In this review we summarize the performance of different serological assays as well as the applicability of the two main applied antigens (spike and nucleocapsid protein) used during the SARS-CoV outbreak. We highlight challenges and potential pitfalls that occur when dealing with a novel emerging coronavirus like MERS-CoV. In addition we describe problems that might occur when animal sera are tested in serological assays for the identification of putative reservoirs. Finally, we give a recommendation for a serological testing scheme and outline necessary improvements that should be implemented for a better preparedness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. No serological evidence for Zika virus infection and low specificity for anti-Zika virus ELISA in malaria positive individuals among pregnant women from Madagascar in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Mertens, Eva; Winter, Doris; Maiga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Dekker, Denise; Jansen, Stephanie; Tappe, Dennis; Randriamampionona, Njary; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    It was previously reported that a malaria infection may interfere with the specificity of a commercial ELISA test against Zika virus (ZIKV). We analyzed 1,216 plasma samples from healthy, pregnant women collected in two sites in Madagascar in 2010 for ZIKV antibodies using a commercial ELISA and for Plasmodium infection by PCR. This screen revealed six putative ZIKV-positive samples by ELISA. These results could not be confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assays or virus neutralization tests. Four of these six samples were also positive for P. falciparum. We noted that the frequency of malaria positivity was higher in ZIKV-ELISA positive samples (50% and 100% in the two study sites) than ZIKV-negative samples (17% and 10%, respectively), suggesting that malaria may have led to false ZIKV-ELISA positives.

  20. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrut, Xavier; Souris, Marc; Towner, Jonathan S; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Leroy, Eric

    2009-09-28

    Ebola and Marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) in Gabon and Republic of Congo, and also of marburgvirus (MARV) in Gabon and Democratic Republic of Congo. We tested 2147 bats belonging to at least nine species sampled between 2003 and 2008 in three regions of Gabon and in the Ebola epidemic region of north Congo for IgG antibodies specific for ZEBOV and MARV. Overall, IgG antibodies to ZEBOV and MARV were found in 4% and 1% of bats, respectively. ZEBOV-specific antibodies were found in six bat species (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Micropteropus pusillus, Mops condylurus and Rousettus aegyptiacus), while MARV-specific antibodies were only found in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Hypsignathus monstrosus. The prevalence of MARV-specific IgG was significantly higher in R. aegyptiacus members captured inside caves than elsewhere. No significant difference in prevalence was found according to age or gender. A higher prevalence of ZEBOV-specific IgG was found in pregnant females than in non pregnant females. These findings confirm that ZEBOV and MARV co-circulate in Gabon, the only country where bats infected by each virus have been found. IgG antibodies to both viruses were detected only in Rousettus aegyptiacus, suggesting that this bat species may be involved in the natural cycle of both Marburg and Ebola viruses. The presence of MARV in Gabon indicates a potential risk for a first human outbreak. Disease surveillance should be enhanced in areas near caves.

  1. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollin Pierre E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola and Marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV in Gabon and Republic of Congo, and also of marburgvirus (MARV in Gabon and Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We tested 2147 bats belonging to at least nine species sampled between 2003 and 2008 in three regions of Gabon and in the Ebola epidemic region of north Congo for IgG antibodies specific for ZEBOV and MARV. Results Overall, IgG antibodies to ZEBOV and MARV were found in 4% and 1% of bats, respectively. ZEBOV-specific antibodies were found in six bat species (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Micropteropus pusillus, Mops condylurus and Rousettus aegyptiacus, while MARV-specific antibodies were only found in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Hypsignathus monstrosus. The prevalence of MARV-specific IgG was significantly higher in R. aegyptiacus members captured inside caves than elsewhere. No significant difference in prevalence was found according to age or gender. A higher prevalence of ZEBOV-specific IgG was found in pregnant females than in non pregnant females. Conclusion These findings confirm that ZEBOV and MARV co-circulate in Gabon, the only country where bats infected by each virus have been found. IgG antibodies to both viruses were detected only in Rousettus aegyptiacus, suggesting that this bat species may be involved in the natural cycle of both Marburg and Ebola viruses. The presence of MARV in Gabon indicates a potential risk for a first human outbreak. Disease surveillance should be enhanced in areas near caves.

  2. Low Prevalence Rate of Indeterminate Serological Human Immunodeficiency Virus Results among Pregnant Women from Burkina Faso, West Africa▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Fao, Paulin; Valéa, Diane; Gouem, Clarisse; Kagoné, Thérèse; Hien, Hervé; Somda, Paulin; Ouédraogo, Patrice; Drabo, Aly; Gampini, Sandrine; Méda, Nicolas; Diagbouga, Serge; Van de Perre, Philippe; Rouet, François

    2010-01-01

    Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests have been adopted into national guidelines for HIV testing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One goal of HIV rapid testing is to minimize the occurrence of indeterminate results. From January 2005 to December 2007, plasma (or serum) samples from pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) were screened for HIV by using two rapid tests (the Determine HIV1/2 test [Abbott] and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 [Bio-Rad]) through a sequential algorithm prior to enrollment of HIV-1-infected women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (WHO/ANRS 1289 Kesho Bora trial). Samples exhibiting indeterminate results (Determine positive and Genie II negative) were further tested with a fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination in 2005 and 2006 and Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab in 2007). If positive, they were finally assessed for HIV-1 RNA (Generic HIV-1 RNA viral load assay; Biocentric). From a total of 44,653 samples tested, 597 (1.3%) showed indeterminate results. Of these, 367 could be analyzed by EIA. Only 15 (15/367, 4.1%) samples were found EIA reactive. Of these, 11 could be tested for HIV-1 RNA. All were HIV-1 RNA negative. In our clinical practice, pregnant women with such indeterminate results are now reassured during posttest counseling that they are very unlikely to be infected with HIV-1. As a consequence, such women with indeterminate results can reliably be considered negative when urgent clinical decisions (such as providing PMTCT prophylaxis) need to be taken. PMID:20129958

  3. Low prevalence rate of indeterminate serological human immunodeficiency virus results among pregnant women from Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dramane; Fao, Paulin; Valéa, Diane; Gouem, Clarisse; Kagoné, Thérèse; Hien, Hervé; Somda, Paulin; Ouédraogo, Patrice; Drabo, Aly; Gampini, Sandrine; Méda, Nicolas; Diagbouga, Serge; Van de Perre, Philippe; Rouet, François

    2010-04-01

    Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests have been adopted into national guidelines for HIV testing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. One goal of HIV rapid testing is to minimize the occurrence of indeterminate results. From January 2005 to December 2007, plasma (or serum) samples from pregnant women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa) were screened for HIV by using two rapid tests (the Determine HIV1/2 test [Abbott] and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2 [Bio-Rad]) through a sequential algorithm prior to enrollment of HIV-1-infected women in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (WHO/ANRS 1289 Kesho Bora trial). Samples exhibiting indeterminate results (Determine positive and Genie II negative) were further tested with a fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Murex HIV Ag/Ab combination in 2005 and 2006 and Vironostika HIV Uni-Form II Ag/Ab in 2007). If positive, they were finally assessed for HIV-1 RNA (Generic HIV-1 RNA viral load assay; Biocentric). From a total of 44,653 samples tested, 597 (1.3%) showed indeterminate results. Of these, 367 could be analyzed by EIA. Only 15 (15/367, 4.1%) samples were found EIA reactive. Of these, 11 could be tested for HIV-1 RNA. All were HIV-1 RNA negative. In our clinical practice, pregnant women with such indeterminate results are now reassured during posttest counseling that they are very unlikely to be infected with HIV-1. As a consequence, such women with indeterminate results can reliably be considered negative when urgent clinical decisions (such as providing PMTCT prophylaxis) need to be taken.

  4. Serological investigation for hepatitis E virus infection in the patients with chronic maintenance hemodialysis from southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid R Zekavat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A global distribution has been shown for hepatitis E virus (HEV infection. Although the fecal-oral was considered as the primary infection route, there is controversial evidence for increased risk of the infection and consequent problems in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD with suppressed immunity. The aim is to find if the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG, in patients with maintenance HD is higher than normal population in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: During November and December 2010, in a cross-sectional study we compared the seroprevalence of HEV among 80 patients with maintenance HD and 276 healthy individuals from Jahrom and Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. In addition to the clinical and laboratory records, serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG anti-HEV antibody by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA test. The Chi-square, the Student′s ′t′ and Fisher′s exact tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: ELISA tests detected anti-HEV antibody in five males of the patients (6.3% and in eight of the healthy controls (2.9%, 6 males and 2 female which statistically were not different. The mean levels of the aspartate aminotransferase and the alanine aminotransferase in the sera of the patients were 19.96±11.08U/L and 23.93±14.26 IU/L, respectively. However, no one of the individuals with positive anti-HEV antibody showed elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, there was not a significant association between positive anti-HEV antibody result, age and the history of the hemodialysis. Conclusions: We did not observe statistically significant higher anti-HEV prevalence among patients with chronic HD; however, more safety precaution is needed to keep HD patients from the risk of possible exposure to HEV infection.

  5. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  6. Virus and Vaccine with the Immune Responses of Guinea Fowls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar.

  7. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    uninfected as controls. The groups were monitored bacteriologically by examination of cloacal swabs and organs and serologically by examination of serum and egg yolk by a lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the period. Within the first week, 100% of birds in both infected groups...... at the onset of egg production. For both S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, positive bacteriologic cultures were obtained by sampling from internal organs at the end of the experiment, more than 1 yr from the time of infection. At the age of 6-7 wk, 50% of the chickens in the two infected groups showed...... a measurable serologic response in serum samples. The response persisted throughout the study in both serum and egg yell, samples. The inclusion of serologic methods is a valuable additional tool in the detection of salmonella in poultry, but serology should be used in conjunction with bacteriologic methods...

  9. Comprehensive serological analysis of two successive heterologous vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza virus in exotic birds in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Busquets, Núria; Alcántara, Gabriel; Delclaux, María; Pizarro, Bienvenido; Sánchez, Celia; Sánchez, Azucena; Majó, Natàlia; Darji, Ayub

    2011-05-01

    In 2005, European Commission directive 2005/744/EC allowed controlled vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus of valuable avian species housed in zoos. In 2006, 15 Spanish zoos and wildlife centers began a vaccination program with a commercial inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Between November 2007 and May 2008, birds from 10 of these centers were vaccinated again with a commercial inactivated H5N3 vaccine. During these campaigns, pre- and postvaccination samples from different bird orders were taken to study the response against AI virus H5 vaccines. Sera prior to vaccinations with both vaccines were examined for the presence of total antibodies against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) by a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Humoral responses to vaccination were evaluated using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. In some taxonomic orders, both vaccines elicited comparatively high titers of HI antibodies against H5. Interestingly, some orders, such as Psittaciformes, which did not develop HI antibodies to either vaccine formulation when used alone, triggered notable HI antibody production, albeit in low HI titers, when primed with H5N9 and during subsequent boosting with the H5N3 vaccine. Vaccination with successive heterologous vaccines may represent the best alternative to widely protect valuable and/or endangered bird species against highly pathogenic AI virus infection.

  10. Comprehensive Serological Analysis of Two Successive Heterologous Vaccines against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Exotic Birds in Zoos▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Busquets, Núria; Alcántara, Gabriel; Delclaux, María; Pizarro, Bienvenido; Sánchez, Celia; Sánchez, Azucena; Majó, Natàlia; Darji, Ayub

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, European Commission directive 2005/744/EC allowed controlled vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus of valuable avian species housed in zoos. In 2006, 15 Spanish zoos and wildlife centers began a vaccination program with a commercial inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Between November 2007 and May 2008, birds from 10 of these centers were vaccinated again with a commercial inactivated H5N3 vaccine. During these campaigns, pre- and postvaccination samples from different bird orders were taken to study the response against AI virus H5 vaccines. Sera prior to vaccinations with both vaccines were examined for the presence of total antibodies against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) by a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Humoral responses to vaccination were evaluated using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. In some taxonomic orders, both vaccines elicited comparatively high titers of HI antibodies against H5. Interestingly, some orders, such as Psittaciformes, which did not develop HI antibodies to either vaccine formulation when used alone, triggered notable HI antibody production, albeit in low HI titers, when primed with H5N9 and during subsequent boosting with the H5N3 vaccine. Vaccination with successive heterologous vaccines may represent the best alternative to widely protect valuable and/or endangered bird species against highly pathogenic AI virus infection. PMID:21430124

  11. Immune Responses to HCV and Other Hepatitis Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Hyung; Rehermann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Summary Five human hepatitis viruses cause most acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Over the past 25 years hepatitis C virus (HCV) in particular has received much interest because of its ability to persist in most immunocompetent adults and the lack of a protective vaccine. Here we examine innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV infection. Although HCV activates an innate immune response, it employs an elaborate set of mechanisms to evade interferon (IFN)-based antiviral immunity. By comparing innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV with those to hepatitis A and B viruses, we suggest that prolonged innate immune activation impairs the development of successful adaptive immune responses. Comparative immunology furthermore provides insights into the maintenance of immune protection. We conclude by discussing prospects for an HCV vaccine and future research needs for the hepatitis viruses. PMID:24439265

  12. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Wan eChan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR, a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR.

  13. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils...... and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. 13V117 infection resulted in the lowest virus replication in lymphoid tissues. 13V091 showed higher numbers of sialoadhesin-infected cells/mm(2) in conchae, tonsils and spleen than 13V117 and 07V063. Neutralizing antibody response with 07V063 was stronger than with 13V091 and 13V117...

  14. Remote sensing and serological analysis of the resistance of tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Hristova, Dimitrina; Iliev, Ilko; Yanev, Tony

    Diseases caused by Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) are among the most important factors lim-iting tomato production worldwide, as they can completely destroy the crop. ToMV occurs in most countries of the world, and causes disease epidemics in many crops. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defence mechanism that plays a central role in disease re-sistance. SAR is induced by most pathogens that cause tissue necrosis. Spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence analysis were applied to establish injury of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon escylentum L.) infected with ToMV. Leaf spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were registered by a portable Ocean Optics spectrometer USB 2000 in the visi-ble and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm) at a spectral resolution of 1.5 nm. As a model system, tomato plants of cultivar Nuton resistant to ToMV were used. The plants were grown in a green house under controlled conditions. They were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of untreated (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with ToMV. The other four groups were treated with following growth regulators: preparations Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin VS. On the next day, the tomato plants of these four groups were inoculated with ToMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). All analysis were performed on detached leaves from 20 uninfected and up to 20 leaves from infected plants on the 7th and 14th day after the inocu-lation. The differences between the reflectance spectra of virus-infected and uninfected leaves were analysed in the four most informative for green plants wavelength intervals: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-710 nm) and near infrared (720-760 nm

  15. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  16. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  17. Effects of polyether ionophores on the protective immune responses of broiler chickens against Angara disease and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, K; Muneer, M A; Tiwari, A; Chaudhry, R M; Muruganandan, S

    2007-10-01

    Immunization against Angara disease virus (ADV), a serotype 4 avian adenovirus, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is the mainstay of a broiler vaccination programme, while polyether ionophores usually form an essential component of a broiler medication programme in most parts of India and Pakistan. The role of polyether ionophores in the protective immune responses of broiler chickens vaccinated and challenged with ADV and NDV was investigated. A total of 1600 birds were divided into eight groups of 200 birds each. First four groups were vaccinated against NDV and ADV, while the remaining four served as unvaccinated controls. The first 3 groups of birds were administered salinomycin, monensin and cyclophosphamide (CYP), respectively. The last group served as an untreated control. The same treatment schedule was also followed for the next four unvaccinated groups. The post-vaccination and post-challenge serological responses to NDV and ADV, body and lymphoid organ weight gains, post-challenge survival rate and detection of NDV and ADV in the tissues of infected birds were evaluated. Birds administered salinomycin showed a significant stimulation of protective immune responses against both NDV and ADV as compared to the untreated and CYP-treated birds. Monensin also enhanced the protective immune responses against both viruses but the effect was not statistically significant. Thus, it is concluded that monensin and salinomycin augment the anti-NDV and anti-ADV immune responses in broiler chickens, which supports their use in poultry flocks.

  18. Retrospective review of serological testing of potential human milk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald S; Xiong, Sean C; Sakamoto, Pauline

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of positive serology among potential donors to a human milk bank. Retrospective review of our experience with donor serological testing at our milk bank over a 6-year interval. Not-for-profit, regional human milk bank. Volunteer, unpaid potential donors of human milk. Serological testing for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2). Results of serological screening tests performed on potential donors. Of 1091 potential donors, 3.3% were positive on screening serology, including 6 syphilis, 17 hepatitis B, 3 hepatitis C, 6 HTLV and 4 HIV. There is a significant incidence of positive serology among women interested in donating human milk. This implies that there may be significant risk associated with peer-to-peer distribution of human milk from unscreened donors.

  19. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  20. Post-exposure serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2007-12-01

    Serological and bacteriological responses to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) were evaluated in thirty domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I to V received, respectively, the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart, and saline once (control). Vaccination did not result in a serological response. Experimental animals released 27 weeks post initial inoculation (27 PIIW) into a brucellosis-positive herd failed to seroconvert after 29 weeks. Experimental challenge commenced at 57 PIIW. All animals received B. abortus biovar 1 intraconjunctivally at 0, 5 and 9 weeks post experimental exposure (PEEW). Serum samples collected at 4, 8 and 13 PEEW were negative. At 16 PEEW all animals received B. abortus biovar 1 subcutaneously (SC), and all seroconverted by 20 PEEW. Five of twenty-six animals were positive for Brucella infection on bacterial culture. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three animals; B. abortus RB51 was isolated from two. Treatment group, age and sex had no effect on the isolation of Brucellae (P>0.05).

  1. Host cell responses to dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosa Toro, Mayra

    2017-01-01

    Dengue (ook wel knokkelkoorts) is de meest voorkomende virale infectieziekte dat wordt overgedragen door muggen in de wereld met naar schatting 390 miljoen infecties per jaar. Ondanks de grote klinische impact en economische schade van het dengue virus is er nog steeds geen behandeling beschikbaar.

  2. Comparison of immune responses to attenuated rabies virus and street virus in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Wang, Shu-Chao; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal neurological disease caused by the neurotropic rabies virus (RABV). To investigate the innate immune response in the brain during rabies infection, key gene transcripts indicative of innate immunity in a mouse model system were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Mice were infected via the intracerebral or intramuscular route with either attenuated rabies virus (SRV9) or pathogenic rabies virus (BD06). Infection with SRV9 resulted in the early detection of viral replication and the rapid induction of innate immune response gene expression in the brain. BD06 infection elicited innate immune response gene expression during only the late stage of infection. We measured Na-fluorescein uptake to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which was enhanced during the early stage of SRV9 infection and significantly enhanced during the late stage of BD06 infection. Furthermore, early SRV9 replication increased the maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells in the inguinal lymph nodes and initiated the generation of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs), which cooperate with the innate immune response to eliminate virus from the CNS. However, BD06 infection did not stimulate VNA production; thus, the virus was able to evade the host immune response and cause encephalitis. The rabies virus phosphoprotein has been reported to counteract IFN activation. In an in vitro study of the relationship between IFN antagonism and RABV pathogenicity, we demonstrated that SRV9 more strongly antagonized IFN activity than did BD06. Therefore, there is no positive relationship between the IFN antagonist activity of the virus and its pathogenicity.

  3. Recombinant measles viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins induced virus-specific CTL responses in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-07-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of serious lower respiratory tract illnesses in infants. Natural infections with RSV provide limited protection against reinfection because of inefficient immunological responses that do not induce long-term memory. RSV natural infection has been shown to induce unbalanced immune response. The effective clearance of RSV is known to require the induction of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response, which involves the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In our previous study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/F and MVAIK/RSV/G were developed, which expressed the RSV fusion (F) protein or glycoprotein (G). These recombinant viruses elicited antibody responses against RSV in cotton rats, and no infectious virus was recovered, but small amounts of infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the lungs following RSV challenge. In the present study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/M2-1 and MVAIK/RSV/NP were developed, expressing RSV M2-1 or Nucleoprotein (NP), respectively. These viruses exhibited temperature-sensitivity (ts), which was derived from AIK-C, and expressed respective RSV antigens. The intramuscular inoculation of cotton rats with the recombinant measles virus led to the induction of CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells. No infectious virus was recovered from a lung homogenate following the challenge. A Histological examination of the lungs revealed a significant reduction in inflammatory reactions without alveolar damage. These results support the recombinant measles viruses being effective vaccine candidates against RSV that induce RSV-specific CTL responses with or without the development of an antibody response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of anti-core antibody response in the detection of occult hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Simona; Fagnoni, Francesco; Missale, Gabriele; Franchini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA in serum and/or in the liver of patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult infection may impact in several different clinical contexts including the risk of HBV transmission with transfusion or transplantation, and endogenous viral reactivation. The gold standard test for detection of occult infection is the amplification of HBV DNA. However, the serological assay for the long-lasting antibody response to the highly immunogenic HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) represents a qualified candidate as a surrogate for DNA amplification, or for increasing overall sensitivity when assessing the risk of occult hepatitis in peripheral blood. The risk of occult hepatitis associated with anti-HBc seropositivity has been demonstrated extensively, and the presence of antibody response to HBc can be considered a sentinel marker of occult HBV infection.

  5. SEROLOGIC DYNAMIC OF INFECTIO US BRONCHITIS VIRUS IN A BROILER FLOCK IN CUNDINAMARCA DINÁMICA SEROLÓGICA DEL VIRUS DE BRONQUITIS INFECCIOSA EN UNA GRANJA DE POLLO DE ENGORDE DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alfonso Victor Julio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV causes a highly contagious disease, spread worldwide, leading to serious economic losses. Sometimes the disease is associated with other entities such as infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli. The highly genetic variability of the virus has generated a large number of viral strains with different clinical presentations. The objective was to assess the dynamics of the virus antibodies in birds vaccinated and not vaccinated against IBV, hosted on a broiler farm where the agent was detected by RT-PCR in Fusagasuga, Colombia and vaccinated birds in semi-isolation conditions in Bogotá. To order this, 3 groups of birds (Ross 308 from 1 day of age (44 birds/group, which were vaccinated with a live attenuated virus strain Massachusetts H120, and the immune response was evaluated through the Elisa test. Since day 24 of age the birds showed a progressive decrease in antibody titers in all three groups, although in the vaccinated and unvaccinated birds kept at the farm were found higher levels of antibodies in the group of semi-isolation. Starting at day 28 in the birds housed in field, the antibodies titles rose slightly until the end of cycle. The slight increase in the level of antibodies may result from exposure to the virus vaccine generated a reversal of pathogenic viral persistence or a late exposure to field virus.El virus de bronquitis infecciosa (IBV causa una enfermedad altamente contagiosa, distribuida mundialmente, que conlleva graves pérdidas económicas. En algunas oportunidades se asocia con otras entidades como los virus de las enfermedades de Gumboro y de Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum y Escherichia coli. La alta variabilidad genética del virus ha generado una gran cantidad de cepas virales con diferentes cuadros clínicos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la dinámica de anticuerpos del IBV en aves vacunadas y no vacunadas

  6. Clinical observations, pathology, bioassay in mice and serological response at slaughter in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Lind, Peter; Haugegaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    during the first 2 weeks p.i., followed, however, by compensatory growth during the next 6 weeks. At slaughter 3 to 4 months after inoculation 39/41 (95.1%) of pigs positive by bioassay in mice were seropositive in ELISA: Tissue cysts;were not demonstrable by immunohistochemistry. ELISA OD-values...... obtained by analysis of meat juice from heart muscle and tongue (diluted 1:40) correlated strongly with OD-values by analysis,of serum (diluted 1:400) (r(heart juice) = 0.942; r(tongue juice) = 0.915). Thus, meat juice samples were shown to provide a suitable alternative to serum for serological detection...

  7. Sensing Viruses by Mechanical Tension of DNA in Responsive Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeoh Shin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid worldwide spread of severe viral infections, often involving novel mutations of viruses, poses major challenges to our health-care systems. This means that tools that can efficiently and specifically diagnose viruses are much needed. To be relevant for broad applications in local health-care centers, such tools should be relatively cheap and easy to use. In this paper, we discuss the biophysical potential for the macroscopic detection of viruses based on the induction of a mechanical stress in a bundle of prestretched DNA molecules upon binding of viruses to the DNA. We show that the affinity of the DNA to the charged virus surface induces a local melting of the double helix into two single-stranded DNA. This process effects a mechanical stress along the DNA chains leading to an overall contraction of the DNA. Our results suggest that when such DNA bundles are incorporated in a supporting matrix such as a responsive hydrogel, the presence of viruses may indeed lead to a significant, macroscopic mechanical deformation of the matrix. We discuss the biophysical basis for this effect and characterize the physical properties of the associated DNA melting transition. In particular, we reveal several scaling relations between the relevant physical parameters of the system. We promote this DNA-based assay as a possible tool for efficient and specific virus screening.

  8. [A serological survey of arboviruses in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, C; Languillat, G; Renaudet, J; Robin, Y

    1978-01-01

    Serological studies for arbovirus antibodies were carried out on 1.279 human serum specimens collected from adults in south-eastern part of Gabon from June to September 1975 during a multipurpose epidemiological survey. More than 80% of the population surveyed have neutralizing antibodies for yellow fever virus as consequence of mass vaccination campaign. Chikungunya, Zika, Wesselsbron and Koutango virus showed some activity, especially in woodland savannahs.

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ... Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2) infections is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and causes ... A total of 174 non HIV infected health professional students were enrolled between April and May 2016 from Mwanza City, ...

  10. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies for differentiating infections of three serological-related tospoviruses prevalent in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Dong, Jiahong; Chien, Wan-Chu; Zheng, Kuanyu; Wu, Kuo; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Sun, Jing-Hua; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2016-04-27

    The thrips-borne tospoviruses Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV), Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) and a new species provisionally named Tomato necrotic spot associated virus (TNSaV) infect similar crops in southwestern China. The symptoms exhibiting on virus-infected crops are similar, which is difficult for distinguishing virus species by symptomatology. The sequences of nucleocapsid proteins (NPs) of CCSV, TNSaV and TZSV share high degrees of amino acid identity with each other, and their serological relationship was currently demonstrated from the responses of the previously reported monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the NP of CCSV (MAb-CCSV-NP) and the nonstructural NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) (MAb-WNSs). Therefore, the production of virus-specific antibodies for identification of CCSV, TNSaV and TZSV is demanded to improve field surveys. The NP of TZSV-13YV639 isolated from Crinum asiaticum in Yunnan Province, China was bacterially expressed and purified for producing MAbs. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting were conducted to test the serological response of MAbs to 18 tospovirus species. Additionally, the virus-specific primers were designed to verify the identity of CCSV, TNSaV and TZSV in one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two MAbs, denoted MAb-TZSV-NP(S15) and MAb-TZSV-NP(S18), were screened for test. MAb-TZSV-NP(S15) reacted with CCSV and TZSV while MAb-TZSV-NP(S18) reacted specifically to TZSV in both indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. Both MAbs can be used to detect TZSV in field-collected plant samples. The epitope of MAb-TZSV-NP(S18) was further identified consisting of amino acids 78-86 (HKIVASGAD) of the TZSV-13YV639 NP that is a highly conserved region among known TZSV isolates but is distinct from TNSaV and TZSV. In this study, two MAbs targeting to different portions of the TZSV NP were obtained. Unlike MAb-CCSV-NP reacted with TNSaV as well as

  12. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015;13(2):45-48. 45. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in ... history suggestive of either chronic liver disease or chronic extrahepatic disease. All study candidates ... adolescents. Their ages ranged from 16-18 year with a definite history of receiving the primary immunization for ...

  13. The Complexity of Antibody Responses Elicited against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Hospitalized Children Younger than 2 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Trento

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis. A strong negative correlation was found between the titre of circulating ELISA antibodies directed against either prefusion or postfusion F in the acute phase, but not age, and their fold change at convalescence. These changes correlated also with the level of circulating neutralizing antibodies in sera. As reported in adults, most neutralizing antibodies in a subset of tested sera could not be depleted with postfusion F, suggesting that they were mostly directed against prefusion-specific epitopes. In contrast, a weak negative association was found for group-specific anti-G antibodies in the acute phase and their fold change at convalescence only after correcting for the antigenic group of the infecting virus. In addition, large discrepancies were observed in some individuals between the antibody responses specific for F and G glycoproteins. These results illustrate the complexity of the anti-hRSV antibody responses in children experiencing a primary severe infection and the influence of preexisting maternal antibodies on the host response, factors that should influence hRSV serological studies as well as vaccine development.

  14. Transcriptomics of host-virus interactions: immune responses to avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemers, S.S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Upon entry of the respiratory tract avian influenza virus (AIV) triggers early immune responses in the host that are aimed to prevent or in case of already established infection control this infection. Although much research is performed to elucidate the course of events that follow after AIV

  15. Serologic responses, biosafety and clearance of four dosages of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in 6-10 months old water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Adesiyun, A A; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Adone, R

    2006-01-15

    Thirty water buffalo were obtained from a brucellosis-free farm in order to evaluate antibody responses, bacterial clearance and safety to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in a dose response study. The animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I-V received the recommended dose of RB51 vaccine (RD) once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Antibody responses to RB51 were monitored at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 18, 22, 24 and 27 post-initial-inoculation weeks (PIW). Clearance of RB51 from the prescapular lymph node was evaluated at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 PIW for groups 1, III and V and at 6, 8, 10, 16, 22 and 27 PIW for groups II and IV. To evaluate shedding of the RB51 strain, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal or preputial swabs were taken from all experimental animals at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 PIW. Sera taken at all PIW were negative for field strain B. abortus by both the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in the controls, up to 12 PIW, by complement fixation test (CFT) and the dot-blot assay with an 83.7% agreement for both tests. Clearance of RB51 occurred between 6 and 12 PIW in group I but less than 2 weeks after booster vaccinations in groups II and IV and between 4 and 6 PIW in group III. RB51 was not recovered at any time from swabs obtained from either RB51-vaccinates or non-vaccinates. The results of this study indicate that serologic responses to RB51 vaccination can be monitored by both CFT and dot-blot assay in water buffalo. Our data also indicates that RB51 vaccination does not interfere with brucellosis sero-surveillance and is safe (no serological and bacteriological evidence of spread to non-vaccinates, no adverse clinical signs or detectable abnormalities on haematology and serum biochemistry) for use in water buffalo.

  16. Humoral response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6: a serological indicator of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Salivary proteins injected by blood feeding arthropods into their hosts evoke a saliva-specific humoral response which can be useful to evaluate exposure to bites of disease vectors. However, saliva of hematophagous arthropods is a complex cocktail of bioactive factors and its use in immunoassays can be misleading because of potential cross-reactivity to other antigens. Toward the development of a serological marker of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors we expressed the Anopheles gambiae gSG6, a small anopheline-specific salivary protein, and we measured the anti-gSG6 IgG response in individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The gSG6 protein was immunogenic and anti-gSG6 IgG levels and/or prevalence increased in exposed individuals during the malaria transmission/rainy season. Moreover, this response dropped during the intervening low transmission/dry season, suggesting it is sensitive enough to detect variation in vector density. Members of the Fulani ethnic group showed higher anti-gSG6 IgG response as compared to Mossi, a result consistent with the stronger immune reactivity reported in this group. Remarkably, anti-gSG6 IgG levels among responders were high in children and gradually declined with age. This unusual pattern, opposite to the one observed with Plasmodium antigens, is compatible with a progressive desensitization to mosquito saliva and may be linked to the continued exposure to bites of anopheline mosquitoes. Overall, the humoral anti-gSG6 IgG response appears a reliable serological indicator of exposure to bites of the main African malaria vectors (An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and, possibly, Anopheles funestus and it may be exploited for malaria epidemiological studies, development of risk maps and evaluation of anti-vector measures. In addition, the gSG6 protein may represent a powerful model system to get a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the

  17. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  18. Immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus in pig farms after the 1997 outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S P; Sun, Y F; Lee, M C; Cheng, I C; Yang, P C; Huang, T S; Jong, M H; Robertson, I D; Edwards, J R; Ellis, T M

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a retrospective study of the antibody responses to structural and non-structural proteins of FMD virus O Taiwan 97 in six pig herds in Taiwan in the year after the 1997 Taiwanese FMD outbreak. All herds were vaccinated against FMD after the outbreak as part of the countrywide control program. Three of the herds had confirmed FMD infections (herds N, O and P) and three herds remained non-infected (herds K, L and M). The serum neutralizing antibody titers and the non-structural protein ELISA (NSP) antibody responses in sows and 1-month-old pigs in the infected herds were higher than in the non-infected herds, but over time a number of positive NSP reactors were detected. From the serological studies and the herd monitoring and investigations it was considered that the FMD NSP positive reactors may not have constituted a true reservoir of FMD virus infection especially in herds where susceptible pigs were no longer present post-exposure or post-vaccination. Pigs vaccinated with an unpurified FMD type O vaccines being used at that time also showed false positive responses for NSP antibodies.

  19. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Chilean commercial turkeys with genetic and serologic comparisons to U.S. H1N1 avian influenza vaccine isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus has caused acute respiratory disease in humans, first in Mexico and then spreading around the world. The resulting pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) virus was isolated in swine in Canada in June, 2009, and later in turkey breeders in Chile, ...

  20. Genetic characterization of Nipah virus, Bangladesh, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Brian H; Lowe, Luis; Tamin, Azaibi; Liu, Xin; Bankamp, Bettina; Bowden, Nadine; Rollin, Pierre E; Comer, James A; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S; Breiman, Robert F; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2005-10-01

    Until 2004, identification of Nipah virus (NV)-like outbreaks in Bangladesh was based on serology. We describe the genetic characterization of a new strain of NV isolated during outbreaks in Bangladesh (NV-B) in 2004, which confirms that NV was the etiologic agent responsible for these outbreaks.

  1. [Hepatitis B virus surface antigen reactivity in the absence of antibodies to core antigen: an atypical serological pattern having diverse significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, José María; León, Pilar; Pozo, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Reactivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in samples lacking antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) may be due to either non-specific reactions or sample contamination, but it can also reflect other situations that may present clinical relevance. In Spain, the frequency described for this atypical pattern of HBV markers ranged from 0.05 to 1.3% in different series, so that it can be considered as moderately frequent. Confirmatory assays for HBsAg and tests for detecting total and IgM anti-HBc, HBV "e" antigen and viral DNA were performed on serum samples taken from 96 patients who showed reactivity for HBsAg in absence of total anti-HBc on routine studies. These samples were collected between January, 2001 and May, 2002 and were sent for study from different Spanish laboratories. Follow-up samples were also studied from selected cases. Presence of HBsAg was excluded in 70 cases (72.9%) and total anti-HBc was detected in two additional patients, so that the original results were confirmed in 24 patients (25.0%). After further investigations, two early phases of the window period of the acute HBV infection were identified, as well as a further case of chronic HBV carriage in absence of antibody response. A single case could be confirmed as due to a contamination of the aliquot of sample studied. The pattern of HBV markers and its evolution on the follow-up were the characteristic of the phenomenon known as "hepatitis B virus type 2 infection" in eight patients. No conclusions could be drawn from the remainder 12 cases, since no follow-up samples were available for study. Besides most cases respond to non-specific reactions or reflect situations of low clinical relevance, the reactivity for HBsAg in samples lacking anti-HBc should be taken into consideration and routinely investigated, since this atypical pattern can also reflect unusual, but clinically relevant facts of the HBV infection that must be noticed.

  2. Virus-like nanostructures for tuning immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Rashad; Cinar, Goksu; Gunduz, Nuray; Goktas, Melis; Kayhan, Handan; Tohumeken, Sehmus; Topal, Ahmet E.; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Delibasi, Tuncay; Dana, Aykutlu; Ide, Semra; Tekinay, Ayse B.; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic vaccines utilize viral signatures to trigger immune responses. Although the immune responses raised against the biochemical signatures of viruses are well characterized, the mechanism of how they affect immune response in the context of physical signatures is not well studied. In this work, we investigated the ability of zero- and one-dimensional self-assembled peptide nanostructures carrying unmethylated CpG motifs (signature of viral DNA) for tuning immune response. These nanostructures represent the two most common viral shapes, spheres and rods. The nanofibrous structures were found to direct immune response towards Th1 phenotype, which is responsible for acting against intracellular pathogens such as viruses, to a greater extent than nanospheres and CpG ODN alone. In addition, nanofibers exhibited enhanced uptake into dendritic cells compared to nanospheres or the ODN itself. The chemical stability of the ODN against nuclease-mediated degradation was also observed to be enhanced when complexed with the peptide nanostructures. In vivo studies showed that nanofibers promoted antigen-specific IgG production over 10-fold better than CpG ODN alone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the modulation of the nature of an immune response through the shape of the carrier system.

  3. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F.; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    seroconverted, and 76% developed a titre >= 32. The geometric mean titre after vaccination was 137. A significant species variation in response was noted; penguins, pelicans, ducks, geese, herons, Guinea fowl, cranes, cockatiels, lovebirds, and barbets showed very poor response to vaccination, while very high...

  4. Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Outcome in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Nina Margrethe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø.; Kronborg, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients may decrease the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We determined the impact of HCV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome among...... Danish patients with HIV-1 infection. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included all adult Danish HIV-1-infected patients who started highly active antiretroviral therapy from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2004. Patients were classified as HCV positive (positive HCV serological test and/or HCV PCR...... was significantly higher in the HCV-positive group (mortality rate ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-3.0), as was liver disease-related mortality (mortality rate ratio, 16; 95% CI, 7.2-33). Furthermore, patients in the HCV-positive group had a higher risk of dying with a prothrombin time

  5. Lung epithelial cells have virus-specific and shared gene expression responses to infection by diverse respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLeuven, James T; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Gonzalez, Andres J; Miller, Craig R; Miura, Tanya A

    2017-01-01

    The severity of respiratory viral infections is partially determined by the cellular response mounted by infected lung epithelial cells. Disease prevention and treatment is dependent on our understanding of the shared and unique responses elicited by diverse viruses, yet few studies compare host responses to viruses from different families while controlling other experimental parameters. Murine models are commonly used to study the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections, and in vitro studies using murine cells provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis observed in vivo. We used microarray analysis to compare changes in gene expression of murine lung epithelial cells infected individually by three respiratory viruses causing mild (rhinovirus, RV1B), moderate (coronavirus, MHV-1), and severe (influenza A virus, PR8) disease in mice. RV1B infection caused numerous gene expression changes, but the differential effect peaked at 12 hours post-infection. PR8 altered an intermediate number of genes whose expression continued to change through 24 hours. MHV-1 had comparatively few effects on host gene expression. The viruses elicited highly overlapping responses in antiviral genes, though MHV-1 induced a lower type I interferon response than the other two viruses. Signature genes were identified for each virus and included host defense genes for PR8, tissue remodeling genes for RV1B, and transcription factors for MHV-1. Our comparative approach identified universal and specific transcriptional signatures of virus infection that can be used to distinguish shared and virus-specific mechanisms of pathogenesis in the respiratory tract.

  6. Serological evidence of increased susceptibility to varicella-zoster virus reactivation or reinfection in natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Salmen, Anke; Chan, Andrew; Knabbe, Cornelius; Diekmann, Jürgen; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Michalik, Claudia; Gold, Ralf; Überla, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Serious adverse drug reactions of disease-modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy may include enhanced susceptibility to reactivation of neurotropic herpes viruses like varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and the John Cunningham (JC) polyomavirus. Because symptomatic reactivation of these viruses are rare events, we determined the incidence of rises in anti-VZV IgG antibody levels as a potential marker for enhanced susceptibility to subclinical and symptomatic reactivation of neurotropic viruses. Anti-VZV IgG levels were measured in paired serum samples taken 6-8 months apart from natalizumab-treated MS patients, healthy blood donors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. The incidence of significant rises in anti-VZV IgG levels in natalizumab-treated MS patients was 4.26 per 100 person-years, which was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors. Retrospective evaluation of the available medical records of patients with rises of anti-VZV IgG levels did not reveal herpes zoster (i.e. shingles) manifestations. The increased incidence of significant rises of anti-VZV IgG levels in natalizumab-treated MS patients might indicate an association of natalizumab treatment of MS with an elevated risk of a subclinical VZV reactivation and/or reinfection events. Whether this is predictive of an increased risk of herpes zoster or even symptomatic reactivation of other neurotropic viruses remains to be determined in larger prospective studies. © The Author(s), 2015.

  7. [Biochemical, serological and virologic follow-up in patients with chronic untreated hepatitis B virus infection: inactive carrier, chronic HBeAg-negative and immune-tolerant hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez García, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    Biochemical, serological and virologic follow-up is necessary for patients with chronic untreated HBV infection while the infection persists. For patients who are inactive carriers, follow-up helps detect reactivation or loss of HBsAg. After the loss of HBsAg, follow-up is not recommended unless the patient requires immunosuppressive therapy. For patients with chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis with normal ALT levels and a viral load between 2000 and 20,000 IU/mL, follow-up is required to assess the progression of the disease. For patients who are immune-tolerant, follow-up helps assess the spontaneous seroconversion of HBeAg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Evasion of influenza A viruses from innate and adaptive immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van de Sandt (Carolien); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses

  9. Role of type-specific herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 serology as a diagnostic modality in patients with clinically suspected genital herpes: A comparative study in Indian population from a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    Type-specific serology (TSS) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been used as a research tool in seroepidemiological studies for some years. However, TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of current episode of genital herpes is not well documented. To measure the seroprevalence of type-specific HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG antibodies in cases provisionally diagnosed as primary and recurrent genital herpes and to evaluate the role of TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of genital herpes versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 10 months in which 44 adult patients with clinically suspected genital herpes were recruited. An in-house glycoprotein G gene base PCR was performed directly from the genital lesion specimen for simultaneous detection and typing of HSV. TSS was performed to detect IgG antibody against HSV-1 and 2 in all patients using commercially available kits, and the results were compared. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 43% among primary and 65% among recurrent genital herpes cases (P = 0.22). Whereas that of HSV-2 IgG was found to be 14% and 83% in respective patient group (P = 0.0001). When compared to PCR results HSV-1 IgG detection in both primary and recurrent genital herpes diagnosis had poor specificity, positive predictive value, and sensitivity. Whereas, HSV-2 serology had a sensitivity of 13.33% and 73.33% in primary and recurrent genital herpes and specificity of 83.33% and 85.71%, respectively. HSV-2 IgG detection helps in strengthening the diagnosis of recurrent HSV-2 disease, whereas the absence of HSV-2 IgG antibody helps in excluding genital herpes as a likely cause of recurrent genital ulceration. However, detection of HSV-1 IgG antibody may not be useful for diagnosis in patients of genital ulcer disease.

  10. A serological survey of antibodies to H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses amongst the duck-related workers in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    Full Text Available The continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses of H5, H7 and H9 subtypes in birds and the subsequent infections in humans pose an ongoing pandemic threat. It has been proposed that poultry workers are at higher risk of exposure to HPAI or LPAI viruses and subsequently infection due to their repeated exposure to chickens or domestic waterfowl. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 viruses amongst duck-related workers in Beijing, China and the risk factors associated with seropositivity. In March, 2011, 1741 participants were recruited from (1 commercial duck-breeding farms; (2 private duck-breeding farms; and (3 duck-slaughtering farms. Local villagers who bred ducks in their backyards were also recruited. A survey was administered by face-to-face interview, and blood samples were collected from subjects for antibody testing against H5, H7 and H9 viruses. We found that none of the subjects were seropositive for either H5 or H7 viruses, and only 0.7% (12/1741 had antibody against H9. A statistically significant difference in H9 antibody seroprevalence existed between the various categories of workers (P = 0.005, with the highest figures recorded amongst the villagers (1.7%. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity toinfection with H9 virus included less frequent disinfection of worksite (OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.07-24.58]; P = 0.041; ≤ twice monthly versus>twice monthly and handling ducks with wounds on hands (OR, 4.13 [95% CI, 1.26-13.57]; P = 0.019. Whilst the risk of infection with H5, H7 and H9 viruses appears to be low among duck-related workers in Beijing, China, ongoing monitoring of infection with the H9 virus is still warranted, especially amongst villagers who breed backyard ducks to monitor for any changes.

  11. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  12. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens in inhabitants of Hungary using conventionally filtered surface water and riverbank filtered drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, K; Plutzer, J; Moltchanova, E; Török, A; Varró, M J; Domokos, K; Frost, F; Hunter, P R

    2015-10-01

    In this study the putative protective seroprevalence (PPS) of IgG antibodies to the 27-kDa and 15/17-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens in sera of healthy participants who were and were not exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts via surface water-derived drinking water was compared. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors that have been shown to be associated with infection. The PPS was significantly greater (49-61%) in settlements where the drinking water originated from surface water, than in the control city where riverbank filtration was used (21% and 23%). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed an association between bathing/swimming in outdoor pools and antibody responses to the 15/17-kDa antigen complex. Hence the elevated responses were most likely due to the use of contaminated water. Results indicate that waterborne Cryptosporidium infections occur more frequently than reported but may derive from multiple sources.

  13. Immune response of human volunteers and animals to vaccination with egg-grown influenza A (H1N1) virus is influenced by three amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R W; Jennings, R; Major, D L; Robertson, J S; Jenkins, R; Potter, C W; Burnett, I; Jewes, L; Anders, M; Jackson, D

    1993-01-01

    Inactivated subunit vaccines were prepared from high-growth reassortants derived from two separate egg isolates from a single clinical specimen of influenza A (H1N1) virus. One of these reassortants, NIB-14, was antigenically indistinguishable from isolates made in tissue culture, while the other, NIB-17, was antigenically different and typical of egg isolates. The viruses differed by three amino acid residues in the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule and the anti-HA serological response induced was studied in animal models and human volunteers. In the volunteer groups both vaccines induced very high levels of circulating haemagglutination inhibition antibodies but with different serological specificities. Both NIB-14 and NIB-17 vaccines induced high levels of cross-reactive antibodies capable of reacting with both strains, but only NIB-14 vaccine induced significant levels of strain-specific antibodies capable of reacting exclusively with the homologous strain. Antisera containing only cross-reactive antibodies proved as capable of virus neutralization as antisera containing high levels of strain-specific antibodies. We extended the argument that epidemic strains are antigenically more closely related to tissue culture isolates and established that viruses which differ by only single amino acids at critical points in the HA structure can induce a significantly different immune response when used as inactivated vaccines.

  14. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  15. A cross-sectional serological survey of the Dutch commercial poultry population for the presence of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.; Koch, G.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    After the discovery of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of subtype H7N7 in the central area of the Netherlands on 28 February 2003, the hypothesis was put forward that an outbreak of the low pathogenic (LP) variant of H7N7 had preceded, unnoticed, the occurrence

  16. False-positive serologic tests for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I among blood donors following influenza vaccination, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-12

    From October 31 through December 15, 1991, 10 blood donors to the American Red Cross Blood Services, Badger Region (ARCBS), were found to have false-positive screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for antibodies to two or more of the following viruses: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). An investigation by the Division of Health, Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services (WDOH), and the ARCBS indicated that the risk for false-positive reactivity was associated with antecedent receipt of influenza vaccine formulated for the 1991-92 season. In March 1992, the ARCBS began use of newly available ELISAs for anti-HIV (HIVAB, HIV-1/HIV-2 (rDNA) EIA [Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois]) and anti-HCV (HCV 2.0 ELISA [Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Raritan, New Jersey]), while continuing to test with the ELISA for anti-HTLV-I [HTLV-I ELISA (Abbott Laboratories) used in 1991. From January 1 through October 13, 1992, the ARCBS identified 19 blood donors with repeatedly reactive ELISAs for HTLV-I. However, from October 14 through November 10, 15 false-positive ELISAs for HTLV-I were reported by the ARCBS to the WDOH. As a result of this increase, the ARCBS conducted a case-control study to assess the relation between influenza vaccination and testing positive for HTLV-I. This report summarizes the results of the study.

  17. [The benefit from mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing in the population with high vaccine coverage in the context of other serological methods for laboratory diagnosis of mumps and the current epidemiological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberková, R; Smíšková, D; Havlíčková, M; Herrmannová, K; Lexová, P; Marešová, V

    2016-01-01

    sera testing revealed that in the vaccinated patients, 56% of cases were laboratory confirmed based on IgA positivity, i.e. 20% more cases in comparison with routine detection of IgM antibodies, while of unvaccinated cases, 87% were IgA positive and 74% IgM positive. The results of mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing suggest that the high proportion of cases in the vaccinated patients result from secondary vaccine failure, also known as waning immunity. Diagnostic benefit from antibody avidity testing has been observed in convalescent sera and/or acute sera from both vaccinated and naturally immunised patients collected from day 6 after the onset of the disease when significant increase in AI occurs.The comparison of the serological methods for the detection of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies in acute sera revealed that the highest percentage of mumps infection was detected by IgA antibody testing. The addition of this serological method to mumps laboratory diagnosis made the latter considerably more effective, particularly in the vaccinated patients.

  18. A Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Trial. 1. Side Effects and Serologic Response Over a Six-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    to streptomycin case) and 0.1 ml x 3 (two cases). in one, dust allergy in three, hay fever, Peak response was noted on day 42 with allergic rhinitis ...1, 2, 3:0.5 ml 30/81 31.0 21/81 25.9 was mild erythema of 1-2 cm. Temper- Lot 1: 0.5 ml 19/45 42.2 11/45 24.4 ature, breathing , and chest examination...who had a titer of Nineteen study subjects reported 20 at day zero but less than 10 on day 10. hypersensitivity or allergic type condi- Antibody

  19. Association of LEI0258 microsatellite alleles with antibody response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... improving primary antibody response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine and body weight in two Tanzania chicken ecotypes, .... The chicks were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus vaccine. (La Sota) according to ..... Heller ED, Uni Z, Bacon LD (1991). Serological evidence for Major.

  20. Use of a Toxin Neutralization Assay To Characterize the Serologic Response to Adenylate Cyclase Toxin after Infection with Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Joshua C; Gray, Mary C; Warfel, Jason M; Merkel, Tod J; Hewlett, Erik L

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is an essential virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, and antibodies to ACT protect against B. pertussis infection in mice. The toxin is therefore a strong candidate antigen for addition to future acellular pertussis vaccines. In order to characterize the functionality of the immunologic response to ACT after infection, we developed an assay for testing the ability of serum samples from subjects infected with B. pertussis to neutralize ACT-induced cytotoxicity in J774 macrophage cells. Baboons develop neutralizing anti-ACT antibodies following infection with B. pertussis, and all sera from baboons with positive anti-ACT IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results neutralized ACT cytotoxicity. The toxin neutralization assay (TNA) was positive in some baboon sera in which ELISA remained negative. Of serum samples obtained from humans diagnosed with pertussis by PCR, anti-ACT IgG ELISA was positive in 72%, and TNA was positive in 83%. All samples positive for anti-ACT IgG ELISA were positive by TNA, and none of the samples from humans without pertussis neutralized toxin activity. These findings indicate that antibodies to ACT generated following infection with B. pertussis consistently neutralize toxin-induced cytotoxicity and that TNA can be used to improve understanding of the immunologic response to ACT after infection or vaccination. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies. PMID:23170167

  2. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Host Immune Status and Response to Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krain, Lisa J.; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV), identified over 30 years ago, remains a serious threat to life, health, and productivity in developing countries where access to clean water is limited. Recognition that HEV also circulates as a zoonotic and food-borne pathogen in developed countries is more recent. Even without treatment, most cases of HEV-related acute viral hepatitis (with or without jaundice) resolve within 1 to 2 months. However, HEV sometimes leads to acute liver failure, chronic infection, or extrahepatic symptoms. The mechanisms of pathogenesis appear to be substantially immune mediated. This review covers the epidemiology of HEV infection worldwide, the humoral and cellular immune responses to HEV, and the persistence and protection of antibodies produced in response to both natural infection and vaccines. We focus on the contributions of altered immune states (associated with pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and immunosuppressive agents used in cancer and transplant medicine) to the elevated risks of chronic infection (in immunosuppressed/immunocompromised patients) and acute liver failure and mortality (among pregnant women). We conclude by discussing outstanding questions about the immune response to HEV and interactions with hormones and comorbid conditions. These questions take on heightened importance now that a vaccine is available. PMID:24396140

  4. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-08-01

    To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs.

  5. Relationship between serologic response and clinical symptoms in children with enterovirus 71-infected hand-foot-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Zhao, Chao; Cao, Ping; Shi, Peng; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhu, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlation between clinical symptoms, including rash and fever, and serum antibody reaction to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children hospitalized due to hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). From May 2014 to July 2014, a total of 547 children hospitalized due to HFMD in Children's Hospital of Fudan University were enrolled retrospectively. RNA levels of EV71 and CA16 in fecal, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens were measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and EV71-IgM antibody in the serum was detected using immune colloidal gold assays. Of the 547 fecal specimens, 296 were EV71 RNA positive, 109 were CA16 RNA positive, and 8 were positive for both EV71 RNA and CA16 RNA. The total positive rate for either EV71 or CA16 in feces was 72.58% (397/547). Additionally, 544 serum specimens were collected, and 409 were EV71-IgM positive (75.18%). The duration of rash and fever was found to be correlated to the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM, and the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM plus EV71 RNA in feces. The positive rates of serum EV71-IgM and serum EV71-IgM plus EV71 RNA in fecal collected at day 3 of fever were 79.7% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, EV71 and CA16 were found to be the major pathogens responsible for the epidemics of HFMD in children during May to July 2014 in Shanghai, China. There is a close relationship between the positive rate of serum EV71-IgM and the duration of fever and rash.

  6. Serological Susceptibility to Varicella Among U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Lederman, Edith R; Stous, Shanon S; Elson, Diana; Freiman, Jennifer L; Marin, Mona; Lopez, Adriana S; Stauffer, William M; Joseph, Rachael H; Waterman, Stephen H

    2017-01-01

    U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. During 2014 to 2015, adult ICE detainees at a California facility were invited to complete a survey concerning self-reported varicella history and risk factors. Participants underwent serological testing for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG; susceptible individuals were offered varicella vaccination. Among 400 detainees with available serology results, 48 (12%) were susceptible to varicella. Self-reported varicella history was negatively associated with susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [0.07, 0.35]). Among 196 detainees reporting a positive history, 95% had VZV IgG levels suggestive of varicella immunity. Among 44 susceptible detainees offered vaccination, 86% accepted. Given relatively high varicella susceptibility, targeted screening and vaccination among ICE detainees lacking a positive history might reduce varicella transmission risks.

  7. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  8. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  9. Serological survey for emerging canine H3N8 and H3N2 influenza viruses in pet and village dogs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Bankole, O; Ajagbe, O; Adebiyi, A I; Abiola, J O; Otuh, P; Omobowale, O T

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, keeping of dogs as pets and guards is gaining popularity. To determine whether infection of dogs with novel canine influenza virus (CIV) of equine (H3N8) and avian (H3N2) origins had occurred in Nigeria, we screened pet and village dogs from Lagos, Ibadan, Odeda and Sagamu in southwestern Nigeria for antibodies to CIV H3N8 and H3N2. Sera from 96 pet dogs presented at veterinary clinics in Lagos and Ibadan, and 89 village dogs from hunting communities in Odeda and Sagamu were tested for antibodies to CIV H3N8 and H3N2 using the hemagglutination inhibition test. Anti-CIV H3N8 antibodies were detected in 51 (53.1%) and 24 (27.0%) pet and village dogs, respectively. Overall, 40.5% (75/185) of the sera were positive for CIV H3N8 antibodies while none contained anti-CIV H3N2 antibodies. The presence of CIV H3N8 antibodies in pet and village dogs in this study suggests that they had natural exposure to the virus since dogs are not currently vaccinated against canine influenza in Nigeria. It is possible that the pet dogs acquired infection through contact with imported dogs in veterinary clinics, breeding kennels and dog shows while the village dogs could have been exposed through consumption of offal of infected animals killed during hunting. Considering the potential public health risk of this disease arising from the close relationship between pet and hunting dogs and their owners in Nigeria, systematic epidemiological surveillance of the Nigerian dog population for CIV H3N8, H3N2 and other influenza A virus subtypes is advocated.

  10. Temporal trends of influenza A (H1N1 virus seroprevalence following 2009 pandemic wave in Guangdong, China: three cross-sectional serology surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the temporal trends of seroprevalence to pH1N1 among the Guangdong population following 2009 H1N1 pandemic wave, we conducted three cross-sectional serology surveys in 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three surveys were carried out consecutively in 2010 from January 8 to January 24, from March 15 to April 10 and from August 23 to September 4. Sample populations comprising of 4725, 4727, and 4721 subjects respectively were randomly selected for study in these three surveys. The level of antibodies against pH1N1 was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition assay. In survey 1, the seroprevalence of pH1N1 among all the subjects is 25.1%, declining to 18.4% in survey 2 and increasing to 21.4% in survey 3. Among vaccinated subjects, the seroprevalence was 49.0%, 53.0%, and 49.4% in the three consecutive surveys, showing no significant differences. In contrast, among non-vaccinated subjects, the seroprevalence declined significantly from 22.8% (survey 1 to 14.3% (survey 2 and subsequently increased to 18.1% (survey 3. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seroprevalence to pH1N1 in non-vaccinated individuals correlated with the investigated order of the surveys, age, and region (all P<0.05. However, it was not correlated with gender (P = 0.650, seasonal influenza vaccination history (P = 0.402 and symptoms (P = 0.074. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Guangdong, the seroprevalance to pH1N1 decreased initially and then rebounded modestly during the first 9 months following the 2009 pandemic wave. Our results suggest that the prevalence of pH1N1 is still correlated with age and population density during the post-pandemic period. An early end to the free pH1N1 vaccination program might be another important reason for the slight rebound in seroprevalance. Our study findings can help the Guangdong authorities to make evidence-based decisions about a long-term vaccination strategy and boost immunity in specific

  11. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  12. Delayed IFN response differentiates replication of West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yuki; Uchida, Leo; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important causes of human encephalitis cases, which result in a high mortality ratio and neurological sequelae after recovery. Understanding the mechanism of neuropathogenicity in these viral infections is important for the development of specific antiviral therapy. Here, we focused on human-derived neuronal and glial cells to understand the cellular responses against WNV and JEV infection. It was demonstrated that early IFN-β induction regulated virus replication in glioblastoma tbl98G cells, whereas delayed IFN-β induction resulted in efficient virus replication in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, the concealing of viral dsRNA in the intracellular membrane resulted in the delayed IFN response in SK-N-SH cells. These results, which showed different IFN responses between human neuronal and glial cells after WNV or JEV infection, are expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for neuropathology in these viral infections.

  13. Subversion of the Immune Response by Rabies Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has affected mankind for several centuries and is one of the oldest known zoonoses. It is peculiar how little is known regarding the means by which rabies virus (RABV evades the immune response and kills its host. This review investigates the complex interplay between RABV and the immune system, including the various means by which RABV evades, or advantageously utilizes, the host immune response in order to ensure successful replication and spread to another host. Different factors that influence immune responses—including age, sex, cerebral lateralization and temperature—are discussed, with specific reference to RABV and the effects on host morbidity and mortality. We also investigate the role of apoptosis and discuss whether it is a detrimental or beneficial mechanism of the host’s response to infection. The various RABV proteins and their roles in immune evasion are examined in depth with reference to important domains and the downstream effects of these interactions. Lastly, an overview of the means by which RABV evades important immune responses is provided. The research discussed in this review will be important in determining the roles of the immune response during RABV infections as well as to highlight important therapeutic target regions and potential strategies for rabies treatment.

  14. Calculation of diagnostic parameters of advanced serological and molecular tissue-print methods for detection of Citrus tristeza virus: a model for other plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, E; Yokomi, R K; Moreno, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra, M

    2012-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases that affect citrus. Control of CTV is achieved by grafting selected virus-free citrus scions onto CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs are essential for avoiding the entry and propagation of severe strains of CTV. Citrus nurseries in Spain and central California (United States) maintain zero-tolerance policies for CTV that require sensitive, specific, and reliable pathogen-detection methods. Tissue-print (TP) real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was compared with the validated TP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the CTV-specific monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, for CTV detection. In total, 1,395 samples from healthy and CTV-infected nursery and mature tree plants were analyzed with both methods. The total agreement between both detection methods was substantial (Cohen's kappa index of 0.77 ± 0.03). The diagnostic parameters of each technique (i.e., the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios) were evaluated in a second test involving 658 Citrus macrophylla nursery plants. Mexican lime indexing was used to evaluate samples with discrepant results in the analysis. For TP-ELISA, a sensitivity of 0.8015, a specificity of 0.9963, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 216.42 and 0.199, respectively, were estimated. For TP real-time RT-PCR, a sensitivity of 0.9820, a specificity of 0.8519, and a positive and negative likelihood ratio of 6.63 and 0.021, respectively, were estimated. These diagnostic parameters show that TP real-time RT-PCR was the most sensitive technique, whereas TP-ELISA showed the highest specificity, validating the use of the molecular technique for routine CTV-detection purposes. In addition, our results show that the combination of both techniques can accurately substitute for the conventional biological Mexican lime index for the detection of CTV. The calculation of

  15. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K; Schijf, Marcel A; Coenjaerts, Frank E; van der Schoot, Ellen C; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M

    2013-07-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to the currently licensed palivizumab. While clearly beneficial during primary infections, preexisting antibodies might affect the onset of adaptive immune responses and the ability to resist subsequent RSV infections. Therefore, we addressed the question of how virus neutralizing antibodies influence the priming of subsequent adaptive immune responses. To test a possible role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in this process, we compared the responses in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and FcRn(-/-) mice. We observed substantial virus-specific T-cell priming and B-cell responses in mice primed with RSV IgG immune complexes resulting in predominantly Th1-type CD4(+) T-cell and IgG2c antibody responses upon live-virus challenge. RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells were primed as well. Activation of these adaptive immune responses was independent of FcRn. Thus, neutralizing antibodies that localize to the airways and prevent infection-related routes of antigen processing can still facilitate antigen presentation of neutralized virus particles and initiate adaptive immune responses against RSV.

  16. Cellular unfolded protein response against viruses used in gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan eSen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are excellent vehicles for gene therapy due to their natural ability to infect and deliver the cargo to specific tissues with high efficiency. Although such vectors are usually ‘gutted’ and are replication defective, they are subjected to clearance by the host cells by immune recognition and destruction. Unfolded protein response (UPR is a naturally evolved cyto-protective signaling pathway which is triggered due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress caused by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in its lumen. The UPR signaling consists of three signaling pathways, namely PKR-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring protein-1. Once activated, UPR triggers the production of ER molecular chaperones and stress response proteins to help reduce the protein load within the ER. This occurs by degradation of the misfolded proteins and ensues in the arrest of protein translation machinery. If the burden of protein load in ER is beyond its processing capacity, UPR can activate pro-apoptotic pathways or autophagy leading to cell death. Viruses are naturally evolved in hijacking the host cellular translation machinery to generate a large amount of proteins. This phenomenon disrupts ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress. Alternatively, in the case of gutted vectors used in gene therapy, the excess load of recombinant vectors administered and encountered by the cell can trigger UPR. Thus, in the context of gene therapy, UPR becomes a major roadblock that can potentially trigger inflammatory responses against the vectors and reduce the efficiency of gene transfer.

  17. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Alves, Max Moreira; Rocha, Tatiana Carneiro; Gomes, Eliane Carneiro; Menoncin, Fabiana; Batista, Paulo Mira; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Souza, Júlio Cesar de; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  18. Long-term serological outcome of infants who received frozen-thawed milk from human T-lymphotropic virus type-I positive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshiya; Ekuni, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Nakano, Shiro; Saito, Kensuke; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Tanigawa, Takuo; Kawa, Motohiro; Toyama, Takenori

    2004-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection occurs via mothers' milk during feeding. However, freeze-thaw processing can eliminate the infectivity of the mother's milk of HTLV-I carriers. A long-term follow-up survey was conducted to investigate the HTLV-I infectivity of frozen-thawed mothers' milk among infants whose mothers were HTLV-I seropositive. Infants fed frozen-thawed mothers' milk did not become HTLV-I antibody-positive up until 1 year old, and all children followed up until an age of 11-12 years were antibody negative. This study showed that freeze-thaw processing can eliminate the HTLV-I infectivity of mothers' milk, and that HTLV-I carriers can indirectly feed their infants using frozen-thawed mothers' milk as a way to prevent HTLV-I infection.

  19. Human influenza viruses and CD8(+) T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Emma J; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Clemens, E Bridie; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-02-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite new strain-specific vaccines being available annually. As IAV-specific CD8(+) T cells promote viral control in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, and can mediate cross-reactive immunity toward distinct IAVs to drive rapid recovery from both mild and severe influenza disease, there is great interest in developing a universal T cell vaccine. However, despite detailed studies in mouse models of influenza virus infection, there is still a paucity of data on human epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to IAVs. This review focuses on our current understanding of human CD8(+) T cell immunity against distinct IAVs and discusses the possibility of achieving a CD8(+) T cell mediated-vaccine that protects against multiple, distinct IAV strains across diverse human populations. We also review the importance of CD8(+) T cell immunity in individuals highly susceptible to severe influenza infection, including those hospitalised with influenza, the elderly and Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  1. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  2. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  3. Genetic Diversity, Distribution, and Serological Features of Hantavirus Infection in Five Countries in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, P. J.; Colavecchia, S. B.; Martínez, V. P.; Gonzalez Della Valle, M. O.; Edelstein, A.; Miguel, S. D. L.; Russi, J.; Riquelme, J. Mora; Colucci, N.; Almirón, M.; Rabinovich, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995 when the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was reported in Patagonia, there have been more than 400 cases of HPS reported in five countries in South America. The first case of HPS was associated with Andes (AND) virus. In this study, we report on the genetic diversity, geographical distribution, and serological features of hantavirus infection in six countries in South America based on 87 HPS cases from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. An early immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG humoral response was observed in almost all HPS cases. The IgM response appears to peak 1 or 2 days after the onset of symptoms. Peak IgG antibody titers occur mostly after the first week. Low IgG titers or the absence of IgG was associated with higher mortality rates. The IgA response peaks around day 15 and then rapidly decreases. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on partial M-fragment G1- and G2-encoding sequences showed that HPS cases from the five countries were infected with viruses related to AND or Laguna Negra (LN) virus. Within AND virus-infected persons, at least five major genetic lineages were found; one lineage was detected in Uruguayan and Argentinean cases from both sides of the Rio de la Plata river. Two Paraguayan patients were infected with a virus different from LN virus. According to the results of phylogenetic analyses, this virus probably belongs to a distinct lineage related more closely to the AND virus than to the LN virus, suggesting that there is probably an Oligoryzomys-borne viral variant circulating in Paraguay. These studies may contribute to a better understanding of hantavirus human infection in South America. PMID:10921972

  4. Gammadelta lymphocyte response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Michael R; Batista, Laura; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dee, Scott A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Pijoan, Carlos C; Molitor, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be one of the most important diseases facing swine industry today. Following PRRSV infection pigs develop both humoral and cell-mediated responses following PRRSV exposure; however, the relative importance in protection and clearance of the virus is not yet completely understood. Swine contain a large percentage of gammadelta T-lymphocytes in peripheral circulation capable of responding to various pathogens in both an innate and specific immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gammadelta lymphocytes functionally respond to PRRSV upon initial exposure and re-exposure. Four month old PRRSV free gilts were intranasally inoculated with a field isolate MN-30100 then assessed at various time points post infection. On day 120, pigs were re-exposed with MN-30100 PRRSV strain and subsequently were bled on days 0, 7, and 14 post re-exposure. Lymphocyte subpopulations, antigen specific proliferation, and IFN-gamma production were evaluated throughout the study. Circulating gammadelta lymphocytes in PRRSV exposed animals expanded between days 14 to 70 (d14-d70, p = 0.016); following antigen stimulation, gammadelta lymphocyte proliferated by day 14 (d0-d14, p = 0.001) continuing through day 60. gammadelta lymphocytes produced IFN-gamma by day 14 pi continuing through day 50 (d0-d50, p = 0.004). Following re-exposure both gammadelta+ and CD4+ lymphocytes increased in IFN-gamma production. These results are not fully conclusive on the role of gammadelta lymphocytes against PRRSV; the data indicate that gammadelta lymphocytes specifically respond to PRRSV.

  5. Identification et distribution géographique des virus responsables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMV), Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV), Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) et Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV)) a été menée dans 18 parcelles de Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima et Cucurbita pepo localisées à Abidjan, Bouaké, Daloa, ...

  6. Modelling the innate immune response against avian influenza virus in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.J.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Jansen, C.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Spekreijse, D.; Vervelde, L.; Backer, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Koets, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    At present there is limited understanding of the host immune response to (low pathogenic) avian influenza virus infections in poultry. Here we develop a mathematical model for the innate immune response to avian influenza virus in chicken lung, describing the dynamics of viral load,

  7. Diffferential innate responses of chickens and ducks to low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Post, J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Vervelde, L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ducks and chickens are hosts of avian influenza virus, each with distinctive responses to infection. To understand these differences, we characterized the innate immune response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N1 infection in chickens and ducks. Viral RNA was detected in the lungs of

  8. Preferential HLA usage in the influenza virus-specific CTL response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Boon (Adrianus); G. de Mutsert (Gerrie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); K. Sintnicolaas (Krijn); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether individual HLA class I alleles are used preferentially or equally in human virus-specific CTL responses, the contribution of individual HLA-A and -B alleles to the human influenza virus-specific CTL response was investigated. To this end, PBMC were obtained from three

  9. Clinical, Serological, and Molecular Observations from a Case Series Study during the Asian Lineage Zika Virus Outbreak in Grenada during 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brenciaglia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the spatial and temporal distribution of cases, demographic characteristics of patients, and clinical manifestations of Zika virus (ZIKV during the 2016 outbreak in Grenada. The first reported case was recorded in St. Andrew Parish in April, and the last reported case was seen in November, with peak transmission occurring in the last week of June, based on test results. Data were collected from a total of 514 patients, of whom 207 (40% tested positive for ZIKV. No evidence was found that testing positive for ZIKV infection was related to age, gender, or pregnancy status. Clinical presentation with rash (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.7 or with lymphadenopathy (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.9 were the only reported symptoms consistent with testing positive for ZIKV infection. During the Zika outbreak, the infection rate was 20 clinical cases per 10,000 in the population compared to 41 cases per 10,000 during the chikungunya outbreak in Grenada in 2014 and 17 cases per 10,000 during the dengue outbreak in 2001-2002. Even though the country has employed vector control programs, with no apparent decrease in infection rates, it appears that new abatement approaches are needed to minimize morbidity in future arbovirus outbreaks.

  10. Serological and Virological Evidence of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus Circulation in the Human Population of Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Bukbuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite several studies on the seroprevalence of antibodies against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV from humans and cattle in Nigeria, detailed investigation looking at IgG and IgM have not been reported. Additionally, there have been no confirmed cases of human CCHFV infection reported from Nigeria.Samples from sera (n = 1189 collected from four Local Government Areas in Borno State (Askira/Uba, Damboa, Jere and Maiduguri were assessed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. The positivity rates for IgG and IgM were 10.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Additionally, sera from undiagnosed febrile patients (n = 380 were assessed by RT-PCR assay for the presence of CCHFV RNA. One positive sample was characterised by further by next generation sequencing (NGS resulting in complete S, M and L segment sequences.This article provides evidence for the continued exposure of the human population of Nigeria to CCHFV. The genomic analysis provides the first published evidence of a human case of CCHFV in Nigeria and its phylogenetic context.

  11. C1q binding to Dengue Virus inhibits infection of THP-1 and cellular inflammatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douradinha, Bruno; McBurney, Sean P.; de Melo, Klecia M. Soares; Smith, Amanda P.; Krishna, Neel K.; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M.; Evans, Jared D.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Marques, Ernesto T. A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dengue virus infection elicits a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to severe disease. The mechanisms leading to severe dengue are not known, however it has been reported that the complement system is hyper-activated in severe dengue. Screening of complement proteins demonstrated that C1q, a pattern recognition molecule, can bind directly to Dengue Virus Envelope protein and to whole Dengue Virus serotype 2. Incubation of Dengue Virus serotype 2 with C1q prior to infection of THP-1 cells led to decreased virus infectivity and modulation of mRNA expression of immunoregulatory molecules suggesting reduced inflammatory responses. PMID:24246304

  12. Hantaan virus triggers TLR4-dependent innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Tao; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Ye; Nan, Xue-Ping; Li, Yu; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Dong-Qiang; Su, Wen-Jing; Wang, Jiu-Ping; Wang, Ping-Zhong; Bai, Xue-Fan

    2012-10-01

    The innate immune response induced by Hantavirus is responsible for endothelial cell dysfunction and viral pathogenicity. Recent studies demonstrate that TLR4 expression is upregulated and mediates the secretion of several cytokines in Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected endothelial cells. To examine viral interactions with host endothelial cells and characterize the innate antiviral responses associated with Toll-like receptors, we selected TLR4 as the target molecule to investigate anti-hantavirus immunity. TLR4 mRNA-silenced EVC-304 (EVC-304 TLR4-) cells and EVC-304 cells were used to investigate signaling molecules downstream of TLR4. The expression of the adaptor protein TRIF was higher in HTNV-infected EVC-304 cells than in EVC-304 TLR4- cells. However, there was no apparent difference in the expression of MyD88 in either cell line. The transcription factors for NF-κB and IRF-3 were translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus in HTNV-infected EVC-304 cells, but not in HTNV-infected EVC-304 TLR4- cells. Our results demonstrate that TLR4 may play an important role in the antiviral immunity of the host against HTNV infection through an MyD88-independent signaling pathway.

  13. Response to 'Serological diagnostics in the detection of IgG autoantibodies against human collagen VII in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita - a multicenter analysis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, M F; Meijer, J M; Diercks, G F H; Pas, H H

    2017-10-04

    In a recent retrospective serological study in 95 sera from epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) patients Schmidt et al. conclude that Col7A-NC1/NC2 ELISA (MBL, Japan) is superior to NC1 ELISA, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on salt-split skin (SSS) with the highest sensitivity of 97.9%.1 This sensitivity is an overestimation from a biased sample, since the sera had been preselected from patients with IgG reactivity fitting EBA by at least one of the immune serological assays indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA, and Western blot. The deficiency in study design with an incorrect reference standard creates a bias in estimated test accuracy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson

    2013-11-01

    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  15. Integration of nucleic acid amplification test results into hepatitis C virus supplemental serologic testing algorithms: implications for donor counseling and revision of existing algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven H; Stramer, Susan L; Brodsky, Jaye P; Caglioti, Sally; Busch, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    The routine use of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) donor screening assays has provided an opportunity for revision of the current HCV supplemental testing algorithm, which requires that recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) be performed on every HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-repeat-reactive donation. The FDA has approved variance requests to use a new algorithm that eliminates the need to perform RIBA when HCV NAT results are reactive. Data are provided in support of this new algorithm. HCV EIA (including signal-to-cutoff optical density ratio), RIBA, and NAT data were compiled from 33.2 million donations screened over an approximately 4-year period by the American Red Cross and Blood Systems Laboratories. Further, donations having specific combinations of HCV EIA, RIBA, and minipool (MP) NAT results were evaluated, with more sensitive individual-donation (ID) NAT, to construct improved counseling messages for donors. Of 47,041 EIA-repeat-reactive donations, 49.3 percent were RIBA-positive, 17.1 percent RIBA-indeterminate, and 33.5 percent RIBA-negative. NAT-reactive rates were 79.2, 2.5, and 0.18 percent for RIBA-positive, -indeterminate, and -negative donations, respectively. The new algorithm classified an additional 1 percent of donations as HCV-infected while at the same time detecting all infections classified as HCV-infected under the current algorithm. An additional 2.4 percent of RIBA-positive, MP NAT-nonreactive donations were reactive when a frozen-thawed aliquot was retested by ID NAT. Integrating HCV NAT results with RIBA results for purposes of donor notification allows more appropriate counseling messages to be given to EIA-repeat-reactive donors. The new HCV supplemental algorithm is an acceptable alternative to the current algorithm because it provides equivalent or superior accuracy in formulating donor counseling messages and may also result in reduced costs and more timely notification of infected donors.

  16. Newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland China, in the last two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guodong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are four principal arboviruses in mainland China. Two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to Japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus, which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respectively. With exception of these four main arboviruses, many other mosquito-associated viruses have been isolated and identified in recent years. These newly isolated and identified mosquito-associated viruses are probably responsible for human and animal infections and diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the newly isolated mosquito-associated viruses in mainland China which belong to five viral families, including their virological properties, phylogenetic relationships, serological evidence, as well as to appeal the public health concentration worldwide.

  17. Serological and Virological Study of Newcastle Disease and Avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey on the prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and virological detection by RT-PCR of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, were carried out in 6 regions of Senegal from June to November 2008. Rural chickens were raised in free ...

  18. National strategy for serological diagnosis ofHIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the cells in which the viruses were cultured, biologi- cal false-positive results were sometimes ..... REFERENCES. 1. Consrantine NT. Serologic tests for the retroviruses: approaching a decade of evolution. AIDS 1993; 7: 1-13. 2. Hunsmann G, Schneider J, Wendler I, Fleming AF. HTLV positivity in Africans. Lanar 1985 ...

  19. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Molalegne Bitew

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Uttar Pradesh, India. Molalegne Bitew1,2, Sukdeb Nandi1, Chintu Ravishankar1 and Ramesh Somvanshi1. 1Virus Laboratory, Center for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis (CADRD), Indian ...

  20. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in the Sistan region, Iran. ... provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, ...

  1. Serological survery of infectious bursal diseas antibody in local kitchen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological evidence for infectious bursal disease virus antibody in local chicken in Ago-lwoye a rea of Ogun State was detected using agar gel precipitation test. 51 out of the 98 sera samples tested were vositive for precipitating antibody against infectious bursal disease. Key words: Infectious bursa] disease, precipitating ...

  2. Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Local Chickens in Wuse, Abuja Municipal Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. ... These findings imply that the local chickens in the study area are exposed to field strains of IBDV and the immunity conferred on them by this exposure is not very ...

  3. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  4. The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the postvaccinal response against swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2011-07-15

    The influence of age and maternal immunity on the development and duration of postvaccinal humoral response against swine influenza viruses (SIV) were investigated under experimental conditions. Piglets born to immune and non-immune sows were vaccinated twice with bivalent inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to 5 different schedules: 1+4, 1+8, 4+8, 8+10 or 8+12 weeks of age. Antibodies to the haemagglutinin type 1 and 3 were determined using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against H1N1 and H3N2 in the serum of unvaccinated piglets born to immune sows were above the positive level until about 13-14 and 9-10 weeks of life, respectively. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. After the second dose of vaccine production of antibodies was observed even before the complete disappearance of maternal antibodies. MDA, however, were associated with reduced antibody response. In MDA-negative piglets, an active humoral postvaccinal response was developed in all vaccinated pigs. The age at which the vaccine was given was associated with the differences in the magnitude of antibody response to SIV. In general those pigs that were vaccinated for the first time at the age of 1 week, developed lower maximum titres after the second vaccination, and become seronegative earlier than pigs that were vaccinated for the first time at 4 or 8 weeks of age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Virus-like particles that display Zika virus envelope protein domain III induce potent neutralizing immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Lai, Huafang; Sun, Haiyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-08-09

    Several Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine candidates have recently been described which use inactivated whole virus, DNA or RNA that express the virus' Envelope (E) glycoprotein as the antigen. These were successful in stimulating production of virus-targeted antibodies that protected animals against ZIKV challenges, but their use potentially will predispose vaccinated individuals to infection by the related Dengue virus (DENV). We have devised a virus like particle (VLP) carrier based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) that displays the ZIKV E protein domain III (zDIII), and shown that it can be produced quickly and easily purified in large quantities from Nicotiana benthamiana plants. HBcAg-zDIII VLPs are shown to be highly immunogenic, as two doses elicited potent humoral and cellular responses in mice that exceed the threshold correlated with protective immunity against multiple strains of Zika virus. Notably, HBcAg-zDIII VLPs-elicited antibodies did not enhance the infection of DENV in Fc gamma receptor-expressing cells, offsetting the concern of ZIKV vaccines inducing cross-reactive antibodies and sensitizing people to subsequent DENV infection. Thus, our zDIII-based vaccine offers improved safety and lower cost production than other current alternatives, with equivalent effectiveness.

  6. Serological Survey of Hantavirus and Flavivirus Among Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Sozio, Giulia; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Pascucci, Ilaria; Gavaudan, Stefano; Marianneau, Philippe; Monaco, Federica

    2017-11-01

    Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surveillance in wild rodents. During this study, 90 animals were captured in forested areas of Abruzzo and Marche regions and tested with serological assays for the specific pathogens. Serological test provided no evidence of PUUV and DOBV circulation in the studied area. However, four rodents (Apodemus flavicollis) were found to be positive by WNV ELISA test. Two of them were confirmed as WNV by virus neutralization test.

  7. Cytokine responses in primary and secondary respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Douros, Konstantinos; Bingle, Colin D; Everard, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    Primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are characterized by high levels of IL-8 and an intense neutrophilia. Little is known about the cytokine responses in secondary infections. Preschool children experiencing RSV secondary infections were recruited from the siblings of infants admitted to hospital with RSV acute bronchiolitis. Fifty-one infants with acute bronchiolitis (39 RSV positive, 12 RSV negative) and 20 age-matched control infants were recruited. In addition, seven older siblings of infants from the RSV-positive cohort and confirmed RSV infection were recruited. Samples of nasal secretions were obtained using a flocked swab, and secretions extracted using centrifugation. Cytokine bead array was used to obtain levels of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-8, IL-6, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Levels of IL-8 and IL-6 were significantly lower in the RSV-positive siblings compared with the RSV-positive infants. There were no significant differences between levels of the other cytokines in the primary and secondary infections. The very high levels of IL-8 and IL-6 response characteristic of the primary RSV infection was not observed in secondary RSV-positive infections and this did not appear to be due to a global reduction in cytokine production.

  8. The novel capripoxvirus vector lumpy skin disease virus efficiently boosts modified vaccinia Ankara human immunodeficiency virus responses in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Wendy A; Ginbot, Zekarias; Shen, Yen-Ju; Chege, Gerald K; Soares, Andreia P; Müller, Tracey L; Bunjun, Rubina; Kiravu, Agano; Munyanduki, Henry; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-10-01

    Poxvirus vectors represent promising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine candidates and were a component of the only successful HIV vaccine efficacy trial to date. We tested the immunogenicity of a novel recombinant capripoxvirus vector, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), in combination with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both expressing genes from HIV-1. Here, we demonstrated that the combination regimen was immunogenic in rhesus macaques, inducing high-magnitude, broad and balanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, and transient activation of the immune response. These studies support further development of LSDV as a vaccine vector. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread.

  10. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline

    OpenAIRE

    Skjerven, Håvard O.; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Methods. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collecte...

  11. Serological markers and risk factors for hepatitis B and C viruses in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus Marcadores serológicos y factores de riesgo para los virus de la hepatitis B y C en individuos infectados por el VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hoyos-Orrego

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV infection are common in HIV-infected individuals as a result of shared risk factors for acquisition. A serological study for HBV and HCV was performed in 251 HIV-positive individuals from Medellín, Colombia. A qualitative RT-PCR for HCV was done in 90 patients with CD4+ T-cell count La infección por los virus de la hepatitis B y hepatitis C (VHB y VHC es frecuente en individuos infectados por el VIH como resultado de compartir factores de riesgo para su contagio. Se realizó un estudio serológico para el VHB y VHC en 251 individuos VIH positivos de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. En 90 pacientes con un recuento de linfocitos T < 150 células por mm³ se hizo una PCR-RT cualitativa para el VHC. Se encontraron marcadores serológicos para la infección por el VHB en 97 (38.6% pacientes. Treinta y seis de 97 (37.1% tuvieron un anti-HBc aislado. El análisis multivariado indicó que los factores de riesgo significativos asociados a la presencia de estos marcadores fueron: edad (OR = 1.05, 95% IC: 1.01-1.08, pediculosis púbica (OR = 1.83, 95% IC: 1.01-3.33, hombres que tienen sexo con hombres y mujeres (OR = 3.23, 95% IC: 1.46-7.13 y hombres que tienen sexo solo con hombres (OR = 3.73, 95% IC: 1.58-8.78. El mismo análisis restringido a mujeres mostró que la sífilis fue el único factor de riesgo significativo. Por lo tanto, la infección por el VHB fue considerablemente asociada a conductas sexuales de alto riesgo. El VHC se presentó en solo 2 (0.8% de los pacientes VIH. Ambos pacientes fueron positivos por la PCR-RT y los anti-VHC. La baja frecuencia de la coinfección VIH/VHC fue probablemente debido al bajo uso de drogas intravenosas en esta población. El hallazgo frecuente de anti-HBc como marcador aislado asegura estudios moleculares para descartar la presencia de infección críptica por el VHB.

  12. Immune responses in hepatitis B and C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelma, F.

    2017-01-01

    Het hepatitis B en C virus zijn virussen die chronische infectie van de lever kunnen veroorzaken. Zulke langdurige ontsteking van de lever kan leiden tot leverschade, met als gevolg het ontstaan van cirrose en hepatocellulair carcinoom. Naar de behandeling van deze chronische virus infecties wordt

  13. Identification et distribution géographique des virus responsables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus from naturally infected bottle gourd. Ind. J. Virol., 17(2): 96-. 101. Yuki VA, Rezende JAM, Kitajima EW,. Barroso PAV, Kuniyuki H, Groppo GA,. Pavan. MA. 2000. Occurrence, distribution and relative incidence of five viruses infecting cucurbits in the state of. São Paulo, Brazil.

  14. Laboratory Response to 2014 Ebola Virus Outbreak in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Bassirou; Safronetz, David; Sarro, Yeya Dit Sadio; Kone, Amadou; Sanogo, Moumine; Tounkara, Sady; Togo, Antieme C G; Daou, Fatoumata; Maiga, Almoustapha I; Dao, Sounkalo; Rosenke, Kyle; Falzarano, Darryl; Doumbia, Seydou; Zoon, Kathryn C; Polis, Michael; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sow, Samba; Schwan, Tom G; Feldmann, Heinz; Diallo, Souleyman; Koita, Ousmane A

    2016-10-15

    Aware of the rapid spread of Ebola virus (EBOV) during the current West African epidemic, Mali took several proactive steps to rapidly identify cases within its borders. Under the Mali International Center for Excellence in Research program, a collaboration between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Malian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research established a national EBOV diagnostic site at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako in the SEREFO Laboratory. Two separate introductions of EBOV occurred in Mali from neighboring Guinea, but both chains of transmission were quickly halted, and Mali was declared "Ebola free" on 18 January 2015 and has remained so since. The SEREFO Laboratory was instrumental in the success of Mali's Ebola response by providing timely and accurate diagnostics. As of today, the SEREFO Laboratory has tested 103 samples from 88 suspected cases, 10 of which were EBOV positive, since the Ebola diagnostics unit started in April 2014. The establishment of Ebola diagnostics in the SEREFO Laboratory, safety precautions, and diagnostics are described. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Immune Response to Marburg Virus Angola Infection in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Lisa; Qiu, Xiangguo; Melito, P Leno; Williams, Kinola J N; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M; Alimonti, Judie B

    2015-10-01

    The 2005 outbreak of Marburg virus (MARV) infection in Angola was the most lethal MARV infection outbreak in history, with a case-fatality rate (90%) similar to that for Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) infection. However, very little is known about the pathogenicity of MARV Angola, as few studies have been conducted to date. Therefore, the immune response was examined in MARV Angola-infected nonhuman primates. Cynomolgus macaques were infected with MARV Angola and monitored for survival. The effect of MARV Angola on the immune system was examined by immunophenotyping whole-blood and by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma and spleen specimens, using flow cytometry. The prominent clinical findings were rapid onset of disease and death (mean time after infection, 6.7 days), fever, depression, anorexia, petechial rash, and lymphopenia. Specifically, T, B, and natural killer cells were severely depleted in the blood by day 6. The typical cytokine storm was present, with levels of interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and CCL2 rising in the blood early during infection. MARV Angola displayed the same virulence and disease pathology as EBOV. MARV Angola appears to cause a more rapid onset and severe outcome of infection than other MARV strains. © Crown copyright 2015.

  16. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  17. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, Venkatakrishna

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI), a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP) and occult HBV infections (OBI). Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID) format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases. PMID:24678167

  18. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  19. Ebola Virus Altered Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Signalling Pathways: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) arise attention for their impressive lethality by the poor immune response and high inflammatory reaction in the patients. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%. The mechanism underlying this lethal outcome is poorly understood. In 2014, a major outbreak of Ebola virus spread amongst several African countries, including Leone, Sierra, and Guinea. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, but the virus has the potential to spread globally. Presently, there is no vaccine or treatment is available to counteract Ebola virus infections due to poor understanding of its interaction with the immune system. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively alters both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses. In the literature, some reports have shown that alteration of immune signaling pathways could be due to the ability of EBOV to interfere with dendritic cells (DCs), which link innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, some reports have demonstrated that EBOV, VP35 proteins act as interferon antagonists. So, how the Ebola virus altered the innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways is still an open question for the researcher to be explored. Thus, in this review, I try to summarize the mechanisms of the alteration of innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways by Ebola virus which will be helpful for designing effective drugs or vaccines against this lethal infection. Further, potential targets, current treatment and novel therapeutic approaches have also been discussed.

  20. Immune responses to influenza virus and its correlation to age and inherited factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bahadoran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae of enveloped viruses and are an important cause of respiratory infections worldwide. The influenza virus is able to infect a wide variety species as diverse as poultry, marine, pigs, horses and humans. Upon infection with influenza virus the innate immunity plays a critical role in efficient and rapid control of viral infections as well as in adaptive immunity initiation. The humoral immune system produces antibodies against different influenza antigens, of which the HA-specific antibody is the most important for neutralization of the virus and thus prevention of illness. Cell mediated immunity including CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are the other arms of adaptive immunity induced upon influenza virus infection. The complex inherited factors and age related changes are associated with the host immune responses. Here, we review the different components of immune responses against influenza virus. Additionally, the correlation of the immune response to age and inherited factors has been discussed. These determinations lead to a better understanding of the limitations of immune responses for developing improved vaccines to control influenza virus infection.

  1. Functional analysis of the complex trans-activating response element RNA structure in simian immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centlivre, Mireille; Klaver, Bep; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2008-01-01

    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is activated through binding of the viral Tat protein to the trans-activating response (TAR) element at the 5 ' end of the nascent transcript. Whereas HIV type 1 (HIV-1) TAR folds a simple hairpin structure,

  2. Maintenance of influenza A viruses and antibody response in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled during the non-breeding season in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Timothy; Lindberg, Mark S.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Smith, Kyle R.; Puryear, Wendy B.; Davis, Kimberly R.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Stallknecht, David E.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of influenza A virus (IAV) infections in northern-breeding waterfowl has previously been reported to reach an annual peak during late summer or autumn; however, little is known about IAV infection dynamics in waterfowl populations persisting at high-latitude regions such as Alaska, during winter. We captured mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) throughout the non-breeding season (August–April) of 2012–2015 in Fairbanks and Anchorage, the two largest cities in Alaska, to assess patterns of IAV infection and antibody production using molecular methods and a standard serologic assay. In addition, we used virus isolation, genetic sequencing, and a virus microneutralization assay to characterize viral subtypes and to evaluate the immune response of mallards captured on multiple occasions through time. We captured 923 mallards during three successive sampling years: Fairbanks in 2012/13 and 2013/14, and Anchorage in 2014/15. Prevalence varied by age, season, and year/site with high and relatively stable estimates throughout the non-breeding season. Infected birds were detected in all locations/seasons except early-winter in Fairbanks during 2013/14. IAVs with 17 combinations of hemagglutinin (H1–5, H7–9, H11, H12) and neuraminidase (N1–6, N8, N9) subtypes were isolated. Antibodies to IAVs were detected throughout autumn and winter for all sampling locations and years, however, seroprevalence was higher among adults and varied among years. Mallards exhibited individual heterogeneity with regard to immune response, providing instances of both seroconversion and seroreversion to detected viral subtypes. The probability that an individual transitioned from one serostatus to another varied by age, with juvenile mallards having higher rates of seroconversion and seroreversion than adults. Our study provides evidence that a diversity of IAVs circulate in populations of mallards wintering at urban locations in Alaska, and we suggest waterfowl wintering at high

  3. Is response to anti-hepatitis C virus treatment predictive of mortality in hepatitis C virus/HIV-positive patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Raben, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term clinical outcomes after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment of HIV/HCV patients are not well described. We aimed to compare the risk of all-cause and liver-related death (LRD) according to HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV patients in the multicohort study Collaboration...

  4. A weak neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein enhances virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Meyer

    Full Text Available We have completed a phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial with hepatitis C virus (HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, with MF59 adjuvant as a candidate vaccine. Neutralizing activity to HCV genotype 1a was detected in approximately 25% of the vaccinee sera. In this study, we evaluated vaccinee sera from poor responders as a potential source of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE of HCV infection. Sera with poor neutralizing activity enhanced cell culture grown HCV genotype 1a or 2a, and surrogate VSV/HCV pseudotype infection titer, in a dilution dependent manner. Surrogate pseudotypes generated from individual HCV glycoproteins suggested that antibody to the E2 glycoprotein; but not the E1 glycoprotein, was the principle target for enhancing infection. Antibody specific to FcRII expressed on the hepatic cell surface or to the Fc portion of Ig blocked enhancement of HCV infection by vaccinee sera. Together, the results from in vitro studies suggested that enhancement of viral infectivity may occur in the absence of a strong antibody response to HCV envelope glycoproteins.

  5. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Stauffert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  6. Identifikasi Secara Serologi Galur Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5N1 Clade 2.1.3 dan Clade 2.3.2 pada Ayam Petelur (SEROLOGICAL IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA STRAIN VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 CLADE 2.1.3 AND CLADE 2.3.2 FROM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Kusumastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know avian influenza (AI infection in field by using serology test in threemarketing area of AI vaccines. Haemagglutination inhibition methode was used in this test. There werefour antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (AIstrainA/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006, AIstrain A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007, AI strain A/Chicken/West Java-Nagrak/30/2007, and AI strainA/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007 and 2 antigen strains of AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (AI strainA/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and AI strain A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 was used inthis study for HI test. The result presents that 93,33% chicken farms in three marketing area of PT. SanbioLaboratories have positive antibody titre to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3. This titre may be obtained fromAI clade 2.1.3 vaccination. From 15 samples, 92,86% are positive to AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2A/duck/Sukoharjo/BBVW-1428-9/2012 and 92,31% are positive to A/duck/Sleman/BBVW-1463-10/2012 evenwithout AI clade 2.3.2 vaccination. This antibody titre may be obtained from AI clade 2.1.3 vaccine crossprotection or field infection.

  7. Virus Variation Resource - improved response to emergent viral outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Eneida L; Zhdanov, Sergey A; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Nawrocki, Eric P; Ostapchuck, Yuri; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Brister, J Rodney

    2017-01-04

    The Virus Variation Resource is a value-added viral sequence data resource hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The resource is located at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/variation/ and includes modules for seven viral groups: influenza virus, Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebolavirus, MERS coronavirus, Rotavirus A and Zika virus Each module is supported by pipelines that scan newly released GenBank records, annotate genes and proteins and parse sample descriptors and then map them to controlled vocabulary. These processes in turn support a purpose-built search interface where users can select sequences based on standardized gene, protein and metadata terms. Once sequences are selected, a suite of tools for downloading data, multi-sequence alignment and tree building supports a variety of user directed activities. This manuscript describes a series of features and functionalities recently added to the Virus Variation Resource. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Long-term Durability of Responses to 2 or 3 Doses of Hepatitis A Vaccination in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aristine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Wu, Pei-Ying; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that the durability of serological response is impaired in successfully vaccinated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects after receiving 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. We evaluated whether 3 doses compared with 2 doses of HAV vaccine could improve the long-term seroprotection for this susceptible group. Antibody persistence among HIV-positive men who have sex with men aged 18-40 years who had received 2 or 3 doses of HAV vaccine according to a 0-6- or a 0-1-6-month schedule was evaluated biannually for 5 consecutive years in this prospective, nonrandomized cohort study. At the end of 5 years, seroprotection persisted in 79% (146/185) versus 76% (85/110) and 94% (146/155) versus 88% (84/95) of the 3- versus 2-dose primary responders by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses, respectively (P > .05). Throughout the 5 years, the geometric mean concentrations of anti-HAV immunoglobulin G (IgG) were significantly higher for the 3-dose than the 2-dose group. In the multivariable analysis, a 3-dose regimen compared with a 2-dose regimen (odds ratio = 3.36; 95% confidence interval = 1.14-9.93) was independently associated with sustained seroprotection. Three doses versus 2 doses of HAV vaccine improve the durability of immune responses in terms of higher concentrations of specific IgG, which take longer to decay to subthreshold levels.

  9. The DNA Damage Response Induced by Infection with Human Cytomegalovirus and Other Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Xiaofei; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses use different strategies to overcome the host defense system. Recent studies have shown that viruses can induce DNA damage response (DDR). Many of these viruses use DDR signaling to benefit their replication, while other viruses block or inactivate DDR signaling. This review focuses on the effects of DDR and DNA repair on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. Here, we review the DDR induced by HCMV infection and its similarities and differences to DDR induced by other viruses. As DDR signaling pathways are critical for the replication of many viruses, blocking these pathways may represent novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of certain infectious diseases. Lastly, future perspectives in the field are discussed. PMID:24859341

  10. Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuer Judith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV, has recently been reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. We have studied a total of 170 samples from chronic fatigue syndrome patients from two UK cohorts and 395 controls for evidence of XMRV infection by looking either for the presence of viral nucleic acids using quantitative PCR (limit of detection Results We have not identified XMRV DNA in any samples by PCR (0/299. Some serum samples showed XMRV neutralising activity (26/565 but only one of these positive sera came from a CFS patient. Most of the positive sera were also able to neutralise MLV particles pseudotyped with envelope proteins from other viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating significant cross-reactivity in serological responses. Four positive samples were specific for XMRV. Conclusions No association between XMRV infection and CFS was observed in the samples tested, either by PCR or serological methodologies. The non-specific neutralisation observed in multiple serum samples suggests that it is unlikely that these responses were elicited by XMRV and highlights the danger of over-estimating XMRV frequency based on serological assays. In spite of this, we believe that the detection of neutralising activity that did not inhibit VSV-G pseudotyped MLV in at least four human serum samples indicates that XMRV infection may occur in the general population, although with currently uncertain outcomes.

  11. Immune response of mice and sheep to bluetongue virus inactivated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.H.; Barber, T.L.; Knudsen, R.C.; Swaney, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is being tested as a means of inactivating bluetongue virus (BTV) for use in vaccines. Exposure of BTV 17 to various levels of irradiation revealed that a dose of approximately 0.6 megarad was required to reduce the virus titer by one log10, or 90%. To test the immunogenicity of irradiated BTV, mouse brain passaged virus and concentrated cell culture passaged virus were inactivated by 6 megarads of gamma irradiation, and vaccines were prepared by emulsifying the virus preparations in equal volumes of a modified incomplete Freund's adjuvant. These vaccines stimulated the production of neutralizing antibodies in mice and sheep, a cell mediated immune response in mice, and a protective immune response in sheep. The results suggest that gamma irradiation would be an effective means of inactivating BTV for the preparation of vaccines.

  12. Comparison of serological responses to single-dose azithromycin (2 g) versus benzathine penicillin G in the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected patients in an area of low prevalence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Jui; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Lee, Yuan-Ti; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Yang, Shang-Ping; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2016-03-01

    Effectiveness of single-dose azithromycin (2 g) in the treatment of early syphilis among HIV-infected patients has rarely been evaluated in the era of combination ART. Consecutive HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, who received 2 g single-dose azithromycin or 2.4 MU benzathine penicillin G, between 2007 and 2014, were prospectively observed. Genotypic resistance to macrolides was determined in Treponema pallidum isolates identified from clinical specimens using PCR assays. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titres were determined at baseline and every 3 months after treatment. Primary outcome was a decline of RPR titre by ≥4-fold at 12 months after treatment. During the study period, 162 HIV-infected patients with early syphilis received benzathine penicillin G and 237 patients received azithromycin. At 12 months follow-up, the serological response rate for penicillin and azithromycin groups was 61.1% and 56.5% (P = 0.41), respectively; respective response rate was 61.1% and 65.9% (P = 0.49) if we only included patients infected with T. pallidum not harbouring macrolide resistance in the azithromycin group. In multivariate analysis, RPR titres ≥1:32 (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.55-4.21) and prior syphilis (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.35-0.81) were predictors of serological response. Most common adverse effects of azithromycin included diarrhoea (52.7%), nausea (22.4%), abdominal pain (18.6%), bloating (17.7%) and lassitude/somnolence (27.4%). In the setting of a low prevalence of macrolide-resistant T. pallidum, 2 g single-dose azithromycin achieved a similar serological response to benzathine penicillin G in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. Major adverse effects of azithromycin were gastrointestinal symptoms and lassitude/somnolence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Biochemical and serological comparisons of Australian bunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D A; Della-Porta, A J

    1988-05-01

    Comparative analysis of the structural and possible non-structural proteins of seven Simbu serogroup bunyaviruses isolated in Australia revealed them all to be similar in size to those of Bunyamwera virus, the prototype of the Bunyavirus genus. The molecular weights of the structural proteins for these bunyaviruses (Akabane, Aino, Tinaroo, Douglas, Peaton, Facey's Paddock and Thimiri viruses) were 193K to 205K (L), 103K to 125K (G1), 33K to 37K (G2) and 25K to 26K (N). Analysis of the virion RNA of three viruses (Akabane, Douglas and Facey's Paddock) showed them all to be similar to Bunyamwera virus RNA, apparent Mr values being 2.6 X 10(6) (L), 1.4 X 10(6) to 1.9 X 10(6) (M) and 0.24 X 10(6) to 0.42 X 10(6) (S). Host cell protein synthesis was switched off late during infection, revealing four structural proteins L, G1, G2 and N. Comparative analysis of these protein profiles in infected Vero cells showed each virus, although similar, to be unique and easily identified; this method of comparison was efficient and rapid compared to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of purified virus for analysis. Additionally, for all viruses except Douglas, two to four possible non-structural proteins were identified, with an Mr range from 12K to 30K. The viruses Akabane and Tinaroo, which have previously been shown to cross-react by plaque inhibition virus neutralization tests, were readily distinguished in migration of the G1 glycoprotein and by analysis of plaque reduction virus neutralization data using linear regression analysis of the dose-response curves. Using these same analyses, the differences between Aino and Douglas viruses, also related by plaque inhibition, were even greater. Application of the biochemical analysis of virus-specified proteins and some serological comparisons identified a mixed pool of different viruses in two unknown isolates grouped as Simbu serogroup viruses, and further identified a potential teratogenic strain in one of the two pools.

  14. Serological discrimination by indirect enzyme immunoassay between the antibody response to Brucella sp and Yersinia enterocolitica O : 9 in cattle and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    of Y. enterocolitica O:9 antibody to rough lipopolysaccharide antigen derived from B. abortus RB51. No false positive reactions were observed when testing 100 Canadian cattle and swine without any evidence of brucellosis. The assay detected 91.6% of cattle (n = 155) and 93.5% (n = 31) of swine infected......A rapid, inexpensive and rugged serological test that distinguishes cattle and swine infected with Brucella sp. or Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 is described. The test protocol, which is an indirect enzyme immunoassay uses a high concentration of divalent cation chelating agents to minimize binding...... with Brucella sp. Sera from 58 cattle and 38 swine exposed to Y. enterocolitica O:9 were negative while only 20 sera from 121 'false positive' reactors of unspecified origin gave low level positive reactions, eliminating 84% of the false positive reactions. Crown...

  15. The serological response to Salmonella serovars typhimurium and infantis in experimentally infected pigs. The time course followed with an indirect anti-LPS ELISA and bacteriological examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Bager, Flemming

    1995-01-01

    serologically in an indirect ELISA using mixed purified LPS from S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis (O:6,7), all but one S. typhimurium infected pig and all S. infantis infected pigs produced significantly increased optical densities (OD) in the ELISA as compared to the control groups. The maximum anti...... organs were detected at necropsy in 4/22 of the S. typhimurium inoculated pigs with persistent anti-LPS reaction and all 3 S. infantis inoculated pigs but in none of the antibody-negative pigs. The ELISA is therefore suitable for screening for the presence of infection with S. typhimurium or S. infantis...... on a herd basis. Its suitability for other serotypes of Salmonella will require further testing....

  16. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan). Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization. PMID:20735849

  17. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  18. Multiplex Evaluation of Influenza Neutralizing Antibodies with Potential Applicability to In-Field Serological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Molesti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased number of outbreaks of H5 and H7 LPAI and HPAI viruses in poultry has major public and animal health implications. The continuous rapid evolution of these subtypes and the emergence of new variants influence the ability to undertake effective surveillance. Retroviral pseudotypes bearing influenza haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA envelope glycoproteins represent a flexible platform for sensitive, readily standardized influenza serological assays. We describe a multiplex assay for the study of neutralizing antibodies that are directed against both influenza H5 and H7 HA. This assay permits the measurement of neutralizing antibody responses against two antigenically distinct HAs in the same serum/plasma sample thus increasing the amount and quality of serological data that can be acquired from valuable sera. Sera obtained from chickens vaccinated with a monovalent H5N2 vaccine, chickens vaccinated with a bivalent H7N1/H5N9 vaccine, or turkeys naturally infected with an H7N3 virus were evaluated in this assay and the results correlated strongly with data obtained by HI assay. We show that pseudotypes are highly stable under basic cold-chain storage conditions and following multiple rounds of freeze-thaw. We propose that this robust assay may have practical utility for in-field serosurveillance and vaccine studies in resource-limited regions worldwide.

  19. Influence of respiratory syncytial virus infection on cytokine and inflammatory responses in allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, M.; Boelen, A.; de Rond, L.; Kwakkel, J.; Bestebroer, T.; Dormans, J.; Neijens, H.; Kimman, T.

    2002-01-01

    Th2 lymphocyte responses are associated with inflammation and disease during allergic responses. Exposure to particular environmental factors during the expression of allergy could result in more pronounced Th2-like immune responses and more severe disease. One factor might be a respiratory virus

  20. Viewpoint: factors involved in type I interferon responses during porcine virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Artur

    2012-07-15

    Since type I interferon (IFN-I) is considered a potent antiviral defence mechanism, it is not surprising that during evolution viruses have development of various mechanisms to counteract IFN-I induction or release. Despite this, certain virus infections are associated with very high levels of systemic IFN-I. One explanation for this observation is the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), which are able to produce high levels of IFN-I despite the presence of viral IFN-I antagonists. Examples of virus infection in pigs including classical swine fever virus, influenza virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and porcine circo virus type 2 highlight factors involved in controlling such responses and illustrate potential negative and positive effects for the host. Based on published data, we propose that in addition to the ability to activate pDC, the ability to spread systemically, and the tropism for lymphoid tissue also represent important factors contributing to strong systemic IFN-I responses during certain virus infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  2. Recurrent Potent Human Neutralizing Antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Khouri, Ricardo; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have e...

  3. Exploring the molecular causes of hepatitis B virus vaccination response: an approach with epigenomic and transcriptomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Youtao; Cheng, Yi; Yan, Weili; Nardini, Christine

    2014-03-11

    Variable responses to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine have recently been reported as strongly dependent on genetic causes. Yet, the details on such mechanisms of action are still unknown. In parallel, altered DNA methylation states have been uncovered as important contributors to a variety of health conditions. However, methodologies for the analysis of such high-throughput data (epigenomic), especially from the computational point of view, still lack of a gold standard, mostly due to the intrinsic statistical distribution of methylomic data i.e. binomial rather than (pseudo-) normal, which characterizes the better known transcriptomic data.We present in this article our contribution to the challenge of epigenomic data analysis with application to the variable response to the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and its most lethal degeneration: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-five infants were recruited and classified as good and non-/low- responders according to serological test results. Whole genome DNA methylation states were profiled by Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K beadchips. Data were processed through quality and dispersion filtering and with differential methylation analysis based on a combination of average methylation differences and non-parametric statistical tests. Results were finally associated to already published transcriptomics and post-transcriptomics to gain further insight. We highlight 2 relevant variations in poor-responders to HBV vaccination: the hypomethylation of RNF39 (Ring Finger Protein 39) and the complex biochemical alteration on SULF2 via hypermethylation, down-regulation and post-transcriptional control. Our approach appears to cope with the new challenges implied by methylomic data distribution to warrant a robust ranking of candidates. In particular, being RNF39 within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I region, its altered methylation state fits with an altered immune reaction compatible with poor

  4. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven, Håvard O; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2016-03-15

    Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 363 infants with acute bronchiolitis in a randomized, controlled trial that compared inhaled racemic adrenaline versus saline. Virus genome was identified and quantified by polymerase chain reaction analyses. Severity was assessed on the basis of the length of stay and the use of supportive care. Respiratory syncytial virus (83%) and human rhinovirus (34%) were most commonly detected. Seven other viruses were present in 8%-15% of the patients. Two or more viruses (maximum, 7) were detected in 61% of the infants. Virus type or coinfection was not associated with disease severity. A high genomic load of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with a longer length of stay and with an increased frequency of oxygen and ventilatory support use. Treatment effect of inhaled adrenaline was not modified by virus type, load or coinfection. In infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis, disease severity was not associated with specific viruses or the total number of viruses detected. A high RSV genomic load was associated with more-severe disease. NCT00817466 and EudraCT 2009-012667-34. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Influence of Transmitted Virus on the Host's Immune Response: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merani, Shahzma; Lucas, Michaela; Deshpande, Pooja; Pfafferott, Katja; Chopra, Abha; Cooper, Don; Leary, Shay; Luciani, Fabio; Gaudieri, Silvana

    2017-09-01

    Host hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cell responses and the ability of the virus to escape this response are important correlates of infection outcome. Understanding this host-viral interplay has been difficult given the often asymptomatic nature of acute HCV infection. We studied a recent transmission case to determine whether adapted viral strains can be transmitted and influence the recipient's anti-HCV T cell response. The diversity of viral populations was examined using next-generation sequencing, and HCV-specific T cell interferon (IFN)-γ responses were assessed using a peptide panel representing the autologous viruses. HCV-specific T cell responses in the source were directed against peptides that did not match the dominant autologous virus but rather low-frequency variants, implying existing viral adaptation in the source strain. Most HCV T cell epitopes that elicited an IFN-γ response in the source did not in the recipient, despite the pair sharing human leukocyte antigen alleles that govern antigen presentation and similar autologous viruses. Intrahost HCV variation in the recipient fell within predicted T cell epitopes, suggesting alternative targets of the immune response. These data suggest that transmission of adapted viral species can direct the host's HCV-specific immune response profile during acute infection.

  6. Serología en hepatitis virales = Serology in viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Aristizábal, María Clara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuando ocurre infección por el virus de hepatitis A (VHA, virus de hepatitits B (VHB, virus de hepatitis C (VHC virus de hepatitis D o virus de hepatitis E (VHE el cuadro clínico y bioquímico es similar, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir a pruebas de laboratorio diferentes a las de función hepática para identificar con certeza el agente etiológico; dentro de estas se encuentran: la serología, que permite detectar antígenos virales o anticuerpos contra estos y las pruebas moleculares que permiten detectar el genoma viral. Para diagnosticar la existencia de una infección actual por alguno de estos virus basta con la realización de pruebas serológicas, excepto en el caso del infección por VHC para la que es necesario realizar detección del genoma viral. Las pruebas moleculares son de gran utilidad para el seguimiento y la toma de decisiones terapéuticas en los pacientes con infección crónica por VHB o VHC.

  7. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone o...... demonstrate for the first time that recombinant plant viruses have potential as mucosal vaccines without the requirement for adjuvant and that the nasal route is most effective for the delivery of these nonreplicating particles.......The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone...... to generate antibody at distant mucosal sites. IgG2a and TgG2b were the dominant IgG subclasses in sera to both CPMV and FnBP, demonstrating a bias in the response toward the T helper 1 type. The sera completely inhibited the binding of human fibronectin to the S. aureus FnBP. Oral immunization of the CVPs...

  8. Smac mimetics and oncolytic viruses synergize in driving anticancer T-cell responses through complementary mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Sun; Dastidar, Himika; Zhang, Chunfen; Zemp, Franz J; Lau, Keith; Ernst, Matthias; Rakic, Andrea; Sikdar, Saif; Rajwani, Jahanara; Naumenko, Victor; Balce, Dale R; Ewanchuk, Ben W; Taylor, Pankaj; Yates, Robin M; Jenne, Craig; Gafuik, Chris; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2017-08-24

    Second mitochondrial activator of caspase (Smac)-mimetic compounds and oncolytic viruses were developed to kill cancer cells directly. However, Smac-mimetic compound and oncolytic virus therapies also modulate host immune responses in ways we hypothesized would complement one another in promoting anticancer T-cell immunity. We show that Smac-mimetic compound and oncolytic virus therapies synergize in driving CD8 + T-cell responses toward tumors through distinct activities. Smac-mimetic compound treatment with LCL161 reinvigorates exhausted CD8 + T cells within immunosuppressed tumors by targeting tumor-associated macrophages for M1-like polarization. Oncolytic virus treatment with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ΔM51 ) promotes CD8 + T-cell accumulation within tumors and CD8 + T-cell activation within the tumor-draining lymph node. When combined, LCL161 and VSV ΔM51 therapy engenders CD8 + T-cell-mediated tumor control in several aggressive mouse models of cancer. Smac-mimetic compound and oncolytic virus therapies are both in clinical development and their combination therapy represents a promising approach for promoting anticancer T-cell immunity.Oncolytic viruses (OV) and second mitochondrial activator of caspase (Smac)-mimetic compounds (SMC) synergistically kill cancer cells directly. Here, the authors show that SMC and OV therapies combination also synergize in vivo by promoting anticancer immunity through an increase in CD8 + T-cell response.

  9. Swine influenza: clinical, serological, pathological, and virological cross-sectional studies in nine farms in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibárbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier; Olivera, Valeria; Quiroga, Maria; Machuca, Mariana; Perfumo, Carlos; Pérez, Daniel; Pereda, Ariel

    2013-12-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are important pathogens responsible for economic losses in the swine industry and represent a threat to public health. In Argentina, clinical, pathological, and virological findings suggest that IAV infection is widespread among pig farms. In addition, several subtypes of IAV, such as pH1N1, H3N2, δ1H1N1, and δ2H1N2, have been reported. To evaluate the infection patterns of influenza virus in nine pig farms in Argentina. Clinical, serological, pathological, and virological cross-sectional studies were conducted. Clinical and pathological results were characteristic of endemic influenza infection in eight of the nine farms studied. By rRT-PCR, six of the nine farms were positive to influenza. Five IAV were obtained. Genome analysis determined that four of the isolations were pH1N1 and that the remaining one was a reassortant human origin H3N2 virus containing pandemic internal genes. Serological results showed that all farms were positive to influenza A antibodies. Moreover, the hemagglutination inhibition test showed that infection with viruses containing HA's from different subtypes (pH1, δ1H1, δ2H1, and H3) is present among the farms studied and that coinfections with two or more subtypes were present in 80.5% of positive pigs. Because vaccines against IAV are not licensed in Argentina, these results reflect the situation of IAV infection in non-vaccinated herds. This study provides more information about the circulation and characteristics of IAV in a poorly surveyed region. This study provides more data that will be used to evaluate the tools necessary to control this disease. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Decline of antibody reactivity to outer viral core protein p17 is an earlier serological marker of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection than anti-p24 decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. M.; de Wolf, F.; Krone, W. J.; Danner, S. A.; Coutinho, R. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a modified immunoblot procedure we looked for early serological markers of disease progression in sequential serum samples from 30 initially symptomless HIV-infected homosexual men. Sixteen men who did not progress beyond persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) and did not develop HIV

  11. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the serology of hantavirus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); G. van der Groen (Guido); G. Hoofd; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThree enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems based upon different principles were developed for the serology of Hantaan virus infections and compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The indirect IFA was carried out with gamma-irradiated Hantaan virus-infected

  12. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  13. Protective Role of Gamma Interferon during the Recall Response to Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Adrian; Bot, Simona; Bona, Constantin A.

    1998-01-01

    During secondary immune responses to influenza virus, virus-specific T memory cells are a major source of gamma interferon (IFN-γ). We assessed the contribution of IFN-γ to heterologous protection against the A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus of wild-type and IFN-γ−/− mice previously immunized with the A/HK/68 (H3N2) virus. The IFN-γ−/− mice displayed significantly reduced survival rates subsequent to a challenge with various doses of the A/WSN/33 virus. This was associated with an impaired ability of the IFN-γ−/− mice to completely clear the pulmonary virus by day 7 after the challenge, although significant reduction of the virus titers was noted. However, the IFN-γ−/− mice developed type A influenza virus cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) similar to the wild-type mice, as demonstrated by both cytotoxicity and a limiting-dilution assay for the estimation of CTL precursor frequency. The pulmonary recruitment of T cells in IFN-γ−/− mice was not dramatically affected, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was similar to that of wild-type mice. The T cells from IFN-γ−/− mice did not display a significant switch toward a Th2 profile. Furthermore, the IFN-γ−/− mice retained the ability to mount significant titers of WSN and HK virus-specific hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies. Together, these results are consistent with a protective role of IFN-γ during the heterologous response against influenza virus independently of the generation and local recruitment of cross-reactive CTLs. PMID:9658110

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet, up to our knowledge none of them has evaluated the immune status to HBV vaccine among Egyptian children older than 15 years. Objective: To assess the seroprotection as well as immunological memory against HB virus more than 15 years after receiving the primary set of vaccination. Methods: Serum anti-HB ...

  15. Immune Response and Immunolmodulation in Chronic Hepatiitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Sprengers (Dave)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite the presence of an effective vaccine since 1982, chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) still ranks among the highest causes of mortality from infectious diseases worldwide. The studies presented in this thesis were performed to get a better insight into the

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Glycoprotein Interaction with HVEM Influences Virus-Specific Recall Cellular Responses at the Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Kopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (HSV requires the interaction of the HSV gD glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM or nectins. HVEM naturally functions in immune signaling, and the gD-HVEM interaction alters innate signaling early after mucosal infection. We investigated whether the gD-HVEM interaction during priming changes lymphocyte recall responses in the murine intravaginal model. Mice were primed with attenuated HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD or mutant gD unable to engage HVEM and challenged 32 days later with virulent HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells were decreased at the genital mucosa during the recall response after priming with virus unable to engage HVEM but did not differ in draining lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells, which are critical for entry of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells into mucosa in acute infection, did not differ between the two groups in either tissue. An inverse association between Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ infiltration into the mucosa was not statistically significant. CXCR3 surface expression was not significantly different among different lymphocyte subsets. We conclude that engagement of HVEM during the acute phase of HSV infection influences the antiviral CD8+ recall response by an unexplained mechanism.

  17. Human Dendritic Cell Response Signatures Distinguish 1918, Pandemic, and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Boris M; Thakar, Juilee; Albrecht, Randy A; Avey, Stefan; Zaslavsky, Elena; Marjanovic, Nada; Chikina, Maria; Fribourg, Miguel; Hayot, Fernand; Schmolke, Mirco; Meng, Hailong; Wetmur, James; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Kleinstein, Steven H; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2015-10-01

    Influenza viruses continue to present global threats to human health. Antigenic drift and shift, genetic reassortment, and cross-species transmission generate new strains with differences in epidemiology and clinical severity. We compared the temporal transcriptional responses of human dendritic cells (DC) to infection with two pandemic (A/Brevig Mission/1/1918, A/California/4/2009) and two seasonal (A/New Caledonia/20/1999, A/Texas/36/1991) H1N1 influenza viruses. Strain-specific response differences included stronger activation of NF-κB following infection with A/New Caledonia/20/1999 and a unique cluster of genes expressed following infection with A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. A common antiviral program showing strain-specific timing was identified in the early DC response and found to correspond with reported transcript changes in blood during symptomatic human influenza virus infection. Comparison of the global responses to the seasonal and pandemic strains showed that a dramatic divergence occurred after 4 h, with only the seasonal strains inducing widespread mRNA loss. Continuously evolving influenza viruses present a global threat to human health; however, these host responses display strain-dependent differences that are incompletely understood. Thus, we conducted a detailed comparative study assessing the immune responses of human DC to infection with two pandemic and two seasonal H1N1 influenza strains. We identified in the immune response to viral infection both common and strain-specific features. Among the stain-specific elements were a time shift of the interferon-stimulated gene response, selective induction of NF-κB signaling by one of the seasonal strains, and massive RNA degradation as early as 4 h postinfection by the seasonal, but not the pandemic, viruses. These findings illuminate new aspects of the distinct differences in the immune responses to pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  18. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  19. Immune and inflammatory response in bronchiolitis due to respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus infections in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandini, Silvia; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Faldella, Giacomo; Lanari, Marcello

    2017-09-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common disease in infancy, mostly due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus. In addition to acute infection, viral bronchiolitis is responsible for sequelae including recurrent wheezing and asthma. The analysis of the viral characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the infection shows differences between the two viruses that may be helpful for the development of therapies and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Risk of Immunodeficiency Virus Infection May Increase with Vaccine-Induced Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Tenbusch, Matthias; Ignatius, Ralf; Temchura, Vladimir; Nabi, Ghulam; Tippler, Bettina; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Salazar, Andres M.; Sauermann, Ulrike; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Überla, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of novel complementary prime-boost immunization regimens in a nonhuman primate model for HIV infection, rhesus monkeys primed by different DNA vaccines were boosted with virus-like particles (VLP) and then challenged by repeated low-dose rectal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Characteristic of the cellular immune response after the VLP booster immunization were high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells after stimulation with inacti...

  1. Global Dynamics of Virus Infection Model with Antibody Immune Response and Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present qualitative behavior of virus infection model with antibody immune response. The incidence rate of infection is given by saturation functional response. Two types of distributed delays are incorporated into the model to account for the time delay between the time when uninfected cells are contacted by the virus particle and the time when emission of infectious (matures virus particles. Using the method of Lyapunov functional, we have established that the global stability of the steady states of the model is determined by two threshold numbers, the basic reproduction number R0 and antibody immune response reproduction number R1. We have proven that if R0≤1, then the uninfected steady state is globally asymptotically stable (GAS, if R1≤11, then the infected steady state with antibody immune response is GAS.

  2. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Oxidants and neutrophils contribute to lung injury during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Surfactant protein (SP)-D plays a pivotal role in restricting IAV replication and inflammation in the first several days after infection. Despite its potent anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, preincubation...... of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... either show no effect or inhibit these responses. Furthermore, if neutrophils are preincubated with multimeric SP-D before IAV is added, oxidant responses to the virus are significantly reduced. The ability of SP-D to increase neutrophil uptake of IAV can be dissociated from enhancement of oxidant...

  3. A new paradigm: innate immune sensing of viruses via the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system depends upon combinations of signals to mount appropriate responses: pathogen specific signals in the context of co-stimulatory danger signals drive immune strength and accuracy. Viral infections trigger anti-viral type I interferon (IFN responses by stimulating endosomal and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. However, viruses have also evolved many strategies to counteract IFN responses. Are there intracellular danger signals that enhance immune responses to viruses? During infection, viruses place a heavy demand on the protein folding machinery of the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER. To survive ER stress, host cells mount an Unfolded Protein Response (UPR to decrease ER protein load and enhance protein-folding capacity. Viruses also directly elicit the UPR to enhance their replication. Increasing evidence supports an intersection between the host UPR and inflammation, in particular the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFN. The UPR directly activates pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription factors and dramatically enhances cytokine production in response to viral PRR engagement. Additionally, viral PRR engagement may stimulate specific pathways within the UPR to enhance cytokine production. Through these mechanisms, viral detection via the UPR and inflammatory cytokine production are intertwined. Consequently, the UPR response is perfectly poised to act as an infection-triggered danger signal. The UPR may serve as an internal co-stimulatory signal that 1 provides specificity and 2 critically augments responses to overcome viral subterfuge. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis during viral infections.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to infectious salmon anemia virus infection in macrophage-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important pathogen for salmonid aquaculture, however little is known about protective and pathological host responses to infection. We have investigated intracellular responses during cytopathic ISAV infection in the macrophage-l...

  5. Herpes simplex virus specific T cell response in a cohort with primary genital infection correlates inversely with frequency of subsequent recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Röhl, Elisabeth; Schepis, Danika; Atterfelt, Fredrik; Franck, Kristina; Wikström, Arne; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Bergström, Tomas; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Kärre, Klas; Berg, Louise; Gaines, Hans

    2017-05-01

    During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate and characterise the immune response of patients with first episode of HSV genital infection and its relation to the frequency of symptomatic recurrences. In this cohort study, clinical and immunological data were collected from 29 patients who were followed 1 year after presenting with a first episode of genital or meningeal HSV infection. They were classified by PCR and serology as those with primary HSV-1, primary HSV-2 and non-primary HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific interleukin(Il)-4 and Il-10 responses at first visit were higher in primary infected HSV-2 infected patients experiencing lower numbers of recurrences during subsequent year. The median number of recurrences following primary HSV-2 genital infection may partly be predicted by the strength of an early HSV-specific IL-4 and IL-10 response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.; Bowles, C.A.; Baum, A. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.

  7. Immunoglobulin response to bluetongue virus soluble antigen in subcutaneous chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, I; Jochim, M M; Lauerman, L H

    1977-06-01

    Group-specific antibodies were produced by inoculation of bluetongue virus soluble antigen into polyethylene chambers implanted subcutaneously in 8 rabbits and 2 sheep. For comparison, 5 rabbits and 1 sheep were inoculated intramuscularly with the soluble antigen in Freund's complete adjuvant. Antibodies present in the serum and chamber fluids were detected by the agar gel precipitin or serum-neutralization tests, qualitatively examined by immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescence, and quantitated by electroimmunodiffusion.

  8. A longitudinal study of serological responses to Coxiella burnetii and shedding at kidding among intensively-managed goats supports early use of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleme, Michael; Campbell, Angus; Stenos, John; Devlin, Joanne M; Vincent, Gemma; Cameron, Alexander; Graves, Stephen; Wilks, Colin R; Firestone, Simon

    2017-09-15

    Vaccination against Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q fever, is reportedly the only feasible strategy of eradicating infection in ruminant herds. Preventive vaccination of seronegative goats is more effective in reducing shedding of C. burnetii than vaccinating seropositive goats. The age at which goats born on heavily-contaminated farms first seroconvert to C. burnetii has not yet been documented. In a 16-month birth cohort study, the age at which goats seroconverted against C. burnetii was investigated; 95 goats were bled every 2 weeks and tested for antibodies against C. burnetii. Risk factors for seroconversion were explored and goats shedding C. burnetii were identified by testing vaginal swabs taken at the goats' first kidding using a com1 polymerase chain reaction assay. The first surge in the number of goats with IgM to C. burnetii was observed at week 9. Thus, a first vaccination not later than 8 weeks of age to control C. burnetii in highly contaminated environments is indicated. The odds of seroconversion were 2.0 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 3.5] in kids born by does with serological evidence of recent infection (IgM seropositive) compared to kids born by IgM seronegative does, suggesting either in utero transmission or peri-parturient infection. The rate of seroconversion was 4.5 times higher (95% CI 2.1, 9.8) during than outside the kidding season, highlighting the risk posed by C. burnetii shed during kidding, even to goats outside the kidding herd. Shedding of C. burnetii at kidding was detected in 15 out of 41 goats infected before breeding.

  9. HIV-1 Cross-Reactive Primary Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response Elicited by Immunization in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing

    2017-11-01

    Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation.IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset

  10. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  11. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  12. Molluscum contagiosum: serology and electron microscopy findings in twenty one patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, M. E. F.; R. D. MACHADO; Liberto,M. I. M.; Marcolino,G.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty one cases of molluscum contagiosum virus disease were collected for electron microscopical and serological tests. Molluscum virus was detected in the crust, inside the vacuoles formed in the keratinocytes cells. The patients developed specific antibodies to the virus detected by complement fixation test. Vinte e um casos de molusco contagioso foram escolhidos para serem analisados por testes sorológicos e de microscopia eletrônica. O vírus do molusco foi detectado nas crostas e obse...

  13. Suitability of Frozen Serum Stored in Gel Separator Primary Sampling Tubes for Serological Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Camacho, Enrique; Manrique, Ester

    2004-01-01

    The suitability of frozen serum after storage in primary sampling tubes with a gel separator for serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing (hepatitis B virus surface antigen [HBs Ag], anti-HBs Ag, anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G [IgG], anti-rubella virus IgG, anti-cytomegalovirus IgM, and anti-Epstein-Barr virus IgM) was evaluated for 375 samples. No difference was found among test results using fresh or stored frozen serum

  14. Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins of vero cells: exploration of potential proteins responsible for virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghua; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Dongbo

    2014-01-01

    Vero cells are highly susceptible to many viruses in humans and animals, and its membrane proteins (MPs) are responsible for virus entry. In our study, the MP proteome of the Vero cells was investigated using a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. Six hundred twenty-seven proteins, including a total of 1839 peptides, were identified in MP samples of the Vero cells. In 627 proteins, 307 proteins (48.96%) were annotated in terms of biological process of gene ontology (GO) categories; 356 proteins (56.78%) were annotated in terms of molecular function of GO categories; 414 proteins (66.03%) were annotated in terms of cellular components of GO categories. Of 627 identified proteins, seventeen proteins had been revealed to be virus receptor proteins. The resulting protein lists and highlighted proteins may provide valuable information to increase understanding of virus infection of Vero cells.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Targeting the Host Antiviral Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of an acute vesicular disease affecting pigs, cattle and other domestic, and wild animals worldwide. The aim of the host interferon (IFN) response is to limit viral replication and spread. Detection of the viral genome and products by specialized cellular sensors initiates a signaling cascade that leads to a rapid antiviral response involving the secretion of type I- and type III-IFNs and other antiviral cytokines with antiproliferative and immunomodulatory functions. During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have acquired strategies to actively counteract host antiviral responses and the balance between innate response and viral antagonism may determine the outcome of disease and pathogenesis. FMDV proteases Lpro and 3C have been found to antagonize the host IFN response by a repertoire of mechanisms. Moreover, the putative role of other viral proteins in IFN antagonism is being recently unveiled, uncovering sophisticated immune evasion strategies different to those reported to date for other members of the Picornaviridae family. Here, we review the interplay between antiviral responses induced by FMDV infection and viral countermeasures to block them. Research on strategies used by viruses to modulate immunity will provide insights into the function of host pathways involved in defense against pathogens and will also lead to development of new therapeutic strategies to fight virus infections.

  16. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  17. Swift and Strong NK Cell Responses Protect 129 Mice against High-Dose Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Wang, Jing; Li, An; Zhao, Wenming; Wang, Dongfang; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Wenjun; Fang, Min

    2016-02-15

    It is generally unclear what roles NK cells play during influenza virus infection with regard to different host genetic backgrounds. In this study, we show that in six inbred mouse strains, NK cells play an important protective role only in 129 mice during high-dose influenza A H1N1 virus infection. Swift and strong NK cell responses efficiently control early pulmonary viral replication in 129 mice, providing survival privilege. In addition, we identified that early activation of TLRs and RIG-I signaling in 129 mice resulted in quick production of type 1 IFNs and inflammatory cytokines, which are important reasons for the swift kinetics of NK cell responses post influenza virus infection. Thus, under different microenvironments, NK cells play differential roles against viral infections. The kinetics and magnitude of NK cell responses correlate with the distinct roles that NK cells play against influenza virus infections. Thus, our works further our understandings about the complex role of NK cells during influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response of mast cells induced by influenza A viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the influenza A virus has been investigated heavily, and both the inflammatory response and apoptosis have been found to have a definitive role in this process. The results of studies performed by the present and other groups have indicated that mast cells may play a role in the severity of the disease. To further investigate cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, apoptosis and inflammatory response were studied in mouse mastocytoma cell line P815. This is the first study to demonstrate that H1N1 (A/WSN/33, H5N1 (A/Chicken/Henan/1/04, and H7N2 (A/Chicken/Hebei/2/02 influenza viruses can induce mast cell apoptosis. They were found to do this mainly through the mitochondria/cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway, and the activation of caspase 8-mediated extrinsic pathway was here found to be weak. Two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3 -only molecules Bim and Puma appeared to be involved in the apoptotic pathways. When virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in P815 cells using pan-caspase (Z-VAD-fmk and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk inhibitors, the replication of these three subtypes of viruses was suppressed and the secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and MCP-1, decreased. The results of this study may further understanding of the role of mast cells in host defense and pathogenesis of influenza virus. They may also facilitate the development of novel therapeutic aids against influenza virus infection.

  19. Premature infants have impaired airway antiviral IFNγ responses to human metapneumovirus compared to respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Jain, Amisha; Kurdi, Bassem; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Preciado, Diego; Rose, Mary C; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    It is unknown why human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause severe respiratory infection in children, particularly in premature infants. Our aim was to investigate if there are defective airway antiviral responses to these viruses in young children with history of prematurity. Nasal airway secretions were collected from 140 children ≤ 3 y old without detectable virus (n = 80) or with PCR-confirmed HMPV or RSV infection (n = 60). Nasal protein levels of IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-17 were determined using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay. Full-term children with HMPV and RSV infection had increased levels of nasal airway IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 along with an elevation in Th1 (IFNγ)/Th2 (IL-4) ratios, which is expected during antiviral responses. In contrast, HMPV-infected premature children (respiratory disease in children with history of prematurity.

  20. Planning and response to Ebola virus disease: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip W; Boulter, Kathleen C; Hewlett, Angela L; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Beam, Elizabeth J; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John-Martin J; Schwedhelm, Michelle M

    2015-05-01

    The care of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) requires the application of critical care medicine principles under conditions of stringent infection control precautions. The care of patients with EVD requires a number of elements in terms of physical layout, personal protective apparel, and other equipment. Provision of care is demanding in terms of depth of staff and training. The key to safely providing such care is a system that brings many valuable skills to the table, and allows communication between these individuals. We present our approach to leadership structure and function--a variation of incident command--in providing care to 3 patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K.; Marszal, Peter; Zhang, Shunzhen; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease of ruminants and man, was endemic in Africa but spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, meaning it could spread even further. Little is known about innate and cell-mediated immunity to RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, which is knowledge required for adequate vaccine trials. We therefore studied these aspects in experimentally infected goats. We also compared RVFV grown in an insect cell-line and that grown in a mammalian cell-line for differences in the course of infection. Goats developed viremia one day post infection (DPI), which lasted three to four days and some goats had transient fever coinciding with peak viremia. Up to 4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were positive for RVFV. Monocytes and dendritic cells in PBMCs declined possibly from being directly infected with virus as suggested by in vitro exposure. Infected goats produced serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines but not IFN-α. Despite the lack of IFN-α, innate immunity via the IL-12 to IFN-γ circuit possibly contributed to early protection against RVFV since neutralising antibodies were detected after viremia had cleared. The course of infection with insect cell-derived RVFV (IN-RVFV) appeared to be different from mammalian cell-derived RVFV (MAM-RVFV), with the former attaining peak viremia faster, inducing fever and profoundly affecting specific immune cell subpopulations. This indicated possible differences in infections of ruminants acquired from mosquito bites relative to those due to contact with infectious material from other animals. These differences need to be considered when testing RVF vaccines in laboratory settings. PMID:22545170

  2. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  3. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  4. Comparative study of clinical courses, gross lesions, acute phase response and coagulation disorders in sheep inoculated with bluetongue virus serotype 1 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pleguezuelos, F J; Pérez de Diego, A C; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Cerón, J J; Tecles, F; Garfia, B; Pedrera, M

    2013-09-27

    Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) have been described as the most prevalent in Europe during recent outbreaks displaying intense virulence, sheep being among the most severely affected livestock species. However, BTV pathogenesis is still unclear. This study sought to elucidate differences in the pathogenetic mechanisms of BTV-1 and -8 in sheep. For this purpose, a time-course study was carried out, with sequential sacrifices in order to relate pathological lesions to changes in a range of virological and serological parameters. A greater virulence of BTV-1 was probed. BTV-1 infected sheep showed a longer clinical course, with a significant increase of clinical signs and more severe gross lesions than BTV-8 infected sheep. These differences appear not to be attributable to greater virus replication, suggesting viral loads did not influence in the pathogenicity of these serotypes. While both groups displayed an early, intense antibody response, they still developed clinical signs and lesions characteristic of bluetongue, indicating a lack of correlation between antibody levels and protection against the disease. Both acute phase response (APR) and thrombocytopenia induced by BTV-1 in sheep were more intense. Furthermore, an association between acute phase proteins (APPs) concentrations and the evolution of clinical signs and gross lesions was also observed, suggesting the existence of a direct link between the pathogenicity of BTV serotypes, the severity of vascular lesions and the serum concentrations of APPs. To our knowledge, this is the first verification of a measurable APR in sheep with both experimental and naturally occurring bluetongue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  6. Chimeric rabies virus-like particles containing membrane-anchored GM-CSF enhances the immune response against rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongtao; Qi, Yinglin; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Gao, Yuwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-03-11

    Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe vaccine against rabies, we have constructed a chimeric rabies virus-like particle (VLP), which containing glycoprotein (G) and matrix protein (M) of rabies virus (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, and membrane-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and it was named of EVLP-G. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of EVLP-G against RABV were evaluated by intramuscular administration in a mouse model. The EVLP-G was successfully produced in insect cells by coinfection with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing G, M, and GM-CSF, respectively. The membrane-anchored GM-CSF possesses a strong adjuvant activity. More B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) were recruited and/or activated in inguinal lymph nodes in mice immunized with EVLP-G. EVLP-G was found to induce a significantly increased RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody and elicit a larger and broader antibody subclass responses compared with the standard rabies VLP (sRVLP, consisting of G and M). The EVLP-G also elicited significantly more IFN-γ- or IL-4-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the sRVLP. Moreover, the immune responses induced by EVLP-G protect all vaccinated mice from lethal challenge with RABV. These results suggest that EVLP-G has the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of animal rabies.

  7. Chimeric Rabies Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored GM-CSF Enhances the Immune Response against Rabies Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe vaccine against rabies, we have constructed a chimeric rabies virus-like particle (VLP, which containing glycoprotein (G and matrix protein (M of rabies virus (RABV Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA strain, and membrane-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and it was named of EVLP-G. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of EVLP-G against RABV were evaluated by intramuscular administration in a mouse model. The EVLP-G was successfully produced in insect cells by coinfection with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing G, M, and GM-CSF, respectively. The membrane-anchored GM-CSF possesses a strong adjuvant activity. More B cells and dendritic cells (DCs were recruited and/or activated in inguinal lymph nodes in mice immunized with EVLP-G. EVLP-G was found to induce a significantly increased RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody and elicit a larger and broader antibody subclass responses compared with the standard rabies VLP (sRVLP, consisting of G and M. The EVLP-G also elicited significantly more IFN-γ- or IL-4-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the sRVLP. Moreover, the immune responses induced by EVLP-G protect all vaccinated mice from lethal challenge with RABV. These results suggest that EVLP-G has the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of animal rabies.

  8. Characterization of hepatitis C virus intergenotypic recombinant strains and associated virological response to sofosbuvir/ribavirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedskog, C.; Doehle, B.; Chodavarapu, K.; Gontcharova, V.; Crespo Garcia, J.; Knegt, R.; Drenth, J.P.H.; McHutchison, J.G.; Brainard, D.; Stamm, L.M.; Miller, M.D.; Svarovskaia, E.; Mo, H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, intergenotypic recombinant hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) and their treatment outcomes have not been well characterized. This study characterized 12 novel HCV recombinant strains and their response to sofosbuvir in combination with ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment. Across the phase II/III studies

  9. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed Wing Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of Deformed wing virus (DWV) on Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks [Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL)] to DWV infection to that of Italian ho...

  10. Host responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with virulent Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host responses associated with very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection in the bursa of Fabricius of chicken was investigated. The expression of MDV pp38 antigen and MDV gB transcripts were higher at 4 days post-infection (dpi) and then showed a declining trend. On the contrary, the expre...

  11. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  12. Risk of immunodeficiency virus infection may increase with vaccine-induced immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbusch, Matthias; Ignatius, Ralf; Temchura, Vladimir; Nabi, Ghulam; Tippler, Bettina; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Salazar, Andres M; Sauermann, Ülrike; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Uberla, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of novel complementary prime-boost immunization regimens in a nonhuman primate model for HIV infection, rhesus monkeys primed by different DNA vaccines were boosted with virus-like particles (VLP) and then challenged by repeated low-dose rectal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Characteristic of the cellular immune response after the VLP booster immunization were high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells after stimulation with inactivated SIV particles, but not SIV peptides, and the absence of detectable levels of CD8(+) T cell responses. Antibodies specific to SIV Gag and SIV Env could be induced in all animals, but, consistent with a poor neutralizing activity at the time of challenge, vaccinated monkeys were not protected from acquisition of infection and did not control viremia. Surprisingly, vaccinees with high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells were infected fastest during the repeated low-dose exposures and the numbers of these immune cells in vaccinated macaques correlated with susceptibility to infection. Thus, in the absence of protective antibodies or cytotoxic T cell responses, vaccine-induced immune responses may increase the susceptibility to acquisition of immunodeficiency virus infection. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that virus-specific T helper cells mediate this detrimental effect and contribute to the inefficacy of past HIV vaccination attempts (e.g., STEP study).

  13. Accessing complexity: the dynamics of virus-specific T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, P C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2000-01-01

    -specific CD8(+ )T cells. Analysis to date with both naturally acquired and experimentally induced infections has established that the numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells present during both the acute and memory phases of the host response are more than tenfold in excess of previously suspected values...

  14. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus-specific CD8(+) memory T cell responses in elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, GJ; Heidema, J; van Leeuwen, EMM; van Bleek, GM; Jonkers, RE; Jansen, HM; van Lier, RAW; Out, TA

    2005-01-01

    Background. We investigated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific CD8(+) memory T cell responses in healthy control participants (n = 31) and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 9), with respect to frequency, memory phenotype, and proliferative requirements.

  16. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  17. The innate immune response affects the development of the autoimmune response in Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie K; Miller, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human CNS autoimmune demyelinating disease. Epidemiological evidence has suggested a role for virus infection in the initiation and/or exacerbation of MS. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease serves as a relevant mouse model for MS. TMEV-infected mice develop a demyelinating disease with clinical symptoms beginning around 35 days after infection, which is associated with development of myelin-specific, PLP(139-151), CD4(+) T cell responses. Viruses have been suggested to initiate autoimmune disease through bystander activation of immune cells or through bystander damage to tissue during infection. We examined the effect of the innate immune response on development of autoimmune demyelinating disease by altering the innate immune response through administration of innate immune cytokines, IFN-alpha or IFN-beta, or antiserum against the type I IFNs during the innate immune response to TMEV. Administration of IFN-beta, but not IFN-alpha, to TMEV- infected mice led to reduced myelin-specific CD4(+) T cell responses and reduced demyelinating disease, which was associated with decreased immune cell infiltration into the CNS and increased expression of IL-10 in the CNS. Conversely, administration of antiserum to IFN-beta led to a more severe demyelinating disease. In addition, administration of poly(I:C), which is an innate immune agonist, to TMEV-infected mice during the innate immune response resulted in decreased myelin-specific CD4(+) T cell responses and reduced demyelinating disease. These results demonstrate that activating or enhancing the innate immune response can reduce the subsequent initiation and progression of the autoimmune response and demyelinating disease.

  18. The innate immune response affects the development of the autoimmune response in Theiler’s virus- induced demyelinating disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie K.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human CNS autoimmune demyelinating disease. Epidemiological evidence has suggested a role for virus infection in the initiation and/or exacerbation of MS. Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)- induced demyelinating disease serves as a relevant mouse model for MS. TMEV- infected mice develop a demyelinating disease with clinical symptoms beginning around 35 days post infection which is associated with development of myelin- specific, PLP139–151, CD4+ T cell responses. Viruses have been suggested to initiate autoimmune disease through bystander activation of immune cells or through bystander damage to tissue during infection. We examined the effect of the innate immune response on development of autoimmune demyelinating disease by altering the innate immune response through administration of innate immune cytokines, IFNα or IFNβ, or antiserum against the type I interferons during the innate immune response to TMEV. Administration of IFNβ, but not IFNα, to TMEV- infected mice led to reduced myelin-specific CD4+ T cell responses and reduced demyelinating disease which was associated with decreased immune cell infiltration into the CNS and increased expression of IL-10 in the CNS. Conversely, administration of antiserum to IFNβ led to a more severe demyelinating disease. In addition, administration of polyI:C, which is an innate immune agonist, to TMEV- infected mice during the innate immune response resulted in decreased myelin-specific CD4+ T cell responses and reduced demyelinating disease. These results demonstrate that activating or enhancing the innate immune response can reduce the subsequent initiation and progression of the autoimmune response and demyelinating disease. PMID:19380818

  19. T-cell Responses in Individuals Infected with Zika Virus and in Those Vaccinated Against Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Paquin-Proulx

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in Brazil has raised concerns that infection during pregnancy could cause microcephaly and other severe neurodevelopmental malformations in the fetus. The mechanisms by which ZIKV causes fetal abnormalities are largely unknown. The importance of pre-infection with dengue virus (DENV, or other flaviviruses endemic to Brazil, remains to be investigated. It has been reported that antibodies directed against DENV can increase ZIKV infectivity by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE, suggesting that a history of prior DENV infection might worsen the outcome of ZIKV infection. Methods: We used bioinformatics tools to design 18 peptides from the ZIKV envelope containing predicted HLA-I T-cell epitopes and investigated T-cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV-infected individuals and DENV-vaccinated subjects by IFNg ELISPOT. Results: Three peptides induced IFNg production in both ZIKV-infected subjects and in DENV-vaccinated individuals. Flow cytometry indicated that 1 ZIKV peptide induced a CD4+ T-cell response in DENV-vaccinated subjects. Conclusions: We demonstrated that vaccination against DENV induced a T-cell response against ZIKV and identified one such CD4+ T-cell epitope. The ZIKV-reactive CD4+ T cells induced by DENV vaccination and identified in this study could contribute to the appearance of cross-reactive antibodies mediating ADE.

  20. T-cell Responses in Individuals Infected with Zika Virus and in Those Vaccinated Against Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Leal, Fabio E; Terrassani Silveira, Cassia G; Maestri, Alvino; Brockmeyer, Claudia; Kitchen, Shannon M; Cabido, Vinicius D; Kallas, Esper G; Nixon, Douglas F

    2017-01-01

    The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Brazil has raised concerns that infection during pregnancy could cause microcephaly and other severe neurodevelopmental malformations in the fetus. The mechanisms by which ZIKV causes fetal abnormalities are largely unknown. The importance of pre-infection with dengue virus (DENV), or other flaviviruses endemic to Brazil, remains to be investigated. It has been reported that antibodies directed against DENV can increase ZIKV infectivity by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE), suggesting that a history of prior DENV infection might worsen the outcome of ZIKV infection. We used bioinformatics tools to design 18 peptides from the ZIKV envelope containing predicted HLA-I T-cell epitopes and investigated T-cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV-infected individuals and DENV-vaccinated subjects by IFNγ ELISPOT. Three peptides induced IFNγ production in both ZIKV-infected subjects and in DENV-vaccinated individuals. Flow cytometry indicated that 1 ZIKV peptide induced a CD4+ T-cell response in DENV-vaccinated subjects. We demonstrated that vaccination against DENV induced a T-cell response against ZIKV and identified one such CD4+ T-cell epitope. The ZIKV-reactive CD4+ T cells induced by DENV vaccination and identified in this study could contribute to the appearance of cross-reactive antibodies mediating ADE.

  1. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 42 CFR 493.923 - Syphilis serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a program...

  3. The initial antibody response to HIV-1: induction of ineffective early B cell responses against GP41 by the transmitted/founder virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Leslie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A window of opportunity for immune responses to extinguish HIV -1 exists from the moment of transmission through establishment of the latent pool of HIV -I-infected cells. A critical time to study the initial immune responses to the transmitted/founder virus is the eclipse phase of HIV-1 infection (time from transmission to the first appearance of plasma virus) but, to date, this period has been logistically difficult to analyze. Studies in non-human primates challenged with chimeric simianhuman immunodeficiency virus have shown that neutralizing antibodies, when present at the time of infection, can prevent virus infection.

  4. IFNγ influences type I interferon response and susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jenna L; Olson, Julie K

    2013-08-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease. Interestingly, TMEV infection of resistant mice deficient in IFNγ leads to a persistent virus infection in the CNS and development of demyelinating disease. We have previously shown that the innate immune response affects development of TMEV- induced demyelinating disease, thus we wanted to determine the role of IFNγ during the innate immune response. TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice had an altered innate immune response, including reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, especially type I interferons. Administration of type I interferons, IFNα and IFNß, to TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response restored the expression of innate immune cytokines. Most importantly, administration of type I interferons to IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response decreased the virus load in the CNS and decreased development of demyelinating disease. Microglia are the CNS resident immune cells that express innate immune receptors. In TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice, microglia had reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, and administration of type I interferons to these mice restored the innate immune response by microglia. In the absence of IFNγ, microglia from TMEV-infected mice had reduced expression of some innate immune receptors and signaling molecules, especially IRF1. These results suggest that IFNγ plays an important role in the innate immune response to TMEV by enhancing the expression of innate immune cytokines

  5. Chinese Sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liu; Liuhao, Wang; Jun, Guo; Yujie, Tang; Yanping, Chen; Jie, Wu; Jilian, Li

    2017-11-01

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a positive-stranded RNAvirus that infects both the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and natural ecosystems that rely on A. cerana for pollination service. Using quantitative RT-PCR method, we conducted studies to examine the CSBV infection in Asian honey bee colonies and immune responses of individual bees in response to CSBV infection. Our study showed that CSBV could cause infection in different developmental stages of workers including eggs, larvae, pupae, newly emerged workers, and foraging workers. In addition, evaluating the tissue tropism and transmission of CSBV in infected bees showed that CSBV was detected in the ovaries, spermatheca, and feces of queens as well as semen of drones of the same colonies, suggesting an existence of vertical transmission of CSBV in Asian honey bees. Further, the detection of CSBV in colony food suggests that healthy bees could pick the infection by the virus-contaminated food, and therefore, a possible existence of a food-borne transmission pathway of CSBV in Asian bee colonies. The expression analysis of transcripts (defensin, abaecin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin) involving innate antiviral immune pathways showed that CSBV infection could induce significant immune responses in infected bees. However, the immune responses to CSBV infection varied among different development stages with eggs exhibiting the lowest level of immune expression and forager workers exhibiting the highest level of immune gene expression. The results obtained in the study yield important insights into the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis of CSBV infections in Asian honey bees and provide valuable information for a rational design of disease control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyelim Cho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS, the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance.

  7. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyelim; Diamond, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance. PMID:23247502

  8. Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Summerfield

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are major players in both innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus. These immune responses, as well as the important interface between the innate and adaptive systems, are orchestrated by specialized subsets of DC, including conventional steady-state DC, migratory DC and plasmacytoid DC. The characteristics and efficacy of the responses are dependent on the relative activity of these DC subsets, rendering DC crucial for the development of both naïve and memory immune responses. However, due to their critical role, DC also contribute to the immunopathological processes observed during acute influenza, such as that caused by the pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Therein, the role of different DC subsets in the induction of interferon type I, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses is important for the outcome of interaction between the virus and host immune defences. The present review will present current knowledge on this area, relating to the importance of DC activity for the induction of efficacious humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This will include the main viral elements associated with the triggering or inhibition of DC activation. Finally, the current knowledge on understanding how differences in various vaccines influence the manner of immune defence induction will be presented.

  9. Estimates of Mumps Seroprevalence May Be Influenced by Antibody Specificity and Serologic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Marcia; Williams, Nobia J.; Sowers, Sun B.; Bellini, William J.; Hickman, Carole J.

    2014-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are assumed to be essential for protection against mumps virus infection, but their measurement is labor- and time-intensive. For this reason, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are typically used to measure mumps-specific IgG levels. However, since there is poor correlation between mumps neutralization titers and ELISAs that measure the presence of mumps-specific IgG levels, ELISAs that better correlate with neutralization are needed. To address this issue, we measured mumps antibody levels by plaque reduction neutralization, by a commercial ELISA (whole-virus antigen), and by ELISAs specific for the mumps nucleoprotein and hemagglutinin. The results indicate that differences in the antibody response to the individual mumps proteins could partially explain the lack of correlation among various serologic tests. Furthermore, the data indicate that some seropositive individuals have low levels of neutralizing antibody. If neutralizing antibody is important for protection, this suggests that previous estimates of immunity based on whole-virus ELISAs may be overstated. PMID:24371258

  10. Rabies virus glycoprotein is an important determinant for the induction of innate immune responses and the pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hualei; Mahmood, Fazal; Fu, Zhen F

    2013-03-23

    Our previous studies have suggested that street and fixed rabies viruses (RABVs) induce diseases in the mouse model via different mechanisms. In the present study, attempts were made to determine if it is the glycoprotein (G) that is responsible for the observed differences in the pathogenic mechanisms. To this end, an infectious clone from fixed virus B2c was established and used as a backbone for exchange of the G from street viruses. The rate of viral replication, expression of viral proteins, and the induction of innate immune responses were compared in cells or in mice infected with each of the viruses. Furthermore, the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS and the enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were also compared. It was found that fixed viruses induced stronger innate immune responses (expression of chemokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and enhancement of BBB permeability) than street RABV or recombinant viruses expressing the G from street RABVs. Fixed viruses induce disease via an immune-mediated pathogenic mechanism while street viruses or recombinant viruses expressing the G from street RABVs induce diseases via a mechanism other than immune-mediated pathogenesis. Therefore, RABV G is an important determinant for the induction of innate immune responses and consequently the pathogenic mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  12. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Molini

    2015-01-01

    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  13. Zika Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon Responses during Infection of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James R; Quicke, Kendra M; Maddur, Mohan S; O'Neal, Justin T; McDonald, Circe E; Fedorova, Nadia B; Puri, Vinita; Shabman, Reed S; Pulendran, Bali; Suthar, Mehul S

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors. Historic isolates from Africa and Asia also infected DCs with distinct viral replication kinetics between strains. African lineage viruses displayed more rapid replication kinetics and infection magnitude as compared to Asian lineage viruses, and uniquely induced cell death. Infection of DCs with both contemporary and historic ZIKV isolates led to minimal up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, along with limited secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) protein translation was observed during ZIKV infection, despite strong induction at the RNA transcript level and up-regulation of other host antiviral proteins. Treatment of human DCs with RIG-I agonist potently restricted ZIKV replication, while type I IFN had only modest effects. Mechanistically, we found all strains of ZIKV antagonized type I IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Combined, our findings show that ZIKV subverts DC immunogenicity during infection, in part through evasion of type I IFN responses, but that the RLR signaling pathway is still capable of inducing an antiviral state, and therefore may serve as an antiviral therapeutic target.

  14. Zika Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon Responses during Infection of Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S.; O’Neal, Justin T.; Fedorova, Nadia B.; Puri, Vinita; Pulendran, Bali; Suthar, Mehul S.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors. Historic isolates from Africa and Asia also infected DCs with distinct viral replication kinetics between strains. African lineage viruses displayed more rapid replication kinetics and infection magnitude as compared to Asian lineage viruses, and uniquely induced cell death. Infection of DCs with both contemporary and historic ZIKV isolates led to minimal up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, along with limited secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) protein translation was observed during ZIKV infection, despite strong induction at the RNA transcript level and up-regulation of other host antiviral proteins. Treatment of human DCs with RIG-I agonist potently restricted ZIKV replication, while type I IFN had only modest effects. Mechanistically, we found all strains of ZIKV antagonized type I IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Combined, our findings show that ZIKV subverts DC immunogenicity during infection, in part through evasion of type I IFN responses, but that the RLR signaling pathway is still capable of inducing an antiviral state, and therefore may serve as an antiviral therapeutic target. PMID:28152048

  15. Zika Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon Responses during Infection of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Bowen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors. Historic isolates from Africa and Asia also infected DCs with distinct viral replication kinetics between strains. African lineage viruses displayed more rapid replication kinetics and infection magnitude as compared to Asian lineage viruses, and uniquely induced cell death. Infection of DCs with both contemporary and historic ZIKV isolates led to minimal up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, along with limited secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of type I interferon (IFN protein translation was observed during ZIKV infection, despite strong induction at the RNA transcript level and up-regulation of other host antiviral proteins. Treatment of human DCs with RIG-I agonist potently restricted ZIKV replication, while type I IFN had only modest effects. Mechanistically, we found all strains of ZIKV antagonized type I IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2. Combined, our findings show that ZIKV subverts DC immunogenicity during infection, in part through evasion of type I IFN responses, but that the RLR signaling pathway is still capable of inducing an antiviral state, and therefore may serve as an antiviral therapeutic target.

  16. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  17. The inflammatory response triggered by Influenza virus: a two edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luciana P; Teixeira, Mauro M; Garcia, Cristiana C

    2017-04-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a relevant respiratory tract pathogen leading to a great number of deaths and hospitalizations worldwide. Secondary bacterial infections are a very common cause of IAV associated morbidity and mortality. The robust inflammatory response that follows infection is important for the control of virus proliferation but is also associated with lung damage, morbidity and death. The role of the different components of immune response underlying protection or disease during IAV infection is not completely elucidated. Overall, in the context of IAV infection, inflammation is a 'double edge sword' necessary to control infection but causing disease. Therefore, a growing number of studies suggest that immunomodulatory strategies may improve disease outcome without affecting the ability of the host to deal with infection. This review summarizes recent aspects of the inflammatory responses triggered by IAV that are preferentially involved in causing severe pulmonary disease and the anti-inflammatory strategies that have been suggested to treat influenza induced immunopathology.

  18. Mechanisms of equine infectious anemia virus escape from neutralizing antibody responses define epitope specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Clark, Sandra K; Friedrich, Rachel A

    2012-08-01

    Determining mechanisms of viral escape to particular epitopes recognized by virus-neutralizing antibody can facilitate characterization of host-neutralizing antibody responses as type- versus group-specific, and provides necessary information for vaccine development. Our study reveals that a single N-glycan located in the 5' region of the Wyoming wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) principal neutralizing domain (PND) accounts for the differences in neutralization phenotype observed between PND variants, while variations in charged amino acids within the PND do not appear to play a key role in viral escape. Site-directed mutagenesis and peptide mapping of a conserved epitope to neutralizing antibody in the 3' region of the PND showed rapid selective pressure for acquisition of a 5' PND N-glycan responsible for defining the specificity of the neutralizing-antibody response.

  19. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection

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    Pil Soo Sung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130–170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  20. Impaired antibody response causes persistence of prototypic T cell-contained virus.

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    Andreas Bergthaler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T cells are recognized key players in control of persistent virus infections, but increasing evidence suggests that assistance from other immune mediators is also needed. Here, we investigated whether specific antibody responses contribute to control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, a prototypic mouse model of systemic persistent infection. Mice expressing transgenic B cell receptors of LCMV-unrelated specificity, and mice unable to produce soluble immunoglobulin M (IgM exhibited protracted viremia or failed to resolve LCMV. Virus control depended on immunoglobulin class switch, but neither on complement cascades nor on Fc receptor gamma chain or Fc gamma receptor IIB. Cessation of viremia concurred with the emergence of viral envelope-specific antibodies, rather than with neutralizing serum activity, and even early nonneutralizing IgM impeded viral persistence. This important role for virus-specific antibodies may be similarly underappreciated in other primarily T cell-controlled infections such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, and we suggest this contribution of antibodies be given consideration in future strategies for vaccination and immunotherapy.

  1. Autophagy and Mammalian Viruses: Roles in Immune Response, Viral Replication, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P; Münz, C

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process conserved from yeast to man. Double-membrane vesicles deliver their cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Hence, autophagy is one of the key mechanisms mammalian cells deploy to rid themselves of intracellular pathogens including viruses. However, autophagy serves many more functions during viral infection. First, it regulates the immune response through selective degradation of immune components, thus preventing possibly harmful overactivation and inflammation. Additionally, it delivers virus-derived antigens to antigen-loading compartments for presentation to T lymphocytes. Second, it might take an active part in the viral life cycle by, eg, facilitating its release from cells. Lastly, in the constant arms race between host and virus, autophagy is often hijacked by viruses and manipulated to their own advantage. In this review, we will highlight key steps during viral infection in which autophagy plays a role. We have selected some exemplary viruses and will describe the molecular mechanisms behind their intricate relationship with the autophagic machinery, a result of host-pathogen coevolution. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the serological responses to Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D-binding outer membrane protein and the ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Thuan Tong; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2006-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D-binding protein (MID) is a complex antigen with unique immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding, adhesion, and hemagglutination properties. Previous studies have shown that antibodies raised against MID764-913 in rabbits inhibited M. catarrhalis adhesion to human...... alveolar epithelial cells, and immunization with MID764-913 resulted in an increased pulmonary clearance in a murine model. Strong immune responses against MID have also consistently been shown in humans. Here, the MID-specified IgG responses were compared to those of ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2...... (UspA1/A2) using a series of recombinant fragments that spanned all three proteins. Sera were obtained from young children, aged 6 months to 1 year (n=8) and 2 to 3 years (n=15), and healthy adults (n=16). Acute- and convalescent-phase sera from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients...

  3. Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquain, Daniel; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Nitsche, Andreas

    2013-02-20

    Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell's gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different orthopoxviruses vary significantly. It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species.

  4. Immunization of Zika virus envelope protein domain III induces specific and neutralizing immune responses against Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Dent, Matthew; Lai, Huafang; Sun, Haiyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-07-24

    In this study, we described the generation and immunogenicity of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) envelope protein (E) domain III (DIII) as a protein subunit vaccine candidate. ZIKV EDIII (zEDIII) was rapidly produced in E. coli in inclusion bodies. ZIKV EDIII was solubilized, refolded and purified to >95% homogeneity with a one-step Ni2+ affinity chromatography process. Further analysis revealed that zEDIII was refolded properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-zEDIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a zEDIII conformational epitope. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with 25 and 50μg of zEDIII was performed over a period of 11weeks. zEDIII evoked ZIKV-specific and neutralizing antibody response with titers that exceed the threshold that correlates with protective immunity against ZIKV. The antigen-specific IgG isotypes were predominantly IgG1 and splenocyte cultures from immunized mice secreted IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-6. Notably, zEDIII-elicited antibodies did not enhance the infection of dengue virus in Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-expressing cells. This study provided a proof of principle for the further development of recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines against ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aedes aegypti Molecular Responses to Zika Virus: Modulation of Infection by the Toll and Jak/Stat Immune Pathways and Virus Host Factors

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    Yesseinia I. Angleró-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika (ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV are transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the molecular interactions between the vector and ZIKV remain largely unexplored. In this work, we further investigated the tropism of ZIKV in two different Aedes aegypti strains and show that the virus infection kinetics, tissue migration, and susceptibility to infection differ between mosquito strains. We also compare the vector transcriptome changes upon ZIKV or DENV infection demonstrating that 40% of the mosquito’s midgut infection-responsive transcriptome is virus-specific at 7 days after virus ingestion. Regulated genes included key factors of the mosquito’s anti-viral immunity. Comparison of the ZIKV and DENV infection-responsive transcriptome data to those available for yellow fever virus and West Nile virus identified 26 genes likely to play key roles in virus infection of Aedes mosquitoes. Through reverse genetic analyses, we show that the Toll and the Jak/Stat innate immune pathways mediate increased resistance to ZIKV infection, and the conserved DENV host factors vATPase and inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase are also utilized for ZIKV infection.

  6. Effect of West Nile virus DNA-plasmid vaccination on response to live virus challenge in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Tully, Thomas N; Ritchie, Branson W; Roy, Alma F; Baudena, M Alexandra; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an experimental adjuvanted DNA-plasmid vaccine against West Nile virus (WNV) in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 19 permanently disabled but otherwise healthy red-tailed hawks of mixed ages and both sexes without detectable serum antibodies against WNV. Hawks were injected IM with an experimental WNV DNA-plasmid vaccine in an aluminum-phosphate adjuvant (n = 14) or with the adjuvant only (control group; 5). All birds received 2 injections at a 3-week interval. Blood samples for serologic evaluation were collected before the first injection and 4 weeks after the second injection (day 0). At day 0, hawks were injected SC with live WNV. Pre- and postchallenge blood samples were collected at intervals for 14 days for assessment of viremia and antibody determination; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for assessment of viral shedding. Vaccination was not associated with morbidity or deaths. Three of the vaccinated birds seroconverted after the second vaccine injection; all other birds seroconverted following the live virus injection. Vaccinated birds had significantly less severe viremia and shorter and less-intense shedding periods, compared with the control birds. Use of the WNV DNA-plasmid vaccine in red-tailed hawks was safe, and vaccination attenuated but did not eliminate both the viremia and the intensity of postchallenge shedding following live virus exposure. Further research is warranted to conclusively determine the efficacy of this vaccine preparation for protection of red-tailed hawks and other avian species against WNV-induced disease.

  7. A Delayed Virus Infection Model with Cell-to-Cell Transmission and CTL Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Tonghua; Xu, Yancong; Zhou, Jinling

    In this paper, a delayed virus infection model with cell-to-cell transmission and CTL immune response is investigated. In the model, time delay is incorporated into the CTL response. By constructing Lyapunov functionals, global dynamical properties of the two boundary equilibria are established. Our results show that time delay in the CTL response process may lead to sustained oscillation. To further investigate the nature of the oscillation, we apply the method of multiple time scales to calculate the normal form on the center manifold of the model. At the end of the paper, numerical simulations are carried out, which support our theoretical results.

  8. Analysis of antiviral response in human epithelial cells infected with hepatitis E virus.

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    Pradip B Devhare

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis in developing nations and occurs in sporadic and epidemic forms. The disease may become severe with high mortality (20% among pregnant women. Due to lack of efficient cell culture system and small animal model, early molecular events of HEV infection are not yet known. In the present study, human lung epithelial cells, A549, were infected with HEV to monitor expression levels of genes/proteins in antiviral pathways. Both live and UV inactivated virus elicited robust induction of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES within 12 h of infection. Cells exposed to soluble capsid protein showed no induction suggesting the capsid structure and not the protein being detected as the pathogen pattern by cells. A delayed up-regulation of type I interferon genes only by the live virus at 48 h post HEV infection indicated the need of virus replication. However, absence of secreted interferons till 96 h suggested possible involvement of post-transcriptional regulation of type I IFN expression. HEV infected cells showed activation of both NF-κB and IRF3 transcription factors when seen at protein levels; however, reporter gene assays showed predominant expression via NF-κB promoter as compared to IRF3 promoter. Knockdown experiments done using siRNAs showed involvement of MyD88 and TRIF adaptors in generating antiviral response thus indicating role of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR3 in sensing viral molecules. MAVS knockdown surprisingly enhanced only proinflammatory cytokines and not type I IFNs. This suggested that HEV not only down-regulates RIG-I helicase like receptor mediated IFN induction but also employs MAVS in curtailing host inflammatory response. Our findings uncover an early cellular response in HEV infection and associated molecular mechanisms suggesting the potential role of inflammatory response triggered by HEV infection in host immune

  9. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Song, Tengfei; Yu, Ying; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wang, Shujie; Rong, Fulong; Dong, Jianguo; Liu, He; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2011-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection compromises the host's innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune responses of piglets infected with highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV (HuN4 strain) with or without the immunization with CH-1R attenuated PRRSV vaccine. The response was evaluated for the clinical signs, pathological changes and virus load in immune organs, antibody responses and levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The result showed that in comparison with the piglets received the immunization, the piglets infected with HP-PRRSV alone had the thymus atrophy, decreased serum levels of IL-4 and increased serum levels of IL-10 and INF-γ. These results suggest that elevated IL-10 levels at the early stage of the infection may enhance virus survival and delay the induction of protective immunity, while increased levels of IL-4 induce the effective immune responses and increase the animals' health status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deletion of the Monkeypox Virus Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes Locus Impacts the Adaptive Immune Response to Monkeypox Virus in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Infection ▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Ryan D.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; O'Connor, Megan A.; Li, Helen; Sprague, Jerald; Barron, Alexander; Engelmann, Flora; Yen, Bonnie; Powers, Michael F.; Jones, John M.; Robinson, Bridget A.; Orzechowska, Beata U.; Manoharan, Minsha; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Wilk, Jennifer; Axthelm, Michael K.; Wong, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an orthopoxvirus closely related to variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Human MPXV infection results in a disease that is similar to smallpox and can also be fatal. Two clades of MPXV have been identified, with viruses of the central African clade displaying more pathogenic properties than those within the west African clade. The monkeypox inhibitor of complement enzymes (MOPICE), which is not expressed by viruses of the west African clade, has been hypothesized to be a main virulence factor responsible for increased pathogenic properties of central African strains of MPXV. To gain a better understanding of the role of MOPICE during MPXV-mediated disease, we compared the host adaptive immune response and disease severity following intrabronchial infection with MPXV-Zaire (n = 4), or a recombinant MPXV-Zaire (n = 4) lacking expression of MOPICE in rhesus macaques (RM). Data presented here demonstrate that infection of RM with MPXV leads to significant viral replication in the peripheral blood and lungs and results in the induction of a robust and sustained adaptive immune response against the virus. More importantly, we show that the loss of MOPICE expression results in enhanced viral replication in vivo, as well as a dampened adaptive immune response against MPXV. Taken together, these findings suggest that MOPICE modulates the anti-MPXV immune response and that this protein is not the sole virulence factor of the central African clade of MPXV. PMID:21752919

  11. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Tripathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  12. Specific regulation of the chemokine response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus at the entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Jana; Garcia, Jessica; Ordas, M Camino; Casanova, Isabel; Gonzalez, Antonia; Villena, Alberto; Coll, Julio; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-05-01

    The fin bases constitute the main portal of rhabdovirus entry into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and replication in this first site strongly conditions the outcome of the infection. In this context, we studied the chemokine response elicited in this area in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus. Among all the rainbow trout chemokine genes studied, only the transcription levels of CK10 and CK12 were significantly upregulated in response to VHSV. As the virus had previously been shown to elicit a much stronger chemokine response in internal organs, we compared the effect of VHSV on the gills, another mucosal site which does not constitute the main site of viral entry or rhabdoviral replication. In this case, a significantly stronger chemokine response was triggered, with CK1, CK3, CK9, and CK11 being upregulated in response to VHSV and CK10 and CK12 being down-modulated by the virus. We then conducted further experiments to understand how these different chemokine responses of mucosal tissues could correlate with their capacity to support VHSV replication. No viral replication was detected in the gills, while at the fin bases, only the skin and the muscle were actively supporting viral replication. Within the skin, viral replication took place in the dermis, while viral replication was blocked within epidermal cells at some point before protein translation. The different susceptibilities of the different skin layers to VHSV correlated with the effect that VHSV has on their capacity to secrete chemotactic factors. Altogether, these results suggest a VHSV interference mechanism on the early chemokine response at its active replication sites within mucosal tissues, a possible key process that may facilitate viral entry.

  13. Correlation of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein content with protective antibody response after immunisation with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.A.; Komen, M.; Diepen, van M.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between the antigen content of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) oil emulsion-vaccines and the serological response after immunisation was studied. The haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were quantified in 33 inactivated

  14. Neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in acute versus chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Steven G; Schweighardt, Becky; Wrin, Terri; Galovich, Justin; Hoh, Rebecca; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hunt, Peter; McCune, Joseph M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Petropoulos, Christos J; Hecht, Frederick M

    2006-06-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the rapid development of neutralization escape mutations. The degree to which viral evolution persists in chronic infection has not been well characterized, nor is it clear if all patients develop high-level neutralization antibody escape. We therefore measured neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in a cohort of acutely and chronically infected subjects (n = 65). Neutralizing antibody responses against both autologous virus and heterologous viruses were lower among individuals with acute infection than among those with chronic infection. Among chronically infected individuals, there was a negative correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against autologous virus and the level of viremia. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against a panel of heterologous viruses and the level of viremia. Viral evolution, as defined by the presence of higher neutralizing titers directed against earlier viruses than against contemporaneous viruses, was evident for subjects with recent infection but absent for those with chronic infection. In summary, neutralizing antibody responses against contemporaneous autologous viruses are absent in early HIV infection but can be detected at low levels in chronic infection, particularly among those controlling HIV in the absence of therapy. HIV replication either directly or indirectly drives the production of increasing levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize heterologous primary isolates. Collectively, these observations indicate that although HIV continuously drives the production of neutralizing antibodies, there may be limits to the capacity of the virus to evolve continuously in response to these antibodies. These observations also suggest that the neutralizing antibody response may contribute to the long-term control of HIV in some patients while protecting

  15. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  16. Alphavirus-based Vaccines Encoding Nonstructural Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus Induce Robust and Protective T-cell Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ip, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Regts, Joke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    An absolute prerequisite for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the potency to induce HCV-specific vigorous and broad-spectrum T-cell responses. Here, we generated three HCV vaccines based on a recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vector expressing all-or a part of

  17. Characterization of the human CD8 + T cell response following infection with 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); S.E. Trierum (Stella); R. Bodewes (Rogier); C.A. van Baalen (Carel); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); M. Koopmans (Matty); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to study human virus-specific T cell responses after infection with a novel influenza virus against which limited humoral immunity existed in the population. Here we describe the magnitude, kinetics, and nature of the

  18. DNA vaccination of rainbow trout against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: A dose-response and time-course study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Martinussen, T.

    2000-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is caused by VHS virus (VHSV), which belongs to the rhabdovirus family. Among the different strategies for immunizing fish with a recombinant vaccine, genetic immunization has recently proven to be highly effective. To further...... investigate the potential for protecting fish against VHS by DNA vaccination, experiments were conducted to determine the amount of plasmid DNA needed for induction of protective immunity. The time to onset of immunity and the duration of protection following administration of a protective vaccine dose were...... serologically different from the isolate used for vaccine development. Following administration of 1 mug of a DNA vaccine, significant protection against VHS was observed in the fish as early as 8 d postvaccination. At 168 d postvacc