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Sample records for virus regulates transforming

  1. Proteins ZNF198 and SUZ12 are down-regulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein-mediated hepatocyte transformation and in HBV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Horng; Studach, Leo L; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2011-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major etiologic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, involving effects of chronic liver inflammation and of the weakly oncogenic HBV X protein (pX). pX-mediated hepatocyte transformation requires Polo-like kinase1 (Plk1) activity, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We identified by a genome-wide short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library screen the genes zinc finger, MYM-type 2 (ZNF198) and suppressor of zeste 12 homolog (Drosophila) (SUZ12) whose protein depletion rescues pX-expressing cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. ZNF198 and SUZ12 are components of chromatin remodeling complexes and associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies. Knockdown of ZNF198 and SUZ12 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced p53 stability and DNA repair, rescued pX-expressing hepatocytes from DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and increased pX-induced polyploidy and oncogenic transformation, suggesting ZNF198 and SUZ12 have a role in pX-mediated transformation. Interestingly, during pX-mediated transformation the protein but not messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of ZNF198 and SUZ12 progressively decreased, whereas Plk1 levels increased. Inhibition of Plk1 activity restored protein levels of ZNF198 and SUZ12. In addition, transfected Polo-box-domain (PBD) of Plk1 coimmunoprecipitated with ZNF198 and SUZ12, suggesting that these proteins are Plk1 substrates. Elevated Plk1 and reduced protein levels of ZNF198 and SUZ12 were also observed in human liver cancer cell lines derived from HBV-related tumors and in the presence of HBV replication. Importantly, knockdown by siRNA of ZNF198 and SUZ12 enhanced HBV replication. Reduced protein levels of ZNF198 and SUZ12 and elevated Plk1 occur during pX-mediated hepatocyte transformation in human liver cancer cell lines, as well as during HBV replication, underscoring the significance of these genes both in HBV-mediated HCC pathogenesis and HBV replication. We propose Plk1

  2. Hepatitis B virus X protein differentially regulates cell cycle progression in X-transforming versus nontransforming hepatocyte (AML12) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook; Tarn, Chi; Wang, Wen-Horng; Chen, Sigeng; Hullinger, Ronald L; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2002-03-08

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (pX) is implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis of chronically infected HBV patients. To understand mechanism(s) of pX-mediated cellular transformation, we employed two tetracycline-regulated, pX-expressing cell lines, constructed in AML12 immortalized hepatocytes: one a differentiated (3pX-1) and the other a de-differentiated (4pX-1) hepatocyte cell line. Only 3pX-1 cells undergo pX-mediated transformation, via sustained Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. pX-nontransforming 4pX-1 cells display sustained, pX-dependent JNK pathway activation. To understand how pX mediates different growth characteristics in 3pX-1 and 4pX-1 cells, we report, herein, comparative cell cycle analyses. pX-transforming 3pX-1 cells display pX-dependent G(1), S, and G(2)/M progression evidenced by cyclin D(1), A, and B(1) induction, and Cdc2 kinase activation. pX-nontransforming 4pX-1 cells display pX-dependent G(1) and S phase entry, followed by S phase pause and absence of Cdc2 kinase activation. Interestingly, 4pX-1 cells exhibit selective pX-induced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1), tumor suppressor p19(ARF), and proapoptotic genes bax and IGFBP-3. Despite the pX-mediated induction of growth arrest and apoptotic genes and the absence of pX-dependent Cdc2 activation, 4pX-1 cells do not undergo pX-dependent G(2)/M arrest or apoptosis. Nocodazole-treated, G(2)/M-arrested 4pX-1 cells exhibit pX-dependent formation of multinucleated cells, similar to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I Tax-expressing cells. We propose that in 4pX-1 cells, pX deregulates the G(2)/M checkpoint, thus rescuing cells from pX-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Simvastatin and intracellular pH regulation by the Na+/H+ antiport of SV40-virus-transformed human MRC5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Ng, L L

    1993-06-01

    1. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by simvastatin leads to inhibition of both cell growth and Na+/H+ antiport activity. The effect of simvastatin on intracellular pH and Na+/H+ antiport activity was therefore studied on an adherent cell line, the SV40-virus-transformed MRC5 human fibroblast. 2. Simvastatin led to a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular pH, attributed to a reduction in Na+/H+ exchange, together with a rounding of cell shape. Mevalonate (1 mmol/l) prevented these effects of simvastatin, and when added after inhibition of the antiport by simvastatin, reversed these changes within 1-2h. 3. The phenomenon of mevalonate reversal of antiport inhibition by simvastatin was not sensitive to cycloheximide, indicating its post-translational nature. This was also consistent with the short period of incubation with mevalonate leading to reversal of antiport inhibition (1-2 h). These changes in intracellular pH regulation were not due to alterations in cell cholesterol content. 4. A variety of inhibitors of post-translational processes, such as N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin), phosphorylation (staurosporine), isoprenylation (farnesol, limonene), and of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins or calmodulin (W7), had no effect on the reversal by mevalonate of simvastatin-induced changes in Na+/H+ antiport activity. 5. N-Ethylmaleimide (50 mumol/l for 5 min) prevented mevalonate reversing the effects of simvastatin, suggesting the importance of thiol groups in the phenomenon of reversal of the inhibition of Na+/H+ antiport activity by simvastatin. Furthermore, concurrent incubation of simvastatin-treated cells with dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l) and N-ethylmaleimide restored the ability of mevalonate to reverse the inhibitory effects of simvastatin on Na+H+ antiport activity.

  4. Regulation of Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein by SUMO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maite Baz-martínez; Ahmed El Motiam; Paula Ruibal; Gabriela N Condezo; Carlos F De La Cruz-herrera; Valerie Lang; Manuel Collado; Carmen San Martín; Manuel S Rodríguez; Cesar Muñoz-fontela; Carmen Rivas

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 regulates viral budding, nucleocapsid recruitment, virus structure and stability, viral genome replication and transcription, and has an intrinsic ability to form virus-like particles...

  5. Epstein Barr virus: Diseases linked to Infection and Transformation

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    Hem Chandra Jha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies.

  6. Epstein–Barr Virus: Diseases Linked to Infection and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem C.; Pei, Yonggang; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation, and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation, and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here, we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies. PMID:27826287

  7. The inhibition of cultured myoblast differentiation by the simian virus 40 large T antigen occurs after myogenin expression and Rb up-regulation and is not exerted by transformation-competent cytoplasmic mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Caruso, M; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1995-11-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) interferes with the differentiation of C2 myoblasts. SVLT mutants, defective either in the Rb binding site, near the N-terminal end, in a region that affects binding to p53, or in the nuclear transport signal, were also employed to determine whether the interference was especially dependent on these functional domains. It was found that wild-type (wt) SVLT strongly inhibited the terminal differentiation of mouse C2 myoblasts, but this arrest occurred only after the synthesis of myogenin, an initial step in biochemical differentiation. Neither the synthesis nor some basic activities of MyoD appeared to be affected by wt SVLT. In these transformants, mitogen depletion elicited an increase in the Rb level comparable to that in normal C2 cells; wt SVLT, however, promoted the phosphorylation of a large part of the induced Rb. Mutations affecting nuclear transport were far more critical for the ability to interfere with myogenic differentiation than were those affecting the transforming potential; cytoplasmic SVLT expression was fully compatible with the terminal differentiation of C2 cells, despite enabling them to grow in semisolid medium, thus showing that the myogenesis-inhibiting property can be dissociated from transforming competence. The remaining SVLT mutants presented different degrees of ability to inhibit differentiation (as shown by the expression of tissue-specific markers in transformants). The inhibiting mutants, including the Rb binding site mutant, were able to promote a higher state of Rb phosphorylation than that observed in either normal cells or cytoplasmic-SVLT transformants.

  8. C-terminal region of EBNA-2 determines the superior transforming ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus by enhanced gene regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Cancian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7 required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

  9. C-terminal region of EBNA-2 determines the superior transforming ability of type 1 Epstein-Barr virus by enhanced gene regulation of LMP-1 and CXCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Laila; Bosshard, Rachel; Lucchesi, Walter; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Farrell, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro much more efficiently than type 2 EBV, a difference previously mapped to the EBNA-2 locus. Here we demonstrate that the greater transforming activity of type 1 EBV correlates with a stronger and more rapid induction of the viral oncogene LMP-1 and the cell gene CXCR7 (which are both required for proliferation of EBV-LCLs) during infection of primary B cells with recombinant viruses. Surprisingly, although the major sequence differences between type 1 and type 2 EBNA-2 lie in N-terminal parts of the protein, the superior ability of type 1 EBNA-2 to induce proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoblasts is mostly determined by the C-terminus of EBNA-2. Substitution of the C-terminus of type 1 EBNA-2 into the type 2 protein is sufficient to confer a type 1 growth phenotype and type 1 expression levels of LMP-1 and CXCR7 in an EREB2.5 cell growth assay. Within this region, the RG, CR7 and TAD domains are the minimum type 1 sequences required. Sequencing the C-terminus of EBNA-2 from additional EBV isolates showed high sequence identity within type 1 isolates or within type 2 isolates, indicating that the functional differences mapped are typical of EBV type sequences. The results indicate that the C-terminus of EBNA-2 accounts for the greater ability of type 1 EBV to promote B cell proliferation, through mechanisms that include higher induction of genes (LMP-1 and CXCR7) required for proliferation and survival of EBV-LCLs.

  10. The Regulation of Autophagy by Influenza A Virus

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    Rong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a dreadful pathogen of animals and humans, causing widespread infection and severe morbidity and mortality. It is essential to characterize the influenza A virus-host interaction and develop efficient counter measures against the viral infection. Autophagy is known as a catabolic process for the recycling of the cytoplasmic macromolecules. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy is a critical mechanism underlying the interaction between influenza A virus and its host. Autophagy can be induced by the infection with influenza A virus, which is considered as a necessary process for the viral proliferation, including the accumulation of viral elements during the replication of influenza A virus. On the other hand, influenza A virus can inhibit the autophagic formation via interaction with the autophagy-related genes (Atg and signaling pathways. In addition, autophagy is involved in the influenza virus-regulated cell deaths, leading to significant changes in host apoptosis. Interestingly, the high pathogenic strains of influenza A virus, such as H5N1, stimulate autophagic cell death and appear to interplay with the autophagy in distinct ways as compared with low pathogenic strains. This review discusses the regulation of autophagy, an influenza A virus driven process.

  11. Regulation of neuronal input transformations by tunable dendritic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Turi, Gergely F; Kaifosh, Patrick; Lee, Peter H; Bolze, Frédéric; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Nicoud, Jean-François; Zemelman, Boris V; Sternson, Scott M; Losonczy, Attila

    2012-01-15

    Transforming synaptic input into action potential output is a fundamental function of neurons. The pattern of action potential output from principal cells of the mammalian hippocampus encodes spatial and nonspatial information, but the cellular and circuit mechanisms by which neurons transform their synaptic input into a given output are unknown. Using a combination of optical activation and cell type-specific pharmacogenetic silencing in vitro, we found that dendritic inhibition is the primary regulator of input-output transformations in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and acts by gating the dendritic electrogenesis driving burst spiking. Dendrite-targeting interneurons are themselves modulated by interneurons targeting pyramidal cell somata, providing a synaptic substrate for tuning pyramidal cell output through interactions in the local inhibitory network. These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons.

  12. The inhibition of cultured myoblast differentiation by the simian virus 40 large T antigen occurs after myogenin expression and Rb up-regulation and is not exerted by transformation-competent cytoplasmic mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, D; Caruso, M; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) interferes with the differentiation of C2 myoblasts. SVLT mutants, defective either in the Rb binding site, near the N-terminal end, in a region that affects binding to p53, or in the nuclear transport signal, were also employed to determine whether the interference was especially dependent on these functional domains. It was found that wild-type (wt) SVLT strongly inhibited the terminal differentiation of ...

  13. Human genome contains four genes homologous to transforming genes of Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, E H; Gonda, M A; Ellis, R.W.; Scolnick, E M; Lowy, D R

    1982-01-01

    Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses each encode a structurally and functionally related 21-kilodalton protein (p21), which is the transforming protein of each virus. Using probes from the 0.9-kilobase (kb) p21-coding region of each virus (called v-Ha-ras and v-Ki-ras, respectively), we have molecularly cloned from normal human genomic DNA the sequences that hybridize to these probes. Four evolutionarily divergent restriction endonuclease fragments were isolated. Two hybridized preferent...

  14. Immune regulation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Nielsen, Nick Schou

    2016-01-01

    The immunological result of infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the delicate balance between a vigorous immune response that may clear the infection, but with a risk of unspecific inflammation and, or a less inflammatory response that leads to chronic infection. In general, exhaustion...... of epigenetic changes in chronic HCV infection. A vast amount of studies have revealed the complexity of immune regulation in chronic HCV infection, but the interplay between immune regulation in virus and host remains incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of regulatory functions of HCV...

  15. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

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    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  16. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Amy K; Lee, Min S; Qi, Huilin; Chaniewski, Susan; Zheng, Xiaofan; Farr, Glen A; Esposito, Kim; Harden, David; Lei, Ming; Schweizer, Liang; Friborg, Jacques; Agler, Michele; McPhee, Fiona; Gentles, Robert; Beno, Brett R; Chupak, Lou; Mason, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  17. CELL SHAPE AND HEXOSE TRANSPORT IN NORMAL AND VIRUS-TRANSFORMED CELLS IN CULTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, M.J.; Farson, D.; Tung, A.S.C.

    1976-07-01

    The rate of hexose transport was compared in normal and virus-transformed cells on a monolayer and in suspension. It was shown that: (1) Both trypsin-removed cells and those suspended for an additional day in methyl cellulose had decreased rates of transport and lower available water space when compared with cells on a monolayer. Thus, cell shape affects the overall rate of hexose transport, especially at higher sugar concentrations. (2) Even in suspension, the initial transport rates remained higher in transformed cells with reference to normal cells. Scanning electron micrographs of normal and transformed chick cells revealed morphological differences only in the flat state. This indicates that the increased rate of hexose transport after transformation is not due to a difference in the shape of these cells on a monolayer. The relation between the geometry of cells, transport rates, and growth regulation is undoubtedly very complex, and our knowledge of these relationships is still very elementary. In a recent review on the influence of geometry on control of cell growth, Folkman and Greenspan (1) pointed out that the permeability of cells in a flat versus a spherical state may indeed be very different. The growth properties of cells on a surface and in suspension have been compared often (1-5). However, with one exception. little is known about the changes in transport properties when cell shape is changed. Foster and Pardee (6) demonstrated that the active transport of a-aminoisobutyric acid was reduced 2.5 times in suspension cultures of Chinese hamster cells with respect to the cells grown on a coverslip. They attributed this to the smaller surface area of suspended cells. While it is not clear why active transport should be dependent on the surface area available, it is possible that once the cells assume a spherical configuration, the carrier proteins are redistributed in such a way as to make them less accessible to the substrate. What happens to

  18. Meta-analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma microarray data explores mechanism of EBV-regulated neoplastic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao ZhiJun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV presumably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, but the molecular mechanism of EBV-dependent neoplastic transformation is not well understood. The combination of bioinformatics with evidences from biological experiments paved a new way to gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of cancer. Results We profiled gene expression using a meta-analysis approach. Two sets of meta-genes were obtained. Meta-A genes were identified by finding those commonly activated/deactivated upon EBV infection/reactivation. These genes could be key players for pathways de-regulated by EBV during latent infection and lytic proliferation. Meta-B genes were obtained from differential genes commonly expressed in NPC and PEL (primary effusion lymphoma. We then integrated meta-A, meta-B and associated factors into an interaction network using acquired information. Our analysis suggests that NPC transformation depends on timely regulation of DEK, CDK inhibitor(s, p53, RB and several transcriptional cascades, interconnected by E2F, AP-1, NF-κB, STAT3 among others during latent and lytic cycles. Conclusion In conclusion, our meta-analysis strategy re-analyzed EBV-related tumor data sets and identified sets of meta-genes possibly involved in maintaining latent or switching to lytic cycles of EBV in NPC. The results of this analysis may shed new lights to further our understanding of the EBV-led neoplastic transformation.

  19. Genome organization and transcriptional regulation of respiratory syncytial virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the RS virus order of transcription, gene organization and transcriptional regulation to determine other unique RS virus features and better compare RS virus to other paramyxoviruses. The number of viral promoters and the order of transcription was determined using UV inactivation experiments. RNA transcribed from UV damaged genomes was analyzed by gel electrophoresis and dot blot hybridization. These experiments revealed that RS virus has a single transcriptional promoter, as has been shown for other paramyxoviruses. Also like other paramyxoviruses, the gene encoding the major nucleocapsid protein (N) lies close to the promoter site at the 3' end of the genome while the gene presumed to encode the viral polymerase is found at the 5' end of the genome. However, unlike other paramyxoviruses, two genes coding for small, unique nonstructural proteins lie before the N gene at the 3' end of the genome.

  20. Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2017-03-10

    This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970s and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, because I remain actively engaged in research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) notwithstanding 50 memorable years there. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Effect of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide on malignant cell transformation by Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihel, M; Arad, S

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was highly inhibitory for cell transformation of mouse fibroblast cells by an MSV-124 virus stock. This inhibition was most effective if the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. Addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection. These findings support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration.

  2. Adenovirus-like transformation of hamster embryo cells mediated by Simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, G T; Sanborn-Redmond, S

    1973-04-01

    Primary hamster cells, derived from embryos of 10 days gestation, were exposed in culture to the oncogenic effect of the DNA virus SV40. While the fibroblastoid cells transformed soon after virus inoculation, the small, round or oval cells also present preserved their characteristic mophologic features for a long time. When these cells finally transformed under the influence of SV40, they developed the capacity to induce, in the homologous host, small-, round-cell sarcomas, that were morphologically indistinguishable from neoplasms usually produced by adenoviruses. These findings indicate that different cells differ in their susceptibility to virus-mediated neoplastic transformation. They demonstrate also that the morphology of virally induced tumors is not always pathognomonic of their specific etiology.

  3. An Oncogenic Virus Promotes Cell Survival and Cellular Transformation by Suppressing Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is essential for supporting the fast growth of a variety of cancers. However, its role in the survival of cancer cells under stress conditions is unclear. We have previously reported an efficient model of gammaherpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV-induced cellular transformation of rat primary mesenchymal stem cells. KSHV-transformed cells efficiently induce tumors in nude mice with pathological features reminiscent of Kaposi's sarcoma tumors. Here, we report that KSHV promotes cell survival and cellular transformation by suppressing aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation under nutrient stress. Specifically, KSHV microRNAs and vFLIP suppress glycolysis by activating the NF-κB pathway to downregulate glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. While overexpression of the transporters rescues the glycolytic activity, it induces apoptosis and reduces colony formation efficiency in softagar under glucose deprivation. Mechanistically, GLUT1 and GLUT3 inhibit constitutive activation of the AKT and NF-κB pro-survival pathways. Strikingly, GLUT1 and GLUT3 are significantly downregulated in KSHV-infected cells in human KS tumors. Furthermore, we have detected reduced levels of aerobic glycolysis in several KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cell lines compared to a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB, and KSHV infection of BJAB cells reduced aerobic glycolysis. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which an oncogenic virus regulates a key metabolic pathway to adapt to stress in tumor microenvironment, and illustrate the importance of fine-tuning the metabolic pathways for sustaining the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, particularly under stress conditions.

  4. Complex forms of mitochondrial DNA in human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C; Zeuthen, J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed lymphoblast......Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed...

  5. Higher incidence of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Caroline Winther; Andreasen, Charlotte; Gehr, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and EBV may transform lymphoblastoid cell lines more frequently in MS patients than controls, but it is not clear whether this reflects a higher viral load or an enhanced ability to reactivate EBV. Material...

  6. Replication of an incomplete alfalfa mosaic virus genome in plants transformed with viral replicase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taschner, P. E.; van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    RNAs 1 and 2 of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) encode proteins P1 and P2, respectively, both of which have a putative role in viral RNA replication. Tobacco plants were transformed with DNA copies of RNA1 (P1-plants), RNA2 (P2-plants) or a combination of these two cDNAs (P12-plants). All transgenic

  7. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  8. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    -herpesvirus-encoded BILF1 receptors, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded US28 receptor and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-regulated EBI2 (or GPR183), 2) the tissue tropism and virus-dissemination properties, exemplified by the murine CMV-encoded M33, and 3) the tumorigenic properties, exemplified...... by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-encoded ORF74, HCMV-US28 and EBV-BILF1. Given the general high “druggability” of 7TM receptors, and the recent progress in the understanding of in particular immune evasive functions of the virus-exploited 7TM receptors, we put a special emphasis on the progress of novel anti...

  9. Constraints to virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with a potyvirus amplicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón-Mateo Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genomes have been transformed with full-length cDNA copies of viral genomes, giving rise to what has been called 'amplicon' systems, trying to combine the genetic stability of transgenic plants with the elevated replication rate of plant viruses. However, amplicons' performance has been very variable regardless of the virus on which they are based. This has boosted further interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms that cause this behavior differences, and in developing strategies to control amplicon expression. Results Nicotiana benthamiana plants were transformed with an amplicon consisting of a full-length cDNA of the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV genome modified to include a GFP reporter gene. Amplicon expression exhibited a great variability among different transgenic lines and even among different plants of the same line. Plants of the line 10.6 initially developed without signs of amplicon expression, but at different times some of them started to display sporadic infection foci in leaves approaching maturity. The infection progressed systemically, but at later times the infected plants recovered and returned to an amplicon-inactive state. The failure to detect virus-specific siRNAs in 10.6 plants before amplicon induction and after recovery suggested that a strong amplicon-specific RNA silencing is not established in these plants. However, the coexpression of extra viral silencing suppressors caused some amplicon activation, suggesting that a low level of RNA silencing could be contributing to maintain amplicon repression in the 10.6 plants. The resistance mechanisms that prevent amplicon-derived virus infection were also active against exogenous PPV introduced by mechanical inoculation or grafting, but did not affect other viruses. Amplicon-derived PPV was able to spread into wild type scions grafted in 10.6 rootstocks that did not display signs of amplicon expression, suggesting that resistance has

  10. Application of Voltage-regulating and Phaseshifting Transformers to Control Power Flows in the Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Przygrodzki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system performance results from, among other factors, the use of devices for electricity transmission and transformation. Proper operation and control of these devices allows maintaining proper electricity parameters and the continuous supply to end consumers. In the group of electricity transforming devices transformers can be distinguished by the ability to control both the magnitude and phase angle of voltage. In this way transmission system state parameters are adjusted, which enable selecting the reactive and active power. On the one hand, these are devices of a complex structure, resulting in difficult operating conditions, while on the other hand they provide a potential opportunity to influence the power flow (including active power in power grids. This article presents the idea of voltage and phase regulation and a transformer regulating unit model. Using the transformer unit’s grid model power analyses were conducted with a focus on evaluating load flow control capabilities. The results of the calculations for the selected transformer unit are presented.active power in power grids. This article presents the idea of voltage and phase regulation and a transformer regulating unit model. Using the transformer unit’s grid model power analyses were conducted with a focus on evaluating load flow control capabilities. The results of the calculations for the selected transformer unit are presented.

  11. (PGC-1α) regulates transformation of muscle fiber type

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1ɑ, a well-known member of PGC-1 transcriptional coactivator's family, plays a key role in various metabolic pathways. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1ɑ in the transformation of muscle fiber type in Schizothorax prenanti. The expression of PGC-1ɑ was ...

  12. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  13. Three-Phase Phase-Shifting Transformer with Regulation in Neutral Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin L.P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to research mode characteristics of phase shift installation based on one three-phase transformer having three windings. Usually, such installations are two cores: exciting transformer and regulation transformer. In paper the installation functional scheme description, as well main relations which determine currents and voltages character in scheme elements during regulation process are given. It is shown, that installation is able to provide phase shift angle regulation up to . The installation scheme is designed to place the control module in the neutral connection point of regulation windings. Such solution allowing essential reduction of installation rated capacity compare to traditional one and excluding necessity of special isolation of shell. Proposed solution ensure in such mode compact construction and commodity for transportation, mounting and service.

  14. Multiple phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases regulate vaccinia virus morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Shannon; Bornmann, William; Schriewer, Jill; Werner, Chas; Smith, Scott K; Olson, Victoria A; Damon, Inger K; Buller, R Mark; Heuser, John; Kalman, Daniel

    2010-05-28

    Poxvirus morphogenesis is a complex process that involves the successive wrapping of the virus in host cell membranes. We screened by plaque assay a focused library of kinase inhibitors for those that caused a reduction in viral growth and identified several compounds that selectively inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Previous studies demonstrated that PI3Ks mediate poxviral entry. Using growth curves and electron microscopy in conjunction with inhibitors, we show that that PI3Ks additionally regulate morphogenesis at two distinct steps: immature to mature virion (IMV) transition, and IMV envelopment to form intracellular enveloped virions (IEV). Cells derived from animals lacking the p85 regulatory subunit of Type I PI3Ks (p85alpha(-/-)beta(-/-)) presented phenotypes similar to those observed with PI3K inhibitors. In addition, VV appear to redundantly use PI3Ks, as PI3K inhibitors further reduce plaque size and number in p85alpha(-/-)beta(-/-) cells. Together, these data provide evidence for a novel regulatory mechanism for virion morphogenesis involving phosphatidylinositol dynamics and may represent a new therapeutic target to contain poxviruses.

  15. Multiple phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases regulate vaccinia virus morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon McNulty

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Poxvirus morphogenesis is a complex process that involves the successive wrapping of the virus in host cell membranes. We screened by plaque assay a focused library of kinase inhibitors for those that caused a reduction in viral growth and identified several compounds that selectively inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K. Previous studies demonstrated that PI3Ks mediate poxviral entry. Using growth curves and electron microscopy in conjunction with inhibitors, we show that that PI3Ks additionally regulate morphogenesis at two distinct steps: immature to mature virion (IMV transition, and IMV envelopment to form intracellular enveloped virions (IEV. Cells derived from animals lacking the p85 regulatory subunit of Type I PI3Ks (p85alpha(-/-beta(-/- presented phenotypes similar to those observed with PI3K inhibitors. In addition, VV appear to redundantly use PI3Ks, as PI3K inhibitors further reduce plaque size and number in p85alpha(-/-beta(-/- cells. Together, these data provide evidence for a novel regulatory mechanism for virion morphogenesis involving phosphatidylinositol dynamics and may represent a new therapeutic target to contain poxviruses.

  16. Phosphorylation sites of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 regulate its function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and a risk factor for developing a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein found in all EBV-related malignancies. It plays a key role in establishing and maintaining the altered state of cells transformed with EBV. EBNA1 is required for a variety of functions, including gene regulation, replication and maintenance of the viral genome, but the regulation of EBNA1's functions is poorly understood. We demonstrate that phosphorylation affects the functions of EBNA1. By using electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, ten specific phosphorylated EBNA1 residues were identified. A mutant derivative preventing the phosphorylation of all ten phosphosites retained the unusually long half-life and the ability to translocate into the nucleus of wild-type EBNA1. This phosphorylation-deficient mutant, however, had a significantly reduced ability to activate transcription and to maintain EBV's plasmids in cells.

  17. Phosphorylation sites of Epstein–Barr virus EBNA1 regulate its function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J.; Thompson, Katie L.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burgess, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and a risk factor for developing a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein found in all EBV-related malignancies. It plays a key role in establishing and maintaining the altered state of cells transformed with EBV. EBNA1 is required for a variety of functions, including gene regulation, replication and maintenance of the viral genome, but the regulation of EBNA1's functions is poorly understood. We demonstrate that phosphorylation affects the functions of EBNA1. By using electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, ten specific phosphorylated EBNA1 residues were identified. A mutant derivative preventing the phosphorylation of all ten phosphosites retained the unusually long half-life and the ability to translocate into the nucleus of wild-type EBNA1. This phosphorylation-deficient mutant, however, had a significantly reduced ability to activate transcription and to maintain EBV's plasmids in cells. PMID:19439552

  18. Identification of Contaminated Cells with Viruses, Bacteria, or Fungi by Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Erukhimovitch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR-M can detect small molecular changes in cells and therefore was previously applied for the identification of different biological samples. In the present study, FTIR spectroscopy was used for the identification and discrimination of Vero cells infected with herpes viruses or contaminated with bacteria or fungi in cell culture. Vero cells in culture were infected herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 or contaminated with E. coli bacteria or Candida albicans fungi and analyzed by FTIR microscopy at 24 h postinfection/contamination. Specific different spectral changes were observed according to the infecting or contaminating agent. For instance, both pure fungi and cell culture contaminated with this fungi showed specific peaks at 1030 cm−1 and at 1373 cm−1 regions, while pure E. coli and cell culture contaminated with this bacteria showed a specific and unique peak at 1657 cm−1. These results support the potential of developing FTIR microspectroscopy as a simple, reagent free method for identification and discrimination between different tissue infection or contamination with various pathogens.

  19. Resistance to tospoviruses in Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the N gene of tomato spotted wilt virus: correlation between transgene expression and protection in primary transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira, A M; Semeria, L; Crespi, S; Lisa, V; Allavena, A; Accotto, G P

    1995-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana was transformed with the nucleoprotein (N) gene of an Italian isolate of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Forty-five T1 primary transformant lines were analyzed for the expression of N protein and for resistance to TSWV and three other tospoviruses: impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). Thirteen of these lines were further characterized. Resistance to all TSWV isolates tested was found in two lines. The expression of the transgene (N mRNA) was lower in these resistant lines than in any of the susceptible lines, and the transgene N protein was either absent or present below detectable levels. These lines were susceptible to the other tospoviruses tested, but they developed symptoms milder than controls when inoculated with GRSV. Some of the lines producing high levels of N protein showed delays (of 2-3 weeks) in symptom expression with at least one of the TSWV isolates tested and symptom delay or attenuation with INSV or GRSV (or both). From our results it appears that high expression of TSWV N protein retards, in some cases, disease development by TSWV and INSV. In contrast, the lack of detectable expression of the transgenic N protein, accompanied by limited production of N transcripts, conferred TSWV-specific resistance.

  20. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  1. Influence of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA 2 on the growth phenotype of virus-transformed B cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Rickinson, A B; Young, L S; M. Rowe

    1987-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) isolates show sequence divergence in the BamHI YH region of the genome which encodes the nuclear antigen EBNA 2, a protein thought to be involved in the initiation of virus-induced B-cell transformation; type A isolates (such as B95-8 EBV) encode a 82- to 87-kilodalton EBNA 2A protein, whereas type B isolates (such as AG876 EBV) encode an antigenically distinct 75-kilodalton EBNA 2B protein. In the present work 12 type A isolates and 8 type B isolates have been compar...

  2. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    that PRCs regulate cellular proliferation and transformation independently of the Ink4a/Arf-pRb-p53 pathway. We provide evidence that PRCs localize at replication forks, and that loss of their function directly affects the progression and symmetry of DNA replication forks. Thus, we have identified a novel...

  3. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  4. Exploiting pH-Regulated Dimer-Tetramer Transformation of Concanavalin A to Develop Colorimetric Biosensing of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiahong; Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Wang, Xiangyun; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin; Yang, Hua

    2017-05-03

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation-based colorimetric biosensing remains a challenge for bacteria due to their large size. Here we propose a novel colorimetric biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in milk samples based on pH-regulated transformation of dimer/tetramer of Concanavalin A (Con A) and the Con A-glycosyl recognition. Briefly, antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles was used to capture and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 and then to label with Con A; pH adjusted to 5 was then applied to dissociate Con A tetramer to release dimer, which was collected and re-formed tetramer at pH of 7 to cause the aggregation of dextran-modified AuNPs. The interesting pH-dependent conformation-transformation behavior of Con A innovated the design of the release from the bacteria surface and then the reconstruction of Con A. Therefore, we realized the sensitive colorimetric biosensing of bacteria, which are much larger than AuNPs that is generally not suitable for this kind of method. The proposed biosensor exhibited a limit of detection down to 41 CFU/mL, short assay time (~95 min) and satisfactory specificity. The biosensor also worked well for the detection in milk sample, and may provide a universal concept for the design of colorimetric biosensors for bacteria and virus.

  5. Oxylipin biosynthesis genes positively regulate programmed cell death during compatible infections with the synergistic pair potato virus X-potato virus Y and Tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or α-dioxygenase-1 (α-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 α-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta.

  6. The virus-induced HSPs regulate the apoptosis of operatus APCs that result in autoimmunity, not in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temajo, Norbert O; Howard, Neville

    2014-12-01

    The viruses stand salient as environmental factors that trigger autoimmunity. The virus realizes its effects through induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) as well as by the viral IE-axis-mediated conversion of organ epithelial cells into virgin de novo professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The HSP is the accomplished operator in homeostasis by the logic of it being the regulator of apoptosis. By virtue of its regulation of apoptosis, the HSP is also involved in autoimmunity: (1) adornment of viral IE-axis-generated virgin de novo professional APCs with HSP-induced co-stimulatory molecules which transform these otherwise epithelial cells to competent antigen presenters, the operatus APCs, liable to apoptosis that becomes the initiator of organ damages; (2) molecular mimicry mechanism: epitopes on the HSP may be mistaken for viral peptides and be presented by operatus APCs to autoreactive TCRs resulting in the apoptosis of the operatus APCs; (3) regulation of MHC class II DR-mediated apoptosis of operatus APCS which can result in organ-specific autoimmune syndromes. We should remember, however, that Nature's intended purpose for apoptosis of the professional APCs is benevolence: as a principal regulator of immune homeostasis. But the apoptosis of our postulated operatus APCs can result in autoimmunity. The transformation of virgin de novo professional APCs to operatus APCs mirrors the maturation of DCs through their acquisition of HSP-induced costimulatory molecules. What happens to mature DCs as antigen presenters that end in homeostasis is replicated by what happens to operatus APCs that ends instead in autoimmunity.

  7. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  8. [Differences of the regulation on the expression of mucin 1 induced by two single-strand RNA viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Ni, Shu-Yuan; Li, Yu-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    To investigate whether influenza virus (IFZ) could up-regulate the expression of mucin 1 (MUC1) which exists in epithelial cells of upper respiratory track to restrict the inflammation, as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) does. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot were performed to detect the expression level of MUC1 induced by two single-strand RNA viruses in A549 cell lines. HEp-2 and MDCK cells were used respectively to culture RSV and IFZ. At 24h post A549 cells infection with the same titer of RSV or IFZ, the total RNA was harvest, qRT-PCR was then performed to observe the expression level of MUC1 mRNA. Meanwhile, at 24 h and 48 h post A549 cells infection with the same titer of RSV or IFZ, the total protein and supernatant were collected respectively after cell lysis, Western Blot was then used to detect the expression level of MUC1. Results showed that RSV could up-regulate the expression of MUC1 in airway epithelial cells with a significant dose-effect correlation, whereas IFZ could not. This study firstly investigated the differences of the regulation on the expression of MUC1 induced by two single-strand RNA viruses, and demonstrated initially that the mechanism of IFZ self-limiting differed from RSV, which attributed to up-regulation of the expression level of MUC1.

  9. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  10. Further genetic localization of the transforming sequences of the p21 v-ras gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Ellis, R W; Scolnick, E M

    1984-01-01

    The sequences encoding the 21-kilodalton transforming protein (p21 ras) of Harvey murine sarcoma virus have previously been localized genetically to a 1.3-kilobase segment of the viral DNA (E. H. Chang, R. W. Ellis, E. M. Scolnick, and D. R. Lowy, Science 210:1249-1251, 1980). Within this segment...... of this open reading frame. By constructing a mutant of Harvey murine sarcoma virus DNA from which the first two ATG codons of this open reading frame have been deleted, we now show by transfection of the mutant viral DNA into NIH 3T3 cells that only the third ATG codon is necessary and sufficient...

  11. Optimal Operation of Distribution Electronic Power Transformer Using Linear Quadratic Regulator Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Rezaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformers perform many functions such as voltage transformation, isolation and noise decoupling. They are indispensable components in electric power distribution system. However, at low frequencies (50 Hz, they are one of the heaviest and the most expensive equipment in an electrical distribution system. Nowadays, electronic power transformers are used instead of conventional power transformers that do voltage transformation and power delivery in power system by power electronic converter. In this paper, the structure of distribution electronic power transformer (DEPT are analized and then paid attention on the design of a linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR with integral action to improve dynamic performance of DEPT with voltage unbalance, voltage sags, voltage harmonics and voltage flicker. The presentation control strategy is simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK. In addition, the results that are in terms of dc-link reference voltage, input and output voltages clearly show that a better dynamic performance can be achieved by using the LQR method when compared to other techniques.

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, with virus-derived hairpin RNA constructs confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Spetz, Carl; Haugslien, Sissel; Xing, Shaochen; Dees, Merete W; Moe, Roar; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2008-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch) is reported here for the first time. Internode stem explants of poinsettia cv. Millenium were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404, harbouring virus-derived hairpin (hp) RNA gene constructs to induce RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV). Prior to transformation, an efficient somatic embryogenesis system was developed for poinsettia cv. Millenium in which about 75% of the explants produced somatic embryos. In 5 experiments utilizing 868 explants, 18 independent transgenic lines were generated. An average transformation frequency of 2.1% (range 1.2-3.5%) was revealed. Stable integration of transgenes into the poinsettia nuclear genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Both single- and multiple-copy transgene integration into the poinsettia genome were found among transformants. Transgenic poinsettia plants showing resistance to mechanical inoculation of PnMV were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Northern blot analysis of low molecular weight RNA revealed that transgene-derived small interfering (si) RNA molecules were detected among the poinsettia transformants prior to inoculation. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methodology developed in the current study should facilitate improvement of this ornamental plant with enhanced disease resistance, quality improvement and desirable colour alteration. Because poinsettia is a non-food, non-feed plant and is not propagated through sexual reproduction, this is likely to be more acceptable even in areas where genetically modified crops are currently not cultivated.

  13. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  14. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  15. Merlin negative regulation by miR-146a promotes cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Erick I; Meza-Sosa, Karla F; López-Sevilla, Yaxem; Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Sánchez, Nilda C; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2015-12-25

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor Merlin, by deleterious mutations or by protein degradation via sustained growth factor receptor signaling-mediated mechanisms, results in cell transformation and tumor development. In addition to these mechanisms, here we show that, miRNA-dependent negative regulation of Merlin protein levels also promotes cell transformation. We provide experimental evidences showing that miR-146a negatively regulates Merlin protein levels through its interaction with an evolutionary conserved sequence in the 3´ untranslated region of the NF2 mRNA. Merlin downregulation by miR-146a in A549 lung epithelial cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, migration and tissue invasion. Accordingly, stable miR-146a-transfectant cells formed tumors with metastatic capacity in vivo. Together our results uncover miRNAs as yet another negative mechanism controlling Merlin tumor suppressor functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Merlin negative regulation by miR-146a promotes cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-García, Erick I.; Meza-Sosa, Karla F.; López-Sevilla, Yaxem; Camacho-Concha, Nohemi; Sánchez, Nilda C.; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo@ibt.unam.mx

    2015-12-25

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor Merlin, by deleterious mutations or by protein degradation via sustained growth factor receptor signaling-mediated mechanisms, results in cell transformation and tumor development. In addition to these mechanisms, here we show that, miRNA-dependent negative regulation of Merlin protein levels also promotes cell transformation. We provide experimental evidences showing that miR-146a negatively regulates Merlin protein levels through its interaction with an evolutionary conserved sequence in the 3´ untranslated region of the NF2 mRNA. Merlin downregulation by miR-146a in A549 lung epithelial cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, migration and tissue invasion. Accordingly, stable miR-146a-transfectant cells formed tumors with metastatic capacity in vivo. Together our results uncover miRNAs as yet another negative mechanism controlling Merlin tumor suppressor functions.

  17. Embodied innovation and regulation of medical technoscience: transformations in cancer patienthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Anne; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2015-07-03

    Biomedical advances are transforming the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Patienthood is also transforming, as patients actively participate in research, innovation and regulation of novel technologies and therapies. In this paper we explore the new kinds of practices that patients are performing in their roles as research subject, co-researchers, donors, campaigners, representatives and consumers of novel stratified therapies. We outline their embodied contributions to clinical trials, biobanks and stratified therapies prior to, during and after having cancer. Exploring how patienthood involves donating more than tissue or data to these developments, we consider their emotional and identity work which informs and shapes the novel diagnostics and therapies being developed. We also consider how this kind of work is stratified according to the social and biological location of participants, and end by reflecting on the implications of our analysis for the organisation and regulation of biomedicine.

  18. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Zika virus envelope protein glycan loop regulates virion antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; DeMaso, Christina R; Pelc, Rebecca S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Kuhn, Richard J; Pierson, Theodore C

    2018-01-02

    Because antibodies are an important component of flavivirus immunity, understanding the antigenic structure of flaviviruses is critical. Compared to dengue virus (DENV), the loop containing the single N-linked glycosylation site on Zika virus (ZIKV) envelope (E) proteins extends further towards the DII fusion loop (DII-FL) on neighboring E proteins within E dimers on mature viruses. Although ZIKV is poorly neutralized by DII-FL antibodies, we demonstrated significantly increased neutralization sensitivity of ZIKV particles incorporating the DENV glycan loop. Increased neutralization sensitivity was independent of E protein glycosylation: ZIKV lacking E protein glycans remained poorly neutralized, whereas ZIKV loop chimeras with or without an E protein glycan were potently neutralized. ZIKV particles lacking the E protein glycan were capable of infecting Raji cells expressing the lectin DC-SIGNR, suggesting the prM glycan of partially mature particles can facilitate entry. Our study provides insight into the determinants of ZIKV E protein function and antigenicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Upregulation of the Cell-Cycle Regulator RGC-32 in Epstein-Barr Virus-Immortalized Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Sandra N.; Wood, C. David; Gunnell, Andrea; Webb, Helen M.; Khasnis, Sarika; Schepers, Aloys; West, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human tumours of lymphoid and epithelial origin. The virus infects and immortalizes B cells establishing a persistent latent infection characterized by varying patterns of EBV latent gene expression (latency 0, I, II and III). The CDK1 activator, Response Gene to Complement-32 (RGC-32, C13ORF15), is overexpressed in colon, breast and ovarian cancer tissues and we have detected selective high-level RGC-32 protein expression in EBV-immortalized latency III cells. Significantly, we show that overexpression of RGC-32 in B cells is sufficient to disrupt G2 cell-cycle arrest consistent with activation of CDK1, implicating RGC-32 in the EBV transformation process. Surprisingly, RGC-32 mRNA is expressed at high levels in latency I Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells and in some EBV-negative BL cell-lines, although RGC-32 protein expression is not detectable. We show that RGC-32 mRNA expression is elevated in latency I cells due to transcriptional activation by high levels of the differentially expressed RUNX1c transcription factor. We found that proteosomal degradation or blocked cytoplasmic export of the RGC-32 message were not responsible for the lack of RGC-32 protein expression in latency I cells. Significantly, analysis of the ribosomal association of the RGC-32 mRNA in latency I and latency III cells revealed that RGC-32 transcripts were associated with multiple ribosomes in both cell-types implicating post-initiation translational repression mechanisms in the block to RGC-32 protein production in latency I cells. In summary, our results are the first to demonstrate RGC-32 protein upregulation in cells transformed by a human tumour virus and to identify post-initiation translational mechanisms as an expression control point for this key cell-cycle regulator. PMID:22163048

  1. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Alfredo; Quintas, Ana; Sánchez, Elena G; Sabina, Prado; Nogal, Marisa; Carrasco, Luis; Revilla, Yolanda

    2009-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively), whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis, facilitating ASFV

  2. Regulation of host translational machinery by African swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castelló

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV, like other complex DNA viruses, deploys a variety of strategies to evade the host's defence systems, such as inflammatory and immune responses and cell death. Here, we analyse the modifications in the translational machinery induced by ASFV. During ASFV infection, eIF4G and eIF4E are phosphorylated (Ser1108 and Ser209, respectively, whereas 4E-BP1 is hyperphosphorylated at early times post infection and hypophosphorylated after 18 h. Indeed, a potent increase in eIF4F assembly is observed in ASFV-infected cells, which is prevented by rapamycin treatment. Phosphorylation of eIF4E, eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 is important to enhance viral protein production, but is not essential for ASFV infection as observed in rapamycin- or CGP57380-treated cells. Nevertheless, eIF4F components are indispensable for ASFV protein synthesis and virus spread, since eIF4E or eIF4G depletion in COS-7 or Vero cells strongly prevents accumulation of viral proteins and decreases virus titre. In addition, eIF4F is not only activated but also redistributed within the viral factories at early times of infection, while eIF4G and eIF4E are surrounding these areas at late times. In fact, other components of translational machinery such as eIF2alpha, eIF3b, eIF4E, eEF2 and ribosomal P protein are enriched in areas surrounding ASFV factories. Notably, the mitochondrial network is polarized in ASFV-infected cells co-localizing with ribosomes. Thus, translation and ATP synthesis seem to be coupled and compartmentalized at the periphery of viral factories. At later times after ASFV infection, polyadenylated mRNAs disappear from the cytoplasm of Vero cells, except within the viral factories. The distribution of these pools of mRNAs is similar to the localization of viral late mRNAs. Therefore, degradation of cellular polyadenylated mRNAs and recruitment of the translation machinery to viral factories may contribute to the inhibition of host protein synthesis

  3. Dynamic Epstein-Barr Virus Gene Expression on the Path to B-Cell Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M.; Luftig, Micah A.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus is an oncogenic human herpesvirus in the γ-herpesvirinae sub-family that contains a 170–180 kb double stranded DNA genome. In vivo, EBV commonly infects B and epithelial cells and persists for the life of the host in a latent state in the memory B cell compartment of the peripheral blood. EBV can be reactivated from its latent state leading to increased expression of lytic genes that primarily encode for enzymes necessary to replicate the viral genome as well as structural components of the virion. Lytic cycle proteins also aid in immune evasion, inhibition of apoptosis, and the modulation of other host responses to infection. In vitro, EBV has the potential to infect primary human B cells and induce cellular proliferation to yield effectively immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines, or LCLs. EBV immortalization of B cells in vitro serves as a model system for studying EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis. While much is known about the steady state viral gene expression within EBV immortalized LCLs and other EBV-positive cell lines, relatively little is known about the early events after primary B-cell infection. It was previously thought that upon latent infection EBV only expressed the well-characterized latency associated transcripts found in LCLs. However, recent work has characterized the early, but transient, expression of lytic genes necessary for efficient transformation as well as delayed responses in the known latency genes. This review summarizes these recent findings that show how dynamic and controlled expression of multiple EBV genes can control the activation of B cells, entry into the cell cycle, inhibition of apoptosis, and control of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:24373315

  4. Calcium Regulation of Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Budding: Mechanistic Implications for Host-Oriented Therapeutic Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever viruses, including the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg and arenaviruses (Lassa and Junín viruses, are serious human pathogens for which there are currently no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines. Importantly, transmission of these viruses, and specifically late steps of budding, critically depend upon host cell machinery. Consequently, strategies which target these mechanisms represent potential targets for broad spectrum host oriented therapeutics. An important cellular signal implicated previously in EBOV budding is calcium. Indeed, host cell calcium signals are increasingly being recognized to play a role in steps of entry, replication, and transmission for a range of viruses, but if and how filoviruses and arenaviruses mobilize calcium and the precise stage of virus transmission regulated by calcium have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that expression of matrix proteins from both filoviruses and arenaviruses triggers an increase in host cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration by a mechanism that requires host Orai1 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Orai1 regulates both VLP and infectious filovirus and arenavirus production and spread. Notably, suppression of the protein that triggers Orai activation (Stromal Interaction Molecule 1, STIM1 and genetic inactivation or pharmacological blockade of Orai1 channels inhibits VLP and infectious virus egress. These findings are highly significant as they expand our understanding of host mechanisms that may broadly control enveloped RNA virus budding, and they establish Orai and STIM1 as novel targets for broad-spectrum host-oriented therapeutics to combat these emerging BSL-4 pathogens and potentially other enveloped RNA viruses that bud via similar mechanisms.

  5. Unique Glycan Signatures Regulate Adeno-Associated Virus Tropism in the Developing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Corriher, Travis; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are thought to spread through the central nervous system (CNS) by exploiting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flux and hijacking axonal transport pathways. The role of host receptors that mediate these processes is not well understood. In the current study, we utilized AAV serotype 4 (AAV4) as a model to evaluate whether ubiquitously expressed 2,3-linked sialic acid and the developmentally regulated marker 2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) regulate viral transport and t...

  6. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Jorge [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Mendoza, Pablo [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Natalia [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Quest, Andrew F.G. [Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Torres, Vicente A., E-mail: vatorres@med.uchile.cl [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  7. Rickettsial ompB promoter regulated expression of GFPuv in transformed Rickettsia montanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald D Baldridge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular, alpha-proteobacteria that have historically been associated with blood-feeding arthropods. Certain species cause typhus and spotted fevers in humans, but others are of uncertain pathogenicity or may be strict arthropod endosymbionts. Genetic manipulation of rickettsiae should facilitate a better understanding of their interactions with hosts.We transformed a species never associated with human disease, Rickettsia montanensis, by electroporation with a TN5 transposon (pMOD700 containing green fluorescent protein (GFPuv and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT genes under regulation of promoters cloned from the Rickettsia rickettsii ompB gene, and isolated a Chloramphenicol-resistant GFP-fluorescent rickettsiae population (Rmontanensis700. The Rmontanensis700 rickettsiae contained a single transposon integrated near an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase gene in the rickettsial chromosome. Northern blots showed that GFPuv and CAT mRNAs were both expressed as two transcripts of larger and smaller than predicted length. Western immunoblots showed that Rmontanensis700 and E. coli transformed with a plasmid containing the pMOD700 transposon both expressed GFPuv proteins of the predicted molecular weight.Long-standing barriers to transformation of rickettsiae have been overcome by development of transposon-based rickettsial transformation vectors. The ompB promoter may be the most problematic of the four promoters so far employed in those vectors.

  8. The virus-induced HSPs regulate the apoptosis of operatus APCs that results in autoimmunity, not in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temajo, Norbert O; Howard, Neville

    2014-10-01

    The viruses are salient in the roles of environmental factors that trigger autoimmunity. The virus realizes its effects by the power of its induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) as well as by the viral IE-axis-mediated conversion of organ epithelial cells into virgin de novo professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The HSP is the accomplished operator in homeostasis by the logic of it being the regulator of apoptosis. That HSP which regulates and controls different points in the pathways of apoptosis is rationally propitious as both HSP and apoptosis are highly conserved in multicellular organisms. By virtue of its regulation of apoptosis, the HSP is also involved in human autoimmunity and this involvement is tripartite: (i) adornment of viral IE-axis-generated virgin de novo professional APCs with HSP-induced co-stimulatory molecules which transform these otherwise epithelial cells to achieve the status of fledged competent antigen-presenters, the operatus APCs, which are liable to apoptosis that becomes the initiator of organ damages that can culminate in the autoimmune syndrome(s); apoptosis is a routine fate that befalls all APCs following their antigen presentation; (ii) molecular mimicry mechanism: epitopes on the HSP may be mistaken for viral peptides and be presented by operatus APCs to autoreactive TCRs resulting in the apoptosis of the operatus APCs; and (iii) regulation of MHC class II-DR-mediated apoptosis of operatus APCs which can ultimately consequent in organ-specific autoimmune syndromes. We should remember, however, that Nature's intended purpose for the apoptosis of the professional APCs is benevolence: as a principal regulator of homeostasis. It is only from the apoptosis of our postulated operatus APCs that the apoptotic consequence can be deleterious, an autoimmune syndrome(s). The transformation of virgin de novo professional APCs to operatus APCs mirrors the maturation of DCs, through their acquisition of HSP-induced co

  9. Human Discs Large is a new negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent; Pique, Claudine

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by approximately 80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity.

  10. Cell-surface mucosubstances from trypsin disaggregation of normal and virus-transformed lines of baby-hamster kidney cells (Short Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnikin, S. Megan; Allen, Adrian

    1973-01-01

    Cell disaggregation by trypsin solubilizes significantly less mucosubstance from the surface of polyoma-virus-transformed baby-hamster kidney cells than from the same non-transformed cell line. The mucosubstance, which consists of both acid mucopolysaccharides and mucoproteins, also differs qualitatively in the two cell lines. PMID:4357713

  11. Ebola virus encodes a miR-155 analog to regulate importin-α5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanwu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Mingming; Gao, George Fu; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus caused more than 10,000 human deaths. Current knowledge of suitable drugs, clinical diagnostic biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus infection is either absent or insufficient. By screening stem-loop structures from the viral genomes of four virulence species, we identified a novel, putative viral microRNA precursor that is specifically expressed by the Ebola virus. The sequence of the microRNA precursor was further confirmed by mining the existing RNA-Seq database. Two putative mature microRNAs were predicted and subsequently validated in human cell lines. Combined with this prediction of the microRNA target, we identified importin-α5, which is a key regulator of interferon signaling following Ebola virus infection, as one putative target. We speculate that this microRNA could facilitate the evasion of the host immune system by the virus. Moreover, this microRNA might be a potential clinical therapeutic target or a diagnostic biomarker for Ebola virus.

  12. Epstein - Barr virus transforming protein LMP-1 alters B cells gene expression by promoting accumulation of the oncoprotein ΔNp73α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Accardi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that oncogenic viruses develop redundant mechanisms to alter the functions of the tumor suppressor p53. Here we show that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, via the oncoprotein LMP-1, induces the expression of ΔNp73α, a strong antagonist of p53. This phenomenon is mediated by the LMP-1 dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1 which in turn favours the recruitment of p73 to ΔNp73α promoter. A specific chemical inhibitor of JNK-1 or silencing JNK-1 expression strongly down-regulated ΔNp73α mRNA levels in LMP-1-containing cells. Accordingly, LMP-1 mutants deficient to activate JNK-1 did not induce ΔNp73α accumulation. The recruitment of p73 to the ΔNp73α promoter correlated with the displacement of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 which is part of the transcriptional repressive polycomb 2 complex. Inhibition of ΔNp73α expression in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs led to the stimulation of apoptosis and up-regulation of a large number of cellular genes as determined by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq. In particular, the expression of genes encoding products known to play anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic functions, as well as genes known to be deregulated in different B cells malignancy, was altered by ΔNp73α down-regulation. Together, these findings reveal a novel EBV mechanism that appears to play an important role in the transformation of primary B cells.

  13. Small-molecule inhibitor which reactivates p53 in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Jin; Dasgupta, Arindam; Huang, Keven; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Pise-Masison, Cynthia; Gurova, Katerina V; Brady, John N

    2008-09-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the aggressive and fatal disease adult T-cell leukemia. Previous studies have demonstrated that the HTLV-1-encoded Tax protein inhibits the function of tumor suppressor p53 through a Tax-induced NF-kappaB pathway. Given these attributes, we were interested in the activity of small-molecule inhibitor 9-aminoacridine (9AA), an anticancer drug that targets two important stress response pathways, NF-kappaB and p53. In the present study, we have examined the effects of 9AA on HTLV-1-transformed cells. Treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cells with 9AA resulted in a dramatic decrease in cell viability. Consistent with these results, we observed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G(1) and an increase in the number of cells positive by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay following treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cells with 9AA. In each assay, HTLV-1-transformed cells C8166, Hut102, and MT2 were more sensitive to treatment with 9AA than control CEM and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analyzing p53 function, we demonstrate that treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cells with 9AA resulted in an increase in p53 protein and activation of p53 transcription activity. Of significance, 9AA-induced cell death could be blocked by introduction of a p53 small interfering RNA, linking p53 activity and cell death. These results suggest that Tax-repressed p53 function in HTLV-1-transformed cells is "druggable" and can be restored by treatment with 9AA. The fact that 9AA induces p53 and inhibits NF-kappaB suggests a promising strategy for the treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  14. Thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP) regulates T-cell sensitivity to glucocorticoid during HTLV-I-induced transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lopez-Ramos, D A; Yoshihara, E; Maeda, Y; Masutani, H; Sugie, K; Maeda, M; Yodoi, J

    2011-03-01

    Although glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used for treating hematopoietic malignancies including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), the mechanism by which leukemic cells become resistant to GC in the clinical course remains unclear. Using a series of T-cell lines infected with human T lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), the causative virus of ATL, we have dissected the transformation from interleukin (IL)-2-dependent to -independent growth stage. The transformation associates the loss of thioredoxin-binding protein-2 (TBP-2), a tumor suppressor and regulator of lipid metabolism. Here we show that TBP-2 is responsible for GC-induced apoptosis in ATL cells. In the IL-2-dependent stage, dexamethasone induced TBP-2 expression and apoptosis, both of which were blocked by GC receptor (GR) antagonist RU486. Knockdown of TBP-2 consistently reduced the amount of GC-induced apoptosis. In IL-2-independent stage, however, expression of GR and TBP-2 was suppressed and GC failed to induce apoptosis. Forced expression of GR led the cells to mild sensitivity to GC, which was also accomplished by treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a TBP-2 inducer. A transfection experiment showed that TBP-2 expression induced apoptosis in IL-2-independent ATL cells. Thus, TBP-2 is likely to be one of the key molecules for GC-induced apoptosis and a potential target for treating the advanced stage of ATL.

  15. Host cell reactivation of uv- and X-ray-damaged herpes simplex virus by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, E.E. (Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA); Long, W.K.

    1981-12-01

    The efficacy of using an infected centers assay, employing herpes simplex virus-infected, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as components, to study host cell reactivation has been explored. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was shown through the infected centers assay to have detectable but varying ability to lytically infect LCLs established from chromosomal breakage syndromes or closely related genetic disorders. The rate of HSV inactivation by ultraviolet (uv) irradiation was faster in LCLs established from Cockaynes's syndrome than in normal LCLs, and faster still in LCLs established from xeroderma pigmentosum. These results indicate that Cockayne's syndrome, while having what appears to be quantitatively normal levels of uv-induced DNA repair replication, shows decreased ability to host cell reactivated uv-damaged HSV. In direct contrast, X-irradiated HSV showed identical survival when assayed on normal LCLs or LCLs established from ataxia telangiectasia showing increased sensitivity to X irradiation as measured by colony formation. Through the infected centers assay, it has also been possible to demonstrate low levels of multiplicity reactivation of mutagen-damaged HSV in permanently proliferating LCLs.

  16. Phase Transformation of Adefovir Dipivoxil/Succinic Acid Cocrystals Regulated by Polymeric Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyup Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic phase transformation in the cocrystallization of adefovir dipivoxil (AD and succinic acid (SUC was investigated. Inspired by biological and biomimetic crystallization, polymeric additives were utilized to control the phase transformation. With addition of poly(acrylic acid, the metastable phase newly identified through the analysis of X-ray diffraction was clearly isolated from the previously reported stable form. Without additives, mixed phases were obtained even at the early stage of cocrystallization. Also, infrared spectroscopy analysis verified the alteration of the hydrogen bonding that was mainly responsible for the cocrystal formation between AD and SUC. The hydrogen bonding in the metastable phase was relatively stronger than that in the stable form, which indicated the locally strong AD/SUC coupling in the initial stage of cocrystallization followed by the overall stabilization during the phase transformation. The stronger hydrogen bonding could be responsible for the faster nucleation of the initially observed metastable phase. The present study demonstrated that the polymeric additives could function as effective regulators for the polymorph-selective cocrystallization.

  17. Circuito equivalente de un transformador con regulación Equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer

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    Juan A Martínez-Velasco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología para la obtención y utilización del circuito equivalente de un transformador con regulación en el que es posible variar su relación de transformación. Este aspecto está insuficientemente tratado en la mayoría de libros de texto actuales en los que el circuito de un transformador con regulación se presenta de forma poco justificada. Este documento muestra cómo obtener el circuito equivalente del transformador y cómo aplicarlo utilizando tanto valores reales como valores por unidad (pu. El tratamiento con valores por unidad se puede realizar seleccionando los valores base de forma arbitraria, lo que supone una ventaja evidente cuando se trata de determinar alguna de las tensiones nominales del transformador en estudio. Aunque el objetivo del artículo es el de presentar un método para transformadores con regulación, el método es también válido para transformadores con relación de transformación constante en los que se tenga que determinar alguna de sus tensiones nominales. El artículo incluye dos ejemplos con campos de aplicación muy distintos que servirán para ilustrar las ventajas del método propuesto.This paper presents a methodology aimed at obtaining and applying the equivalent circuit of a regulating transformer, whose turn ratio can be varied. This aspect is insufficiently treated in most current textbooks in which the equivalent circuit of a tapped transformer is not well justified. This document shows how to obtain the equivalent circuit of the transformer and how to apply it using either physical quantities or per unit (pu quantities. The usage of per unit values can be performed by selecting the base quantities in an arbitrary manner, which is an obvious advantage when one of the rated voltages must be estimated. Although the goal of the paper is to develop a method for regulating transformers (e.g., under load tap changers, ULTC, it can be applied to transformers with a

  18. Mitochondrial NDUFS3 regulates the ROS-mediated onset of metabolic switch in transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhane, Sonal; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Murali, Ramachandran; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2013-03-15

    Aerobic glycolysis in transformed cells is an unique metabolic phenotype characterized by a hyperactivated glycolytic pathway even in the presence of oxygen. It is not clear if the onset of aerobic glycolysis is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and, if so, what the metabolic windows of opportunity available to control this metabolic switch (mitochondrial to glycolytic) landscape are in transformed cells. Here we report a genetically-defined model system based on the gene-silencing of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, NDUFS3, where we demonstrate the onset of metabolic switch in isogenic human embryonic kidney cells by differential expression of NDUFS3. By means of extensive metabolic characterization, we demonstrate that NDUFS3 gene silencing systematically introduces mitochondrial dysfunction thereby leading to the onset of aerobic glycolysis in a manner dependent on NDUFS3 protein levels. Furthermore, we show that the sustained imbalance in free radical dynamics is a necessary condition to sustain the observed metabolic switch in cell lines with the most severe NDUFS3 suppression. Together, our data reveal a novel role for mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFS3 in regulating the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction in living cells, thereby setting a "metabolic threshold" for the observation of aerobic glycolysis phenotype within the confines of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. Mitochondrial NDUFS3 regulates the ROS-mediated onset of metabolic switch in transformed cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Suhane

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis in transformed cells is an unique metabolic phenotype characterized by a hyperactivated glycolytic pathway even in the presence of oxygen. It is not clear if the onset of aerobic glycolysis is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and, if so, what the metabolic windows of opportunity available to control this metabolic switch (mitochondrial to glycolytic landscape are in transformed cells. Here we report a genetically-defined model system based on the gene-silencing of a mitochondrial complex I subunit, NDUFS3, where we demonstrate the onset of metabolic switch in isogenic human embryonic kidney cells by differential expression of NDUFS3. By means of extensive metabolic characterization, we demonstrate that NDUFS3 gene silencing systematically introduces mitochondrial dysfunction thereby leading to the onset of aerobic glycolysis in a manner dependent on NDUFS3 protein levels. Furthermore, we show that the sustained imbalance in free radical dynamics is a necessary condition to sustain the observed metabolic switch in cell lines with the most severe NDUFS3 suppression. Together, our data reveal a novel role for mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFS3 in regulating the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction in living cells, thereby setting a “metabolic threshold” for the observation of aerobic glycolysis phenotype within the confines of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Circadian transcription factor BMAL1 regulates innate immunity against select RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Patel, Sonal; Kondratov, Roman; Barik, Sailen

    2017-02-01

    BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1-/- mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls. These results were supported by animal studies whereby pulmonary infection of RSV produced a more severe disease and morbidity in Bmal1-/-mice. These results show that BMAL1 can regulate cellular innate immunity against specific RNA viruses.

  1. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A; Fraser, Mark E; Scott, Jordan L; Soni, Smita P; Jones, Keaton R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R; Stahelin, Robert V

    2015-09-01

    Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. Copyright © 2015, American

  2. Induction of p16(INK4a is the major barrier to proliferation when Epstein-Barr virus (EBV transforms primary B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines.

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    Lenka Skalska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of p16(INK4a as an intrinsic barrier to B cell transformation by EBV, we transformed primary B cells from an individual homozygous for a deletion in the CDKN2A locus encoding p16(INK4a and p14(ARF. Using recombinant EBV-BAC viruses expressing conditional EBNA3C (3CHT, we developed a system that allows inactivation of EBNA3C in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs lacking active p16(INK4a protein but expressing a functional 14(ARF-fusion protein (p14/p16. The INK4a locus is epigenetically repressed by EBNA3C--in cooperation with EBNA3A--despite the absence of functional p16(INK4a. Although inactivation of EBNA3C in LCLs from normal B cells leads to an increase in p16(INK4a and growth arrest, EBNA3C inactivation in the p16(INK4a-null LCLs has no impact on the rate of proliferation, establishing that the repression of INK4a is a major function of EBNA3C in EBV-driven LCL proliferation. This conditional LCL system allowed us to use microarray analysis to identify and confirm genes regulated specifically by EBNA3C, independently of proliferation changes modulated by the p16(INK4a-Rb-E2F axis. Infections of normal primary B cells with recombinant EBV-BAC virus from which EBNA3C is deleted or with 3CHT EBV in the absence of activating ligand 4-hydroxytamoxifen, revealed that EBNA3C is necessary to overcome an EBV-driven increase in p16(INK4a expression and concomitant block to proliferation 2-4 weeks post-infection. If cells are p16(INK4a-null, functional EBNA3C is dispensable for the outgrowth of LCLs.

  3. The immunity regulator BAK1 contributes to resistance against diverse RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kørner, Camilla Julie; Klauser, Dominik; Niehl, Annette; Domínguez-Ferreras, Ana; Chinchilla, Delphine; Boller, Thomas; Heinlein, Manfred; Hann, Dagmar R

    2013-11-01

    The plant's innate immune system detects potential biotic threats through recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRR). A central regulator of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is the BRI1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), which undergoes complex formation with PRR upon ligand binding. Although viral patterns inducing PTI are well known from animal systems, nothing similar has been reported for plants. Rather, antiviral defense in plants is thought to be mediated by post-transcriptional gene silencing of viral RNA or through effector-triggered immunity, i.e., recognition of virus-specific effectors by resistance proteins. Nevertheless, infection by compatible viruses can also lead to the induction of defense gene expression, indicating that plants may also recognize viruses through PTI. Here, we show that PTI, or at least the presence of the regulator BAK1, is important for antiviral defense of Arabidopsis plants. Arabidopsis bak1 mutants show increased susceptibility to three different RNA viruses during compatible interactions. Furthermore, crude viral extracts but not purified virions induce several PTI marker responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. Overall, we conclude that BAK1-dependent PTI contributes to antiviral resistance in plants.

  4. Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 photoinactivated in the presence of methylene blue transform human and mouse cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michútová, M; Mrázová, V; Kúdelová, M; Smolinská, M; Šupoliková, M; Vrbová, M; Golais, F

    Three strains of herpes simplex virus, K17syn- and HSZPsyn+ of type 1 (HSV-1) and USsyn- of type 2 (HSV-2), were photoinactivated in the presence of methylene blue and used to infect 3 cell lines, normal human lung tissue cells (MRC-5), mouse epithelial cells (NIH3T3), and human lung carcinoma cells (A549). The virus titer and phenotype of cells were evaluated to compare the characteristics of normal and carcinoma cells infected with non-syncytial (non-syn) and syncytial (syn) strains of herpes simplex viruses. We found that the cells of both normal cell lines infected with photoinactivated K17syn- and USsyn- but not HSZPsyn+ acquired transformed phenotype accompanied by the presence of virus. Surprisingly, the infection with photoinactivated viruses K17syn- and USsyn- but not HSZPsyn+ resulted in the suppression of the transformed phenotype of A549 cells. Using nested PCR, herpesviral DNA was identified in newly transformed cells and cells that lost the transformed phenotype. The effect of putative herpesvirus-related growth factors (HRGF) produced by cells infected with photoinactivated viruses was quantified and compared. Since methylene blue is currently used in phototherapy of herpetic lesions, these results raise the question of whether such therapy is risky to human health.

  5. A new component of the Nasonia sex determining cascade is maternally silenced and regulates transformer expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline C Verhulst

    Full Text Available Although sex determination is a universal process in sexually reproducing organisms, sex determination pathways are among the most highly variable genetic systems found in nature. Nevertheless, general principles can be identified among the diversity, like the central role of transformer (tra in insects. When a functional TRA protein is produced in early embryogenesis, the female sex determining route is activated, while prevention of TRA production leads to male development. In dipterans, male development is achieved by prevention of female-specific splicing of tra mRNA, either mediated by X-chromosome dose or masculinizing factors. In Hymenoptera, which have haplodiploid sex determination, complementary sex determination and maternal imprinting have been identified to regulate timely TRA production. In the parasitoid Nasonia, zygotic transformer (Nvtra expression and splicing is regulated by a combination of maternal provision of Nvtra mRNA and silencing of Nvtra expression in unfertilized eggs. It is unclear, however, if this silencing is directly on the tra locus or whether it is mediated through maternal silencing of a trans-acting factor. Here we show that in Nasonia, female sex determination is dependent on zygotic activation of Nvtra expression by an as yet unknown factor. This factor, which we propose to term womanizer (wom, is maternally silenced during oogenesis to ensure male development in unfertilized eggs. This finding implicates the upstream recruitment of a novel gene in the Nasonia sex determining cascade and supports the notion that sex determining cascades can rapidly change by adding new components on top of existing regulators.

  6. A New Component of the Nasonia Sex Determining Cascade Is Maternally Silenced and Regulates Transformer Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Daniel; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Although sex determination is a universal process in sexually reproducing organisms, sex determination pathways are among the most highly variable genetic systems found in nature. Nevertheless, general principles can be identified among the diversity, like the central role of transformer (tra) in insects. When a functional TRA protein is produced in early embryogenesis, the female sex determining route is activated, while prevention of TRA production leads to male development. In dipterans, male development is achieved by prevention of female-specific splicing of tra mRNA, either mediated by X-chromosome dose or masculinizing factors. In Hymenoptera, which have haplodiploid sex determination, complementary sex determination and maternal imprinting have been identified to regulate timely TRA production. In the parasitoid Nasonia, zygotic transformer (Nvtra) expression and splicing is regulated by a combination of maternal provision of Nvtra mRNA and silencing of Nvtra expression in unfertilized eggs. It is unclear, however, if this silencing is directly on the tra locus or whether it is mediated through maternal silencing of a trans-acting factor. Here we show that in Nasonia, female sex determination is dependent on zygotic activation of Nvtra expression by an as yet unknown factor. This factor, which we propose to term womanizer (wom), is maternally silenced during oogenesis to ensure male development in unfertilized eggs. This finding implicates the upstream recruitment of a novel gene in the Nasonia sex determining cascade and supports the notion that sex determining cascades can rapidly change by adding new components on top of existing regulators. PMID:23717455

  7. RIG-I-like receptor regulation in virus infection and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U

    2015-06-01

    Mammalian cells have the intrinsic capacity to detect viral pathogens and to initiate an antiviral response that is characterized by the induction of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. A delicate regulation of the signaling pathways that lead to cytokine production is needed to ensure effective clearance of the virus, while preventing tissue damage caused by excessive cytokine release. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that modulate the signal transduction triggered by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and their adaptor protein MAVS, key components of the host machinery for sensing foreign RNA. Specifically, we summarize recent advances in understanding how RLR signaling is regulated by posttranslational and posttranscriptional mechanisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) and autophagy. We further discuss how viruses target these regulatory mechanisms for immune evasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Roles of plant hormones in the regulation of host-virus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazem, Mazen; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Hormones are tuners of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are involved in various complicated networks, through which they modulate responses to different stimuli. Four hormones primarily regulate plant defence to pathogens: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (Et) and abscisic acid (ABA). In susceptible plants, viral infections result in hormonal disruption, which manifests as the simultaneous induction of several antagonistic hormones. However, these antagonistic hormones may exhibit some sequential accumulation in resistant lines. Virus propagation is usually restricted by the activation of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral machinery and/or SA signalling pathway. Several studies have investigated these two systems, using different model viruses. However, the roles of hormones other than SA, especially those with antagonistic properties, such as ABA, have been neglected. Increasing evidence indicates that hormones control components of the small RNA system, which regulates many processes (including the siRNA antiviral machinery and the microRNA system) at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Consequently, cross-talk between the antagonistic SA and ABA pathways modulates plant responses at multiple levels. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the different roles of hormones in the regulation of plant-virus interactions, which are helping us to elucidate the fine tuning of viral and plant systems by hormones. © 2014 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD AND BSPP.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Doubly-Regulated Vaccinia Virus in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Futami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells of the bone marrow. Although the prognosis is variable, no curative therapy has been defined. Vaccinia virus infects cancer cells and kills such cells in a variety of ways. These include direct infection, triggering of immunomediated cell death, and vascular collapse. The potential of the vaccinia virus as an anti-tumor therapy has attracted the attention of oncologists. Interestingly, our preliminary experiments revealed that myeloma cells were particularly susceptible to vaccinia virus. To exploit this susceptibility and to render vaccinia more myeloma specific, we generated thymidine-kinase-deleted microRNA (miRNA-regulated vaccinia viruses in which the essential viral gene B5R was regulated by miRNAs of normal human cells. Of the miRNAs examined, let-7a was found to be the most reliable in terms of regulating viral transmission. Exposure to unregulated vaccinia virus killed myeloma-transplanted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice; the animals succumbed to viral toxicity. In contrast, the thymidine-kinase-deleted let-7a-regulated virus remained localized within myeloma cells, triggering tumor regression and improving overall survival. In conclusion, a thymidine-kinase-deleted let-7a-regulated vaccinia virus was safe and effective for mice, warranting clinical trials in humans.

  10. Defective heat shock factor 1 inhibits the growth of fibrosarcoma derived from simian virus 40/T antigen‑transformed MEF cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiying; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Shulian; Wang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Yuanfang; Hu, Yanzhong

    2015-11-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) serves an important role in regulating the proliferation of human tumor cell lines in vitro and tissue specific tumorigenesis in certain mouse models. However, its role in viral‑oncogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. In the current study, the role of Hsf1 in fibroblastoma derived from simian virus 40/T antigen (SV40/TAG)‑transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines was investigated. Knockout of Hsf1 inhibited MEF cell proliferation in vitro and fibroblastoma growth and metastasis to the lungs in vivo in nude mice. Knockout of Hsf1 increased the protein expression levels of p53 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb), however reduced the expression of heat shock protein 25 (Hsp25) in addition to the expression of the angiogenesis markers vascular endothelial growth factor, cluster of differentiation 34 and factor VIII related antigen. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation indicated that knockout of Hsf1 inhibited the association between SV40/TAG and p53 or pRb. These data suggest that Hsf1 is involved in the regulation of SV40/TAG‑derived fibroblastoma growth and metastasis by modulating the association between SV40/TAG and tumor suppressor p53 and pRb. The current study provides further evidence that Hsf1 may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer.

  11. p38α negatively regulates survival and malignant selection of transformed bronchioalveolar stem cells.

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    Edwige Voisset

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the cause of most cancer-related deaths in the Western world. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for almost 80% of all lung cancers, and 50% of this type are adenocarcinomas. The cellular and molecular origin of this type of lung cancer remains elusive and the mechanisms are poorly known. It is known that K-Ras mutations appear in 25-30% of lung adenocarcinomas and it is the best known single mutation that can be related to lung cancers. Recently, it has been suggested that a putative population of mouse bronchioalveolar stem cells could be considered as the cell of origin of adenocarcinomas. These cells are expanded in the early stages of lung tumorigenesis. We have isolated a population of mouse bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced their transformation by oncogenic K-RasG12. Different approaches have shown that an intracellular network linking the p38α MAPK and the PI3K-Pdk1 pathways is involved in regulating the survival and malignant progression of the transformed cells. Absence of p38α catalytic activity leads to further Pdk1 activation (independent of Akt and Erk activity, enhancing the survival and proliferation of the more malignant lung cancer cells. This specifically selects high Sca-1/Sox9 cells that harbour a stronger colonizing potential, as they maintain their capacity to produce secondary tumors after serial transplantations.

  12. GATA3 in the urinary bladder: suppression of neoplastic transformation and down-regulation by androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yurina; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer initiation, while precise functions of androgens and estrogens in the carcinogenesis step remain poorly understood. We recently found down-regulation of GATA3, a zinc-finger transcription factor and a new urothelial marker, in bladder cancer, which also correlated with expression status of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs). We here assessed whether GATA3 acted as a suppressor of bladder tumorigenesis and sex hormones exerted an influence on GATA3 in non-neoplastic urothelial cells. Androgen (R1881, dihydrotestosterone) treatment in SVHUC immortalized normal urothelial cells stably expressing AR (SVHUC-AR) decreased GATA3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, which was abolished by anti-androgens. Conversely, 17β-estradiol treatment increased it in SVHUC-control endogenously expressing ERβ. GATA3 levels were also found to be higher in intact female mouse bladders compared with intact males, and orchiectomy/ovariectomy augmented/reduced GATA3 expression, respectively, which was at least partially restored by dihydrotestosterone/17β-estradiol supplement. Additionally, GATA3 silencing via short hairpin RNA (shRNA) promoted cell proliferation of SVHUC with exposure to a chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene. In vitro transformation assay with 3-methylcholanthrene then showed a significantly higher number of colonies in SVHUC-AR/GATA3-shRNA, compared with control SVHUC, and R1881 further induced colony formation. GATA3 knockdown also resulted in down-regulation of the molecules that play a protective role in bladder tumorigenesis (i.e. UGT1A, PTEN, p53, p21) and up-regulation of oncogenic genes (i.e. c-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin E, FGFR3). Thus, GATA3 likely prevented neoplastic transformation of urothelial cells. Furthermore, sex hormone signals contrary regulated GATA3 in the bladder. These findings may offer not only a molecular basis for the gender

  13. Sensitivity of simian virus 40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts to lysis by murine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Karjalainen, H E; Tevethia, S S

    1987-02-15

    The susceptibility of mouse cells expressing full-length or truncated transforming protein (T antigen) of simian virus 40 (SV40) to lysis by murine natural killer (NK) cells was assessed. For these studies, C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts (B6/MEF) were transformed by transfection with SV40 DNA encoding the entire T antigen. The transformed cell lines were tested for susceptibility to lysis by nonimmune CBA splenocytes as a source of NK cells and to lysis by C57BL/6, SV40-specific cytolytic T cells (CTL). It was found that 13 of 15 clonally derived, SV40-transformed H-2b cell lines were susceptible to lysis by NK cells. However, there was some variation in their susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. There was no correlation between susceptibility to lysis by SV40-specific CTL and to lysis by NK cells. Cells transfected with a plasmid which encodes only the N-terminal half of the SV40 T antigen were consistently less susceptible to lysis by NK cells, suggesting that expression of only the N-terminus of the T antigen was insufficient for optimal susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed by human adenovirus type 5 E1 region DNA were also found to be susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Lysis of SV40-transformed cells by nonimmune CBA splenocytes was mediated by NK cells because: lysis was augmented when the effector cells were treated with interferon before assay; and lysis was abrogated when the effector cells were obtained from mice that had been depleted of NK activity by treatment with antiserum against the asialo GM1 surface marker. These results indicate that primary mouse cells which are transformed by SV40 and which express the native T antigen are susceptible to lysis by mouse NK cells. Conversely, cells transformed by a plasmid encoding only the N-terminal half of the T antigen express reduced susceptibility to lysis by NK cells.

  14. Implications for a regulated replication of Borna disease virus in brains of experimentally infected Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porombka, Doris; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2008-04-01

    The neurotropic Borna disease virus (BDV) causes typically a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system. In order to investigate whether an adapted virus replication contributes to BDV persistence in vivo, a fast and reliable real-time RT-PCR assay was constructed to quantify the amounts of leader-containing (leBDV) as a marker for virus replication, genomic (vBDV) and nucleoprotein-(BDV-N +ssRNA)-specific RNA. Therefore, leBDV, vBDV and BDV-N +ssRNA values were determined in experimentally infected Lewis rats between 14 and 90 days post infection (dpi). Surprisingly low leBDV values were found compared to vBDV and the abundantly expressed BDV-N transcripts. vBDV multiplied only in the acute phase of infection followed by constant expression until 90 dpi. Ratios of vBDV to leBDV were 401:1 at 14 dpi and diminished to 209:1 at 90 dpi, indicating a regulated co-expression of replicative intermediates as a potential prerequisite for viral persistence.

  15. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  16. Bmi-1 is a Crucial Regulator of Prostate Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Rita U.; Memarzadeh, Sanaz; Wu, Hong; Witte, Owen N.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The Polycomb group transcriptional repressor Bmi-1 is often up-regulated in prostate cancer, but its functional roles in prostate stem cell maintenance and prostate cancer are unclear. Loss- and gain-of-function analysis in a prostate sphere assay indicates that Bmi-1 expression is required for self-renewal activity and maintenance of p63+ stem cells. Loss of Bmi-1 blocks the self-renewal activity induced by heightened beta-catenin signaling, suggesting that Bmi-1 is required for full activity of another self-renewal pathway. In vivo, Bmi-1 expression is necessary for normal prostate tubule regeneration. Altered self-renewal and proliferation through Bmi-1 modulation diminishes the susceptibility of prostate cells to transformation. In an in vivo prostate regeneration system, Bmi-1 inhibition protects prostate cells from FGF10 driven hyperplasia and slows the growth of aggressive Pten-deletion induced prostate cancer. We conclude that Bmi-1 is a crucial regulator of self-renewal in adult prostate cells, and plays important roles in prostate cancer initiation and progression. PMID:21112563

  17. Rescue of avian leukosis subgroup-J-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene and analysis of their tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-01

    In our previous study, six subgroup J strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J)-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene, designated as Fu-J and Fu-J1-5, were isolated and characterized from fibrosarcomas in ALV-J-infected chickens. In the present study, the oncogenic potential of Fu-J and Fu-J1-5 was investigated using a reverse genetics technique. Six replication-defective viruses, named rFu-J and rFu-J1-5, were rescued with the replication-competent rescued ALV-J strain rSDAU1005 as a helper virus by co-transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers with infectious clone plasmids. Experimental bird studies were performed, demonstrating that only the rescued rFu-J virus carrying the complete v-fps oncogene with rSDAU1005 as the helper virus could induce acute fibrosarcoma after inoculation in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. These results provide direct evidence that the replication-defective acutely transforming Fu-J virus, with the complete v-fps oncogene, was associated with acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with ALV-J in the field, as reported previously.

  18. Regulation of gene expression in adeno-associated virus vectors in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; McCown, Thomas J

    2002-10-01

    Regulated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have broad utility in both experimental and applied gene therapy, and to date, several regulation systems have exhibited a capability to control gene expression from viral vectors over two orders of magnitude. The tetracycline responsive system has been the most used in AAV, although other regulation systems such as RU486- and rapamycin-responsive systems are reasonable options. AAV vectors influence how regulation systems function by several mechanisms, leading to increased background gene expression and restricted induction. Methods to reduce background expression continue to be explored and systems not yet tried in AAV may prove quite functional. Although regulated promoters are often assumed to exhibit ubiquitous expression, the tropism of different neuronal subtypes can be altered dramatically by changing promoters in recombinant AAV vectors. Differences in promoter-directed tropism have significant consequences for proper expression of gene products as well as the utility of dual vector regulation. Thus regulated vector systems must be carefully optimized for each application. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  19. Comparison of host cell gene expression in cowpox, monkeypox or vaccinia virus-infected cells reveals virus-specific regulation of immune response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquain, Daniel; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Nitsche, Andreas

    2013-02-20

    Animal-borne orthopoxviruses, like monkeypox, vaccinia and the closely related cowpox virus, are all capable of causing zoonotic infections in humans, representing a potential threat to human health. The disease caused by each virus differs in terms of symptoms and severity, but little is yet know about the reasons for these varying phenotypes. They may be explained by the unique repertoire of immune and host cell modulating factors encoded by each virus. In this study, we analysed the specific modulation of the host cell's gene expression profile by cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infection. We aimed to identify mechanisms that are either common to orthopoxvirus infection or specific to certain orthopoxvirus species, allowing a more detailed description of differences in virus-host cell interactions between individual orthopoxviruses. To this end, we analysed changes in host cell gene expression of HeLa cells in response to infection with cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus, using whole-genome gene expression microarrays, and compared these to each other and to non-infected cells. Despite a dominating non-responsiveness of cellular transcription towards orthopoxvirus infection, we could identify several clusters of infection-modulated genes. These clusters are either commonly regulated by orthopoxvirus infection or are uniquely regulated by infection with a specific orthopoxvirus, with major differences being observed in immune response genes. Most noticeable was an induction of genes involved in leukocyte migration and activation in cowpox and monkeypox virus-infected cells, which was not observed following vaccinia virus infection. Despite their close genetic relationship, the expression profiles induced by infection with different orthopoxviruses vary significantly. It may be speculated that these differences at the cellular level contribute to the individual characteristics of cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia virus infections in certain host species.

  20. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Chapuis, Sophie [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France); Revers, Frédéric [INRA, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 1332 de Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon (France); Ziegler-Graff, Véronique [Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Laboratoire propre du CNRS conventionné avec l’Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Brault, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brault@colmar.inra.fr [UMR 1131 SVQV INRA-UDS, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, 68021 Colmar (France)

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  1. Caveolin-1-mediated Japanese encephalitis virus entry requires a two-step regulation of actin reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqiang; Cao, Mingmei; Song, Hongyuan; Chen, Shenglin; Qian, Xijing; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Hao; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wei, Youheng; Zhu, Yongzhe; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the detailed mechanism of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) cell entry. Utilize a siRNA library targeting cellular membrane trafficking genes to identify key molecules that mediate JEV entry into human neuronal cells. JEV enters human neuronal cells by caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis, which depends on a two-step regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling triggered by RhoA and Rac1: RhoA activation promoted the phosphorylation of caveolin-1, and then Rac1 activation facilitated caveolin-associated viral internalization. Specifically, virus attachment activates the EGFR-PI3K signaling pathway, thereby leading to RhoA activation. This work provides a detailed picture of the entry route and intricate cellular events following the entry of JEV into human neuronal cells, and promotes a better understanding of JEV entry.

  2. Detection of herpes simplex virus-related antigens in the nuclei and cytoplasm of biochemically transformed cells with peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, M; Dubbs, D R; Kit, S

    1977-09-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related antigens have been demonstrated in the nuclei and cytoplasm of human and mouse cells biochemically transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated HSV. This was accomplished by using peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence with rabbit antisera that had high neutralizing titers against the HSV-specific thymidine kinase activity and virus infectivity. HSV-1 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by type 1 HSV, but not with those of cells biochemically transformed by type 2 HSV. Similarly, HSV-2 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-2, but not with those in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-1. In contrast, herpes virus-related antigens were detected in cells cytolytically infected with HSV-1 and with HSV-2 by either type 1 or type 2 HSV antisera. These observations suggest that the antigens detected in the biochemically transformed cells were a type-specific subset of the HSV-related antigens synthesized in cells undergoing productive infection by HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  3. Regulation of Viral RNA Synthesis by the V Protein of Parainfluenza Virus 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zengel, James; Sun, Minghao; Sleeman, Katrina; Timani, Khalid Amine; Aligo, Jason; Rota, Paul; Wu, Jianguo; He, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. The genome of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a prototypical paramyxovirus, encodes a V protein that inhibits viral RNA synthesis. In this work, the mechanism of inhibition was investigated. Using mutational analysis and a minigenome system, we identified regions in the N and C termini of the V protein that inhibit viral RNA synthesis: one at the very N terminus of V and the second at the C terminus of V. Furthermore, we determined that residues L16 and I17 are critical for the inhibitory function of the N-terminal region of the V protein. Both regions interact with the nucleocapsid protein (NP), an essential component of the viral RNA genome complex (RNP). Mutations at L16 and I17 abolished the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain of V. This suggests that the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain plays a critical role in V inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by the N-terminal domain. Both the N- and C-terminal regions inhibited viral RNA replication. The C terminus inhibited viral RNA transcription, while the N-terminal domain enhanced viral RNA transcription, suggesting that the two domains affect viral RNA through different mechanisms. Interestingly, V also inhibited the synthesis of the RNA of other paramyxoviruses, such as Nipah virus (NiV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3), measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This suggests that a common host factor may be involved in the replication of these paramyxoviruses. We identified two regions of the V protein that interact with NP and determined that one of these regions enhances viral RNA transcription via its interaction with NP. Our data suggest that a common host factor may be involved in the regulation of paramyxovirus replication and could be a target for broad antiviral drug development. Understanding the regulation of paramyxovirus replication will enable the rational design of

  4. Role of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in regulation of the balance between viral plus and minus strand RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Replication of wild type RNA 3 of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) and mutants with frameshifts in the P3 or coat protein (CP) genes was studied in protoplasts from tobacco plants transformed with DNA copies of AIMV RNAs 1 and 2. Accumulation of viral plus and minus strand RNAs was monitored with

  5. Unique glycan signatures regulate adeno-associated virus tropism in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Corriher, Travis; Ghashghaei, H Troy; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-04-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are thought to spread through the central nervous system (CNS) by exploiting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flux and hijacking axonal transport pathways. The role of host receptors that mediate these processes is not well understood. In the current study, we utilized AAV serotype 4 (AAV4) as a model to evaluate whether ubiquitously expressed 2,3-linked sialic acid and the developmentally regulated marker 2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) regulate viral transport and tropism in the neonatal brain. Modulation of the levels of SA and PSA in cell culture studies using specific neuraminidases revealed possibly opposing roles of the two glycans in AAV4 transduction. Interestingly, upon intracranial injection into lateral ventricles of the neonatal mouse brain, a low-affinity AAV4 mutant (AAV4.18) displayed a striking shift in cellular tropism from 2,3-linked SA(+) ependymal lining to 2,8-linked PSA(+) migrating progenitors in the rostral migratory stream and olfactory bulb. In addition, this gain-of-function phenotype correlated with robust CNS spread of AAV4.18 through paravascular transport pathways. Consistent with these observations, altering glycan dynamics within the brain by coadministering SA- and PSA-specific neuraminidases resulted in striking changes to the cellular tropisms and transduction efficiencies of both parental and mutant vectors. We postulate that glycan signatures associated with host development can be exploited to redirect novel AAV vectors to specific cell types in the brain. Viruses invade the CNS through various mechanisms. In the current study, we utilized AAV as a model to study the dynamics of virus-carbohydrate interactions in the developing brain and their impact on viral tropism. Our findings suggest that carbohydrate content can be exploited to regulate viral transport and tropism in the brain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The brome mosaic virus 3' untranslated sequence regulates RNA replication, recombination, and virion assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A L N; Cheng Kao, C

    2015-08-03

    The 3' untranslated region in each of the three genomic RNAs of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is highly homologous and contains a sequence that folds into a tRNA-like structure (TLS). Experiments performed over the past four decades revealed that the BMV 3' TLS regulates many important steps in BMV infection. This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies of the roles of the BMV 3' TLS functioning as a minus-strand promoter, in RNA recombination, and to nucleate virion assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphorylation of the Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Regulates the Timing of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Haley S; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Middleton, Stefani; Ni, Peng; Zlotnick, Adam; Vaughan, Robert C; Kao, C Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The four brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs (RNA1 to RNA4) are encapsidated in three distinct virions that have different disassembly rates in infection. The mechanism for the differential release of BMV RNAs from virions is unknown, since 180 copies of the same coat protein (CP) encapsidate each of the BMV genomic RNAs. Using mass spectrometry, we found that the BMV CP contains a complex pattern of posttranslational modifications. Treatment with phosphatase was found to not significantly affect the stability of the virions containing RNA1 but significantly impacted the stability of the virions that encapsidated BMV RNA2 and RNA3/4. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed dramatic structural changes in the capsid and the encapsidated RNA. A phosphomimetic mutation in the flexible N-terminal arm of the CP increased BMV RNA replication and virion production. The degree of phosphorylation modulated the interaction of CP with the encapsidated RNA and the release of three of the BMV RNAs. UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing experiments showed that phosphorylation of the BMV CP can impact binding to RNAs in the virions, including sequences that contain regulatory motifs for BMV RNA gene expression and replication. Phosphatase-treated virions affected the timing of CP expression and viral RNA replication in plants. The degree of phosphorylation decreased when the plant hosts were grown at an elevated temperature. These results show that phosphorylation of the capsid modulates BMV infection. How icosahedral viruses regulate the release of viral RNA into the host is not well understood. The selective release of viral RNA can regulate the timing of replication and gene expression. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is an RNA virus, and its three genomic RNAs are encapsidated in separate virions. Through proteomic, structural, and biochemical analyses, this work shows that posttranslational modifications, specifically

  8. Heterogeneity in both cytokine production and responsiveness of a panel of monoclonal human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, G. J.; Klein, M. R.; Jordens, R.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; van Lier, R. A.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize growth and Ig production of in vitro-cultured Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells, a panel of six monoclonal EBV B-cell lines was analyzed for autocrine growth factor production and responsiveness to various cytokines. Three cell lines produced Il-I and four produced Il-6,

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  10. The genome of Shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus, contains a growth factor gene with sequence similarity to those encoding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, W; Upton, C.; Hu, S.L.; Purchio, A F; McFadden, G.

    1987-01-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region common to epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, and vaccinia growth factor were used to identify a novel growth factor gene in the Shope fibroma virus genome. Sequence analysis indicates that the Shope fibroma growth factor is a distinct new member of this family of growth factors.

  11. [The effect of alloxan on the multiplication of different types of normal or cancerous cells, and on the transformation of chick embryo fibroblasts by Rous virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobon, P; Latarjet, R

    1975-05-26

    The action of alloxan was studied in vitro, on different categories of normal or cancerous cells. At concentrations of 250 and 350 gamma/ml, alloxan does not significantly inhibit the growth of normal cells, whereas it does inhibit the growth of cancerous cells. Furthermore, alloxan inhibits infection and transformation of chicken-embryo fibroblasts infected by the Rous virus.

  12. POTATO GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE PROMOTER-CONTROLLED GUS EXPRESSION - REGULATION OF EXPRESSION AFTER TRANSIENT AND STABLE TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; NIEBOER, M; SWAVING, J; TEMPELAAR, MJ

    1992-01-01

    Chimaeric genes of promoter sequences from the potato gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were used to study GBSS expression and regulation. Analysis of stable transformants revealed that a GBSS promoter sequence of 0.4 kb was sufficient

  13. Antibody to Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70 Inhibits Human T-Cell Lymphoptropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I Production by Transformed Rabbit T-Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fallouh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia is a fatal malignant transformation caused by the human T-cell lymphoptropic virus type I (HTLV-I. HTLV-I is only associated with the development of this disease in a small percentage of infected individuals. Using two rabbit transformed T-cell lines; RH/K30 (asymptomatic and RH/K34 (leukemogenic, we have investigated the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 90 and 70 and the role of anti-HSPs antibodies on virus production. HSPs surface expression was higher on RH/K34 than RH/K30 cells. Heat treatment of cells increased the expression of HSPs proteins and virus production; HSPs augmentation was stabilized after 12 h and virus production reached a maximum between 8 h–12 h then returned to normal level after 24 h of culture. Incubation of cells only with rabbit anti-HSP 70 antibodies prevented virus production specifically in the leukemogenic cell line. The results indicate a relationship between HSP 70 and virus production.

  14. Activation of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF-transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1 axis in hepatitis C virus-expressing hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumuru Nagaraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pro-fibrogenic cytokine connective tissue growth factor (CTGF plays an important role in the development and progression of fibrosis in many organ systems, including liver. However, its role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. METHODS: In the present study, we assessed CTGF expression in HCV-infected hepatocytes using replicon cells containing full-length HCV genotype 1 and the infectious HCV clone JFH1 (HCV genotype 2 by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. We evaluated transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 as a key upstream mediator of CTGF production using neutralizing antibodies and shRNAs. We also determined the signaling molecules involved in CTGF production using various immunological techniques. RESULTS: We demonstrated an enhanced expression of CTGF in two independent models of HCV infection. We also demonstrated that HCV induced CTGF expression in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Further dissection of the molecular mechanisms revealed that CTGF production was mediated through sequential activation of MAPkinase and Smad-dependent pathways. Finally, to determine whether CTGF regulates fibrosis, we showed that shRNA-mediated knock-down of CTGF resulted in reduced expression of fibrotic markers in HCV replicon cells. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrate a central role for CTGF expression in HCV-induced liver fibrosis and highlight the potential value of developing CTGF-based anti-fibrotic therapies to counter HCV-induced liver damage.

  15. Cell transformation mediated by the Epstein-Barr virus G protein-coupled receptor BILF1 is dependent on constitutive signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Nørregaard, K.; Kristensen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    , the correlation between receptor activity and the ability to mediate cell transformation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo supports the idea that inverse agonists for BILF1 could inhibit cell transformation and be relevant therapeutic candidates. Oncogene (2010) 29, 4388-4398; doi: 10.1038/onc.2010......Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame BILF1 encodes a seven trans-membrane (TM) G protein-coupled receptor that signals with high constitutive activity through G alpha(i) (Beisser et al., 2005; Paulsen et al., 2005). In this paper, the transforming potential of BILF1 is investigated in vitro...... in a foci formation assay using retrovirally transduced NIH3T3 cells, as well as in vivo by using nude mice. BILF1 revealed a substantial transforming potential that was dependent on constitutive signaling, as a signaling-deficient mutant completely lost its ability to transform cells in vitro...

  16. CLEC5A regulates Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available CLEC5A/MDL-1, a member of the myeloid C-type lectin family expressed on macrophages and neutrophils, is critical for dengue virus (DV-induced hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome in Stat1⁻/⁻ mice and ConA-treated wild type mice. However, whether CLEC5A is involved in the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis has not yet been investigated. To investigate the role of CLEC5A to regulate JEV-induced neuroinflammation, antagonistic anti-CLEC5A mAb and CLEC5A-deficient mice were generated. We find that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV directly interacts with CLEC5A and induces DAP12 phosphorylation in macrophages. In addition, JEV activates macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are dramatically reduced in JEV-infected Clec5a⁻/⁻ macrophages. Although blockade of CLEC5A cannot inhibit JEV infection of neurons and astrocytes, anti-CLEC5A mAb inhibits JEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine release from microglia and prevents bystander damage to neuronal cells. Moreover, JEV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disintegrity and lethality in STAT1-deficient (Stat1⁻/⁻ mice, whereas peripheral administration of anti-CLEC5A mAb reduces infiltration of virus-harboring leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS, restores BBB integrity, attenuates neuroinflammation, and protects mice from JEV-induced lethality. Moreover, all surviving mice develop protective humoral and cellular immunity against JEV infection. These observations demonstrate the critical role of CLEC5A in the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis, and identify CLEC5A as a target for the development of new treatments to reduce virus-induced brain damage.

  17. Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of immune responses during rabies virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, B P; Singh, K P; Saminathan, M; Singh, R; Shivasharanappa, N; Sharma, A K; Malik, Yashpal S; Dhama, K; Manjunatha, V

    2016-12-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which either triggers T cell differentiation or suppresses T cell function depending on its concentration. Herein, we assessed the potential role of NO in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection in mice model. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and 100LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RABV was inoculated intracerebrally on day 0 and subsequently aminoguanidine (AG; inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally twice a day, up to 6 days. The samples were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 12 days post infection (DPI). The immune cells including CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells were estimated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and splenocytes. Serum total NO concentration, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, direct fluorescent antibody technique and TUNEL assay was performed. Infection with CVS resulted in significant early increase in CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK cells in blood and spleen until 2 DPI. From 4 DPI onwards significant reduction was noticed in these parameters which coincided with increased NO on 4 DPI, rising to maximum on 8 DPI, until their death on 10 DPI. Conversely, the CVS-AG treated group showed lower levels of NO and increased number of CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK cells. Increased number of cells in blood and spleen coincided with increased survival time, delayed development of clinical signs, reduced viral load and less apoptotic cells. NO played important role in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection. The findings of present study confirmed the role of NO and/or iNOS using iNOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine) in immune response during RABV infection, which would further help in understanding the virus immunopathogenesis with adoption of newer antiviral strategies to counter the progression of disease.

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta regulates tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J M; Ng, Y Y; Hill, P A; Nikolic-Paterson, D J; Mu, W; Atkins, R C; Lan, H Y

    1999-10-01

    We recently found evidence of tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT) during the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the rat remnant kidney. This study investigated the mechanisms that induce TEMT in vitro. The normal rat kidney tubular epithelial cell line (NRK52E) was cultured for six days on plastic or collagen type I-coated plates in the presence or absence of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Transdifferentiation of tubular cells into myofibroblasts was assessed by electron microscopy and by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and E-cadherin. NRK52E cells cultured on plastic or collagen-coated plates showed a classic cobblestone morphology. Culture in 1 ng/ml TGF-beta caused only very minor changes in morphology, but culture in 10 or 50 ng/ml TGF-beta1 caused profound changes. This involved hypertrophy, a loss of apical-basal polarity and microvilli, with cells becoming elongated and invasive, the formation of a new front-end back-end polarity, and the appearance of actin microfilaments and dense bodies. These morphological changes were accompanied by phenotypic changes. Double immunohistochemistry staining showed that the addition of TGF-beta1 to confluent cell cultures caused a loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and de novo expression of alpha-SMA. An intermediate stage in transdifferentiation could be seen with hypertrophic cells expressing both E-cadherin and alpha-SMA. De novo alpha-SMA expression was confirmed by Northern blotting, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. In particular, cells with a transformed morphology showed strong alpha-SMA immunostaining of characteristic microfilament structures along the cell axis. There was a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells expressing alpha-SMA with increasing concentrations of TGF-beta1, which was completely inhibited by the addition of a neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1 antibody. Compared with growth on plastic, cell

  19. Ascorbic acid kills Epstein-Barr virus positive Burkitt lymphoma cells and Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-cells in vitro, but not in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber N; Espey, Michael Graham; Chavez, Mayra; Tu, Hongbin; Levine, Mark; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2013-05-01

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to kill various cancer cell lines at pharmacologic concentrations. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells were more susceptible to ascorbic acid-induced cell killing than EBV-negative BL cells or EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Ascorbic acid did not induce apoptosis in any of the tested cells but did induce the production of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Previously, we showed that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induces cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. We found that ascorbic acid is strongly antagonistic for bortezomib-induced cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. Finally, ascorbic acid did not prolong survival of severe combined immunodefiency mice inoculated with LCLs either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Thus, while ascorbic acid was highly effective at killing EBV-positive BL cells and LCLs in vitro, it antagonized cell killing by bortezomib and was ineffective in an animal model.

  20. BAP1 regulates IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ flux to mitochondria suppressing cell transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Angela; Giorgi, Carlotta; Patergnani, Simone; Larson, David; Verbruggen, Kaitlyn; Tanji, Mika; Pellegrini, Laura; Signorato, Valentina; Olivetto, Federica; Pastorino, Sandra; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Gaudino, Giovanni; Morris, Paul; Sakamoto, Greg; Ferris, Laura K; Danese, Alberto; Raimondi, Andrea; Tacchetti, Carlo; Kuchay, Shafi; Pass, Harvey I; Affar, El Bachir; Yang, Haining; Pinton, Paolo; Carbone, Michele

    2017-06-22

    BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a potent tumour suppressor gene that modulates environmental carcinogenesis. All carriers of inherited heterozygous germline BAP1-inactivating mutations (BAP1+/-) developed one and often several BAP1-/- malignancies in their lifetime, mostly malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, and so on. Moreover, BAP1-acquired biallelic mutations are frequent in human cancers. BAP1 tumour suppressor activity has been attributed to its nuclear localization, where it helps to maintain genome integrity. The possible activity of BAP1 in the cytoplasm is unknown. Cells with reduced levels of BAP1 exhibit chromosomal abnormalities and decreased DNA repair by homologous recombination, indicating that BAP1 dosage is critical. Cells with extensive DNA damage should die and not grow into malignancies. Here we discover that BAP1 localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, it binds, deubiquitylates, and stabilizes type 3 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R3), modulating calcium (Ca2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol and mitochondria, promoting apoptosis. Reduced levels of BAP1 in BAP1+/- carriers cause reduction both of IP3R3 levels and of Ca2+ flux, preventing BAP1+/- cells that accumulate DNA damage from executing apoptosis. A higher fraction of cells exposed to either ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, or to asbestos, survive genotoxic stress, resulting in a higher rate of cellular transformation. We propose that the high incidence of cancers in BAP1+/- carriers results from the combined reduced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of BAP1. Our data provide a mechanistic rationale for the powerful ability of BAP1 to regulate gene-environment interaction in human carcinogenesis.

  1. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  2. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphogenic Regulators Baby boom and Wuschel Improve Monocot Transformation[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Keith; Wu, Emily; Cho, Myeong-Je; Lenderts, Brian; Chamberlin, Mark; Cushatt, Josh; Ryan, Larisa; Khan, Tanveer; Chow-Yiu, Julia; Hua, Wei; Banh, Jenny; Bao, Zhongmeng; Brink, Kent; Igo, Elizabeth; Rudrappa, Bhojaraja; Shamseer, PM; Shen, Bo; Zheng, Peizhong; Bidney, Dennis; Falco, Carl; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Xu, Deping

    2016-01-01

    While transformation of the major monocot crops is currently possible, the process typically remains confined to one or two genotypes per species, often with poor agronomics, and efficiencies that place these methods beyond the reach of most academic laboratories. Here, we report a transformation approach involving overexpression of the maize (Zea mays) Baby boom (Bbm) and maize Wuschel2 (Wus2) genes, which produced high transformation frequencies in numerous previously nontransformable maize inbred lines. For example, the Pioneer inbred PHH5G is recalcitrant to biolistic and Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. However, when Bbm and Wus2 were expressed, transgenic calli were recovered from over 40% of the starting explants, with most producing healthy, fertile plants. Another limitation for many monocots is the intensive labor and greenhouse space required to supply immature embryos for transformation. This problem could be alleviated using alternative target tissues that could be supplied consistently with automated preparation. As a major step toward this objective, we transformed Bbm and Wus2 directly into either embryo slices from mature seed or leaf segments from seedlings in a variety of Pioneer inbred lines, routinely recovering healthy, fertile T0 plants. Finally, we demonstrated that the maize Bbm and Wus2 genes stimulate transformation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) immature embryos, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) callus, and indica rice (Oryza sativa ssp indica) callus. PMID:27600536

  4. Alix regulates egress of hepatitis B virus naked capsid particles in an ESCRT-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardens, Andreas; Döring, Tatjana; Stieler, Jens; Prange, Reinhild

    2011-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus that exploits the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway for budding. In addition to infectious particles, HBV-replicating cells release non-enveloped (nucleo)capsids, but their functional implication and pathways of release are unclear. Here, we focused on the molecular mechanisms and found that the sole expression of the HBV core protein is sufficient for capsid release. Unexpectedly, released capsids are devoid of a detectable membrane bilayer, implicating a non-vesicular exocytosis process. Unlike virions, naked capsid budding does not require the ESCRT machinery. Rather, we identified Alix, a multifunctional protein with key roles in membrane biology, as a regulator of capsid budding. Ectopic overexpression of Alix enhanced capsid egress, while its depletion inhibited capsid release. Notably, the loss of Alix did not impair HBV production, furthermore indicating that virions and capsids use diverse export routes. By mapping of Alix domains responsible for its capsid release-mediating activity, its Bro1 domain was found to be required and sufficient. Alix binds to core via its Bro1 domain and retained its activity even if its ESCRT-III binding site is disrupted. Together, the boomerang-shaped Bro1 domain of Alix appears to escort capsids without ESCRT. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Jasmonic acid negatively regulates resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Michie; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi

    2013-12-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cultivars possessing the N resistance gene to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) induce a hypersensitive response, which is accompanied by the production of phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), to enclose the invaded virus at the initial site of infection, which inhibits viral multiplication and spread. SA functions as a positive regulator of TMV resistance. However, the role of JA in TMV resistance has not been fully elucidated. Exogenously applied methyl jasmonate, a methyl ester of JA, reduced local resistance to TMV and permitted systemic viral movement. Furthermore, in contrast to a previous finding, we demonstrated that silencing of CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), a JA receptor, reduced viral accumulation in a tobacco cultivar possessing the N gene, as did that of allene oxide synthase, a JA biosynthetic enzyme. The reduction in viral accumulation in COI1-silenced tobacco plants was correlated with an increase in SA, and lowering SA levels by introducing an SA hydroxylase gene attenuated this reduction. Viral susceptibility did not change in a COI1-silenced tobacco cultivar lacking the N gene. These results suggest that JA signaling is not directly responsible for susceptibility to TMV, but is indirectly responsible for viral resistance through the partial inhibition of SA-mediated resistance conferred by the N gene, and that a balance between endogenous JA and SA levels is important for determining the degree of resistance.

  6. Cellular DDX3 regulates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by interacting with viral un-translated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Ge, Ling-ling; Li, Peng-peng; Wang, Yue; Dai, Juan-juan; Sun, Ming-xia; Huang, Li; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hu, Xiao-chun; Ishag, Hassan; Mao, Xiang

    2014-01-20

    Japanese encephalitis virus is one of the most common causes for epidemic viral encephalitis in humans and animals. Herein we demonstrated that cellular helicase DDX3 is involved in JEV replication. DDX3 knockdown inhibits JEV replication. The helicase activity of DDX3 is crucial for JEV replication. GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DDX3 could interact with JEV non-structural proteins 3 and 5. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that DDX3 interacts and colocalizes with these viral proteins and viral RNA during the infection. We determined that DDX3 binds to JEV 5' and 3' un-translated regions. We used a JEV-replicon system to demonstrate that DDX3 positively regulates viral RNA translation, which might affect viral RNA replication at the late stage of virus infection. Collectively, we identified that DDX3 is necessary for JEV infection, suggesting that DDX3 might be a novel target to design new antiviral agents against JEV or other flavivirus infections. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  8. Acid stability of the hemagglutinin protein regulates H5N1 influenza virus pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M DuBois

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP A/chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 and moderately pathogenic (MP A/goose/Hong Kong/437-10/1999 isolates of H5N1 were found to be expressed and cleaved in similar amounts, and both proteins had similar receptor-binding properties. However, amino-acid variations at positions 104 and 115 in the vestigial esterase sub-domain of the HA1 receptor-binding domain (RBD were found to modulate the pH of HA activation such that the HP and MP HA proteins are activated for membrane fusion at pH 5.7 and 5.3, respectively. In general, an increase in H5N1 pathogenicity in chickens was found to correlate with an increase in the pH of HA activation for mutant and chimeric HA proteins in the observed range of pH 5.2 to 6.0. We determined a crystal structure of the MP HA protein at 2.50 Å resolution and two structures of HP HA at 2.95 and 3.10 Å resolution. Residues 104 and 115 that modulate the acid stability of the HA protein are situated at the N- and C-termini of the 110-helix in the vestigial esterase sub-domain, which interacts with the B loop of the HA2 stalk domain. Interactions between the 110-helix and the stalk domain appear to be important in regulating HA protein acid stability, which in turn modulates influenza virus replication and pathogenesis. Overall, an optimal activation pH of the HA protein is found to be necessary for high pathogenicity by H5N1 influenza virus in avian species.

  9. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  10. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipe, David M., E-mail: david_knipe@hms.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression.

  11. General and Simple Decision Method for DG Penetration Level in View of Voltage Regulation at Distribution Substation Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribution system was designed and operated by considering unidirectional power flow from a utility source to end-use loads. The large penetrations of distributed generation (DG into the existing distribution system causes a variety of technical problems, such as frequent tap changing problems of the on-load tap changer (OLTC transformer, local voltage rise, protection coordination, exceeding short-circuit capacity, and harmonic distortion. In view of voltage regulation, the intermittent fluctuation of the DG output power results in frequent tap changing operations of the OLTC transformer. Thus, many utilities limit the penetration level of DG and are eager to find the reasonable penetration limits of DG in the distribution system. To overcome this technical problem, utilities have developed a new voltage regulation method in the distribution system with a large DG penetration level. In this paper, the impact of DG on the OLTC operations controlled by the line drop compensation (LDC method is analyzed. In addition, a generalized determination methodology for the DG penetration limits in a distribution substation transformer is proposed. The proposed DG penetration limits could be adopted for a simplified interconnection process in DG interconnection guidelines.

  12. Homologues of Genetic Transformation DNA Import Genes Are Required for Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent Recipient Capability Regulated by the Response Regulator CtrA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Cedric A; Ding, Hao; Johnson, Jeanette A; Beatty, J Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) morphologically resemble small, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages; however, their only known role is to package and transfer random pieces of the producing cell genome to recipient cells. The best understood GTA is that of Rhodobacter capsulatus, termed RcGTA. We discovered that homologues of three genes involved in natural transformation in other bacteria, comEC, comF, and comM, are essential for RcGTA-mediated gene acquisition. This paper gives genetic and biochemical evidence that RcGTA-borne DNA entry into cells requires the ComEC and ComF putative DNA transport proteins and genetic evidence that putative cytoplasmic ComM protein of unknown function is required for recipient capability. Furthermore, the master regulator of RcGTA production in bacterial horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, where donor DNA is packaged in transducing phage-like particles and recipient cells take up DNA using natural transformation-related machinery. Both of these differentiated subsets of a culture population, donors and recipients, are dependent on the same response regulator, CtrA. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major driver of bacterial evolution and adaptation to environmental stresses. Traits such as antibiotic resistance or metabolic properties can be transferred between bacteria via HGT; thus, HGT can have a tremendous effect on the fitness of a bacterial population. The three classically described HGT mechanisms are conjugation, transformation, and phage-mediated transduction. More recently, the HGT factor GTA was described, where random pieces of producing cell genome are packaged into phage-like particles that deliver DNA to recipient cells. In this report, we show that transport of DNA borne by the R. capsulatus RcGTA into recipient cells requires key genes previously thought to be specific to natural transformation pathways. These findings indicate that RcGTA combines central aspects of phage-mediated transduction and natural

  13. T cells specific for different latent and lytic viral proteins efficiently control Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Justyna; Stuehler, Claudia; Egli, Adrian; Battegay, Manuel; Rauser, Georg; Bantug, Glenn Robert; Brander, Christian; Hess, Christoph; Khanna, Nina

    2015-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-γ cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities expanded similarly in vitro, recognized cognate antigen, and, to a lower extent, EBV-infected cells, exerted moderate cytotoxicity and showed reduced alloreactivity. However, EBVmix-specific cells most efficiently controlled EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). This control was mainly mediated by EBV-specific CD8(+) cells with an oligoclonal epitope signature covering both latent and lytic viral proteins. Notably, EBV-specific CD4(+) cells unable to control LCLs produced significantly less perforin and granzyme B, probably because of limited LCL epitope presentation. EBVmix induces a broader T-cell response, probably because of its coverage of latent and lytic EBV-derived proteins that may be important to control EBV-transformed B cells and might offer an improvement of T-cell therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A mechanism for negative gene regulation in Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisy, D.J.; Rasmussen, C.; Owusu, E.O.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) ie-1 gene product (IE-1) is thought to play a central role in stimulating early viral transcription. IE-1 has been demonstrated to activate several early viral gene promoters and to negatively regulate the promoters of two other AcMNPV regulatory genes, ie-0 and ie-2. Our results indicate that IE-1 negatively regulates the expression of certain genes by binding directly, or as part of a complex, to promoter regions containing a specific IE-1-binding motif (5'-ACBYGTAA-3') near their mRNA start sites. The IE-1 binding motif was also found within the palindromic sequences of AcMNPV homologous repeat (hr) regions that have been shown to bind IE-1. The role of this IE-1 binding motif in the regulation of the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters was examined by introducing mutations in these promoters in which the central 6 bp were replaced with Bg/II sites. GUS reporter constructs containing ie-2 and pe-38 promoter fragments with and without these specific mutations were cotransfected into Sf9 cells with various amounts of an ie-1-containing plasmid (ple-1). Comparisons of GUS expression produced by the mutant and wild-type constructs demonstrated that the IE-1 binding motif mediated a significant decrease in expression from the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters in response to increasing pIe-1 concentrations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with pIe-1-transfected cell extracts and supershift assays with IE-1- specific antiserum demonstrated that IE-1 binds to promoter fragments containing the IE-1 binding motif but does not bind to promoter fragments lacking this motif.

  15. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  16. Creating competition & mastering markets; New entrants, monopolists, and regulators in transforming public utilities across the Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hulsink (Wim); E.F.M. Wubben (Emiel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is on the transformation of network industries or public utilities in Western Europe and the United States (US). A network industry provides a public or basic service by operating a large infrastructure system whose main characteristics are strongly increasing returns to

  17. In vitro evaluation of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter system in dynamic studies of transcriptional gene regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, C.-H. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Liu, R.-S. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); National Yang-Ming University Medical School and National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-E. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Deng, W.-P. [Institute of Biomedical Material, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-C. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Chen, F.-D. [Department of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China) and Institute of Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology Taichung 112, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: d49220009@ym.edu.tw

    2006-07-15

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) reporter system is being used to directly and indirectly monitor therapeutic gene expression, immune cell trafficking and protein-protein interactions in various living animals. However, the issues of HSV1-TK enzyme stability in living cells and whether this reporter system is optimal for dynamic studies of gene expression events in genetic imaging have not be addressed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the application of this reporter system in dynamic studies of transcriptional gene regulation. To achieve this purpose, we established two tetracycline-inducible murine sarcoma cell lines, tetracycline-turn-off HSV1-tk-expressing cell line (NG4TL4/tet-off-HSV1-tk) and tetracycline-turn-off Luc-expressing cell line (NG4TL4/tet-off-Luc), to create an artificially regulated gene expression model in vitro. The dynamic transcriptional events mediating a series of doxycycline (Dox) inductions were monitored by HSV1-TK or by the firefly luciferase reporter gene using HSV1-TK enzyme activity assay and luciferase assay, respectively. The results of dynamic gene expression studies showed that the luciferase gene is an optimal reporter gene for monitoring short-timescale, dynamic transcriptional events mediating a series of Dox inductions, whereas the HSV1-tk is not optimal to achieve this purpose. Furthermore, the enzyme half-life of HSV1-TK in NG4TL4 cells is about 35 h after cycloheximide-induced protein inhibition. On the other hand, the results of an efflux assay of [{sup 131}I] FIAU and [{sup 3}H] GCV revealed that the molecular probe phosphorylated by HSV1-TK can be trapped long term within HSV1-TK stably transformed cells. Therefore, a long half-life radionuclide is not suitable for dynamic gene expression studies. Based on these results, we suggest that the HSV1-TK reporter system is not optimal for monitoring short-timescale dynamic processes such as kinetic gene expression controlled by

  18. The Viral Gene ORF79 Encodes a Repressor Regulating Induction of the Lytic Life Cycle in the Haloalkaliphilic Virus ϕCh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Regina; Derntl, Christian; Klein, Reinhard; Alte, Beatrix; Hofbauer, Christoph; Kaufmann, Martin; Beraha, Judith; Schöner, Léa; Witte, Angela

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we describe the construction of the first genetically modified mutant of a halovirus infecting haloalkaliphilic Archaea By random choice, we targeted ORF79, a currently uncharacterized viral gene of the haloalkaliphilic virus ϕCh1. We used a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method to deliver a disruption cassette into a lysogenic strain of the haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natrialba magadii bearing ϕCh1 as a provirus. This approach yielded mutant virus particles carrying a disrupted version of ORF79. Disruption of ORF79 did not influence morphology of the mature virions. The mutant virus was able to infect cured strains of N. magadii , resulting in a lysogenic, ORF79-disrupted strain. Analysis of this strain carrying the mutant virus revealed a repressor function of ORF79. In the absence of gp79, onset of lysis and expression of viral proteins occurred prematurely compared to their timing in the wild-type strain. Constitutive expression of ORF79 in a cured strain of N. magadii reduced the plating efficiency of ϕCh1 by seven orders of magnitude. Overexpression of ORF79 in a lysogenic strain of N. magadii resulted in an inhibition of lysis and total absence of viral proteins as well as viral progeny. In further experiments, gp79 directly regulated the expression of the tail fiber protein ORF34 but did not influence the methyltransferase gene ORF94. Further, we describe the establishment of an inducible promoter for in vivo studies in N. magadii IMPORTANCE Genetic analyses of haloalkaliphilic Archaea or haloviruses are only rarely reported. Therefore, only little insight into the in vivo roles of proteins and their functions has been gained so far. We used a reverse genetics approach to identify the function of a yet undescribed gene of ϕCh1. We provide evidence that gp79, a currently unknown protein of ϕCh1, acts as a repressor protein of the viral life cycle, affecting the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state of the virus

  19. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  20. Chapter 1. Regulation of HIV-1 alternative RNA splicing and its role in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, C Martin

    2009-01-01

    Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA species, both completely and incompletely spliced, are produced by alternative splicing of the primary viral RNA transcript. In addition, about half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is transported to the cytoplasm where it is used both as mRNA and as genomic RNA. In general, the identities of the completely and incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNA species are determined by the proximity of the open reading frames to the 5'-end of the mRNAs. The relative abundance of the mRNAs encoding the HIV-1 gene products is determined by the frequency of splicing at the different alternative 3'-splice sites. This chapter will highlight studies showing how HIV-1 uses exon definition to control the level of splicing at each of its 3'-splice sites through a combination of positively acting exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) elements, negatively acting exonic and intronic splicing silencer elements (ESS and ISS elements, respectively), and the 5'-splice sites of the regulated exons. Each of these splicing elements represent binding sites for cellular factors whose levels in the infected cell can determine the dominance of the positive or negative elements on HIV-1 alternative splicing. Both mutations of HIV-1 splicing elements and overexpression or inhibition of cellular splicing factors that bind to these elements have been used to show that disruption of regulated splicing inhibits HIV-1 replication. These studies have provided strong rationale for the investigation and development of antiviral drugs that specifically inhibit HIV-1 RNA splicing.

  1. Borna disease virus encoded phosphoprotein inhibits host innate immunity by regulating miR-155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Kao, Wenping; Li, Aimei; Li, Yujun; He, Junming; Zhang, Qingmeng; Song, Wuqi; Fu, Yingmei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Xiaobei; Li, Hui; Zhong, Zhaohua; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-04-01

    It has been reported that the Borna disease virus (BDV) encoded phosphoprotein (P protein) can inhibit the activity of Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1), thus preventing the induction of type I interferon (IFN). However, the effects of microRNA on the regulation of BDV infection and the host's immune response have not been characterized. miR-155 was predicted to be complementary to the BDV P mRNA by RNAhybrid software. Here, we showed that miR-155 was down-regulated in BDV persistently infected human oligodendroglial (OL/BDV) cells and that the BDV P protein, but not the X protein, directly inhibited miR-155 expression in cells. When miR-155 was over-expressed, the inhibition of type I IFNs by BDV in cells was reversed, and the expression of type I IFNs was increased. When miR-155 expression was specifically blocked, cellular IFN expression and the induction of IFN by poly I:C treatment were suppressed. Furthermore, miR-155 promoted type I IFN production by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3. Mutations in the nt1138-nt1158 region of SOCS3 abandoned the impact of miR-155 on the expression of SOCS3-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The levels of BDV P mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in OL/BDV cells when miR-155 was over-expressed; however, miR-155-mutation did not affect the expression of BDV P-EGFP. Thus, BDV persistent infection inhibited the expression of type I IFNs through the suppression of miR-155, and miR-155 played an important immune regulatory role in BDV persistent infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata with a Full-Length DNA Copy of Cowpea Mosaic Virus M-RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1987-01-01

    A full-length DNA copy of the M-RNA of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), supplied with either the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or the nopaline synthase promoter from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was introduced into the T-DNA region of a Ti-plasmid-derived gene vector and transferred to

  3. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  4. Regulation of the Epstein-Barr virus Zp promoter in B lymphocytes during reactivation from latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carol; Karstegl, Claudio Elgueta; Kellam, Paul; Farrell, Paul J

    2010-03-01

    Ten novel mutations were introduced into the Zp promoter to test the role of sequences outside the established transcription factor-binding sites in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation. Most of these had only small effects, but mutations in the ZID site were shown to reduce Zp activity strongly at early times after induction by anti-immunoglobulin (anti-Ig). The binding of MEF2 transcription factor to ZID was characterized in detail and linked functionally to Zp promoter activity. The presence of XBP-1s, the active form of XBP-1, after administration of anti-Ig to Akata Burkitt's lymphoma cells is consistent with a role for this factor in reactivation of the EBV lytic cycle, although signalling through MEF2D was quantitatively much more significant in activation of Zp. Silencing of Zp during latency is thought to be primarily a consequence of a repressive chromatin structure on Zp, and this aspect of Zp regulation can be observed in the Akata genome through protection of Zp from activation by BZLF1 in the absence of signalling from the B-cell receptor.

  5. Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Melanie; Setz, Christian; Hahn, Friedrich; Matthaei, Alina; Fraedrich, Kirsten; Rauch, Pia; Henklein, Petra; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-04-25

    The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and undergoes various posttranslational modifications including sumoylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. In addition, it mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into budding virions. Despite its small size, p6 exhibits an unusually high charge density. In this study, we show that mutation of the conserved glutamic acids within p6 increases the membrane association of Pr55 Gag followed by enhanced polyubiquitination and MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag-derived epitopes, possibly due to prolonged exposure to membrane bound E3 ligases. The replication capacity of the total glutamic acid mutant E0A was almost completely impaired, which was accompanied by defective virus release that could not be rescued by ALIX overexpression. Altogether, our data indicate that the glutamic acids within p6 contribute to the late steps of viral replication and may contribute to the interaction of Gag with the plasma membrane.

  6. Regulation of core expression during the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Alsaleh, Khaled; Farhat, Rayan; Belouzard, Sandrine; Danneels, Adeline; Descamps, Véronique; Duverlie, Gilles; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Zaidi, Najam us Sahar Sadaf; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Core plays a critical role during hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly, not only as a structural component of the virion, but also as a regulator of the formation of assembly sites. In this study, we observed that core is expressed later than other HCV proteins in a single viral cycle assay, resulting in a relative increase of core expression during a late step of the viral life cycle. This delayed core expression results from an increase of core half-life, indicating that core is initially degraded and is stabilized at a late step of the HCV life cycle. Stabilization-mediated delayed kinetics of core expression were also observed using heterologous expression systems. Core stabilization did not depend on its interaction with non-structural proteins or lipid droplets but was correlated with its expression levels and its oligomerization status. Therefore in the course of a HCV infection, core stabilization is likely to occur when the prior amplification of the viral genome during an initial replication step allows core to be synthesized at higher levels as a stable protein, during the assembly step of the viral life cycle. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  8. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute for Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  9. Learning from the messengers: innate sensing of viruses and cytokine regulation of immunity - clues for treatments and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2013-01-31

    Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus-host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  10. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. IQGAP scaffold proteins are the multifunctional regulators of cellular signaling and malignant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Skovorodnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaffold proteins coordinate the assembling of multicomponent protein complexes and participate in transduction of cellular signals via multiple signaling pathways therefore acting as important regulators of cell properties. IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Proteins (IQGAPs are promising targets for studying the role of scaffold proteins in intracellular signaling regulation and development of cancer and other diseases. IQGAP family includes 3 proteins (IQGAP1, IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 that differ considerably by their expression patterns and functions. Distinct genomic aberrations and expression changes in various tumors were reported for all three IQGAP family members. The present paper thoroughly reviews the structure of IQGAP proteins, their involvement in regulation of cell characteristics and interactions with components of intracellular signaling pathways. Special attention is given to the up-to-date data on deregulation of IQGAP genes functions in different tumor types, analysis of their possible role in tumor progression and their associations with clinicopathological tumor characteristics.

  12. Secondary structure of gp160 and gp120 envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, E; Cornet, B; Martin, I; Ruysschaert, J M; Vandenbranden, M

    1993-06-01

    The secondary structure of the precursor (gp160) of the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (BH10) and its receptor-binding subunit (gp120) was studied by Fourier-transformed attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. A higher alpha-helix/beta-sheet ratio in the gp120 subunit than in the precursor indicates a structural heterogeneity between the two subunits (gp120 and gp41), in agreement with classical secondary-structure predictions. The secondary structure of gp41 was estimated and compared with existing models. The high alpha-helical content in gp41 and the dominant beta-sheet content in gp120 resemble the distribution in influenza virus hemagglutinin subunits.

  13. Mitochondrial Porin Isoform AtVDAC1 Regulates the Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana to Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tackmin

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis vdac1 mutants and yeast porin1-deficient strain with members of the AtVDAC gene family revealed that AtVDAC1 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and there is weak functional redundancy between AtVDAC1 and AtVDAC3, which is independent of porin activity. Furthermore, atvdac1 mutants were deficient in transient and stable transformation by Agrobacterium, suggesting that AtVDAC1 is involved in the early stages of Agrobacterium infection prior to transferred-DNA (T-DNA) integration. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtVDAC1 not only complemented the phenotypes of the atvdac1 mutant, but also showed high efficiency of transient T-DNA gene expression; however, the efficiency of stable transformation was not affected. Moreover, the effect of phytohormone treatment on competence to Agrobacterium was compromised in atvdac1 mutants. These data indicate that AtVDAC1 regulates the competence of Arabidopsis to Agrobacterium infection.

  14. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Campbell

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather.We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5

  15. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Yagui, Martín; Morrison, Amy C; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather. We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5-100% at 1°C x 2

  16. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Love

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-dependent signaling and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst. Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants

  17. The Cytoplasmic Domain of Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein H Regulates Syncytia Formation and Skin Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The conserved herpesvirus fusion complex consists of glycoproteins gB, gH, and gL which is critical for virion envelope fusion with the cell membrane during entry. For Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), the complex is necessary for cell-cell fusion and presumed to mediate entry. VZV causes syncytia formation via cell-cell fusion in skin and in sensory ganglia during VZV reactivation, leading to neuronal damage, a potential contributory factor for the debilitating condition of postherpetic neuralgia. The gH cytoplasmic domain (gHcyt) is linked to the regulation of gB/gH-gL-mediated cell fusion as demonstrated by increased cell fusion in vitro by an eight amino acid (aa834-841) truncation of the gHcyt. The gHcyt regulation was identified to be dependent on the physical presence of the domain, and not of specific motifs or biochemical properties as substitution of aa834-841 with V5, cMyc, and hydrophobic or hydrophilic sequences did not affect fusion. The importance of the gHcyt length was corroborated by stepwise deletions of aa834-841 causing incremental increases in cell fusion, independent of gH surface expression and endocytosis. Consistent with the fusion assay, truncating the gHcyt in the viral genome caused exaggerated syncytia formation and significant reduction in viral titers. Importantly, infection of human skin xenografts in SCID mice was severely impaired by the truncation while maintaining the gHcyt length with the V5 substitution preserved typical replication in vitro and in skin. A role for the gHcyt in modulating the functions of the gB cytoplasmic domain (gBcyt) is proposed as the gHcyt truncation substantially enhanced cell fusion in the presence of the gB[Y881F] mutation. The significant reduction in skin infection caused by hyperfusogenic mutations in either the gHcyt or gBcyt demonstrates that both domains are critical for regulating syncytia formation and failure to control cell fusion, rather than enhancing viral spread, is severely detrimental to

  18. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010: Markets, regulation, strategies and know-how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Hans; Lennerfors, Thomas Taro; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2012-01-01

    of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one hand, the direction taken by two failing companies and, on the other, the courses followed by two...

  19. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation: Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M.I. Niesten (Eva)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity

  20. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition suppresses hepatitis B virus X protein-induced transformation in an in vitro model of liver cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studach, Leo L; Rakotomalala, Lova; Wang, Wen-Horng; Hullinger, Ronald L; Cairo, Stefano; Buendia, Marie-Annick; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2009-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV X protein (pX) is implicated in HCC pathogenesis acting as a weak oncogene or a cofactor in hepatocarcinogenesis. pX induces DNA re-replication, DNA damage, and partial polyploidy in a poorly differentiated, immortalized hepatocyte cell line. In this study we employed sorted, pX-induced polyploid cells to investigate their growth and oncogenic transformation potential over the course of 70 cell doublings. Immediately after live cell-sorting, nearly 40% of pX-induced polyploid cells undergo apoptosis, whereas the surviving cells exhibit proliferation sensitive to p53. After 40 cell generations the pX-expressing polyploid cultures exhibit loss of p53 function and become growth factor- and anchorage-independent, indicative of oncogenic transformation. The pX-induced polyploid cultures in the course of 70 cell generations undergo progressively increasing DNA damage, propagate damaged DNA to daughter cells, and display increased expression of a cluster of proliferation genes shown to be elevated in human HCC, including HBV-HCC. One of these genes is the mitotic kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Oncogenic transformation is suppressed in the absence of pX expression, and significantly, by inhibition of Plk1. These results identify Plk1 as crucial in pX-mediated oncogenic transformation. Partial polyploidy induced by pX is not immediately associated with oncogenic transformation. Continued DNA damage for 40 cell generations is reproducibly associated with loss of p53 function, enhanced expression of Plk1, and oncogenic transformation. Because Plk1 expression is also elevated in HBV-HCC tumors, this in vitro cellular model simulates liver cancer progression and pathogenesis in chronic HBV patients. Inhibition of Plk1 activity suppresses pX-mediated oncogenic transformation, identifying Plk1 as a promising therapeutic target for HBV-mediated HCC.

  1. G-quadruplexes regulate Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Pierre; Zhong, Jie; Lekieffre, Lea; Cowieson, Nathan P; Clancy, Jennifer L; Preiss, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Khanna, Rajiv; Tellam, Judy

    2014-05-01

    Viruses that establish latent infections have evolved unique mechanisms to avoid host immune recognition. Maintenance proteins of these viruses regulate their synthesis to levels sufficient for maintaining persistent infection but below threshold levels for host immune detection. The mechanisms governing this finely tuned regulation of viral latency are unknown. Here we show that mRNAs encoding gammaherpesviral maintenance proteins contain within their open reading frames clusters of unusual structural elements, G-quadruplexes, which are responsible for the cis-acting regulation of viral mRNA translation. By studying the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) mRNA, we demonstrate that destabilization of G-quadruplexes using antisense oligonucleotides increases EBNA1 mRNA translation. In contrast, pretreatment with a G-quadruplex-stabilizing small molecule, pyridostatin, decreases EBNA1 synthesis, highlighting the importance of G-quadruplexes within virally encoded transcripts as unique regulatory signals for translational control and immune evasion. Furthermore, these findings suggest alternative therapeutic strategies focused on targeting RNA structure within viral ORFs.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Seprase in Invasive Melanoma Cells by Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley, Shaun; Chen, Wen-Tien

    2014-01-01

    The tumor invasive phenotype driven by seprase expression/activity has been widely examined in an array of malignant tumor cell types; however, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of this critical protease. Seprase (also named fibroblast activation protein-α, antiplasmin-cleaving enzyme, and dipeptidyl prolyl peptidase 5) is expressed at high levels by stromal fibroblast, endothelial, and tumor cells in a variety of invasive tumors but is undetectable in the majority of normal adult tissues. To examine the transcriptional regulation of the gene, we cloned the human seprase promoter and demonstrated that endogenous seprase expression and exogenous seprase promoter activity are high in invasive melanoma cells but not in non-invasive melanoma cells/primary melanocytes. In addition, we identified a crucial TGF-β-responsive cis-regulatory element in the proximal seprase promoter region that enabled robust transcriptional activation of the gene. Treatment of metastatic but not normal/non-invasive cells with TGF-β1 caused a rapid and profound up-regulation of endogenous seprase mRNA, which coincided with an abolishment of the negative regulator c-Ski, and an increase in binding of Smad3/4 to the seprase promoter in vivo. Blocking TGF-β signaling in invasive melanoma cells through overexpression of c-Ski, chemically using SB-431542, or with a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β significantly reduced seprase mRNA levels. Strikingly, RNAi of seprase in invasive cells greatly diminished their invasive potential in vitro as did blocking TGF-β signaling using SB-431542. Altogether, we found that seprase is transcriptionally up-regulated in invasive melanoma cells via the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, supporting the roles of both TGF-β and seprase in tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:24727589

  3. MicroRNA-30b controls endothelial cell capillary morphogenesis through regulation of transforming growth factor beta 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Grant A; Kazda, Kayla; Addison, Christina L

    2017-01-01

    The importance of microRNA (miRNA) to vascular biology is becoming increasingly evident; however, the function of a significant number of miRNA remains to be determined. In particular, the effect of growth factor regulation of miRNAs on endothelial cell morphogenesis is incomplete. Thus, we aimed to identify miRNAs regulated by pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and determine the effects of VEGF-regulated miRNAs and their targets on processes important for angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were thus stimulated with VEGF and miRNA levels assessed using microarrays. We found that VEGF altered expression of many miRNA, and for this study focused on one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNA in HUVECs following VEGF treatment, miR-30b. Using specific miRNA mimics, we found that overexpression of miR-30b inhibited capillary morphogenesis in vitro, while depletion of endogenous miR-30b resulted in increased capillary morphogenesis indicating the potential significance of down-regulation of miR-30b as a pro-angiogenic response to VEGF stimulation. MiR-30b overexpression in HUVEC regulated transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) production, which led to increased phosphorylation of Smad2, indicating activation of an autocrine TGFβ signaling pathway. Up-regulation of TGFβ2 by miR-30b overexpression was found to be dependent on ATF2 activation, a transcription factor known to regulate TGFβ2 expression, as miR-30b overexpressing cells exhibited increased levels of phosphorylated ATF2 and depletion of ATF2 inhibited miR-30b-induced TGFβ2 expression. However, miR-30b effects on ATF2 were indirect and found to be via targeting of the known ATF2 repressor protein JDP2 whose mRNA levels were indirectly correlated with miR-30b levels. Increased secretion of TGFβ2 from HUVEC was shown to mediate the inhibitory effects of miR-30b on capillary morphogenesis as treatment with a neutralizing antibody to TGFβ2 restored

  4. MicroRNA-30b controls endothelial cell capillary morphogenesis through regulation of transforming growth factor beta 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Howe

    Full Text Available The importance of microRNA (miRNA to vascular biology is becoming increasingly evident; however, the function of a significant number of miRNA remains to be determined. In particular, the effect of growth factor regulation of miRNAs on endothelial cell morphogenesis is incomplete. Thus, we aimed to identify miRNAs regulated by pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and determine the effects of VEGF-regulated miRNAs and their targets on processes important for angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were thus stimulated with VEGF and miRNA levels assessed using microarrays. We found that VEGF altered expression of many miRNA, and for this study focused on one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNA in HUVECs following VEGF treatment, miR-30b. Using specific miRNA mimics, we found that overexpression of miR-30b inhibited capillary morphogenesis in vitro, while depletion of endogenous miR-30b resulted in increased capillary morphogenesis indicating the potential significance of down-regulation of miR-30b as a pro-angiogenic response to VEGF stimulation. MiR-30b overexpression in HUVEC regulated transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2 production, which led to increased phosphorylation of Smad2, indicating activation of an autocrine TGFβ signaling pathway. Up-regulation of TGFβ2 by miR-30b overexpression was found to be dependent on ATF2 activation, a transcription factor known to regulate TGFβ2 expression, as miR-30b overexpressing cells exhibited increased levels of phosphorylated ATF2 and depletion of ATF2 inhibited miR-30b-induced TGFβ2 expression. However, miR-30b effects on ATF2 were indirect and found to be via targeting of the known ATF2 repressor protein JDP2 whose mRNA levels were indirectly correlated with miR-30b levels. Increased secretion of TGFβ2 from HUVEC was shown to mediate the inhibitory effects of miR-30b on capillary morphogenesis as treatment with a neutralizing antibody to

  5. Generation of covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B viruses via intracellular recycling is regulated in a virus specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Köck

    Full Text Available Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection requires covalently closed circular (cccDNA formation and amplification, which can occur via intracellular recycling of the viral polymerase-linked relaxed circular (rc DNA genomes present in virions. Here we reveal a fundamental difference between HBV and the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV in the recycling mechanism. Direct comparison of HBV and DHBV cccDNA amplification in cross-species transfection experiments showed that, in the same human cell background, DHBV but not HBV rcDNA converts efficiently into cccDNA. By characterizing the distinct forms of HBV and DHBV rcDNA accumulating in the cells we find that nuclear import, complete versus partial release from the capsid and complete versus partial removal of the covalently bound polymerase contribute to limiting HBV cccDNA formation; particularly, we identify genome region-selectively opened nuclear capsids as a putative novel HBV uncoating intermediate. However, the presence in the nucleus of around 40% of completely uncoated rcDNA that lacks most if not all of the covalently bound protein strongly suggests a major block further downstream that operates in the HBV but not DHBV recycling pathway. In summary, our results uncover an unexpected contribution of the virus to cccDNA formation that might help to better understand the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, efficient DHBV cccDNA formation in human hepatoma cells should greatly facilitate experimental identification, and possibly inhibition, of the human cell factors involved in the process.

  6. Regulation of Chromatin Assembly and Cell Transformation by Formaldehyde Exposure in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danqi; Fang, Lei; Mei, Shenglin; Li, Hongjie; Xu, Xia; Des Marais, Thomas L; Lu, Kun; Liu, X Shirley; Jin, Chunyuan

    2017-09-21

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational chemical carcinogen. Recent studies have shown that exogenous FA causes only a modest increase in DNA adduct formation compared with the amount of adducts formed by endogenous FA, raising the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to FA-mediated carcinogenicity. We investigated the effects of FA exposure on histone modifications and chromatin assembly. We also examined the role of defective chromatin assembly in FA-mediated transcription and cell transformation. Cellular fractionation and Western blot analysis were used to measure the levels of histone modifications in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and human nasal RPMI2650 cells in the presence of FA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digest assays were performed to examine the changes in chromatin assembly and accessibility after FA exposure. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine transcriptional dysregulation. Finally, anchorage-independent cell growth ability was tested by soft agar assay following FA exposure. Exposure to FA dramatically decreased the acetylation of the N-terminal tails of cytosolic histones. These modifications are important for histone nuclear import and subsequent chromatin assembly. Histone proteins were depleted in both the chromatin fraction and at most of the genomic loci tested following FA exposure, suggesting that FA compromises chromatin assembly. Moreover, FA increased chromatin accessibility and altered the expression of hundreds of cancer-related genes. Knockdown of the histone H3.3 gene (an H3 variant), which mimics inhibition of chromatin assembly, facilitated FA-mediated anchorage-independent cell growth. We propose that the inhibition of chromatin assembly represents a novel mechanism of cell transformation induced by the environmental and occupational chemical carcinogen FA. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1275.

  7. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell production of IL-5 is regulated by NKT cells during influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann Gorski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit⁺ IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM, are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit⁺ ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.

  8. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Crux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C, class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV. To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections.

  9. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crux, Nicole B.; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C), class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H), and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP) in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV). To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections. PMID:28769934

  10. CTGF mediates Smad-dependent transforming growth factor β signaling to regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation during palate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Li, Jingyuan; Iwata, Junichi; Suzuki, Akiko; Chai, Yang

    2013-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling plays crucial functions in the regulation of craniofacial development, including palatogenesis. Here, we have identified connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) as a downstream target of the TGF-β signaling pathway in palatogenesis. The pattern of Ctgf expression in wild-type embryos suggests that it may be involved in key processes during palate development. We found that Ctgf expression is downregulated in both Wnt1-Cre; Tgfbr2(fl/fl) and Osr2-Cre; Smad4(fl/fl) palates. In Tgfbr2 mutant embryos, downregulation of Ctgf expression is associated with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) overactivation, whereas loss of function of Smad4 itself leads to downregulation of Ctgf expression. We also found that CTGF regulates its own expression via TGF-β signaling. Osr2-Cre; Smad4(fl/fl) mice exhibit a defect in cell proliferation similar to that of Tgfbr2 mutant mice, as well as cleft palate. We detected no alteration in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) downstream targets in Smad4 mutant palates, suggesting that the reduction in cell proliferation is due to defective transduction of TGF-β signaling via decreased Ctgf expression. Significantly, an exogenous source of CTGF was able to rescue the cell proliferation defect in both Tgfbr2 and Smad4 mutant palates. Collectively, our data suggest that CTGF regulates proliferation as a mediator of the canonical pathway of TGF-β signaling during palatogenesis.

  11. Krüppel-like factor KLF10 regulates transforming growth factor receptor II expression and TGF-β signaling in CD8+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Konstantinos A; Krempski, James; Reiter, Jesse; Svingen, Phyllis; Xiong, Yuning; Sarmento, Olga F; Huseby, April; Johnson, Aaron J; Lomberk, Gwen A; Urrutia, Raul A; Faubion, William A

    2015-03-01

    KLF10 has recently elicited significant attention as a transcriptional regulator of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling in CD4(+) T cells. In the current study, we demonstrate a novel role for KLF10 in the regulation of TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) expression with functional relevance in antiviral immune response. Specifically, we show that KLF10-deficient mice have an increased number of effector/memory CD8(+) T cells, display higher levels of the T helper type 1 cell-associated transcription factor T-bet, and produce more IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation. In addition, KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells show enhanced proliferation in vitro and homeostatic proliferation in vivo. Freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells from the spleen of adult mice express lower levels of surface TGF-βRII (TβRII). Congruently, in vitro activation of KLF10-deficient CD8(+) T cells upregulate TGF-βRII to a lesser extent compared with wild-type (WT) CD8(+) T cells, which results in attenuated Smad2 phosphorylation following TGF-β1 stimulation compared with WT CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that KLF10 directly binds to the TGF-βRII promoter in T cells, leading to enhanced gene expression. In vivo viral infection with Daniel's strain Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) also led to lower expression of TGF-βRII among viral-specific KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells and a higher percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the spleen. Collectively, our data reveal a critical role for KLF10 in the transcriptional activation of TGF-βRII in CD8(+) T cells. Thus, KLF10 regulation of TGF-βRII in this cell subset may likely play a critical role in viral and tumor immune responses for which the integrity of the TGF-β1/TGF-βRII signaling pathway is crucial. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are up-regulated in brain resident cells in response to virus induced inflammation of the CNS via at least two distinctive pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Fenger, Christina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    2014-01-01

    underlie a virus induced up-regulation of SOCS in the CNS. We found that i.c. infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or yellow fever virus (YF) results in gradual up-regulation of SOCS1/3 mRNA expression peaking at day 7 post infection (p.i.). In the LCMV model, SOCS m...

  13. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Oral Biosciences and BK21 Program, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  14. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity — Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Melchjorsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response.

  15. DEAD-Box Helicase DDX25 Is a Negative Regulator of Type I Interferon Pathway and Facilitates RNA Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Feng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that rapidly spread in tropic and subtropic area in recent years. DEAD (Glu-Asp-Ala-Glu-box RNA helicases have been reported to play important roles in viral infection, either as cytosolic sensors of viral nucleic acids or as essential host factors for the replication of different viruses. In this study, we reported that DDX25, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, plays a proviral role in DENV infection. The expression levels of DDX25 mRNA and protein were upregulated in DENV infected cells. During DENV infection, the intracellular viral loads were significantly lower in DDX25 silenced cells and higher in DDX25 overexpressed cells. Meanwhile, the expression level of type I interferon (IFN was increased in DDX25 siRNA treated cells during viral infection. Consistent with the in vitro findings, the Ddx25-transgenic mice have an increased susceptibility to lethal vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV virus challenge. The viremia was significantly higher while the anti-viral cytokine levels were lower in Ddx25-transgenic mice. Further, DDX25 modulated RIG-I signaling pathway and blocked IFNβ production, by interrupting IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and NFκB activation. Thus, DDX25 is a novel negative regulator of IFN pathway and facilitates RNA virus infection.

  16. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity—Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response. PMID:23435233

  17. Dnmt3a regulates T-cell development and suppresses T-ALL transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A C; Kothari, A; Wilson, W C; Celik, H; Nikitas, J; Mallaney, C; Ostrander, E L; Eultgen, E; Martens, A; Valentine, M C; Young, A L; Druley, T E; Figueroa, M E; Zhang, B; Challen, G A

    2017-11-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, and comprises ~15% and 25% of pediatric and adult ALL cases, respectively. It is well-established that activating NOTCH1 mutations are the major genetic lesions driving T-ALL in most patients, but efforts to develop targeted therapies against this pathway have produced limited success in decreasing leukemic burden and come with significant clinical side effects. A finer detailed understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying T-ALL is required identify patients at increased risk for treatment failure and the development of precision medicine strategies. Generation of genetic models that more accurately reflect the normal developmental history of T-ALL are necessary to identify new avenues for treatment. The DNA methyltransferase enzyme DNMT3A is also recurrently mutated in T-ALL patients, and we show here that inactivation of Dnmt3a combined with Notch1 gain-of-function leads to an aggressive T-ALL in mouse models. Moreover, conditional inactivation of Dnmt3a in mouse hematopoietic cells leads to an accumulation of immature progenitors in the thymus, which are less apoptotic. These data demonstrate that Dnmt3a is required for normal T-cell development, and acts as a T-ALL tumor suppressor.

  18. Trolox down-regulates transforming growth factor-beta and prevents experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia-Moreno, Marina; Rodríguez-Rivera, Adriana; Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Segovia, José; Shibayama, Mineko; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Vergara, Paula; Moreno, Mario G; Fernández-Martínez, Eduardo; Pérez-Alvarez, Víctor M; Muriel, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Cirrhosis is a very common disease and its treatment is limited due to lack of effective drugs. Some studies indicate that this disease is associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, we decided to study the effect of trolox, an effective antioxidant, on experimental cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by CCl4 administration (0.4 g/kg, intraperitoneally, three times per week, for 8 weeks) to Wistar male rats. Trolox was administered daily (50 mg/kg, orally). Fibrosis was assessed histologically and by measuring liver hydroxyproline content. Glutathione, lipid peroxidation and glycogen were measured in liver; serum markers of liver damage were also quantified. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was determined by Western blot and quantified densitometrically. Alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase increased in the group receiving CCl4; trolox completely or partially prevented these alterations. Glycogen was almost depleted by CCl4 but was partially preserved by trolox. Lipid peroxidation increased while glutathione decreased by CCl4 administration; trolox corrected both effects. Histology showed thick bands of collagen, necrosis and distortion of the hepatic parenchyma in the CCl4 group, such effects were prevented by trolox. Hydroxyproline content increased 5-fold by CCl4, while the group receiving both CCl4 and trolox showed no significant difference compared to the control group. CCl4 increased 3-fold TGF-beta, while trolox completely prevented this increase. We found that trolox effectively prevented cirrhosis induced with CCl4 in the rat. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of trolox may be associated to its antioxidant properties and to its ability to reduce the profibrogenic cytokine TGF-beta expression.

  19. The role of the hairless (hr) gene in the regulation of hair follicle catagen transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, A A; Botchkareva, N V; Sundberg, J P; Christiano, A M; Paus, R

    1999-07-01

    Mice that carry a mutation at the hairless (hr) locus develop seemingly normal hair follicles (HF) but shed their hairs completely soon after birth. Histologically, their HFs degenerate into characteristic utriculi and dermal cysts shortly after the entry of the HF into the first regression phase (catagen), during the initiation of HF cycling. Here, we show that at least nine distinct stages of HF disintegration can be distinguished in hr/hr mice. Toward the end of HF morphogenesis (day 15 postpartum) the proximal hair bulb in hr/hr skin undergoes premature and massive apoptosis. This is associated with a dyscoordination of cell proliferation in defined HF compartments, malpositioning of the proximal inner root sheath, striking atrophy of outer root sheath, and failure of trichilemmal keratinization in the developing club hair. Rather than undergoing their normal catagen-associated involution, the hair bulb and central outer root sheath disintegrate into separate cell clusters, thus disrupting all epithelial contact with the dermal papilla. Dermal papilla fibroblasts fail to migrate upward, and break up into clusters of shrunken cells stranded in the reticular dermis as dermal cyst precursors, while the upper HF epithelium transforms into utriculi. Some dermal papilla cells, which normally never undergo apoptosis, also become TUNEL+ in hr/hr skin, and their normally high expression of a key adhesion molecule, neural cell adhesion molecule, declines. Thus, loss of a functional hr gene product (a putative zinc finger transcription factor) initiates a premature, highly dysregulated catagen, which results in the destruction of the normal HF architecture and abrogates the HF's ability to cycle. This provides new insights into the pathobiology of the hr mutation, and suggests that the normal hr gene product is a crucial element of catagen control.

  20. DC-SCRIPT: AR and VDR regulator lost upon transformation of prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansems, Marleen; Karthaus, Nina; Hontelez, Saartje; Aalders, Tilly; Looman, Maaike W; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Schalken, Jack A; Adema, Gosse J

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear receptors (NR), including the Androgen Receptor (AR) and the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR), play an important role in prostate cancer etiology. We recently found that DC-SCRIPT is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and a unique NR coregulator differentially regulating different classes of NRs. Here we investigated the importance of DC-SCRIPT in prostate cancer. DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression was measured by qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect DC-SCRIPT protein expression. The functional effects of DC-SCRIPT on the transcriptional activity of AR and VDR were assessed by luciferase reporter assays and qPCR assays on well-known AR and VDR target genes. DC-SCRIPT mRNA was higher in normal than in corresponding malignant prostate tissue but could not be related to disease stage. DC-SCRIPT protein was found in morphologically normal prostate glands and in infiltrating immune cells. Strikingly, DC-SCRIPT protein expression was absent in malignant prostate epithelial tissue and prostate carcinoma cell lines. DC-SCRIPT protein expression appears to be lost prior to the basal cell marker HMW cytokeratin used in prostate carcinoma diagnostics. In addition, our data demonstrated that DC-SCRIPT repressed transcription mediated by wild-type and mutated AR while enhancing VDR mediated transcription. In addition, transient expression of DC-SCRIPT expression in prostate carcinoma cells strongly repressed cell growth. DC-SCRIPT is a key regulator of nuclear receptors AR and VDR that play an opposite role in prostate cancer etiology and loss of DC-SCRIPT may be involved in the onset of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Exit from competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated at multiple levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Weng

    Full Text Available Development of natural competence in S. pneumoniae entails coordinated expression of two sets of genes. Early gene expression depends on ComE, a response regulator activated by the pheromone CSP (Competence-Stimulating-Peptide. Subsequently, an early gene product (the alternative sigma factor ComX activates expression of late genes, establishing the competent state. Expression of both sets of genes is transient, rapidly shut off by a mechanism that depends on the late gene, dprA. It has been thought that the rapid shutoff of late gene expression is the combined result of auto-inhibition of ComE and the instability of ComX. However, this explanation seems incomplete, because of evidence for ComX-dependent repressor(s that might also be important for shutting off the response to CSP and identifying dprA as such a gene. We screened individual late gene mutants to investigate further the roles of ComX-dependent genes in competence termination. A ΔdprA mutant displayed a prolonged late gene expression pattern, whereas mutants lacking cbpD, cibABC, cglEFG, coiA, ssbB, celAB, cclA, cglABCD, cflAB, or radA, exhibited a wild-type temporal expression pattern. Thus, no other gene than dprA was found to be involved in shutoff. DprA limits the amounts of ComX and another early gene product, ComW, by restriction of early gene expression rather than by promoting proteolysis. To ask if DprA also affects late gene expression, we decoupled late gene expression from early gene regulation. Because DprA did not limit ComX activity under these conditions, we also conclude that ComX activity is limited by another mechanism not involving DprA.

  2. Transformation of tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L. with the recombinant hepatitis B virus genes 35SHBsAg and 35SHBsAgER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, purified from transgenic plants, proved to be efficient when utilized for raising anti-HB antibodies for the prevention of hepatitis B. Because of the important role of the HBsAg antigen in hepatitis B prevention, the coding sequence of HBsAg antigen, with or without the addition of the carboxi-terminus sequence for protein retention in the endoplasmatic reticulum, was linked to cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, tobacco mosaic virus leader sequence Ω, and the transcription terminator sequence. The aim of this work was to clone the chimeric gene 35SHBsAgER in the plant expression vector pGPTV/Kan/Asc. The resulting plasmid, called pG35SHBsAgER, and another plasmid produced previously in our laboratory called pG35SHBsAg, were transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and tobacco leaves, of the SR1 cultivar were used as explants for genetic transformation. Twenty-one fully regenerated plants were obtained (10 for the pG35SHBsAg construction and 11 for the pG35SHBsAgER construction. The genomic DNA of all plants was analyzed by PCR, and the presence of the transgene was confirmed in all plants.

  3. Small RNA profiling of influenza A virus-infected cells identifies miR-449b as a regulator of histone deacetylase 1 and interferon beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Buggele

    Full Text Available The mammalian antiviral response relies on the alteration of cellular gene expression, to induce the production of antiviral effectors and regulate their activities. Recent research has indicated that virus infections can induce the accumulation of cellular microRNA (miRNA species that influence the stability of host mRNAs and their protein products. To determine the potential for miRNA regulation of cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, small RNA profiling was carried out using next generation sequencing. Comparison of miRNA expression profiles in uninfected human A549 cells to cells infected with influenza A virus strains A/Udorn/72 and A/WSN/33, revealed virus-induced changes in miRNA abundance. Gene expression analysis identified mRNA targets for a cohort of highly inducible miRNAs linked to diverse cellular functions. Experiments demonstrate that the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, can be regulated by influenza-inducible miR-449b, resulting in altered mRNA and protein levels. Expression of miR-449b enhances virus and poly(I:C activation of the IFNβ promoter, a process known to be negatively regulated by HDAC1. These findings demonstrate miRNA induction by influenza A virus infection and elucidate an example of miRNA control of antiviral gene expression in human cells, defining a role for miR-449b in regulation of HDAC1 and antiviral cytokine signaling.

  4. The characteristics of soil N transformations regulate the composition of hydrologic N export from terrestrial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbo; Tian, Peng; Tang, Jialiang; Yuan, Lei; Ke, Yun; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Bo; Müller, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    It is important to clarify the quantity and composition of hydrologic N export from terrestrial ecosystem and its primary controlling factors, because it affected N availability, productivity, and C storage in natural ecosystems. The most previous investigations were focused on the effects of N deposition and human disturbance on the composition of hydrologic N export. However, few studies were aware of whether there were significant differences in the concentrations and composition of hydrologic N export from natural ecosystems in different climate zones and what is the primary controlling factor. In the present study, three natural forest ecosystems and one natural grassland ecosystem that were located in different climate zones and with different soil pH range were selected. The concentrations of total dissolved N, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- in soil solution and stream water, soil properties, and soil gross N transformation rates were measured to answer above questions. Our results showed that NO3- concentrations and the composition pattern of hydrologic N export from natural ecosystems varied greatly in the different climate zones. The NO3- concentrations in stream water varied largely, ranging from 0.1 mg N L-1 to 1.6 mg N L-1, while DON concentration in stream water, ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 mg N L-1, did not differ significantly, and the concentrations of NH4+ were uniformly low (average 0.1 mg N L-1) in all studied sites. There was a trade-off relationship between the proportions of NO3- and DON to total dissolved N in stream water. In subtropical strongly acidic forests soil site, DON was the dominance in total dissolved N in stream water, while NO3--N became dominance in temperate acidic forests soil site, subtropical alkaline forests soil region, and the alpine meadow sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The proportions of NO3- to total dissolved N in both soil solution and stream water significantly increased with the increasing of the gross

  5. MEK kinase 1 is a negative regulator of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labuda, Tord; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    in the generation of a virus-specific immune response. Mekk1(DeltaKD) mice challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) showed a fourfold increase in splenic CD8(+) T cell numbers. In contrast, the number of splenic T cells in infected WT mice was only marginally increased. The CD8(+) T cell expansion in Mekk1......(DeltaKD) mice following VSV infection is virus-specific and the frequency of virus-specific T cells is significantly higher (more than threefold) in Mekk1(DeltaKD) as compared to WT animals. Moreover, the hyper-expansion of T cells seen in Mekk1(DeltaKD) mice after VSV infection is a result of increased...... proliferation, since a significantly higher percentage of virus-specific Mekk1(DeltaKD) CD8(+) T cells incorporated BrdU as compared to virus-specific WT CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, similar levels of apoptosis were detected in Mekk1(DeltaKD) and WT T cells following VSV infection. These results strongly...

  6. H1N1 influenza virus infection results in adverse pregnancy outcomes by disrupting tissue-specific hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littauer, Elizabeth Q; Esser, E Stein; Antao, Olivia Q; Vassilieva, Elena V; Compans, Richard W; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2017-11-01

    Increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection during pregnancy has been attributed to immunological changes occurring before and during gestation in order to "tolerate" the developing fetus. These systemic changes are most often characterized by a suppression of cell-mediated immunity and elevation of humoral immune responses referred to as the Th1-Th2 shift. However, the underlying mechanisms which increase pregnant mothers' risk following influenza virus infection have not been fully elucidated. We used pregnant BALB/c mice during mid- to late gestation to determine the impact of a sub-lethal infection with A/Brisbane/59/07 H1N1 seasonal influenza virus on completion of gestation. Maternal and fetal health status was closely monitored and compared to infected non-pregnant mice. Severity of infection during pregnancy was correlated with premature rupture of amniotic membranes (PROM), fetal survival and body weight at birth, lung viral load and degree of systemic and tissue inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we report that influenza virus infection resulted in dysregulation of inflammatory responses that led to pre-term labor, impairment of fetal growth, increased fetal mortality and maternal morbidity. We observed significant compartment-specific immune responses correlated with changes in hormonal synthesis and regulation. Dysregulation of progesterone, COX-2, PGE2 and PGF2α expression in infected pregnant mice was accompanied by significant remodeling of placental architecture and upregulation of MMP-9 early after infection. Collectively these findings demonstrate the potential of a seasonal influenza virus to initiate a powerful pro-abortive mechanism with adverse outcomes in fetal health.

  7. H1N1 influenza virus infection results in adverse pregnancy outcomes by disrupting tissue-specific hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Q Littauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection during pregnancy has been attributed to immunological changes occurring before and during gestation in order to "tolerate" the developing fetus. These systemic changes are most often characterized by a suppression of cell-mediated immunity and elevation of humoral immune responses referred to as the Th1-Th2 shift. However, the underlying mechanisms which increase pregnant mothers' risk following influenza virus infection have not been fully elucidated. We used pregnant BALB/c mice during mid- to late gestation to determine the impact of a sub-lethal infection with A/Brisbane/59/07 H1N1 seasonal influenza virus on completion of gestation. Maternal and fetal health status was closely monitored and compared to infected non-pregnant mice. Severity of infection during pregnancy was correlated with premature rupture of amniotic membranes (PROM, fetal survival and body weight at birth, lung viral load and degree of systemic and tissue inflammation mediated by innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we report that influenza virus infection resulted in dysregulation of inflammatory responses that led to pre-term labor, impairment of fetal growth, increased fetal mortality and maternal morbidity. We observed significant compartment-specific immune responses correlated with changes in hormonal synthesis and regulation. Dysregulation of progesterone, COX-2, PGE2 and PGF2α expression in infected pregnant mice was accompanied by significant remodeling of placental architecture and upregulation of MMP-9 early after infection. Collectively these findings demonstrate the potential of a seasonal influenza virus to initiate a powerful pro-abortive mechanism with adverse outcomes in fetal health.

  8. Active Erk Regulates Microtubule Stability in H-ras-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene E. Harrison

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that activated erk regulates cell functions, at least in part, by mechanisms that do not require gene transcription. Here we show that the map kinase, erk, decorates microtubules (MTs and mitotic spindles in both parental and mutant active rastransfected 10T1 /2 fibroblasts and MCF10A breast epithelial cells. Approximately 20% of total cellular erk decorated MTs in both cell lines. A greater proportion of activated erk was associated with MTs in the presence of mutant active H-ras than in parental cells. Activation of erk by the ras pathway coincided with a decrease in the stability of MT, as detected by a stability marker. The MKK1 inhibitor, PD98059 and transfection of a dominant negative MKK1 blocked ras-induced instability of MTs but did not modify the association of erk with MTs or affect MT stability of the parental cells. These results indicate that the subset of active erk kinase that associates with MTs contributes to their instability in the presence of a mutant active ras. The MT-associated subset of active erk likely contributes to the enhanced invasive and proliferative abilities of cells containing mutant active H-ras.

  9. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  10. Autophagy, TGF-β, and SMAD-2/3 Signaling Regulates Interferon-β Response in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infected Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Swechha M; Shil, Niraj K; Bose, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a lung tropic virus causing severe airway diseases including bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants, children, and immuno-compromised individuals. RSV triggers transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production from lung epithelial cells and TGF-β facilitates RSV infection of these cells. However, it is still unknown whether RSV infected myeloid cells like macrophages produce TGF-β and the role of TGF-β if any during RSV infection of these cells. Our study revealed that RSV infected macrophages produce TGF-β and as a consequence these cells activate TGF-β dependent SMAD-2/3 signaling pathway. Further mechanistic studies illustrated a role of autophagy in triggering TGF-β production from RSV infected macrophages. In an effort to elucidate the role of TGF-β and SMAD-2/3 signaling during RSV infection, we surprisingly unfolded the requirement of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling in conferring optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages. Type-I interferon (e.g., interferon-β or IFN-β) is a critical host factor regulating innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection. Our study revealed that loss of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling pathway in RSV infected macrophages led to diminished expression and production of IFN-β. Inhibiting autophagy in RSV infected macrophages also resulted in reduced production of IFN-β. Thus, our studies have unfolded the requirement of autophagy-TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling network for optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages.

  11. Modulation of the Myxoma Virus Plaque Phenotype by Vaccinia Virus Protein F11

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Chad R; Evans, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 regulates transforming growth factor-β1 levels in mouse tongue wounds and fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aström, Pirjo; Pirilä, Emma; Lithovius, Riitta; Heikkola, Heidi; Korpi, Jarkko T; Hernández, Marcela; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula

    2014-10-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8)-deficient mice (Mmp8-/-) exhibit delayed dermal wound healing, but also partly contradicting results have been reported. Using the Mmp8-/- mice we investigated the role of MMP-8 in acute wound healing of the mobile tongue, and analyzed the function of tongue fibroblasts in vitro. Interestingly, in the early phase the tongue wounds of Mmp8-/- mice healed faster than those of wild type (wt) mice resulting in significant difference in wound widths (P=0.001, 6-24h). The Mmp8-/- wounds showed no change in myeloperoxidase positive myeloid cell count, but the level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was significantly increased (P=0.007) compared to the wt tongues. Fibroblasts cultured from wt tongues expressed MMP-8 and TGF-β1. However, higher TGF-β1 levels were detected in Mmp8-/- fibroblasts, and MMP-8 treatment decreased phosphorylated Smad-2 levels and α-smooth muscle actin expression in these fibroblasts suggesting reduced TGF-β1 signaling. Consistently, a degradation of recombinant TGF-β1 by MMP-8 decreased its ability to activate the signaling cascade in fibroblasts. Moreover, collagen gels with Mmp8-/- fibroblasts reduced more in size. We conclude that MMP-8 regulates tongue wound contraction rate and TGF-β1 levels. In vitro analyses suggest that MMP-8 may also play a role in regulating TGF-β1 signaling of stromal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sprouty Is a Negative Regulator of Transforming Growth Factor β–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Hye H; Basson, M Albert; Robinson, Michael L; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis affects an extensive range of organs and is increasingly acknowledged as a major component of many chronic disorders. It is now well accepted that the elevated expression of certain inflammatory cell–derived cytokines, especially transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to the pathogenesis of a diverse range of fibrotic diseases. In lens, aberrant TGFβ signaling has been shown to induce EMT leading to cataract formation. Sproutys (Sprys) are negative feedback regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-signaling pathways in many vertebrate systems, and in this study we showed that they are important in the murine lens for promoting the lens epithelial cell phenotype. Conditional deletion of Spry1 and Spry2 specifically from the lens leads to an aberrant increase in RTK-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and, surprisingly, elevated TGFβ-related signaling in lens epithelial cells, leading to an EMT and subsequent cataract formation. Conversely, increased Spry overexpression in lens cells can suppress not only TGFβ-induced signaling, but also the accompanying EMT and cataract formation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that a better understanding of the relationship between Spry and TGFβ signaling will not only elucidate the etiology of lens pathology, but will also lead to the development of treatments for other fibrotic-related diseases associated with TGFβ-induced EMT. PMID:22517312

  14. Mercury regulation, fate, transport, transformation, and abatement within cement manufacturing facilities: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Joel K; Alleman, James E; Ong, Say Kee; Wheelock, Thomas D

    2011-09-15

    The USEPA's 2010 mercury rule, which would reduce emissions from non-hazardous waste burning cement manufacturing facilities by an estimated 94%, represents a substantial regulatory challenge for the industry. These regulations, based on the performance of facilities that benefit from low concentrations of mercury in their feedstock and fuel inputs (e.g., limestone concentration was less than 25 ppb at each facility), will require non-compliant facilities to develop innovative controls. Control development is difficult because each facility's emissions must be assessed and simple correlation to mercury concentrations in limestone or an assumption of 'typically observed' mercury concentrations in inputs are unsupported by available data. Furthermore, atmospheric emissions are highly variable due to an internal control mechanism that captures and loops mercury between the high-temperature kiln and low-temperature raw materials mill. Two models have been reported to predict emissions; however, they have not been benchmarked against data from the internal components that capture mercury and do not distinguish between mercury species, which have different sorption and desorption properties. Control strategies include technologies applied from other industries and technologies developed specifically for cement facilities. Reported technologies, listed from highest to lowest anticipated mercury removal, include purge of collected dust or raw meal, changes in feedstocks and fuels, wet scrubbing, cleaning of mercury enriched dust, dry sorbent injection, and dry and semi-dry scrubbing. The effectiveness of these technologies is limited by an inadequate understanding of sorption, desorption, and mercury species involved in internal loop mercury control. To comply with the mercury rule and to improve current mercury control technologies and practices, research is needed to advance fundamental knowledge regarding mercury species sorption and desorption dynamics on materials

  15. RB1CC1 Protein Positively Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling through the Modulation of Arkadia E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Koinuma, Daizo; Shinozaki, Masahiko; Nagano, Yoshiko; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Kana; Goto, Kouichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Saitoh, Masao; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyazono, Kohei; Miyazawa, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is controlled by a variety of regulators, of which Smad7, c-Ski, and SnoN play a pivotal role in its negative regulation. Arkadia is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets these negative regulators for degradation to enhance TGF-β signaling. In the present study we identified a candidate human tumor suppressor gene product RB1CC1/FIP200 as a novel positive regulator of TGF-β signaling that functions as a substrate-selective cofactor of Arka...

  16. Regulation of mTORC1 Signaling by Src Kinase Activity Is Akt1-Independent in RSV-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vojtěchová

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased activity of the Src tyrosine protein kinase that has been observed in a large number of human malignancies appears to be a promising target for drug therapy. In the present study, a critical role of the Src activity in the deregulation of mTOR signaling pathway in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV-transformed hamster fibroblasts, H19 cells, was shown using these cells treated with the Src-specific inhibitor, SU6656, and clones of fibroblasts expressing either the active Src or the dominant-negative Src kinase-dead mutant. Disruption of the Src kinase activity results in substantial reduction of the phosphorylation and activity of the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB, phosphorylation of tuberin (TSC2, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, S6K1, ribosomal protein S6, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 4E-BP1. The ectopic, active Akt1 that was expressed in Src-deficient cells significantly enhanced phosphorylation of TSC2 in these cells, but it failed to activate the inhibited components of the mTOR pathway that are downstream of TSC2. The data indicate that the Src kinase activity is essential for the activity of mTOR-dependent signaling pathway and suggest that mTOR targets may be controlled by Src independently of Akt1/TSC2 cascade in cells expressing hyperactive Src protein. These observations might have an implication in drug resistance to mTOR inhibitor-based cancer therapy in certain cell types.

  17. Lysyl Oxidase Contributes to Mechanotransduction-Mediated Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A. Taylor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β regulates all stages of mammary gland development, including the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the suppression of tumorigenesis in mammary epithelial cells (MECs. Interestingly, mammary tumorigenesis converts TGF-β from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter through molecular mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Changes in integrin signaling and tissue compliance promote the acquisition of malignant phenotypes in MECs in part through the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX, which regulates desmoplastic reactions and metastasis. TGF-β also regulates the activities of tumor reactive stroma and MEC metastasis. We show here that TGF-β1 stimulated the synthesis and secretion of LOX from normal and malignant MECs in vitro and in mammary tumors produced in mice. The ability of TGF-β1 to activate Smad2/3 was unaffected by LOX inactivation in normal MECs, whereas the stimulation of p38 MAPK by TGF-β1 was blunted by inhibiting LOX activity in malignant MECs or by inducing the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in both cell types. Inactivating LOX activity impaired TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion in breast cancer cells. We further show that increasing extracellular matrix rigidity by the addition of type I collagen to three-dimensional organotypic cultures promoted the proliferation of malignant MECs, a cellular reaction that was abrogated by inhibiting the activities of TGF-β1 or LOX, and by degrading hydrogen peroxide. Our findings identify LOX as a potential mediator that couples mechanotransduction to oncogenic signaling by TGF-β1 and suggest that measures capable of inactivating LOX function may prove effective in diminishing breast cancer progression stimulated by TGF-β1.

  18. An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif in varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein B regulates cell fusion and skin pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stefan L; Brady, Jennifer J; Sommer, Marvin H; Reichelt, Mike; Sung, Phillip; Blau, Helen M; Arvin, Ann M

    2013-01-29

    Herpesvirus entry functions of the conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL have been delineated, but their role in regulating cell-cell fusion is poorly understood. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection provides a valuable model for investigating cell-cell fusion because of the importance of this process for pathogenesis in human skin and sensory ganglia. The present study identifies a canonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) in the gB cytoplasmic domain (gBcyt) and demonstrates that the gBcyt is a tyrosine kinase substrate. Orbitrap mass spectrometry confirmed that Y881, central to the ITIM, is phosphorylated. To determine whether the gBcyt ITIM regulates gB/gH-gL-induced cell-cell fusion in vitro, tyrosine residues Y881 and Y920 in the gBcyt were substituted with phenylalanine separately or together. Recombinant viruses with these substitutions were generated to establish their effects on syncytia formation in replication in vitro and in the human skin xenograft model of VZV pathogenesis. The Y881F substitution caused significantly increased cell-cell fusion despite reduced cell-surface gB. Importantly, the Y881F or Y881/920F substitutions in VZV caused aggressive syncytia formation, reducing cell-cell spread. These in vitro effects of aggressive syncytia formation translated to severely impaired skin infection in vivo. In contrast, the Y920F substitution did not affect virus replication in vitro or in vivo. These observations suggest that gB modulates cell-cell fusion via an ITIM-mediated Y881 phosphorylation-dependent mechanism, supporting a unique concept that intracellular signaling through this gBcyt motif regulates VZV syncytia formation and is essential for skin pathogenesis.

  19. Murine leukemia virus spreading in mice impaired in the biogenesis of secretory lysosomes and Ca2+-regulated exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Tsing Chan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses have been observed to bud intracellularly into multivesicular bodies (MVB, in addition to the plasma membrane. Release from MVB is thought to occur by Ca(2+-regulated fusion with the plasma membrane.To address the role of the MVB pathway in replication of the murine leukemia virus (MLV we took advantage of mouse models for the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS and Griscelli syndrome. In humans, these disorders are characterized by hypopigmentation and immunological alterations that are caused by defects in the biogenesis and trafficking of MVBs and other lysosome related organelles. Neonatal mice for these disease models lacking functional AP-3, Rab27A and BLOC factors were infected with Moloney MLV and the spread of virus into bone marrow, spleen and thymus was monitored. We found a moderate reduction in MLV infection levels in most mutant mice, which differed by less than two-fold compared to wild-type mice. In vitro, MLV release form bone-marrow derived macrophages was slightly enhanced. Finally, we found no evidence for a Ca(2+-regulated release pathway in vitro. Furthermore, MLV replication was only moderately affected in mice lacking Synaptotagmin VII, a Ca(2+-sensor regulating lysosome fusion with the plasma membrane.Given that MLV spreading in mice depends on multiple rounds of replication even moderate reduction of virus release at the cellular level would accumulate and lead to a significant effect over time. Thus our in vivo and in vitro data collectively argue against an essential role for a MVB- and secretory lysosome-mediated pathway in the egress of MLV.

  20. Regulation of Oncogene Expression in T-DNA-Transformed Host Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance

  1. Regulation of oncogene expression in T-DNA-transformed host plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance

  2. Regulation of oncogene expression in T-DNA-transformed host plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase, which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM and cytokinin (Ipt. Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs between the coding sequences (CDS of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and

  3. Altered accumulation of osa-miR171b contributes to rice stripe virus infection by regulating disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Aizi; Yuan, Quan; Wang, Shu; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Lin, Lin; Chen, Hairu; Gong, Yifu; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-07-10

    Viral infection affects the pattern of plant miRNA expression. It has been presumed that reduction of miR171 and several other miRNAs influences viral symptoms in plants. We here experimentally demonstrate the association of osa-miR171b with rice stripe virus (RSV) symptoms in rice. Inhibition of osa-miR171b caused stunting with reduced chlorophyll content in leaves similar to viral symptoms. Overexpression of osa-miR171b by an artificial miRNA extended vegetative growth and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in leaves. Tillers were thicker, and panicles were longer with more spikelets in plants overexpressing osa-miR171b than in controls, but there were no differences in tiller numbers. Targets of osa-miR171b, OsSCL6-IIa, OsSCL6-IIb, and OsSCL6-IIc, were respectively up- and down-regulated in plants where osa-miR171b was inhibited or overexpressed. In plants overexpressing osa-miR171b, five positive regulators for heading development, Ehd1, Ehd2, Ehd3, Ehd4, and Hd3a were up-regulated, while the negative regulator Ghd7 was down-regulated. Plants overexpressing osa-miR171b were less susceptible to RSV and virus symptoms were attenuated. Taken together, the results reveal that a reduction of osa-miR171b in RSV-infected rice contributes to RSV symptoms, and provide more insight into the roles of osa-miR171b in rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Moyer, Crystal L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps)

    2016-10-18

    Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  5. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) up-regulates IL-15 through PKCβ1-TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Liu, Yihao; Du, Yinping; Wang, Honglei; Zhang, Meijie; Du, Yijun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2016-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important infectious diseases in swine industry. IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been shown to be essential to transform NKs, CD8 T cells, and other cells of the immune systems into functional effectors. Here, we demonstrated that the broad-spectrum or conventional PKC inhibitors repressed PRRSV-induced IL-15 expression and NF-κB activation. Subsequently, we found that the PKCβ specific inhibitor inhibited PRRSV-induced IL-15 production, which was also confirmed by knock-down of PKCβ1, suggesting that PKCβ1 is involved in the PRRSV-induced IL-15 expression. In addition, we demonstrated that PRRSV activated NF-κB through PKCβ1-induced TAK1 activation. Finally, we demonstrated that PRRSV activated PKCβ1 dependent on the participation of TRIF and MAVS. These data indicate that PRRSV up-regulates IL-15 through TRIF/MAVS-PKCβ1-TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of IL-15 production induced by PRRSV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Regulation of pseudorabies virus gG glycoprotein gene promoter independently of pseudorabies immediate early IE180 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A L; Torres, M; Martín, B; Lerma, L; Tabarés, E

    2010-04-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoprotein known as gG is generally regarded as an early protein, and the immediate early IE180 protein regulates its expression during infection. This study, however, provides evidence that although induction by IE180 is observed, the expression of a marker protein (EGFP), or gG itself, under the control of the gG promoter, can also occur independently of the expression of IE180. This result was demonstrated both with transient transfection assays using plasmids and with viral infections. In transient transfections, the expression under control of the gG promoter depends on the cell type and surprisingly, can be 1.3-fold higher than the expression under the control of the IE180 promoter in Hela Tet-Off cells. Recombinant PRV S3 was constructed by replacing gE in the PRV genome with a chimeric transgene, expressing EGFP under the control of the gG promoter. In PK15 cells infected with NIA-3 wild-type virus or with S3 recombinant virus, expression of gG PRV mRNA (or EGFP mRNA) under the control of the gG promoter in the presence of cycloheximide was detected by RT-PCR. This again indicates that some basal expression was produced in infected cells independently of IE180. This expression was augmented by IE180 protein in both plasmid transfections and viral infections.

  7. Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwu; Bian, Kaifu; Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Fan, Hongyou; Cao, Y Charles

    2017-10-18

    Nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into ordered superlattices with collective properties, but the ability for controlling NC assembly remains poorly understandable toward achievement of desired superlattice. This work regulates several key variables of PbS NC assembly (e.g., NC concentration and solubility, solvent type, evaporation rate, seed mediation and thermal treatment), and thoroughly exploits the nucleation and growth as well as subsequent superlattice transformation of NC assembles and underneath mechanisms. PbS NCs in toluene self-assemble into a single face-centered-cubic (fcc) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) superlattice, respectively, at concentrations ≤17.5 and ≥70 mg/mL, but an intermediate concentration between them causes the coexistence of the two superlattices. Differently, NCs in hexane or chloroform self-assemble into only a single bcc superlattice. Distinct controls of NC assembly in solvent with variable concentrations confirm the NC concentration/solubility mediated nucleation and growth of superlattice, in which an evaporation-induced local gradient of NC concentration causes simultaneous nucleation of the two superlattices. The observation for the dense packing planes of NCs in fast growing fcc rather than bcc reveals the difference of entropic driving forces responsible for the two distinct superlattices. Decelerating the solvent evaporation does not amend the superlattice symmetry, but improves the superlattice crystallinity. In addition to shrinking the superlattice volume, thermal treatment also transforms the bcc to an fcc superlattice at 175 °C. Through a seed-meditated growth, the concentration-dependent superlattice does not change lattice symmetry over the course of continuous growth, whereas the newly nucleated secondary small nuclei through a concentration change have relatively higher surface energy and quickly dissolve in solution, providing additional NC sources for the ripening of the primarily nucleated larger and

  8. Induction of cyclins E and A in response to mitogen removal: a basic alteration associated with the arrest of differentiation of C2 myoblasts transformed by simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, D; Baron, L; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1997-01-01

    We previously showed that C2 myoblasts transformed by simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) stop the myogenic process after the induction of myogenin and of high Rb levels; the induced Rb, however, becomes notably phosphorylated. We have analyzed the protein levels and activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) in untransformed C2 cells and in transformants of either SVLT or the cytoplasmic mutant NKT1 (which permits differentiation) upon a shift from growth medium (GM) to mitogen-poor di...

  9. CD47 Plays a Role as a Negative Regulator in Inducing Protective Immune Responses to Vaccination against Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Tae; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Lee, Yu-Na; Bian, Zhen; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-08-01

    An integrin-associated protein CD47, which is a ligand for the inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein α, is expressed on B and T cells, as well as on most innate immune cells. However, the roles of CD47 in the immune responses to viral infection or vaccination remain unknown. We investigated the role of CD47 in inducing humoral immune responses after intranasal infection with virus or immunization with influenza virus-like particles (VLPs). Virus infection or vaccination with VLPs containing hemagglutinin from A/PR8/34 influenza virus induced higher levels of antigen-specific IgG2c isotype dominant antibodies in CD47-deficient (CD47KO) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. CD47KO mice with vaccination showed greater protective efficacy against lethal challenge, as evidenced by no loss in body weight and reduced lung viral titers compared to WT mice. In addition, inflammatory responses which include cytokine production, leukocyte infiltrates, and gamma interferon-producing CD4(+) T cells, as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10), were reduced in the lungs of vaccinated CD47KO mice after challenge with influenza virus. Analysis of lymphocytes indicated that GL7(+) germinal center B cells were induced at higher levels in the draining lymph nodes of CD47KO mice compared to those in WT mice. Notably, CD47KO mice exhibited significant increases in the numbers of antigen-specific memory B cells in spleens and plasma cells in bone marrow despite their lower levels of background IgG antibodies. These results suggest that CD47 plays a role as a negative regulator in inducing protective immune responses to influenza vaccination. Molecular mechanisms that control B cell activation to produce protective antibodies upon viral vaccination remain poorly understood. The CD47 molecule is known to be a ligand for the inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein α and expressed on the surfaces of most immune cell types. CD47 was previously demonstrated to play

  10. MAPK Phosphatase 5 Expression Induced by Influenza and Other RNA Virus Infection Negatively Regulates IRF3 Activation and Type I Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmy J. James

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The type I interferon system is essential for antiviral immune response and is a primary target of viral immune evasion strategies. Here, we show that virus infection induces the expression of MAPK phosphatase 5 (MKP5, a dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP, in host cells. Mice deficient in MKP5 were resistant to H1N1 influenza infection, which is associated with increased IRF3 activation and type I interferon expression in comparison with WT mice. Increased type I interferon responses were also observed in MKP5-deficient cells and animals upon other RNA virus infection, including vesicular stomatitis virus and sendai virus. These observations were attributed to the ability of MKP5 to interact with and dephosphorylate IRF3. Our study reveals a critical function of a DUSP in negative regulation of IRF3 activity and demonstrates a mechanism by which influenza and other RNA viruses inhibit type I interferon response in the host through MKP5.

  11. NF-κB directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B M M K; Urquiza, Jose M; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A; Ballestar, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. ICP0 antagonizes Stat 1-dependent repression of herpes simplex virus: implications for the regulation of viral latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balliet John W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ICP0 protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is encoded within the HSV-1 latency-associated locus. When ICP0 is not synthesized, the HSV-1 genome is acutely susceptible to cellular repression. Reciprocally, when ICP0 is synthesized, viral replication is efficiently initiated from virions or latent HSV-1 genomes. The current study was initiated to determine if ICP0's putative role as a viral interferon (IFN antagonist may be relevant to the process by which ICP0 influences the balance between productive replication versus cellular repression of HSV-1. Results Wild-type (ICP0+ strains of HSV-1 produced lethal infections in scid or rag2-/- mice. The replication of ICP0- null viruses was rapidly repressed by the innate host response of scid or rag2-/- mice, and the infected animals remained healthy for months. In contrast, rag2-/- mice that lacked the IFN-α/β receptor (rag2-/- ifnar-/- or Stat 1 (rag2-/- stat1-/- failed to repress ICP0- viral replication, resulting in uncontrolled viral spread and death. Thus, the replication of ICP0- viruses is potently repressed in vivo by an innate immune response that is dependent on the IFN-α/β receptor and the downstream transcription factor, Stat 1. Conclusion ICP0's function as a viral IFN antagonist is necessary in vivo to prevent an innate, Stat 1-dependent host response from rapidly repressing productive HSV-1 replication. This antagonistic relationship between ICP0 and the host IFN response may be relevant in regulating whether the HSV-1 genome is expressed, or silenced, in virus-infected cells in vivo. These results may also be clinically relevant. IFN-sensitive ICP0- viruses are avirulent, establish long-term latent infections, and induce an adaptive immune response that is highly protective against lethal challenge with HSV-1. Therefore, ICP0- viruses appear to possess the desired safety and efficacy profile of a live vaccine against

  13. Polymerase read-through at the first transcription termination site contributes to regulation of borna disease virus gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenisch, Marion; Wille, Sandra; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs

    2008-10-01

    An unusually long noncoding sequence is located between the N gene of Borna disease virus (BDV) and the genes for regulatory factor X and polymerase cofactor P. Most of these nucleotides are transcribed and seem to control translation of the bicistronic X/P mRNA. We report here that Vero cells persistently infected with mutant viruses containing minor alterations in this control region showed almost normal levels of N, X, and P proteins but exhibited greatly reduced levels of mRNAs coding for these viral gene products. Surprisingly, cells infected with these BDV mutants accumulated a viral transcript 1.9 kb in length that represents a capped and polyadenylated mRNA containing the coding regions of the N, X, and P genes. Cells infected with wild-type BDV also contained substantial amounts of this read-through mRNA, which yielded both N and P protein when translated in vitro. Viruses carrying mutations that promoted read-through transcription at the first gene junction failed to replicate in the brain of adult rats. In the brains of newborn rats, these mutant viruses were able to replicate after acquiring second-site mutations in or near the termination signal located downstream of the N gene. Thus, sequence elements adjacent to the core termination signal seem to regulate the frequency by which the polymerase terminates transcription after the N gene. We conclude from these observations that BDV uses read-through transcription for fine-tuning the expression of the N, X, and P genes which, in turn, influence viral polymerase activity.

  14. Polymerase Read-Through at the First Transcription Termination Site Contributes to Regulation of Borna Disease Virus Gene Expression ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenisch, Marion; Wille, Sandra; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs

    2008-01-01

    An unusually long noncoding sequence is located between the N gene of Borna disease virus (BDV) and the genes for regulatory factor X and polymerase cofactor P. Most of these nucleotides are transcribed and seem to control translation of the bicistronic X/P mRNA. We report here that Vero cells persistently infected with mutant viruses containing minor alterations in this control region showed almost normal levels of N, X, and P proteins but exhibited greatly reduced levels of mRNAs coding for these viral gene products. Surprisingly, cells infected with these BDV mutants accumulated a viral transcript 1.9 kb in length that represents a capped and polyadenylated mRNA containing the coding regions of the N, X, and P genes. Cells infected with wild-type BDV also contained substantial amounts of this read-through mRNA, which yielded both N and P protein when translated in vitro. Viruses carrying mutations that promoted read-through transcription at the first gene junction failed to replicate in the brain of adult rats. In the brains of newborn rats, these mutant viruses were able to replicate after acquiring second-site mutations in or near the termination signal located downstream of the N gene. Thus, sequence elements adjacent to the core termination signal seem to regulate the frequency by which the polymerase terminates transcription after the N gene. We conclude from these observations that BDV uses read-through transcription for fine-tuning the expression of the N, X, and P genes which, in turn, influence viral polymerase activity. PMID:18653450

  15. Potentials and economic efficiency analysis of voltage regulated transformers based on the regulatory conditions; Einsatzpotentiale und Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalysen des regelbaren Ortsnetztransformators unter regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedeldey, Michael; Brennauer, Bernd [Allgaeuer Ueberlandwerk GmbH, Kempten (Germany); Pienitz, Sven [AllgaeuNetz GmbH und Co. KG, Kempten (Germany); Kraemmer, Michael; Frings, Robert [STAWAG Netz GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Peitz, Michael; Goedde, Markus [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). IFHT; Smolka, Thomas [Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The potentials of voltage regulated transformers (RONT) are analysed in consideration of the possible voltage range problems in 2030. The technical and economical potentials of RONT are examined using examples of two particular field cases. Finally the necessary changes in the german regulatory conditions are identified.

  16. Specific binding of sup 125 I-rErythropoietin to Friend polycythemia virus-transformed erythroleukemia cells purified by centrifugal elutriation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, P.N.; Bard, V.; Axelrad, A.A. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    We have used countercurrent centrifugal elutriation (CCE) to determine the distribution of cells with respect to cell volume and buoyant density for an erythroleukemia cell line (JG6) transformed by the polycythemia strain of Friend virus (FV-P), and to determine the effect of inducing the cells to differentiate with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on this distribution. CCE made it possible to obtain suspensions of modal JG6 populations virtually free of dead cells and uniform with respect to volume and buoyant density. These modal populations were assayed for specific binding of erythropoietin (Epo). Between 500 and 550 Epo receptors per cell were detected. These belonged to a single class having a dissociation constant of 0.36 nM. DMSO induction of differentiation of the JG6 cells had no effect on the number of Epo receptors expressed.

  17. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) induces human osteoclast apoptosis by up-regulating Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Nicolas; Chamoux, Estelle; Bisson, Martine; Roux, Sophie

    2009-08-28

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is the most abundant TGF-beta isoform detected in bone and is an important functional modulator of osteoclasts. TGF-beta1 can induce osteoclast apoptosis; however, the apoptotic pathways involved in this process are not known. We show here that human osteoclasts express both type-I and type-II TGF-beta receptors. In the absence of survival factors, TGF-beta1 (1 ng/ml) induced osteoclast apoptosis. The expression of activated caspase-9, but not that of caspase-8, was increased by TGF-beta1 stimulation, and the rate of TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of a caspase-9 inhibitor. To study further the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta1-induced osteoclast apoptosis, we investigated TGF-beta1 signaling, which primarily involves the Smad pathway, but also other pathways that may interfere with intracellular modulators of apoptosis, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Bcl2 family members. We show here that early events consisted of a trend toward increased expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then TGF-beta1 significantly induced the activation of p38 and Smad2 in a time-dependent manner. These signaling cascades may activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which involves Bim, the expression of which was increased in the presence of TGF-beta1. Furthermore, the rate of TGF-beta1-induced osteoclast apoptosis was lower when Bim expression was suppressed, and inhibiting the Smad pathway abolished Bim up-regulation following TGF-beta stimulation. This could correspond to a regulatory mechanism involved in the inhibition of osteoclast activity by TGF-beta1.

  18. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1) Induces Human Osteoclast Apoptosis by Up-regulating Bim*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Nicolas; Chamoux, Estelle; Bisson, Martine; Roux, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is the most abundant TGF-β isoform detected in bone and is an important functional modulator of osteoclasts. TGF-β1 can induce osteoclast apoptosis; however, the apoptotic pathways involved in this process are not known. We show here that human osteoclasts express both type-I and type-II TGF-β receptors. In the absence of survival factors, TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml) induced osteoclast apoptosis. The expression of activated caspase-9, but not that of caspase-8, was increased by TGF-β1 stimulation, and the rate of TGF-β1-induced apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of a caspase-9 inhibitor. To study further the mechanisms involved in TGF-β1-induced osteoclast apoptosis, we investigated TGF-β1 signaling, which primarily involves the Smad pathway, but also other pathways that may interfere with intracellular modulators of apoptosis, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Bcl2 family members. We show here that early events consisted of a trend toward increased expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then TGF-β1 significantly induced the activation of p38 and Smad2 in a time-dependent manner. These signaling cascades may activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which involves Bim, the expression of which was increased in the presence of TGF-β1. Furthermore, the rate of TGF-β1-induced osteoclast apoptosis was lower when Bim expression was suppressed, and inhibiting the Smad pathway abolished Bim up-regulation following TGF-β stimulation. This could correspond to a regulatory mechanism involved in the inhibition of osteoclast activity by TGF-β1. PMID:19574221

  19. Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol (WA-25 Impedes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation by Regulating the Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease. However, clinically used anti-atherosclerotic drugs, such as simvastatin, have many side effects. Recently, several unique marine compounds have been isolated that possess a variety of bioactivities. In a previous study, we found a synthetic precursor of the marine compound (austrasulfone, which is dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol (WA-25, has anti-atherosclerotic effects in vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, to clarify the mechanisms through which WA-25 exerts anti-atherosclerotic activity, we used RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of WA-25. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, WA-25 significantly inhibited expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. In contrast, simvastatin increased the COX-2 expression compared to WA-25. In addition, WA-25 impedes foam cell formation and up-regulated the lysosomal and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling pathway. We also observed that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 was up-regulated by WA-25 and simvastatin in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and the promising anti-atherosclerosis effects of WA-25 were disrupted by blockade of TGF-β1 signaling. Besides, WA-25 might act through increasing lipolysis than through alteration of lipid export. Taken together, these data demonstrate that WA-25 may have potential as an anti-atherosclerotic drug with anti-inflammatory effects.

  20. Regulation of human neurotropic JC virus replication by alternative splicing factor SF2/ASF in glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Khalili, Kamel

    2011-01-31

    The human neurotropic virus, JC virus (JCV), is the etiologic agent of the fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) that is seen primarily in immunodeficient individuals. Productive infection of JCV occurs only in glial cells, and this restriction is, to a great extent, due to the activation of the viral promoter that has cell type-specific characteristics. Earlier studies led to the hypothesis that glial-specific activation of the JCV promoter is mediated through positive and negative transcription factors that control reactivation of the JCV genome under normal physiological conditions and suppress its activation in non-glial cells. Using a variety of virological and molecular biological approaches, we demonstrate that the alternative splicing factor SF2/ASF has the capacity to exert a negative effect on transcription of the JCV promoter in glial cells through direct association with a specific DNA sequence within the viral enhancer/promoter region. Our results show that down-regulation of SF2/ASF in fetal and adult glial cells increases the level of JCV gene expression and its replication indicating that negative regulation of the JCV promoter by SF2/ASF may control reactivation of JCV replication in brain. Our results establish a new regulatory role for SF2/ASF in controlling gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  1. Growth differentiation factor 15 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and regulates hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Si

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are commonly induced by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We aimed to identify and characterize the involvement of previously screened cytokine GDF15 in HCV pathogenesis. We examined the GDF15 expression after HCV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured JFH-1 HCV was used to determine the GDF15 function on virus propagation. GDF15 overexpression and RNA interference were employed to profile the GDF15-regulated genes, signaling pathways and cell biology phenotypes. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of GDF15 was dramatically increased in HCV-infected hepatoma cells, which maybe a host response to viral proteins or infection-induced cell stress. Patients infected with HCV had an average 15-fold higher blood GDF15 level than that of healthy volunteers. Three HCC individuals in the HCV cohort showed extremely high GDF15 concentrations. Transfection or exogenously supplied GDF15 enhanced HCV propagation, whereas knockdown of endogenous GDF15 resulted in inhibition of virus replication. Overexpressed GDF15 led to Akt activation and the phosphorylation of Akt downstream targeted GSK-3β and Raf. Several HCC-related molecules, such as E-cadherin, β-catenin, Cyclin A2/B1/D1, were up-regulated by GDF15 stimulation in vitro. Overexpression of GDF15 in hepatoma cells resulted in increased DNA synthesis, promoted cell proliferation, and importantly enhanced invasiveness of the cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that an elevated serum GDF15 level is a potential diagnostic marker for viral hepatitis, and GDF15 may contribute to HCV pathogenesis by altering the signaling and growth of host cells.

  2. Adaptation of Borna disease virus to new host species attributed to altered regulation of viral polymerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Andreas; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs

    2007-08-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) can persistently infect the central nervous system of a broad range of mammalian species. Mice are resistant to infections with primary BDV isolates, but certain laboratory strains can be adapted to replicate in mice. We determined the molecular basis of adaptation by studying mutations acquired by a cDNA-derived BDV strain during one brain passage in rats and three passages in mice. The adapted virus propagated efficiently in mouse brains and induced neurological disease. Its genome contained seven point mutations, three of which caused amino acid changes in the L polymerase (L1116R and N1398D) and in the polymerase cofactor P (R66K). Recombinant BDV carrying these mutations either alone or in combination all showed enhanced multiplication speed in Vero cells, indicating improved intrinsic viral polymerase activity rather than adaptation to a mouse-specific factor. Mutations R66K and L1116R, but not N1398D, conferred replication competence of recombinant BDV in mice if introduced individually. Virus propagation in mouse brains was substantially enhanced if both L mutations were present simultaneously, but infection remained mostly nonsymptomatic. Only if all three amino acid substitutions were combined did BDV replicate vigorously and induce early disease in mice. Interestingly, the virulence-enhancing effect of the R66K mutation in P could be attributed to reduced negative regulation of polymerase activity by the viral X protein. Our data demonstrate that BDV replication competence in mice is mediated by the polymerase complex rather than the viral envelope and suggest that altered regulation of viral gene expression can favor adaptation to new host species.

  3. Adenovirus-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation during the late phase of infection enhances viral protein levels and virus progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schümann, Michael; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The Raf/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling cascade enhances tumor cell proliferation in many cases. Here, we show that adenovirus type 5, a small DNA tumor virus used in experimental cancer therapy, strongly induces ERK phosphorylation...... during the late phase of infection. Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK phosphorylation reduced virus recovery by >100-fold. Blocking MEK/ERK signaling affected virus DNA replication and mRNA levels only weakly but strongly reduced the amount of viral proteins, independently of the kinases MNK1 and PKR...

  4. Downregulation of proapoptotic Bim augments IL-2-independent T-cell transformation by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masaya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, immortalizes and transforms primary human T cells in vitro in both an interleukin (IL)-2-dependent and IL-2-independent manner. Expression of the HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax transforms the growth of the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 from being IL-2-dependent to IL-2-independent. Withdrawal of IL-2 from normal activated T cells induces apoptosis, which is mediated through the inducible expression of several proapoptotic proteins, including Bim. In this study, we found that Tax protects IL-2-depleted T cells against Bim-induced apoptosis. Withdrawal of IL-2 from CTLL-2 cells induced a prominent increase in the level of Bim protein in CTLL-2 cells, but not in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells. This inhibition of Bim in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 cells was mediated by two mechanisms: downregulation of Bim mRNA and posttranscriptional reduction of Bim protein. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also inhibited IL-2 depletion-induced expression of Bim, however, this decrease in Bim protein expression was not due to downregulation of Bim mRNA, thus indicating that Bim mRNA downregulation in Tax-transformed CTLL-2 occurs only after long-term expression of Tax. Transient expression of Tax in CTLL-2 cells also induced Erk activation, however, this was not involved in the reduction of Bim protein. Knockdown of Bim expression in CTLL-2 cells augmented Tax-induced IL-2-independent transformation. HTLV-1 infection of human T cells also reduced their levels of Bim protein, and restoring Bim expression in HTLV-1-infected cells reduced their proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that Tax-induced downregulation of Bim in HTLV-1-infected T cells promotes their IL-2-independent growth, thereby supporting the persistence of HTLV-1 infection in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx Protein Activates AKT To Simultaneously Regulate HBV Replication and Hepatocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx is a multifunctional protein encoded by the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication and is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBx can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in some cell lines; however, whether HBx regulates PI3K/AKT signaling in normal hepatocytes has not been evaluated. In studies described here, we assessed HBx activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in an ex vivo model of cultured primary hepatocytes and determined how this HBx activity affects HBV replication. We report that HBx activates AKT in primary hepatocytes and that the activation of AKT decreases HBV replication and HBV mRNA and core protein levels. We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α to HBx-regulated AKT modulation of HBV transcription and replication. Although we and others have shown that HBx stimulates and is likely required for HBV replication, we now report that HBx also activates signals that can diminish the overall level of HBV replication. While this may seem counterintuitive, we show that an important effect of HBx activation of AKT is inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, our studies suggest that HBx balances HBV replication and cell survival by stimulating signaling pathways that enhance hepatocyte survival at the expense of higher levels of HBV replication. IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. HBx stimulates, and may be essential for, HBV replication. We show that HBx activates AKT in hepatocytes to reduce HBV replication. While this seems contradictory to an

  6. Transforming Growth Factor β/Activin Signaling Functions as a Sugar-Sensing Feedback Loop to Regulate Digestive Enzyme Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Alfred Chng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisms need to assess their nutritional state and adapt their digestive capacity to the demands for various nutrients. Modulation of digestive enzyme production represents a rational step to regulate nutriment uptake. However, the role of digestion in nutrient homeostasis has been largely neglected. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism underlying glucose repression of digestive enzymes in the adult Drosophila midgut. We demonstrate that glucose represses the expression of many carbohydrases and lipases. Our data reveal that the consumption of nutritious sugars stimulates the secretion of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β ligand, Dawdle, from the fat body. Dawdle then acts via circulation to activate TGF-β/Activin signaling in the midgut, culminating in the repression of digestive enzymes that are highly expressed during starvation. Thus, our study not only identifies a mechanism that couples sugar sensing with digestive enzyme expression but points to an important role of TGF-β/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism.

  7. A Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster Model To Study Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Oncoprotein Tax-1-Driven Transformation In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Margret; Kambris, Zakaria; Hamadeh, Lama; Grabbe, Caroline; Journo, Chloé; Mahieux, Renaud; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is an aggressive malignancy. HTLV-2 is genetically related to HTLV-1 but does not cause any malignant disease. HTLV-1 Tax transactivator (Tax-1) contributes to leukemogenesis via NF-κB. We describe transgenic Drosophila models expressing Tax in the compound eye and plasmatocytes. We demonstrate that Tax-1 but not Tax-2 induces ommatidial perturbation and increased plasmatocyte proliferation and that the eye phenotype is dependent on Kenny (IKKγ/NEMO), thus validating this new in vivo model. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Structure and transcription of the cellular homolog (c-myb) of the avian myeloblastosis virus transforming gene (v-myb).

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, T J; Bishop, J M

    1983-01-01

    We isolated and characterized molecular clones containing the chicken cellular homolog (c-myb) of the avian myeloblastosis virus oncogene (v-myb). Mapping of the c-myb clones using restriction endonucleases and hybridization to radiolabeled v-myb probes revealed that the sequences homologous to v-myb are contained within four separate regions, which have since been shown by nucleotide sequencing (Klempnauer et al., Cell 31:453-463, 1982) to carry seven exons. Analysis of c-myb transcripts sho...

  9. Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) regulates hypersensitive response and defense response upon Tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2012-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vector carrying full-length, untranslatable versions of the genes p25, p20 and p23 from CTV strain T36 to silence the expression of these critical genes in CTV-infected cells. Three transgenic lines presented complete resistance to viral infection, with all their propagations remaining symptomless and virus-free after graft inoculation with CTV-T36, either in the nontransgenic rootstock or in the transgenic scion. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs was necessary but not sufficient for CTV resistance. Inoculation with a divergent CTV strain led to partially breaking the resistance, thus showing the role of sequence identity in the underlying mechanism. Our results are a step forward to developing transgenic resistance to CTV and also show that targeting simultaneously by RNA interference (RNAi) the three viral silencing suppressors appears critical for this purpose, although the involvement of concurrent RNAi mechanisms cannot be excluded. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Differences in targeting and secretion of cathepsins B and L by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts and Moloney murine sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, C; Gong, Q M; Frankfater, A; Bajkowski, A S

    1990-08-15

    BALB/3T3 fibroblasts (3T3) were observed to secrete latent, pepsin-activatable forms of cathepsin B and cathepsin L as well as an active form of beta-glucuronidase when cultured in the absence of serum. The secretion of these proteins was stimulated by the cation ionophore monensin: cathepsin B, 4.3-fold; cathepsin L, 7.2-fold; and beta-glucuronidase, 3.1-fold. These increases were accompanied by a 50% decline in cellular levels of the active forms of these enzymes and by the cellular accumulation of latent forms of cathepsin B and cathepsin L. Latent forms of beta-glucuronidase were not detected. In contrast, Moloney murine sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 fibroblasts (MMSV) secreted greatly increased amounts of latent cathepsin B (17-fold) and latent cathepsin L (27-fold), and moderately increased amounts of active beta-glucuronidase (2-fold) in a manner which was not further increased by monensin. The increased monensin-insensitive secretion of these lysosomal enzymes by MMSV cells may be due to a transformation-induced decrease in mannose 6-phosphate receptors. Thus, 3T3 cells bound the neoglycoconjugate pentamannosyl 6-phosphate-bovine serum albumin at 4 degrees C in a pentamannosyl 6 phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate-inhibitable manner, whereas MMSV cells showed no measurable cell surface mannose 6-phosphate receptor binding activity.

  12. Investigating AAK1-and GAK-Regulated Virus-Host Interactions Uncovers Broad-Spectrum Antivirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    any virus. To test the hypothesis that HCV particles 157 shuttle with clathrin APs intracellularly, we utilized live cell imaging . The co-trafficking...activity, on HCV particle 179 trafficking by live cell imaging . Treatment of HCV-infected cells with sunitinib and erlotinib 180 reduced motility of...against emerging viral infections. 402 403 Using advanced live cell imaging , we provide the first direct evidence that viral particles co-404

  13. Induction of cyclins E and A in response to mitogen removal: a basic alteration associated with the arrest of differentiation of C2 myoblasts transformed by simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Baron, L; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1997-03-01

    We previously showed that C2 myoblasts transformed by simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) stop the myogenic process after the induction of myogenin and of high Rb levels; the induced Rb, however, becomes notably phosphorylated. We have analyzed the protein levels and activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) in untransformed C2 cells and in transformants of either SVLT or the cytoplasmic mutant NKT1 (which permits differentiation) upon a shift from growth medium (GM) to mitogen-poor differentiation medium (DM). After the shift, cdk4 levels remained constant and cdk6 levels decreased in all cell types; cdk2 minimally increased only in SVLT cells. Cyclin D1 was downregulated in DM in all cell types, and cyclin D3 was upregulated (albeit less strongly in SVLT cells than in the others). In contrast, a dramatic difference between SVLT cells and the other cells was observed for cyclins E and A, which essentially disappeared (as protein and RNA) in normal C2 and NKT1 cells upon the shift from GM to DM, whereas they increased in SVLT cells. Concurrently, cdk2 activity ceased in C2 and NKT1 cells in DM, whereas it persisted at 20% of the GM level in SVLT cells. cdk4 activity was detectable in all cells only in GM. Cyclin E and A induction thus appeared to sustain enough Rb phosphorylation to interfere with tissue-specific expression, with cdk activity not high enough to activate cyclin self-regulation. In DM, cdk2 complexed to D3 was underphosphorylated in all cells, and SVLT allowed strong inductions of p21 and p27 without affecting their complexes with cdks.

  14. Pharmacological manipulation of the akt signaling pathway regulates myxoma virus replication and tropism in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2010-04-01

    Viruses have evolved an assortment of mechanisms for regulating the Akt signaling pathway to establish a cellular environment more favorable for viral replication. Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a rabbit-specific poxvirus that encodes many immunomodulatory factors, including an ankyrin repeat-containing host range protein termed M-T5 that functions to regulate tropism of MYXV for rabbit lymphocytes and certain human cancer cells. MYXV permissiveness in these human cancer cells is dependent upon the direct interaction between M-T5 and Akt, which has been shown to induce the kinase activity of Akt. In this study, an array of compounds that selectively manipulate Akt signaling was screened and we show that only a subset of Akt inhibitors significantly decreased the ability of MYXV to replicate in previously permissive human cancer cells. Furthermore, reduced viral replication efficiency was correlated with lower levels of phosphorylated Akt. In contrast, the PP2A-specific phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid promoted increased Akt kinase activation and rescued MYXV replication in human cancer cells that did not previously support viral replication. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt at residue Thr308 was shown to dictate the physical interaction between Akt and M-T5, which then leads to phosphorylation of Ser473 and permits productive MYXV replication in these human cancer cells. The results of this study further characterize the mechanism by which M-T5 exploits the Akt signaling cascade and affirms this interaction as a major tropism determinant that regulates the replication efficiency of MYXV in human cancer cells.

  15. Pharmacological Manipulation of the Akt Signaling Pathway Regulates Myxoma Virus Replication and Tropism in Human Cancer Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Steven J.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have evolved an assortment of mechanisms for regulating the Akt signaling pathway to establish a cellular environment more favorable for viral replication. Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a rabbit-specific poxvirus that encodes many immunomodulatory factors, including an ankyrin repeat-containing host range protein termed M-T5 that functions to regulate tropism of MYXV for rabbit lymphocytes and certain human cancer cells. MYXV permissiveness in these human cancer cells is dependent upon the direct interaction between M-T5 and Akt, which has been shown to induce the kinase activity of Akt. In this study, an array of compounds that selectively manipulate Akt signaling was screened and we show that only a subset of Akt inhibitors significantly decreased the ability of MYXV to replicate in previously permissive human cancer cells. Furthermore, reduced viral replication efficiency was correlated with lower levels of phosphorylated Akt. In contrast, the PP2A-specific phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid promoted increased Akt kinase activation and rescued MYXV replication in human cancer cells that did not previously support viral replication. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt at residue Thr308 was shown to dictate the physical interaction between Akt and M-T5, which then leads to phosphorylation of Ser473 and permits productive MYXV replication in these human cancer cells. The results of this study further characterize the mechanism by which M-T5 exploits the Akt signaling cascade and affirms this interaction as a major tropism determinant that regulates the replication efficiency of MYXV in human cancer cells. PMID:20106927

  16. Mechanisms and roles by which IRF-3 mediates the regulation of ORMDL3 transcription in respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hua; Shu, Jin; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Zhuang, Li-Li; Yang, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Hui-Weng; Wang, Lu-Lu; Li, Lin; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Jin, Rui; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infancy, which is a major risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma. Orosomucoid 1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) has been reported to associate with virus-triggered recurrent wheezing and asthma in children. However, little is known about how ORMDL3 is involved into RSV infection. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of ORMDL3 is significantly increased in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis compared with uninfected controls, also increased in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts following RSV infection in vitro. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of RSV-induced ORMDL3 expression, we performed in silico analysis of the binding sites of several transcription factors in the ORMDL3 promoter. The proximal interferon-regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) binding site positively regulated ORMDL3 transcription following exposure to RSV, as determined through mutational analysis. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments targeting IRF-3 showed that it regulates the expression of ORMDL3 following RSV exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that IRF-3 binds directly to the promoter of the ORMDL3 gene. Furthermore, we confirmed that expression of IRF-3 is significantly increased and shows a strong linear correlation with increased ORMDL3 in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis. Our results indicate that IRF-3 is an important regulator of ORMDL3 induction following RSV infection by binding directly to the promoter of ORMDL3, which may be implicated in the inflammatory and immune reactions involved in bronchiolitis and wheezing diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Kim-Hien T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Methods Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Results Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusion(s The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas

  18. Transforming Growth Factor-β Promotes Liver Tumorigenesis in Mice via Up-regulation of Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyuk; Ju, Hye-Lim; Chung, Sook In; Cho, Kyung Joo; Eun, Jung Woo; Nam, Suk Woo; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Calvisi, Diego F; Ro, Simon Weonsang

    2017-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) suppresses early stages of tumorigenesis, but also contributes to migration and metastasis of cancer cells. A large number of human tumors contain mutations that inactivate its receptors, or downstream proteins such as Smad transcription factors, indicating that the TGF-β signaling pathway prevents tumor growth. We investigated the effects of TGF-β inhibition on liver tumorigenesis in mice. C57BL/6 mice received hydrodynamic tail-vein injections of transposons encoding HRAS G12V and a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to down-regulate p53, or those encoding HRAS G12V and MYC, or those encoding HRAS G12V and TAZ S89A , to induce liver tumor formation; mice were also given injections of transposons encoding SMAD7 or shRNA against SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD4, or SNAI1 (Snail), with or without ectopic expression of Snail. Survival times were compared, and livers were weighted and examined for tumors. Liver tumor tissues were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, RNA sequencing, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. We analyzed gene expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas. A cell proliferation assay was performed using human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and Huh7) stably expressing Snail or shRNA against Snail. TGF-β inhibition via overexpression of SMAD7 (or knockdown of SMAD2, SMAD3, or SMAD4) consistently reduced formation and growth of liver tumors in mice that expressed activated RAS plus shRNA against p53, or in mice that expressed activated RAS and TAZ. TGF-β signaling activated transcription of the Snail gene in liver tumors induced by HRAS G12V and shRNA against p53, and by activated RAS and TAZ. Knockdown of Snail reduced liver tumor formation in both tumor models. Ectopic expression of Snail restored liver tumorigenesis suppressed by disruption of TGF-β signaling. In human hepatocellular carcinoma, Snail expression correlated with TGF-β activation. Ectopic

  19. Crosstalk between nuclear factor I-C and transforming growth factor-β1 signaling regulates odontoblast differentiation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seol Lee

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 signaling plays a key role in vertebrate development, homeostasis, and disease. Nuclear factor I-C (NFI-C has been implicated in TGF-β1 signaling, extracellular matrix gene transcription, and tooth root development. However, the functional relationship between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling remains uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular interactions between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling in mouse odontoblasts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western analysis demonstrated that NFI-C expression levels were inversely proportional to levels of TGF-β1 signaling molecules during in vitro odontoblast differentiation. Western blot and immunofluorescence results showed that NFI-C was significantly degraded after TGF-β1 addition in odontoblasts, and the formation of the Smad3 complex was essential for NFI-C degradation. Additionally, ubiquitination assay results showed that Smurf1 and Smurf2 induced NFI-C degradation and polyubiquitination in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Both kinase and in vitro binding assays revealed that the interaction between NFI-C and Smurf1/Smurf2 requires the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by TGF-β1. Moreover, degradation of NFI-C induced by TGF-β1 occurred generally in cell types other than odontoblasts in normal human breast epithelial cells. In contrast, NFI-C induced dephosphorylation of p-Smad2/3. These results show that crosstalk between NFI-C and TGF-β1 signaling regulates cell differentiation and homeostatic processes in odontoblasts, which might constitute a common cellular mechanism.

  20. HACE1 Negatively Regulates Virus-Triggered Type I IFN Signaling by Impeding the Formation of the MAVS-TRAF3 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Ting Mao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During virus infection, the cascade signaling pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines is controlled at multiple levels to avoid detrimental overreaction. HACE1 has been characterized as an important tumor suppressor. Here, we identified HACE1 as an important negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling. Overexpression of HACE1 inhibited Sendai virus- or poly (I:C-induced signaling and resulted in reduced IFNB1 production and enhanced virus replication. Knockdown of HACE1 expression exhibited the opposite effects. Ubiquitin E3 ligase activity of the dead mutant HACE1/C876A had a comparable inhibitory function as WT HACE1, suggesting that the suppressive function of HACE1 on virus-induced signaling is independent of its E3 ligase activity. Further study indicated that HACE1 acted downstream of MAVS and upstream of TBK1. Mechanistic studies showed that HACE1 exerts its inhibitory role on virus-induced signaling by disrupting the MAVS-TRAF3 complex. Therefore, we uncovered a novel function of HACE1 in innate immunity regulation.

  1. Differential RNAi responses of Nicotiana benthamiana individuals transformed with a hairpin-inducing construct during Plum pox virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Barba, Paola; Rubio, Julia; Sánchez, Evelyn; Carvajal, Denisse; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; DelÍ Orto, Paola; Decroocq, Veronique; Prieto, Humberto

    2014-10-01

    Gene silencing and large-scale small RNA analysis can be used to develop RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategies for Plum pox virus (PPV), a high impact disease of Prunus spp. In this study, a pPPViRNA hairpin-inducing vector harboring two silencing motif-rich regions of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene was evaluated in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) plants. Wild-type NB plants infected with a chimeric PPV virus (PPV::GFP) exhibited affected leaves with mosaic chlorosis congruent to GFP fluorescence at 21 day post-inoculation; transgenic lines depicted a range of phenotypes from fully resistant to susceptible. ELISA values and GFP fluorescence intensities were used to select transgenic-resistant (TG-R) and transgenic-susceptible (TG-S) lines for further characterization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by large-scale small RNA sequencing. In infected TG-S and untransformed (WT) plants, the observed siRNAs were nearly exclusively 21- and 22-nt siRNAs that targeted the whole PPV::GFP genome; 24-nt siRNAs were absent in these individuals. Challenged TG-R plants accumulated a full set of 21- to 24-nt siRNAs that were primarily associated with the selected motif-rich regions, indicating that a trans-acting siRNAs process prevented viral multiplication. BLAST analysis identified 13 common siRNA clusters targeting the CP gene. 21-nt siRNA sequences were associated with the 22-nt siRNAs and the scarce 23- and 24-nt molecules in TG-S plants and with most of the observed 22-, 23-, and 24-nt siRNAs in TG-R individuals. These results validate the use of a multi-hot spot silencing vector against PPV and elucidate the molecules by which hairpin-inducing vectors initiate RNAi in vivo.

  2. Heat shock protein 70 regulates degradation of the mumps virus phosphoprotein via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Kita, Shunsuke; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Aoki, Natsuko; Mori, Yoshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Takeda, Makoto; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2015-03-01

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection induces formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs). Growing evidence indicates that IBs are the sites where RNA viruses synthesize their viral RNA. However, in the case of MuV infection, little is known about the viral and cellular compositions and biological functions of the IBs. In this study, pulldown purification and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp72) was a binding partner of MuV phosphoprotein (P protein), which was an essential component of the IB formation. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses revealed that Hsp72 was colocalized with the P protein in the IBs, and its expression was increased during MuV infection. Knockdown of Hsp72 using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) had little, if any, effect on viral propagation in cultured cells. Knockdown of Hsp72 caused accumulation of ubiquitinated P protein and delayed P protein degradation. These results show that Hsp72 is recruited to IBs and regulates the degradation of MuV P protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) is a common characteristic feature in mononegavirus infections. IBs are considered to be the sites of viral RNA replication and transcription. However, there have been few studies focused on host factors recruited to the IBs and their biological functions. Here, we identified stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp72) as the first cellular partner of mumps virus (MuV) phosphoprotein (P protein), which is an essential component of the IBs and is involved in viral RNA replication/transcription. We found that the Hsp72 mobilized to the IBs promoted degradation of the MuV P protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our data provide new insight into the role played by IBs in mononegavirus infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Cytopathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus is regulated by the PSAP motif of M protein in a species-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takashi; Liu, Yuliang; Drolet, Barbara S; Carnero, Elena; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Harty, Ronald N

    2012-09-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an important vector-borne pathogen of bovine and equine species, causing a reportable vesicular disease. The matrix (M) protein of VSV is multifunctional and plays a key role in cytopathogenesis, apoptosis, host protein shut-off, and virion assembly/budding. Our previous findings indicated that mutations of residues flanking the (37)PSAP(40) motif within the M protein resulted in VSV recombinants having attenuated phenotypes in mice. In this report, we characterize the phenotype of VSV recombinant PS > A4 (which harbors four alanines (AAAA) in place of the PSAP motif without disruption of flanking residues) in both mice, and in Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito and Culicoides sonorensis KC cell lines. The PS > A4 recombinant displayed an attenuated phenotype in infected mice as judged by weight loss, mortality, and viral titers measured from lung and brain samples of infected animals. However, unexpectedly, the PS > A4 recombinant displayed a robust cytopathic phenotype in insect C6/36 cells compared to that observed with control viruses. Notably, titers of recombinant PS > A4 were approximately 10-fold greater than those of control viruses in infected C6/36 cells and in KC cells from Culicoides sonorensis, a known VSV vector species. In addition, recombinant PS > A4 induced a 25-fold increase in the level of C3 caspase activity in infected C6/36 cells. These findings indicate that the PSAP motif plays a direct role in regulating cytopathogenicity in a species-dependent manner, and suggest that the intact PSAP motif may be important for maintaining persistence of VSV in an insect host.

  4. Specific regulation of the chemokine response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus at the entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Jana; Garcia, Jessica; Ordas, M Camino; Casanova, Isabel; Gonzalez, Antonia; Villena, Alberto; Coll, Julio; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-05-01

    The fin bases constitute the main portal of rhabdovirus entry into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and replication in this first site strongly conditions the outcome of the infection. In this context, we studied the chemokine response elicited in this area in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus. Among all the rainbow trout chemokine genes studied, only the transcription levels of CK10 and CK12 were significantly upregulated in response to VHSV. As the virus had previously been shown to elicit a much stronger chemokine response in internal organs, we compared the effect of VHSV on the gills, another mucosal site which does not constitute the main site of viral entry or rhabdoviral replication. In this case, a significantly stronger chemokine response was triggered, with CK1, CK3, CK9, and CK11 being upregulated in response to VHSV and CK10 and CK12 being down-modulated by the virus. We then conducted further experiments to understand how these different chemokine responses of mucosal tissues could correlate with their capacity to support VHSV replication. No viral replication was detected in the gills, while at the fin bases, only the skin and the muscle were actively supporting viral replication. Within the skin, viral replication took place in the dermis, while viral replication was blocked within epidermal cells at some point before protein translation. The different susceptibilities of the different skin layers to VHSV correlated with the effect that VHSV has on their capacity to secrete chemotactic factors. Altogether, these results suggest a VHSV interference mechanism on the early chemokine response at its active replication sites within mucosal tissues, a possible key process that may facilitate viral entry.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus lytic reactivation regulation and its pathogenic role in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongde; Liu, Sufang; Hu, Jianmin; Luo, Xiangjian; Li, Namei; M.Bode, Ann; Cao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with several types of human cancers. In the host, EBV can establish two alternative modes of life cycle, known as latent or lytic and the switch from latency to the lytic cycle is known as EBV reactivation. Although EBV in cancer cells is found mostly in latency, a small number of lytically-infected cells promote carcinogenesis through the release of growth factors and oncogenic cytokines. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which EBV reactivation is controlled by cellular and viral factors, and discusses how EBV lytic infection contributes to human malignancies. PMID:27877083

  6. Ebola Virus VP35 Interaction with Dynein LC8 Regulates Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthra, Priya; Jordan, David S.; Leung, Daisy W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.; Lyles, D. S.

    2015-03-04

    Ebola virus VP35 inhibits alpha/beta interferon production and functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Previously, the 8-kDa cytoplasmic dynein light chain (LC8) was demonstrated to interact with VP35, but the functional consequences were unclear. Here we demonstrate that the interaction is direct and of high affinity and that binding stabilizes the VP35 N-terminal oligomerization domain and enhances viral RNA synthesis. Mutational analysis demonstrates that VP35 interaction is required for the functional effects of LC8.

  7. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...... formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. We selected and characterized the gene encoding stearoyl coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1). siRNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of SCD1 abrogated HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon and Jc1-infected cells, while...... exogenous supplementation of either oleate or palmitoleate, products of SCD1 activity, resurrected HCV replication in SCD1 knockdown cells. SCD1 was coimmunoprecipitated with HCV nonstructural proteins and colocalized with both double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and HCV nonstructural proteins, indicating that SCD1...

  8. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Regulation, Functions, and Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Qiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. Hepatitis B virus (HBV and its X gene-encoded protein (HBx play important roles in the progression of HCC. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs cannot encode proteins, growing evidence indicates that they play essential roles in HCC progression, and contribute to cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, autophagy, and apoptosis by targeting a large number of pivotal protein-coding genes, miRNAs, and signaling pathways. In this review, we briefly outline recent findings of differentially expressed lncRNAs in HBV-related HCC, with particular focus on several key lncRNAs, and discuss their regulation by HBV/HBx, their functions, and their underlying molecular mechanisms in the progression of HCC.

  9. Role of transcription regulatory sequence in regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbao; Meng, Han; Gao, Yujin; Gao, Hui; Guo, Kangkang; Almazan, Fernando; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhang, Yanming; Abrahamyan, Levon

    2017-08-10

    In order to gain insight into the role of the transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, under the control of the different structural gene TRSs, was inserted between the N gene and 3'-UTR of the PRRSV genome and EGFP expression was analyzed for each TRS. TRSs of all the studied structural genes of PRRSV positively modulated EGFP expression at different levels. Among the TRSs analyzed, those of GP2, GP5, M, and N genes highly enhanced EGFP expression without altering replication of PRRSV. These data indicated that structural gene TRSs could be an extremely useful tool for foreign gene expression using PRRSV as a vector.

  10. Inactivated Sendai virus suppresses murine melanoma growth by inducing host immune responses and down-regulating β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Yuan, Wei Feng; Zhai, Guo Qin; Zhu, Shan Yuan; Xue, Zheng Feng; Zhu, Hong Fei; Xu, Xiang Ming

    2012-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate the anti-tumor mechanism of inactivated Sendai virus (Hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope, HVJ-E) for murine melanoma (B16F10). The murine dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with HVJ-E, and then the cytokines secreted from DCs and costimulation-related molecules on DCs were measured. Meanwhile, the expression of β-catenin in HVJ-E treated murine melanoma cells was detected. In addition, HVJ-E was intratumorally injected into the melanoma on C57BL/6 mice, and the immune cells, CTL response and tumor volume were analyzed. HVJ-E injected into B16F10 melanoma obviously inhibited the growth of the tumor and prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. Profiles of cytokines secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) after HVJ-E stimulation showed that the number of cytokines released was significantly higher than that elicited by PBS (1PHVJ-E treatment. Meanwhile, real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that HVJ-E induced a remarkable infiltration of CD11c positive cells, chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) molecules, interleukin-2 (IL-2) molecule, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into HVJ-E injected tumors. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of β-catenin in the HVJ-E injected tumors was also down-regulated. In addition, B16F10-specific CTLs were induced significantly after HVJ-E was injected into the tumor-bearing mice. This is the first report to show the effective inhibition of melanoma tumors by HVJ-E alone and the mechanism through which it induces antitumor immune responses and regulates important signal pathways for melanoma invasion. Therefore, HVJ-E shows its prospect as a novel therapeutic for melanoma therapy. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Conserved Herpes Virus Fusion Regulator Complex gH–gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, T.; Cairns, T; Atanasiu, D; Cohen, G; Eisenberg, R; Heldwein, E

    2010-01-01

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  12. High Content Image Based Analysis Identifies Cell Cycle Inhibitors as Regulators of Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Bavari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses modulate a number of host biological responses including the cell cycle to favor their replication. In this study, we developed a high-content imaging (HCI assay to measure DNA content and identify different phases of the cell cycle. We then investigated the potential effects of cell cycle arrest on Ebola virus (EBOV infection. Cells arrested in G1 phase by serum starvation or G1/S phase using aphidicolin or G2/M phase using nocodazole showed much reduced EBOV infection compared to the untreated control. Release of cells from serum starvation or aphidicolin block resulted in a time-dependent increase in the percentage of EBOV infected cells. The effect of EBOV infection on cell cycle progression was found to be cell-type dependent. Infection of asynchronous MCF-10A cells with EBOV resulted in a reduced number of cells in G2/M phase with concomitant increase of cells in G1 phase. However, these effects were not observed in HeLa or A549 cells. Together, our studies suggest that EBOV requires actively proliferating cells for efficient replication. Furthermore, multiplexing of HCI based assays to detect viral infection, cell cycle status and other phenotypic changes in a single cell population will provide useful information during screening campaigns using siRNA and small molecule therapeutics.

  13. Crystal structure of the conserved herpes virus fusion regulator complex gH-gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, Tirumala K; Cairns, Tina M; Atanasiu, Doina; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Heldwein, Ekaterina E [UPENN; (Tufts-MED)

    2010-09-13

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH-gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH-gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH-gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  14. Identification of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2-dependent signal amplification cascade that regulates c-Myc levels in ras transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, D.P.; Egebjerg, C.; Andersen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    that is critical for ras transformation in murine embryonic fibroblasts. This cascade is coordinated by ERK and JNK2 MAPKs, whose Ras-mediated activation leads to the enhanced levels of three oncogenic transcription factors, namely, c-Myc, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and ATF3, all of which...... are essential for ras transformation. Previous studies show that ERK-mediated serine 62 phosphorylation protects c-Myc from proteasomal degradation. ERK is, however, not alone sufficient to stabilize c-Myc but requires the cooperation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an oncogene......Ras is one of the most frequently activated oncogenes in cancer. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for ras transformation: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2). Here we present a downstream signal amplification cascade...

  15. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  16. Down-regulation of MHC Class I by the Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) UL49.5 Gene Product Mildly Affects Virulence in a Haplotype-specific Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek’s disease virus (MDV), which is characterized by massive visceral tumors, immune suppression, neurologic syndromes, and peracute deaths. It has been reported that MDV down-regulates surface expre...

  17. Differential cellular protein expression in continuous porcine alveolar macrophages regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Mingeun; Lee, Changhee

    2010-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. PRRSV infects preferentially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and subsequently utilizes the host cell biosynthetic machinery for its own replication. To date, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression of PAMs upon PRRSV infection. However, very little information exists about differential cellular protein expression of the natural target cells regulated by each viral protein. This study was therefore designed to examine the dynamics of host protein expression of continuous PAM cells by the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein that is the most abundant and multifunctional viral component. We first established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV N protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of N-expressing PAM (PAM-pCD163-N) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 23 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-pCD163-N cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 15 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into the functions involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, metabolism, inflammation response, stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, protein folding and synthesis, and transportation. Notably, heat shock 27kDa protein (HSP27) was found to be up-regulated in PAM-pCD163-N cells. The proteomics data will provide insights into the specific

  18. Differential Regulation of Interferon Responses by Ebola and Marburg Virus VP35 Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Megan R.; Liu, Gai; Mire, Chad E.; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Luthra, Priya; Yen, Benjamin; Shabman, Reed S.; Leung, Daisy W.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.

    2016-02-11

    Suppression of innate immune responses during filoviral infection contributes to disease severity. Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses each encode a VP35 protein that suppresses RIG-I-like receptor signaling and interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) production by several mechanisms, including direct binding to double stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here, we demonstrate that in cell culture, MARV infection results in a greater upregulation of IFN responses as compared to EBOV infection. This correlates with differences in the efficiencies by which EBOV and MARV VP35s antagonize RIG-I signaling. Furthermore, structural and biochemical studies suggest that differential recognition of RNA elements by the respective VP35 C-terminal IFN inhibitory domain (IID) rather than affinity for RNA by the respective VP35s is critical for this observation. Our studies reveal functional differences in EBOV versus MARV VP35 RNA binding that result in unexpected differences in the host response to deadly viral pathogens.

  19. Structural and Functional Insight into Canarypox Virus CNP058 Mediated Regulation of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ishtiaq Anasir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death or apoptosis is an important component of host defense systems against viral infection. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 proteins family is the main arbiter of mitochondrially mediated apoptosis, and viruses have evolved sequence and structural mimics of Bcl-2 to subvert premature host cell apoptosis in response to viral infection. The sequencing of the canarypox virus genome identified a putative pro-survival Bcl-2 protein, CNP058. However, a role in apoptosis inhibition for CNP058 has not been identified to date. Here, we report that CNP058 is able to bind several host cell pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, including Bak and Bax, as well as several BH3 only-proteins including Bim, Bid, Bmf, Noxa, Puma, and Hrk with high to moderate affinities. We then defined the structural basis for CNP058 binding to pro-death Bcl-2 proteins by determining the crystal structure of CNP058 bound to Bim BH3. CNP058 adopts the conserved Bcl-2 like fold observed in cellular pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, and utilizes the canonical ligand binding groove to bind Bim BH3. We then demonstrate that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of ultraviolet (UV induced apoptosis in a cell culture model. Our findings suggest that CNP058 is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis that is able to bind to BH3 domain peptides from a broad range of pro-death Bcl-2 proteins, and may play a key role in countering premature host apoptosis.

  20. The human respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein 1 regulates type I and type II interferon pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Marcus L; Headlam, Madeleine J; Patel, Nirav B; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Buchholz, Ursula J; Dave, Keyur A; Norris, Emma L; Wright, Cassandra L; Spann, Kirsten M; Collins, Peter L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial viruses encode a nonstructural protein (NS1) that interferes with type I and III interferon and other antiviral responses. Proteomic studies were conducted on human A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells and type I interferon-deficient Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells) infected with wild-type and NS1-deficient clones of human respiratory syncytial virus to identify other potential pathway and molecular targets of NS1 interference. These analyses included two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and quantitative Western blotting. Surprisingly, NS1 was found to suppress the induction of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression in A549 cells and to a much lesser degree Vero cells in response to infection. Because SOD2 is not directly inducible by type I interferons, it served as a marker to probe the impact of NS1 on signaling of other cytokines known to induce SOD2 expression and/or indirect effects of type I interferon signaling. Deductive analysis of results obtained from cell infection and cytokine stimulation studies indicated that interferon-γ signaling was a potential target of NS1, possibly as a result of modulation of STAT1 levels. However, this was not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the impact of NS1 on SOD2 induction in A549 cells. Vero cell infection experiments indicated that NS1 targeted a component of the type I interferon response that does not directly induce SOD2 expression but is required to induce another initiator of SOD2 expression. STAT2 was ruled out as a target of NS1 interference using quantitative Western blot analysis of infected A549 cells, but data were obtained to indicate that STAT1 was one of a number of potential targets of NS1. A label-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative approach is proposed as a means of more definitive identification of NS1 targets.

  1. Tight regulation of the Epstein-Barr virus setpoint: interindividual differences in Epstein-Barr virus DNA load are conserved after HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piriou, Erwan; van Dort, Karel; Otto, Sigrid; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Healthy individuals carry a constant number of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in the peripheral blood over time. Here, we show that interindividual differences in Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels are maintained after HIV infection, providing evidence for the existence of an individual Epstein-Barr

  2. Role of the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) pathway in regulation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Sho; Kaneyama, Tomoki; Tsugane, Sayaka; Takeichi, Naoya; Yanagisawa, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Motoki; Yagita, Hideo; Kim, Byung S; Koh, Chang-Sung

    2014-09-15

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) belongs to the CD28 family of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules and regulates adaptive immunity. This molecule induces the development of regulatory T cells, T cell tolerance, or apoptosis. We examined the role of PD-1 pathway in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) mice. Up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were induced by TMEV infection in vitro. Furthermore, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression was increased in the spinal cords of the TMEV-infected mice in vivo. Treatment with a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against PD-1, especially during the effector phase, resulted in significant deterioration of the TMEV-IDD both clinically and histologically. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a dramatically increase of CD4(+) T cells producing Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α in the spinal cord of anti-PD-1 mAb-treated mice. These results indicate that the PD-1 pathway plays a pivotal regulatory role in the development of TMEV-IDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Cloning of y3 gene encoding a tobacco mosaic virus inhibitor from Coprinus comatus and transformation to Nicotiana tabacum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueren; He, Tao; Zhang, Gaina; Hao, Jianguo; Jia, Jingfen

    2010-02-01

    The protein Y3 was a TMV inhibitor which was encoded by y3 gene. The aim of this work was to clone the full length of y3 gene from Coprinus comatus and to reveal its inhibitory function to TMV in in vivo conditions. We amplified the unknown 5'- terminal cDNA sequence of y3 gene with 5'- Full RACE Core Set (TaKaRa), obtained the full length of this gene by RT-PCR, constructed the expression plasmid pCAMBIA1301-y3 via inserting gene y3 sequence, CaMV 35 S promoter, and NOS terminator at MCS and transformed it into Nicotiana tabacum via agrobacterium-mediation. The full length of y3 gene was 534 bps including one ORF encoding 130 amino acid residues (GenBank Accession No. GQ859168; EMBL FN546262). The cDNA sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity (94%) to the published fragment of y3 gene sequence. Northern blot analysis proved the transcription of y3 gene in transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic plants inoculated with TMV expressed the inhibitory activity to TMV. We cloned the full length of y3 gene and obtained transgenic tobacco plants. The expression of y3 gene in transgenic plants improved the inhibitory activity to TMV. The cloning and expression analysis of y3 gene might provide background information for future studying of y3 gene.

  4. Adeno-associated virus transformation into the normal miniature pig and the normal guinea pigs cochlea via scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xunbei; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Weiwei; Lin, Chang; Yang, Shiming

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the expression of the miniature pig cochlea after AAV1 transfect into the cochlea via round window membrane (RWM). Twenty miniature pigs are equally divided into four experimental groups. Twelve miniature pigs are equally divided into four control groups. Each pig was transfected with the AAV1 in the experimental group via RWM and each pig was transduced with the artificial perilymph in the control group. The expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was observed at 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. Likewise, AAV1 was delivered into the guinea pigs cochleas using the same method, and the results were compared with that of the miniature pigs. The expression was mainly in the inner hair cells of the miniature pig. The expression of GFP began to appear at 2 weeks, reached the peak at 3 weeks. It also expressed in Hensen's cells, inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, spiral limbus, and spiral ligament. In the meanwhile, AAV1 was delivered into guinea pig cochlea via the same method, and AAV1 was also expressed in the inner hair cells. But the expression peaked at 2 weeks, and the efficiency of the inner hair cell transfection was higher than that of the pig. AAV1 can be transformed into miniature pig cochlea via scala tympani by the RWM method efficiently.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection.

  6. Ascorbic Acid Kills Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Positive Burkitt Lymphoma Cells and EBV Transformed B-Cells in Vitro, but not in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber N.; Espey, Michael G.; Chavez, Mayra; Tu, Hongbin; Levine, Mark; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has been shown to kill various cancer cell lines at pharmacologic concentrations. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells were more susceptible to ascorbic acid-induced cell killing than EBV-negative BL cells or EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Ascorbic acid did not induce apoptosis in any of the tested cells but did induce the production of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Previously, we showed that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induces cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. We found that ascorbic acid is strongly antagonistic for ascorbic acid-induced cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. Finally, ascorbic acid did not prolong survival of severe combined immunodefiency mice inoculated with LCLs either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Thus, while ascorbic acid was highly effective at killing EBV-positive BL cells and LCLs in vitro, it antagonized cell killing by bortezomib and was ineffective in an animal model. PMID:23067008

  7. Role of natural killer cells in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of interferon on Moloney sarcoma virus-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Murasko, D M

    1986-01-01

    The growth of tumors induced by inoculation of cells transformed by Moloney sarcoma virus can be inhibited by in situ administration of interferon (IFN) beginning one day after tumor challenge and continuing for 2 or 3 additional days. Inhibition of tumor growth by IFN was associated with a marked augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell activity, both in the spleen and at the site of tumor challenge, by day 5 after tumor challenge. However, using optimal conditions for IFN treatment, depletion of NK cells by in vivo treatment with anti-asialo GM1 prior to tumor challenge had no significant effect on inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. When the tumor load was greater or when IFN treatment was shorter, treatment with anti-asialo-GM1 partially abrogated the inhibition of tumor growth by IFN. In vitro assays gave no evidence of IFN enhancement of specific T-cell or activated macrophage antitumor effect. These results suggest that under optimal treatment conditions, the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN was independent of augmentation of NK activity, but under suboptimal conditions NK cells play a role in the mechanism of the antitumor effect of IFN.

  8. Transformation of Bloom syndrome T-lymphocytes by cocultivation with a lethally irradiated human T-cell line carrying type C virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Fujishita, M; Miyoshi, I; Kondo, N; Orii, T

    1983-04-01

    The present study describes the establishment of T-cell lines from the peripheral blood of two Bloom syndrome (BS) patients and one healthy female by co-cultivation with a lethally irradiated human T-cell line (MT-2) carrying adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) virus (ATLV). The cell lines from normal and BS subjects exhibited cell surface markers compatible with T-cell origin, and BS T-cell lines retained the original cytogenetic characteristics of the syndrome. Even though phytohemagglutinin-stimulated BS lymphocytes from the two BS patients studied all showed high levels of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), one of the BS T-lines retained the high SCE level in 100% of the cells and the other BS T-line contained two populations, one with high SCE (70%) and the other with normal SCE (30%), at a relatively constant frequency over 6 months. Transformation of normal and BS cells by cocultivation with MT-2, which carries ATLV, did not cause karyotypic changes over 6 months. ATLV infection, chromosome instability, karyotypic abnormality and SCE in BS T-lymphocytes are also discussed.

  9. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Marcondes; Ekkehard Hansen

    2008-01-01

    The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons wit...

  10. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  11. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

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    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  12. The Mechanism of Synchronous Precise Regulation of Two Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Targets by a Viral MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs. However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322 was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate.

  13. Differences in the epigenetic regulation of MT-3 gene expression between parental and Cd+2 or As+3 transformed human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somji, Seema; Garrett, Scott H; Toni, Conrad; Zhou, Xu Dong; Zheng, Yun; Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A

    2011-02-08

    Studies have shown that metallothionein 3 (MT-3) is not expressed in normal urothelium or in the UROtsa cell line, but is expressed in urothelial cancer and in tumors generated from the UROtsa cells that have been transformed by cadmium (Cd+2) or arsenite (As+3).The present study had two major goals. One, to determine if epigenetic modifications control urothelial MT-3 gene expression and if regulation is altered by malignant transformation by Cd+2 or As+3. Two, to determine if MT-3 expression might translate clinically as a biomarker for malignant urothelial cells released into the urine. The histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 induced MT-3 mRNA expression in both parental UROtsa cells and their transformed counterparts. The demethylating agent, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZC) had no effect on MT-3 mRNA expression. ChIP analysis showed that metal-responsive transformation factor-1 (MTF-1) binding to metal response elements (MRE) elements of the MT-3 promoter was restricted in parental UROtsa cells, but MTF-1 binding to the MREs was unrestricted in the transformed cell lines. Histone modifications at acetyl H4, trimethyl H3K4, trimethyl H3K27, and trimethyl H3K9 were compared between the parental and transformed cell lines in the presence and absence of MS-275. The pattern of histone modifications suggested that the MT-3 promoter in the Cd+2 and As+3 transformed cells has gained bivalent chromatin structure, having elements of being "transcriptionally repressed" and "transcription ready", when compared to parental cells. An analysis of MT-3 staining in urinary cytologies showed that a subset of both active and non-active patients with urothelial cancer shed positive cells in their urine, but that control patients only rarely shed MT-3 positive cells. The MT-3 gene is silenced in non-transformed urothelial cells by a mechanism involving histone modification of the MT-3 promoter. In contrast, transformation of the urothelial cells with either Cd+2 or As+3 modified

  14. Differences in the epigenetic regulation of MT-3 gene expression between parental and Cd+2 or As+3 transformed human urothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjimaporn Amornpan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that metallothionein 3 (MT-3 is not expressed in normal urothelium or in the UROtsa cell line, but is expressed in urothelial cancer and in tumors generated from the UROtsa cells that have been transformed by cadmium (Cd+2 or arsenite (As+3.The present study had two major goals. One, to determine if epigenetic modifications control urothelial MT-3 gene expression and if regulation is altered by malignant transformation by Cd+2 or As+3. Two, to determine if MT-3 expression might translate clinically as a biomarker for malignant urothelial cells released into the urine. Results The histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 induced MT-3 mRNA expression in both parental UROtsa cells and their transformed counterparts. The demethylating agent, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZC had no effect on MT-3 mRNA expression. ChIP analysis showed that metal-responsive transformation factor-1 (MTF-1 binding to metal response elements (MRE elements of the MT-3 promoter was restricted in parental UROtsa cells, but MTF-1 binding to the MREs was unrestricted in the transformed cell lines. Histone modifications at acetyl H4, trimethyl H3K4, trimethyl H3K27, and trimethyl H3K9 were compared between the parental and transformed cell lines in the presence and absence of MS-275. The pattern of histone modifications suggested that the MT-3 promoter in the Cd+2 and As+3 transformed cells has gained bivalent chromatin structure, having elements of being "transcriptionally repressed" and "transcription ready", when compared to parental cells. An analysis of MT-3 staining in urinary cytologies showed that a subset of both active and non-active patients with urothelial cancer shed positive cells in their urine, but that control patients only rarely shed MT-3 positive cells. Conclusion The MT-3 gene is silenced in non-transformed urothelial cells by a mechanism involving histone modification of the MT-3 promoter. In contrast, transformation of the

  15. Regulation of astaxanthin and its intermediates through cloning and genetic transformation of β-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, S; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2015-02-20

    Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries is mainly produced from green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. It is biosynthesized by the action of key enzyme, β-carotene ketolase (BKT) on β-carotene through intermediates echinenone and canthaxanthin. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase (bkt) gene was isolated from H. pluvialis and cloned in a vector pRT100 and further mobilized to a binary vector pCAMBIA 1304. The T-DNA of pCAMBIA 1304, which consists of cloned bkt, was successfully transformed to H. pluvialis through Agrobacterium mediation. The cloning and transformation of bkt in H. pluvialis was confirmed by Southern blotting and also by PCR analysis. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin content in the transformed cells were found to be 2-3-fold higher, while the intermediates like echinenone and canthaxanthin were found to be 8-10-fold higher than in the control cells. The expression level of carotenogenic genes like phytoene synthase (psy), phytoene desaturase (pds), lycopene cyclase (lcy), bkt, and β-carotene hydroxylase (bkh) were found to be higher in transformed cells compared to the non-transformed (NT) H. pluvialis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A murine retrovirus co-Opts YB-1, a translational regulator and stress granule-associated protein, to facilitate virus assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Beyer, Andrea R; Parent, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    The Gag protein of the murine retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) orchestrates the assembly of immature virus particles in the cytoplasm which are subsequently transported to the plasma membrane for release from the cell. The morphogenetic pathway of MMTV assembly is similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3, which assemble virus-like particles (VLPs) in intracytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Assembly of Ty1 and Ty3 VLPs depends upon cellular mRNA processing factors, prompting us to examine whether MMTV utilizes a similar set of host proteins to facilitate viral capsid assembly. Our data revealed that MMTV Gag colocalized with YB-1, a translational regulator found in stress granules and P bodies, in intracytoplasmic foci. The association of MMTV Gag and YB-1 in cytoplasmic granules was not disrupted by cycloheximide treatment, suggesting that these sites were not typical stress granules. However, the association of MMTV Gag and YB-1 was RNA dependent, and an MMTV RNA reporter construct colocalized with Gag and YB-1 in cytoplasmic RNP complexes. Knockdown of YB-1 resulted in a significant decrease in MMTV particle production, indicating that YB-1 plays a role in MMTV capsid formation. Analysis by live-cell imaging with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the population of Gag proteins localized within YB-1 complexes was relatively immobile, suggesting that Gag forms stable complexes in association with YB-1. Together, our data imply that the formation of intracytoplasmic Gag-RNA complexes is facilitated by YB-1, which promotes MMTV virus assembly. Cellular mRNA processing factors regulate the posttranscriptional fates of mRNAs, affecting localization and utilization of mRNAs under normal conditions and in response to stress. RNA viruses such as retroviruses interact with cellular mRNA processing factors that accumulate in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as P bodies and stress granules

  17. Procollagen Lysyl Hydroxylase 2 Expression Is Regulated by an Alternative Downstream Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 Activation Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gjaltema, Rutger A. F.; de Rond, Saskia; Rots, Marianne G.; Bank, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    PLOD2 (procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2) hydroxylates lysine residues in collagen telopeptides and is essential for collagen pyridinoline cross-link formation. PLOD2 expression and subsequent pyridinoline cross-links are increased in fibrotic pathologies by transforming growth

  18. Soil nitrogen transformation responses to seasonal precipitation changes are regulated by changes in functional microbial abundance in a subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Xiao, Guoliang; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Ma, Ying; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhengfeng; Shen, Weijun

    2017-05-01

    The frequency of dry-season droughts and wet-season storms has been predicted to increase in subtropical areas in the coming decades. Since subtropical forest soils are significant sources of N2O and NO3-, it is important to understand the features and determinants of N transformation responses to the predicted precipitation changes. A precipitation manipulation field experiment was conducted in a subtropical forest to reduce dry-season precipitation and increase wet-season precipitation, with annual precipitation unchanged. Net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O emission, nitrifying (bacterial and archaeal amoA) and denitrifying (nirK, nirS and nosZ) gene abundance, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), extractable organic carbon (EOC), NO3-, NH4+ and soil water content (SWC) were monitored to characterize and explain soil N transformation responses. Dry-season precipitation reduction decreased net nitrification and N mineralization rates by 13-20 %, while wet-season precipitation addition increased both rates by 50 %. More than 20 % of the total variation of net nitrification and N mineralization could be explained by microbial abundance and SWC. Notably, archaeal amoA abundance showed the strongest correlation with net N transformation rates (r ≥ 0.35), suggesting the critical role of archaeal amoA abundance in determining N transformations. Increased net nitrification in the wet season, together with large precipitation events, caused substantial NO3- losses via leaching. However, N2O emission decreased moderately in both dry and wet seasons due to changes in nosZ gene abundance, MBC, net nitrification and SWC (decreased by 10-21 %). We conclude that reducing dry-season precipitation and increasing wet-season precipitation affect soil N transformations through altering functional microbial abundance and MBC, which are further affected by changes in EOC and NH4+ availabilities.

  19. Synergistic up-regulation of CXCL10 by virus and IFN γ in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Oslund

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial cells are the first line of defense against viral infections and are instrumental in coordinating the inflammatory response. In this study, we demonstrate the synergistic stimulation of CXCL10 mRNA and protein, a key chemokine responsible for the early immune response to viral infection, following treatment of airway epithelial cells with IFN γ and influenza virus. The synergism also occurred when the cells were treated with IFN γ and a viral replication mimicker (dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the requirement of type I interferon (IFNAR signaling in dsRNA-induced CXCL10, the synergism was independent of the IFNAR pathway since it wasn't affected by the addition of a neutralizing IFNAR antibody or the complete lack of IFNAR expression. Furthermore, the same synergistic effect was also observed when a CXCL10 promoter reporter was examined. Although the responsive promoter region contains both ISRE and NFκB sites, western blot analysis indicated that the combined treatment of IFN γ and dsRNA significantly augmented NFκB but not STAT1 activation as compared to the single treatment. Therefore, we conclude that IFN γ and dsRNA act in concert to potentiate CXCL10 expression in airway epithelial cells via an NFκB-dependent but IFNAR-STAT independent pathway and it is at least partly regulated at the transcriptional level.

  20. Regulation of adeno-associated virus gene expression in 293 cells: control of mRNA abundance and translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trempe, J.P.; Carter, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) rep gene on the control of gene expression from the AAV p/sub 40/ promoter in 293 cells in the absence of an adenovirus coinfection. AAV vectors containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene were used to measure the levels of cat expression and steady-state mRNA from p/sub 40/. When the rep gene was present in cis or in trans, cat expression from p/sub 40/ was decreased 3- to 10-fold, but there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in the level of p/sub 40/ mRNA. Conversely, cat expression increased and the p/sub 40/ mRNA level decreased in the absence of the rep gene. Both wild-type and carboxyl-terminal truncated Rep proteins were capable of eliciting both effects. These data suggest two roles for the pleiotropic AAV rep gene: as a translational inhibitor and as a positive regulator of p/sub 40/ mRNA levels. They also provide additional evidence for a cis-acting negative regulatory region which decreases RNA from the AAV p/sub 5/ promoter in a fashion independent of rep.

  1. Regulation of hepatitis C virus replication by nuclear translocation of nonstructural 5A protein and transcriptional activation of host genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Imache, Mohamed R; Higgs, Martin R; Carmouse, Sophie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lerat, Hervé

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is involved in regulating viral replication through its direct interaction with the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. NS5A also alters infected cell metabolism through complex interactions with numerous host cell proteins. NS5A has furthermore been suggested to act as a transcriptional activator, although the impact on viral replication is unclear. To study this, HCV NS5A variants were amplified from hepatic tissue from an HCV-infected patient, and their abilities to activate gene transcription were analyzed in a single-hybrid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model. Different variants isolated from the same patient displayed different transactivational activities. When these variants were inserted into the HCV subgenomic replicon system, they demonstrated various levels of RNA replication, which correlated with their transactivational activities. We showed that the C-terminal fragment of NS5A was localized to the nucleus and that a functional NS5A nuclear localization signal and cellular caspase activity were required for this process. Furthermore, nuclear localization of NS5A was necessary for viral replication. Finally, we demonstrate that nuclear NS5A binds to host cell promoters of several genes previously identified as important for efficient HCV RNA replication, inducing their transcription. Taken together, these results demonstrate a new mechanism by which HCV modulates its cellular environment, thereby enhancing viral replication.

  2. Dominant expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta genes in activated T-cells of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Shouichi; Nomura, Akihiko; Takada, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamami; Furuno, Kenji; Takahata, Yasushi; Kinukawa, Naoko; Fukushima, Noriyasu; Imai, Shosuke; Hara, Toshiro

    2004-11-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a chronic mononucleosis syndrome associated with clonal proliferation of EBV-carrying T-/natural killer (NK)-cells. High levels of circulating EBV and activated T-cells are sustained during the prolonged disease course, whereas it is not clear how ectopic EBV infection in T-/NK-cells has been established and maintained. To assess the biological role of activated T-cells in chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), EBV DNA and cellular gene expressions in peripheral T-cells were quantified in CAEBV and infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients. In CAEBV, HLA-DR(+) T-cells had higher viral load and larger amounts of IFN gamma, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) mRNA than HLA-DR(-)T-cells. HLA-DR(+) T cells of IM patients transcribed more IFN gamma and IL-10 than their HLA-DR(-)T cells. Expression levels of IFN gamma and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) in CAEBV HLA-DR(+) T-cells were higher than in IM HLA-DR(+) T-cells. The effective variables to discriminate the positivity of HLA-DR were IL-10, IFN gamma, CTLA4, TGF beta, and IL-2 in the order of statistical weight. EBV load in CAEBV T-cells correlated with the expression levels of only IL-10 and TGF beta. These results suggest that CAEBV T-cells are activated to transcribe IFN gamma, IL-10, and TGF beta excessively, and the latter two genes are expressed preferentially in the EBV-infected subsets. The dominant expression of regulatory cytokines in T-cells may imply a viral evasion mechanism in the disease.

  3. Protective effects of transforming growth factor β2 in intestinal epithelial cells by regulation of proteins associated with stress and endotoxin responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 is an important anti-inflammatory protein in milk and colostrum. TGF-β2 supplementation appears to reduce gut inflammatory diseases in early life, such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in young mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-β2 protects......-β2 in IECs. We conclude that TGF-β2 of dietary or endogenous origin may regulate the IEC responses against LPS stimuli, thereby supporting cellular homeostasis and innate immunity in response to bacterial colonization, and the first enteral feeding in early life....

  4. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Gerontology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qichang [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Qin, Tao [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu, Sanguang, E-mail: sanguang1998@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); Song, Zifang, E-mail: zsong@hust.edu.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β2 and endotoxin interact to regulate homeostasis via interleukin-8 levels in the immature intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Sangild, Per Torp; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2014-01-01

    A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals from the milk and microbiota controls intestinal homeostasis just after birth, and an optimal balance is particularly important for preterm neonates that are sensitive to necrotizing enterocolis (NEC). We suggest that the intestinal cytokine IL-8...... plays an important role and hypothesize that transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) acts in synergy with bacterial LPS to control IL-8 levels, thereby supporting intestinal homeostasis. Preterm pigs were fed colostrum (containing TGF-β2) or infant formula with or without antibiotics (COLOS, n = 27; ANTI...

  6. Transforming growth factor-β1 regulated phosphorylated AKT and interferon gamma expressions are associated with epithelial cell survival in rhesus macaque colon explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahar, Bapi; Pan, Diganta; Lala, Wendy; Kenway-Lynch, Carys S; Das, Arpita

    2015-05-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important immunoregulatory cytokine that plays an obligate role in regulating T-cell functions. Here, we demonstrated the role of TGF-β1 in regulating the survival of intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) in rhesus colon explant cultures using either anti-TGF-β1 antibody or recombinant TGF-β1 proteins. Neutralization of endogenous TGF-β1 using anti-TGF-β1 antibodies induced apoptosis of both intestinal ECs and lamina propria (LP) cells. Additionally, endogenous TGF-β1 blocking significantly increased expression of IFNγ, TNFα, CD107a and Perforin in LP cells compared to media and isotype controls. A significant decrease in pAKT expression was detected in anti-TGF-β1 MAbs treated explants compared to isotype and rTGF-β1 protein treated explants. Our results demonstrated TGF-β1 regulated pAKT and IFNγ expressions were associated with epithelial cell survival in rhesus macaque colon explants and suggest a potential role of mucosal TGF-β1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and EC integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory virus-induced TLR7 activation controls IL-17-associated increased mucus via IL-23 regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukacs, Nicholas W; Smit, Joost J; Mukherjee, Sumanta; Morris, Susan B; Nunez, Gabriel; Lindell, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    The response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), negative strand ssRNA virus, depends upon the ability to recognize specific pathogen-associated targets. In the current study, the role of TLR7 that recognizes ssRNA was examined. Using TLR7(-/-) mice, we found that the response to RSV infection in

  8. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages

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    Purcell Damian FJ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the essential viral transactivator protein Tat. We investigated two possible mechanisms in macrophages for regulation of viral replication, which appears to be primarily regulated at the level of tat mRNA: 1 differential mRNA stability, used by cells and some viruses for the rapid regulation of gene expression and 2 control of HIV-1 alternative splicing, which is essential for optimal viral replication. Results Following termination of transcription at increasing times after infection in macrophages, we found that tat mRNA did indeed decay more rapidly than rev or nef mRNA, but with similar kinetics throughout infection. In addition, tat mRNA decayed at least as rapidly in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Expression of cellular splicing factors in uninfected and infected macrophage cultures from the same donor showed an inverse pattern over time between enhancing factors (members of the SR family of RNA binding proteins and inhibitory factors (members of the hnRNP family. While levels of the SR protein SC35 were greatly up-regulated in the first week or two after infection, hnRNPs of the A/B and H groups were down-regulated. Around the peak of virus production in each culture, SC35 expression declined to levels in uninfected cells or lower, while the hnRNPs increased to control levels or above. We also found evidence for increased cytoplasmic expression of SC35 following long-term infection. Conclusion While no evidence of differential regulation of tat mRNA decay was found in macrophages following HIV-1 infection, changes in the balance of cellular splicing factors which regulate alternative

  9. Regulation of microRNA by hepatitis B virus infection and their possible association with control of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Kanda, Tatsuo; Wu, Shuang; Nakamura, Masato; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Banerjee, Arup; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-06-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects more than 350 million people worldwide. HBV causes acute and chronic hepatitis, and is one of the major causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There exist complex interactions between HBV and the immune system including adaptive and innate immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-signaling pathways are important parts of the innate immune response in HBV infections. It is well known that TLR-ligands could suppress HBV replication and that TLRs play important roles in anti-viral defense. Previous immunological studies demonstrated that HBV e antigen (HBeAg) is more efficient at eliciting T-cell tolerance, including production of specific cytokines IL-2 and interferon gamma, than HBV core antigen. HBeAg downregulates cytokine production in hepatocytes by the inhibition of MAPK or NF-κB activation through the interaction with receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are also able to regulate various biological processes such as the innate immune response. When the expressions of approximately 1000 miRNAs were compared between human hepatoma cells HepG2 and HepG2.2.15, which could produce HBV virion that infects chimpanzees, using real-time RT-PCR, we observed several different expression levels in miRNAs related to TLRs. Although we and others have shown that HBV modulates the host immune response, several of the miRNAs seem to be involved in the TLR signaling pathways. The possibility that alteration of these miRNAs during HBV infection might play a critical role in innate immunity against HBV infection should be considered. This article is intended to comprehensively review the association between HBV and innate immunity, and to discuss the role of miRNAs in the innate immune response to HBV infection.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 during feeding on tomato infected with the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus, identifies a temporal shift in gene expression and differential regulation of novel orphan genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Chen, Wenbo; Zheng, Yi; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Wintermantel, William M

    2017-05-11

    Whiteflies threaten agricultural crop production worldwide, are polyphagous in nature, and transmit hundreds of plant viruses. Little is known how whitefly gene expression is altered due to feeding on plants infected with a semipersistently transmitted virus. Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV; genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is transmitted by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a semipersistent manner and infects several globally important agricultural and ornamental crops, including tomato. To determine changes in global gene regulation in whiteflies after feeding on tomato plants infected with a crinivirus (ToCV), comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed using RNA-Seq on whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1) populations after 24, 48, and 72 h acquisition access periods on either ToCV-infected or uninfected tomatoes. Significant differences in gene expression were detected between whiteflies fed on ToCV-infected tomato and those fed on uninfected tomato among the three feeding time periods: 447 up-regulated and 542 down-regulated at 24 h, 4 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated at 48 h, and 50 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated at 72 h. Analysis revealed differential regulation of genes associated with metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transport and catabolism, receptors, glucose transporters, α-glucosidases, and the uric acid pathway in whiteflies fed on ToCV-infected tomatoes, as well as an abundance of differentially regulated novel orphan genes. Results demonstrate for the first time, a specific and temporally regulated response by the whitefly to feeding on a host plant infected with a semipersistently transmitted virus, and advance the understanding of the whitefly vector-virus interactions that facilitate virus transmission. Whitefly transmission of semipersistent viruses is believed to require specific interactions between the virus and its vector that allow binding of virus particles to factors within whitefly mouthparts. Results provide a

  11. hTERT inhibition triggers Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and apoptosis in immortalized and transformed B cells: a basis for new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunco, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Keppel, Sonia; Celeghin, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Dal Col, Jessica; Mastorci, Katy; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-04-15

    Induction of viral lytic cycle, which induces death of host cells, may constitute a useful adjunct to current therapeutic regimens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven malignancies. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), essential for the oncogenic process, may modulate the switch from latent to lytic infection. The possible therapeutic role of hTERT inhibition combined with antiviral drugs was investigated. EBV-negative BL41 and convertant EBV-positive BL41/B95.8 Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were infected with retroviral vector encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) anti-hTERT and cultured with or without the prodrug ganciclovir. The effects on EBV lytic replication, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were characterized. hTERT silencing by shRNA induced the expression of BZLF1, EA-D, and gp350 EBV lytic proteins and triggered a complete lytic cycle. This effect was associated with downregulation of BATF, a negative regulator of BZLF1 transcription. hTERT silencing also resulted in antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. In particular, hTERT inhibition induced an accumulation of cells in the S-phase, an effect likely due to the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1, an AKT1-dependent substrate, which results in a decreased availability of proteins needed for cell-cycle progression. Besides inducing cell death through activation of complete EBV lytic replication, hTERT inhibition triggered AKT1/FOXO3/NOXA-dependent apoptosis in EBV-positive and -negative Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Finally, ganciclovir enhanced the apoptotic effect induced by hTERT inhibition in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphomas and LCLs. These results suggest that combination of antiviral drugs with strategies able to inhibit hTERT expression may result in therapeutically relevant effects in patients with EBV-related malignancies.

  12. Hepatitis C virus sensitizes host cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR4 and DR5 via a MEK1-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfan Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the leading cause of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is believed that continuous liver cell apoptosis contributes to HCV pathogenesis. Recent studies have shown that HCV infection can sensitize host cells to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induced apoptosis, but the mechanism by which HCV regulates the TRAIL pathway remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a sub-genomic replicon and full length virus, JFH-1, we demonstrate that HCV can sensitize host cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating two TRAIL receptors, death receptor 4 (DR4 and death receptor 5 (DR5. Furthermore, the HCV replicon enhanced transcription of DR5 via Sp1, and the HCV-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 required MEK1 activity. HCV infection also stimulated the activity of MEK1, and the inhibition of MEK1 activity or the knockdown of MEK1 increased the replication of HCV. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that HCV replication sensitizes host cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR4 and DR5 via a MEK1 dependent pathway. These findings may help to further understand the pathogenesis of HCV infection and provide a therapeutic target.

  13. Co-regulation of NF-kappaB and inflammasome-mediated inflammatory responses by myxoma virus pyrin domain-containing protein M013.

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    Masmudur M Rahman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available NF-kappaB and inflammasomes both play central roles in orchestrating anti-pathogen responses by rapidly inducing a variety of early-response cytokines and chemokines following infection. Myxoma virus (MYXV, a pathogenic poxvirus of rabbits, encodes a member of the cellular pyrin domain (PYD superfamily, called M013. The viral M013 protein was previously shown to bind host ASC-1 protein and inhibit the cellular inflammasome complex that regulates the activation and secretion of caspase 1-regulated cytokines such as IL-1beta and IL-18. Here, we report that human THP-1 monocytic cells infected with a MYXV construct deleted for the M013L gene (vMyxM013-KO, in stark contrast to the parental MYXV, rapidly induce high levels of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF, IL-6, and MCP-1, all of which are regulated by NF-kappaB. The induction of these NF-kappaB regulated cytokines following infection with vMyxM013-KO was also confirmed in vivo using THP-1 derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. vMyxM013-KO virus infection specifically induced the rapid phosphorylation of IKK and degradation of IkappaBalpha, which was followed by nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. Even in the absence of virus infection, transiently expressed M013 protein alone inhibited cellular NF-kappaB-mediated reporter gene expression and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. Using protein/protein interaction analysis, we show that M013 protein also binds directly with cellular NF-kappaB1, suggesting a direct physical and functional linkage between NF-kappaB1 and ASC-1. We further demonstrate that inhibition of the inflammasome with a caspase-1 inhibitor did not prevent the induction of NF-kappaB regulated cytokines following infection with vMyxM013-KO virus, but did block the activation of IL-1beta. Thus, the poxviral M013 inhibitor exerts a dual immuno-subversive role in the simultaneous co-regulation of both the cellular inflammasome complex and NF-kappaB-mediated pro

  14. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus entry into host cells occurs through the multivesicular body and requires ESCRT regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Shtanko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a tick-borne bunyavirus causing outbreaks of severe disease in humans, with a fatality rate approaching 30%. There are no widely accepted therapeutics available to prevent or treat the disease. CCHFV enters host cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is subsequently transported to an acidified compartment where the fusion of virus envelope with cellular membranes takes place. To better understand the uptake pathway, we sought to identify host factors controlling CCHFV transport through the cell. We demonstrate that after passing through early endosomes in a Rab5-dependent manner, CCHFV is delivered to multivesicular bodies (MVBs. Virus particles localized to MVBs approximately 1 hour after infection and affected the distribution of the organelle within cells. Interestingly, blocking Rab7 activity had no effect on association of the virus with MVBs. Productive virus infection depended on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K activity, which meditates the formation of functional MVBs. Silencing Tsg101, Vps24, Vps4B, or Alix/Aip1, components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT pathway controlling MVB biogenesis, inhibited infection of wild-type virus as well as a novel pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV bearing CCHFV glycoprotein, supporting a role for the MVB pathway in CCHFV entry. We further demonstrate that blocking transport out of MVBs still allowed virus entry while preventing vesicular acidification, required for membrane fusion, trapped virions in the MVBs. These findings suggest that MVBs are necessary for infection and are the sites of virus-endosome membrane fusion.

  15. The MDS and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) isoforms regulate their own transcription and have different roles in the transformation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Miren; Vázquez, Iria; Alis, Rafael; Marcotegui, Nerea; Urquiza, Leire; Cortés-Lavaud, Xabier; Cristóbal, Ion; García-Sánchez, María A; Odero, María D

    2017-06-01

    Transcriptional activation of the EVI1 oncogene (3q26) leads to aggressive forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the mechanism of EVI1-mediated leukemogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Previously, by characterizing the EVI1 promoter, we have shown that RUNX1 and ELK1 directly regulate EVI1 transcription. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analysis of the EVI1 promoter region identified the presence of several EVI1 potential binding sites. Thus, we hypothesized that EVI1 could bind to these sites regulating its own transcription. In this study, we show that there is a functional interaction between EVI1 and its promoter, and that the different EVI1 isoforms (EVI1-145kDa, EVI1-Δ324 and MDS1-EVI1) regulate the transcription of EVI1 transcripts through distinct promoter regions. Moreover, we determine that the EVI1-145kDa isoform activates EVI1 transcription, whereas EVI1-Δ324 and MDS1-EVI1 act as repressors. Finally, we demonstrate that these EVI1 isoforms are involved in cell transformation; functional experiments show that EVI1-145kDa prolongs the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells; conversely, MDS1-EVI1 repressed hematopoietic stem and progenitor colony replating capacity. We demonstrate for the first time that EVI1 acts as a regulator of its own expression, highlighting the complex regulation of EVI1, and open new directions to better understand the mechanisms of EVI1 overexpressing leukemias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling by Destabilizing Ski and Inducing Smad7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Arja M.; Björklund, Mia; Laiho, Marikki

    2009-01-01

    Ski is an oncoprotein that negatively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. It acts as a transcriptional co-repressor by binding to TGF-β signaling molecules, Smads. Efficient TGF-β signaling is facilitated by rapid proteasome-mediated degradation of Ski by TGF-β. Here we report that Ski is phosphorylated by Akt/PKB kinase. Akt phosphorylates Ski on a highly conserved Akt motif at threonine 458 both in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of Ski at threonine 458 is induced by Akt pathway activators including insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and hepatocyte growth factor. The phosphorylation of Ski causes its destabilization and reduces Ski-mediated inhibition of expression of another negative regulator of TGF-β, Smad7. Induction of Smad7 levels leads to inactivation of TGF-β receptors and TGF-β signaling cascade, as indicated by reduced induction of TGF-β target p15. Therefore, Akt modulates TGF-β signaling by temporarily adjusting the levels of two TGF-β pathway negative regulators, Ski and Smad7. These novel findings demonstrate that Akt pathway activation directly impacts TGF-β pathway. PMID:19875456

  17. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  18. Segmental up-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta in the pathogenesis of primary megaureter. An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotina, P A; Romeo, C; Arena, F; Romeo, G

    1997-12-01

    To examine the maturational-delay hypothesis of primary megaureter (PM), i.e. that the condition arises by a segmental maturational delay of the ureteric wall that can resolve spontaneously within the first year of life, using comparative immunocytochemistry of ureters resected from infants and from homologous pre-natal ureters. Seventeen distal urinary tracts were obtained from children with PM who were referred for surgery (aged 6 months to 8 years, mean 2.1 years). These were compared with ureteric buds obtained from 11-week-old human and 11- to 38-week-old calf fetuses. The samples were immunostained using a monoclonal antibody specific for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). The histological appearances of the narrowed ureteric segments from patients under 18 months old were like the fetal ureteric buds at 26-38 weeks of gestation. Positive TGF-beta immunoreactions were detected in the longitudinal muscle layer in the ureter from patients 6-12 months old. Such reactions weakened progressively in those patients older than 1 year, becoming negative in all children older than 3 years. The TGF-beta immunolabelling in resected ureters was closely similar to that in fetal ureters from 20 to 26-week old calves. From these results, PM should be ascribed to a segmental developmental delay of the terminal ureter arising at about 20 weeks of gestation, with a possible pathogenetic involvement of autocrine TGF-beta overexpression.

  19. ALDH1A3 is epigenetically regulated during melanocyte transformation and is a target for melanoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alea, M; McGrail, K; Sánchez-Redondo, S; Ferrer, B; Fournet, G; Cortés, J; Muñoz, E; Hernandez-Losa, J; Tenbaum, S; Martin, G; Costello, R; Ceylan, I; Garcia-Patos, V; Recio, J A

    2017-10-12

    Despite the promising targeted and immune-based interventions in melanoma treatment, long-lasting responses are limited. Melanoma cells present an aberrant redox state that leads to the production of toxic aldehydes that must be converted into less reactive molecules. Targeting the detoxification machinery constitutes a novel therapeutic avenue for melanoma. Here, using 56 cell lines representing nine different tumor types, we demonstrate that melanoma cells exhibit a strong correlation between reactive oxygen species amounts and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity. We found that ALDH1A3 is upregulated by epigenetic mechanisms in melanoma cells compared with normal melanocytes. Furthermore, it is highly expressed in a large percentage of human nevi and melanomas during melanocyte transformation, which is consistent with the data from the TCGA, CCLE and protein atlas databases. Melanoma treatment with the novel irreversible isoform-specific ALDH1 inhibitor [4-dimethylamino-4-methyl-pent-2-ynthioic acid-S methylester] di-methyl-ampal-thio-ester (DIMATE) or depletion of ALDH1A1 and/or ALDH1A3, promoted the accumulation of apoptogenic aldehydes leading to apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in immunocompetent, immunosuppressed and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. Interestingly, DIMATE also targeted the slow cycling label-retaining tumor cell population containing the tumorigenic and chemoresistant cells. Our findings suggest that aldehyde detoxification is relevant metabolic mechanism in melanoma cells, which can be used as a novel approach for melanoma treatment.

  20. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα regulates granulosa cell tumor (GCT cell proliferation and migration through activation of multiple pathways.

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    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.

  1. Intermittent compressive stress regulates Notch target gene expression via transforming growth factor-β signaling in murine pre-osteoblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Pavasant, Prasit; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-10-01

    Different mechanical stimuli regulate behaviors of various cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Notch signaling participates in the mechanical stress-regulated cell responses. The present study investigated the regulation of Notch target gene and sclerostin (Sost) expression in murine pre-osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1) under intermittent compressive stress. MC3T3-E1 were subjected to the intermittent compressive force under the computerized controlled machine. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with chemical inhibitors for Notch and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling prior to mechanical stimuli. To evaluate role of Notch signaling in MC3T3-E1 cells under unloaded condition, cells were seeded on indirect immobilized Notch ligand (Jagged1). Gene expression was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The intermittent compressive stress significantly upregulated Notch target gene expression (Hes Family BHLH transcription factor 1; Hes1 and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein1; Hey1). The intermittent stress-induced Hes1 and Hey1 mRNA expression could be inhibited by a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) or a TGF-β superfamily type I activing receptor-like kinase receptors inhibitor (SB431542). The results imply that intermittent compressive stress regulates Notch signaling via TGF-β pathway. Further, the intermittent compressive stress reduced Sost mRNA expression and this phenomenon could be rescued by a DAPT pretreatment, implying the involvement of Notch signaling. However, activation of Notch signaling under the unloaded condition resulted in the increase of Sost expression and the reduction of osteogenic marker genes. These results imply the involvement of Notch signaling in the homeostasis maintaining of osteogenic cells under mechanical stress stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autogenous translational regulation of the Borna disease virus negative control factor X from polycistronic mRNA using host RNA helicases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Watanabe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Borna disease virus (BDV is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that employs several unique strategies for gene expression. The shortest transcript of BDV, X/P mRNA, encodes at least three open reading frames (ORFs: upstream ORF (uORF, X, and P in the 5' to 3' direction. The X is a negative regulator of viral polymerase activity, while the P phosphoprotein is a necessary cofactor of the polymerase complex, suggesting that the translation of X is controlled rigorously, depending on viral replication. However, the translation mechanism used by the X/P polycistronic mRNA has not been determined in detail. Here we demonstrate that the X/P mRNA autogenously regulates the translation of X via interaction with host factors. Transient transfection of cDNA clones corresponding to the X/P mRNA revealed that the X ORF is translated predominantly by uORF-termination-coupled reinitiation, the efficiency of which is upregulated by expression of P. We found that P may enhance ribosomal reinitiation at the X ORF by inhibition of the interaction of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 with the 5' untranslated region of X/P mRNA, via interference with its phosphorylation. Our results not only demonstrate a unique translational control of viral regulatory protein, but also elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of regulation of polycistronic mRNA translation using RNA helicases.

  3. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. miR-146a negatively regulates the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in response to Japanese encephalitis virus infection in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minnan; Du, Ganqin; Zhao, Jiegang; Du, Xiaowei

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence confirms the involvement of virus infection and miRNA, such as miR-146a, in neuroinflammation-associated epilepsy. In the present study, we investigated the upregulation of miR-146a with RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods in a mice infection model of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and in vitro. Subsequently we investigated the involvement of miR-146a in modulating JEV-induced neuroinflammation. It was demonstrated that JEV infection promoted miR-146a production in BALB/c mice brain and in cultured mouse microglial C8-B4 cells, along with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α. We also found that miR-146a exerted negative regulatory effects upon IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α in C8-B4 cells. Accordingly, miR-146a downregulation with a miR-146a inhibitor promoted the upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β and IFN-α, whereas miR-146a upregulation with miR-146a mimics reduced the upregulation of these cytokines. Moreover, miR-146a exerted no regulation upon JEV growth in C8-B4 cells. In conclusion, JEV infection upregulated miR-146a and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in mice brain and in cultured C8-B4 cells. Furthermore, miR-146a negatively regulated the production of JEV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, in virus growth independent fashion, identifying miR-146a as a negative feedback regulator in JEV-induced neuroinflammation, and possibly in epilepsy.

  5. Activation of NADPH oxidase by transforming growth factor-β in hepatocytes mediates up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands through a nuclear factor-κB-dependent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Miguel M; Carmona-Cuenca, Irene; del Castillo, Gaelle; Ortiz, Conrad; Roncero, César; Sánchez, Aránzazu; Fernández, Margarita; Fabregat, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) induces survival signals in foetal rat hepatocytes through transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The molecular mechanism is not completely understood, but early activation of the TACE/ADAM17 (one of the metalloproteases involved in shedding of the EGFR ligands) and up-regulation of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-?) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) appear to b...

  6. A new method for compensation of the effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on PFN voltage regulation in Klystron pulse modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Akhil, E-mail: akhilpatel@rrcat.gov.in; Kale, Umesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2017-04-21

    The Line type modulators have been widely used to generate high voltage rectangular pulses to power the klystron for high power RF generation. In Line type modulator, the Pulse Forming Network (PFN) which is a cascade combination of lumped capacitors and inductors is used to store the electrical energy. The charged PFN is then discharged into a klystron by firing a high voltage Thyratron switch. This discharge generates a high voltage rectangular pulse across the klystron electrodes. The amplitude and phase of Klystron's RF output is governed by the high voltage pulse amplitude. The undesired RF amplitude and phase stability issues arises at the klystron's output due to inter-pulse and during the pulse amplitude variations. To reduce inter-pulse voltage variations, the PFN is required to be charged at the same voltage after every discharge cycle. At present, the combination of widely used resonant charging and deQing method is used to regulate the pulse to pulse PFN voltage variations but the charging transformer's leakage inductance puts an upper bound on the regulation achievable by this method. Here we have developed few insights of the deQing process and devised a new compensation method to compensate this undesired effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on the pulse to pulse PFN voltage stability. This compensation is accomplished by the controlled partial discharging of the split PFN capacitor using a low voltage MOSFET switch. Theoretically, very high values of pulse to pulse voltage stability may be achieved using this method. This method may be used in deQing based existing modulators or in new modulators, to increase the pulse to pulse voltage stability, without having a very tight bound on charging transformer's leakage inductance. Given a stable charging power supply, this method may be used to further enhance the inter-pulse voltage stability of modulators which employ the direct charging, after replacing the

  7. Identification of adaptive mutations in the influenza A virus non-structural 1 gene that increase cytoplasmic localization and differentially regulate host gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Forbes

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2 (HK to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30. Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I, the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression.

  8. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing in Catharanthus roseus by biolistic inoculation of tobacco rattle virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carqueijeiro, I; Masini, E; Foureau, E; Sepúlveda, L J; Marais, E; Lanoue, A; Besseau, S; Papon, N; Clastre, M; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Glévarec, G; Atehortùa, L; Oudin, A; Courdavault, V

    2015-11-01

    Catharanthus roseus constitutes the unique source of several valuable monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including the antineoplastics vinblastine and vincristine. These alkaloids result from a complex biosynthetic pathway encompassing between 30 and 50 enzymatic steps whose characterisation is still underway. The most recent identifications of genes from this pathway relied on a tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach, involving an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of plasmids encoding the two genomic components of the virus. As an alternative, we developed a biolistic-mediated approach of inoculation of virus-encoding plasmids that can be easily performed by a simple bombardment of young C. roseus plants. After optimisation of the transformation conditions, we showed that this approach efficiently silenced the phytoene desaturase gene, leading to strong and reproducible photobleaching of leaves. This biolistic transformation was also used to silence a previously characterised gene from the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, encoding iridoid oxidase. Plant bombardment caused down-regulation of the targeted gene (70%), accompanied by a correlated decreased in MIA biosynthesis (45-90%), similar to results obtained via agro-transformation. Thus, the biolistic-based VIGS approach developed for C. roseus appears suitable for gene function elucidation and can readily be used instead of the Agrobacterium-based approach, e.g. when difficulties arise with agro-inoculations or when Agrobacterium-free procedures are required to avoid plant defence responses. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Transforming Growth Factor β Mediates Drug Resistance by Regulating the Expression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Liying; Yi, Haowei; Huo, Wei; Talmon, Geoffrey; Kim, Yeong C; Wang, San Ming; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-12

    Drug resistance is one of the main causes of colon cancer recurrence. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and availability of therapeutic options remains limited. Here we show that expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is positively correlated with drug resistance of colon cancer cells and induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment in drug-resistant but not drug-sensitive cells. Knockdown of PDK4 expression sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU or oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro and increases the effectiveness of 5-FU in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that TGFβ mediates drug resistance by regulating PDK4 expression and that 5-FU induces PDK4 expression in a TGFβ signaling-dependent manner. Mechanistically, knockdown or inhibition of PDK4 significantly increases the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on expression of the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. Importantly, studies of patient samples indicate that expression of PDK4 and phosphorylation of Smad2, an indicator of TGFβ pathway activation, show a strong correlation and that both positively associate with chemoresistance in colorectal cancer. These findings indicate that the TGFβ/PDK4 signaling axis plays an important role in the response of colorectal cancer to chemotherapy. A major implication of our studies is that inhibition of PDK4 may have considerable therapeutic potential to overcome drug resistance in colorectal cancer patients, which warrants the development of PDK4-specific inhibitors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Y F Tay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18 alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα, allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization.

  13. Antibodies against the mono-methylated arginine-glycine repeat (MMA-RG) of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) identify potential cellular proteins targeted in viral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubian, Hiresh; Fröhlich, Thomas; Pogodski, Dagmar; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Schepers, Aloys; Feederle, Regina; Arnold, Georg J; Grässer, Friedrich A

    2017-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is a key mediator of viral tumorigenesis. EBNA2 features an arginine-glycine (RG) repeat at amino acids (aa)339-354 that is essential for the transformation of lymphocytes and contains symmetrically (SDMA) and asymmetrically (ADMA) di-methylated arginine residues. The SDMA-modified EBNA2 binds the survival motor neuron protein (SMN), thus mimicking SMD3, a cellular SDMA-containing protein that interacts with SMN. Accordingly, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the SDMA-modified RG repeat of EBNA2 also binds to SMD3. With the novel mAb 19D4 we now show that EBNA2 contains mono-methylated arginine (MMA) residues within the RG repeat. Using 19D4, we immune-precipitated and analysed by mass spectrometry cellular proteins in EBV-transformed B-cells that feature MMA motifs that are similar to the one in EBNA2. Among the cellular proteins identified, we confirmed by immunoprecipitation and/or Western blot analyses Aly/REF, Coilin, DDX5, FXR1, HNRNPK, LSM4, MRE11, NRIP, nucleolin, PRPF8, RBM26, SMD1 (SNRDP1) and THRAP3 proteins that are either known to contain MMA residues or feature RG repeat sequences that probably serve as methylation substrates. The identified proteins are involved in splicing, tumorigenesis, transcriptional activation, DNA stability and RNA processing or export. Furthermore, we found that several proteins involved in energy metabolism are associated with MMA-modified proteins. Interestingly, the viral EBNA1 protein that features methylated RG repeat motifs also reacted with the antibodies. Our results indicate that the region between aa 34-52 of EBNA1 contains ADMA or SDMA residues, while the region between aa 328-377 mainly contains MMA residues.

  14. The Translesion Polymerase Pol η Is Required for Efficient Epstein-Barr Virus Infectivity and Is Regulated by the Viral Deubiquitinating Enzyme BPLF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Ossie F; Pagano, Joseph S; Whitehurst, Christopher B

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and lytic replication are known to induce a cellular DNA damage response. We previously showed that the virally encoded BPLF1 protein interacts with and regulates several members of the translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway, a DNA damage tolerance pathway, and that these cellular factors enhance viral infectivity. BPLF1 is a late lytic cycle gene, but the protein is also packaged in the viral tegument, indicating that BPLF1 may function both early and late during infection. The BPLF1 protein expresses deubiquitinating activity that is strictly conserved across the Herpesviridae ; mutation of the active site cysteine results in a loss of enzymatic activity. Infection with an EBV BPLF1 knockout virus results in decreased EBV infectivity. Polymerase eta (Pol η), a specialized DNA repair polymerase, functions in TLS and allows for DNA replication complexes to bypass lesions in DNA. Here we report that BPLF1 interacts with Pol η and that Pol η protein levels are increased in the presence of functional BPLF1. BPLF1 promotes a nuclear relocalization of Pol η molecules which are focus-like in appearance, consistent with the localization observed when Pol η is recruited to sites of DNA damage. Knockdown of Pol η resulted in decreased production of infectious virus, and further, Pol η was found to bind to EBV DNA, suggesting that it may allow for bypass of damaged viral DNA during its replication. The results suggest a mechanism by which EBV recruits cellular repair factors, such as Pol η, to sites of viral DNA damage via BPLF1, thereby allowing for efficient viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and infects approximately 90% of the world's population. It causes lymphomas in individuals with acquired and innate immune disorders and is strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and

  15. Differential Regulation of Smad3 and of the Type II Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor in Mitosis: Implications for Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Tal; Barizilay, Lior; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not) in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation) represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention of active TGF

  16. Differential regulation of Smad3 and of the type II transforming growth factor-β receptor in mitosis: implications for signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Hirschhorn

    Full Text Available The response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β depends on cellular context. This context is changed in mitosis through selective inhibition of vesicle trafficking, reduction in cell volume and the activation of mitotic kinases. We hypothesized that these alterations in cell context may induce a differential regulation of Smads and TGF-β receptors. We tested this hypothesis in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells, arrested (or not in mitosis with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2. In mitosis, without TGF-β stimulation, Smad3 was phosphorylated at the C-terminus and linker regions and localized to the mitotic spindle. Phosphorylated Smad3 interacted with the negative regulators of Smad signaling, Smurf2 and Ski, and failed to induce a transcriptional response. Moreover, in cells arrested in mitosis, Smad3 levels were progressively reduced. These phosphorylations and reduction in the levels of Smad3 depended on ERK activation and Mps1 kinase activity, and were abrogated by increasing the volume of cells arrested in mitosis with hypotonic medium. Furthermore, an Mps1-dependent phosphorylation of GFP-Smad3 was also observed upon its over-expression in interphase cells, suggesting a mechanism of negative regulation which counters increases in Smad3 concentration. Arrest in mitosis also induced a block in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII. Moreover, following the stimulation of mitotic cells with TGF-β, the proteasome-mediated attenuation of TGF-β receptor activity, the degradation and clearance of TβRII from the plasma membrane, and the clearance of the TGF-β ligand from the medium were compromised, and the C-terminus phosphorylation of Smad3 was prolonged. We propose that the reduction in Smad3 levels, its linker phosphorylation, and its association with negative regulators (observed in mitosis prior to ligand stimulation represent a signal attenuating mechanism. This mechanism is balanced by the retention

  17. Effects of Down- and Up-regulated Lignin Biosynthesis in Populus of Soil Carbon Transformation and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Vincent, L.; Pregitzer, Kurt, S.

    2010-03-30

    Our objective is to understand how rates of soil C formation and plant biomass are influenced by changes in plant growth and performance resulting from lowered lignin and altered lignin S/G ratios. A greenhouse study of the effects of altered lignin in SOC formation and plant biomass has been completed as of November 2009. Wild-type (control) and three transgenic aspen lines expressing reduced stem lignin concentrations and/or increased syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) ratio lignin were grown in greenhouse mesocosms. Soil was collected from the Colorado Central Plains Experimental Range (CPER) northeast of Fort Collins, Colorado. The Colorado soil is an Olney fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Ultic Haplargrid). Plants at the surface mineral soil up to 5 cm depth were removed and the underlying soil was sampled to a depth of 30 cm. Soils were immediately shipped to Reno, NV. This C4 soil was then used to trace belowground C inputs by the C3 plants into the soil using the 13C natural abundance methods as described in the DOE proposal. Transgenic quaking aspen were generated by the Forest Biotechnology Group at North Carolina State University (NCSU) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the seedlings were then shipped to Reno, NV. Rooted seedlings were transferred from sterile agar into small pots with 250 g of C4 grass-dominated soil and kept in mist chambers in a greenhouse for four to six weeks. Plants were arranged randomly in adjacent greenhouse benches, soil blanks were placed randomly among the plants and treated in the same manner as pots with plants. Growth measurements were conducted for all plants in both groups and consisted of height, width at base of stem, number of leaves and length and width of every leaf in every tree. Plants were grown for a period of 120-140 days. At harvest, the aboveground portions of the trees were separated into leaves, litter, and stems. Soils were immediately frozen after harvest and roots were

  18. Cytopathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis virus is regulated by the PSAP motif of M protein in a species-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an important vector-borne pathogen of bovine and equine species, causing a reportable vesicular disease. The matrix (M) protein of VSV is multifunctional and plays a key role in cytopathogenesis, apoptosis, host protein shut-off, and virion assembly/budding. Our ...

  19. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K Supports Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication by Regulating Cell Survival and Cellular Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Das, Anshuman; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a member of the family of hnRNPs and was recently shown in a genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to support vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) growth. To decipher the role of hnRNP K in VSV infection, we conducted studies which suggest that the protein is required for VSV spreading. Virus binding to cells, entry, and nucleocapsid uncoating steps were not adversely affected in the absence of hnRNP K, whereas viral genome transcription and replication were reduced slightly. These results indicate that hnRNP K is likely involved in virus assembly and/or release from infected cells. Further studies showed that hnRNP K suppresses apoptosis of virus-infected cells, resulting in increased cell survival during VSV infection. The increased survival of the infected cells was found to be due to the suppression of proapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-XS and Bik in a cell-type-dependent manner. Additionally, depletion of hnRNP K resulted in not only significantly increased levels of T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) but also switching of the expression of the two isoforms of the protein (TIA1a and TIA1b), both of which inhibited VSV replication. hnRNP K was also found to support expression of several cellular proteins known to be required for VSV infection. Overall, our studies demonstrate hnRNP K to be a multifunctional protein that supports VSV infection via its role(s) in suppressing apoptosis of infected cells, inhibiting the expression of antiviral proteins, and maintaining the expression of proteins required for the virus. PMID:23843646

  20. Eradication of established HPV16-transformed tumours after immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus expressing a fusion protein of E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Riezebos-Brilman, A; Bungener, L; Regts, J; Dontje, B; Wischut, J

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we described the efficacy of immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV), expressing the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7, in inducing HPV-specific CTLs and anti-tumour responses. Recently, we developed a novel recombinant SFV construct encoding a

  1. Marek’s disease herpesvirus vaccines integrate into chicken host chromosomes yet lack a virus-host phenotype associated with oncogenic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotrophic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unimmunized host birds. The causative pathogen, Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres during viral latency an...

  2. Mutants of nonproducer cell lines transformed by murine sarcoma virus. II. Relationship of tumorigenicity to presence of viral markers and rescuable sarcoma genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, M; Klein, R; Lomg, C W; Gilden, R

    1973-08-01

    Tumorigenic and nontumorigenic mutants induced by a single 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment of a nonproducer (NP) tumorigenic cell line were isolated and characterized. Among the cloned derivatives were examples of virus-free and sarcoma virus-producing cell lines. Oncogenicity did not correlate with production of virus or ease of rescue of the sarcoma genome. All lines, including nononcogenic derivatives, retained the sarcoma genome. Phenotypic reversion of some cell mutants was observed after in vivo inoculation or long term in vitro cultivation. The M-50T cell line, obtained from a tumor induced by M-50 cells, had a sarcoma genome rescuable by direct superinfection; this was only achieved with parental M-50 cells by a cell fusion rescue technique. The M-43-2T cell, obtained from a single small static tumor induced by otherwise nononcogenic M-43-2 cells, shed sarcoma virus and became tumorigenic. M-58-4-48 became tumorigenic after passage 48 of the M-58-4 line, which was originally nontumorigenic. These observations of phenotypic reversion demonstrate that the presence of the sarcoma gene in cells is an essential but not sufficient condition of tumorigenesis.

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 regulation in cultured rat peritubular cells by basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magueresse-Battistoni, B; Pernod, G; Kolodié, L; Benahmed, M

    1996-10-01

    In the present study we examined the in vitro regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-1) expression in peritubular cells recovered from 20-day-old rat testes. We tested two growth factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha). They are synthesized by Sertoli cells, and peritubular cells exhibit the corresponding high affinity receptors. After exposure to bFGF or TGF alpha (0.1-30 ng/ml), PAI-1 messenger RNA levels, as determined by Northern hybridization analysis, increased in a dose-dependent manner. The first significant effects were noted after 2-h exposure to bFGF or TGF alpha (10 ng/ml), and PAI-1 messenger RNA levels were maximally stimulated approximately 12-fold (bFGF) and 8-fold (TGF alpha) after 4 h. The two growth factors increased the amount of immunoreactive (Western blots) and biologically active (Stachrom) PAI-1 measured in the culture medium. Actinomycin D inhibited the effects of these factors, whereas cycloheximide augmented them. Phorbol myristate acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, mimicked the effects of bFGF and TGF alpha. Interestingly, long term (24-h) pretreatment with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in a severe loss of responsiveness to bFGF or TGF alpha. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, also significantly reduced the effects of bFGF and TGF alpha. Given that PAI-1 inhibits Sertoli cell plasminogen activator activity and that bFGF and TGF alpha are synthesized by Sertoli cells, these factors are likely to interact to regulate protease activity in localized regions of the seminiferous tubule.

  4. Oncogenic ras-induced down-regulation of autophagy mediator Beclin-1 is required for malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Wu, Xue; Li, Yongling; Haniff, Mehnaaz; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Rosen, Kirill V

    2010-02-19

    Detachment of non-malignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix causes their growth arrest and, ultimately, death. By contrast, cells composing carcinomas, cancers of epithelial origin, can survive and proliferate without being attached to the extracellular matrix. These properties of tumor cells represent hallmarks of malignant transformation and are critical for cancer progression. Previously we identified several mechanisms by which ras, a major oncogene, blocks detachment-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, but mechanisms by which Ras promotes proliferation of those cells that remain viable following detachment are unknown. We show here that detachment of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells promotes formation of autophagosomes, vacuole-like structures that mediate autophagy (a process of cellular self-cannibalization), and that oncogenic ras prevents this autophagosome formation. We also found that ras activates a GTPase RhoA, that RhoA promotes activation of a protease calpain, and that calpain triggers degradation of Beclin-1, a critical mediator of autophagy, in these cells. The reversal of the effect of ras on Beclin-1 (achieved by expression of exogenous Beclin-1) promoted autophagosome formation following cell detachment, significantly reduced the fraction of detached cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and their rate of proliferation without affecting their viability. Furthermore, RNA interference-induced Beclin-1 down-regulation in non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells prevented detachment-dependent reduction of the fraction of these cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Thus, ras oncogene promotes proliferation of those malignant intestinal epithelial cells that remain viable following detachment via a distinct novel mechanism that involves Ras-induced down-regulation of Beclin-1.

  5. Oncogenic ras-induced Down-regulation of Autophagy Mediator Beclin-1 Is Required for Malignant Transformation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Wu, Xue; Li, Yongling; Haniff, Mehnaaz; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Rosen, Kirill V.

    2010-01-01

    Detachment of non-malignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix causes their growth arrest and, ultimately, death. By contrast, cells composing carcinomas, cancers of epithelial origin, can survive and proliferate without being attached to the extracellular matrix. These properties of tumor cells represent hallmarks of malignant transformation and are critical for cancer progression. Previously we identified several mechanisms by which ras, a major oncogene, blocks detachment-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, but mechanisms by which Ras promotes proliferation of those cells that remain viable following detachment are unknown. We show here that detachment of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells promotes formation of autophagosomes, vacuole-like structures that mediate autophagy (a process of cellular self-cannibalization), and that oncogenic ras prevents this autophagosome formation. We also found that ras activates a GTPase RhoA, that RhoA promotes activation of a protease calpain, and that calpain triggers degradation of Beclin-1, a critical mediator of autophagy, in these cells. The reversal of the effect of ras on Beclin-1 (achieved by expression of exogenous Beclin-1) promoted autophagosome formation following cell detachment, significantly reduced the fraction of detached cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and their rate of proliferation without affecting their viability. Furthermore, RNA interference-induced Beclin-1 down-regulation in non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells prevented detachment-dependent reduction of the fraction of these cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Thus, ras oncogene promotes proliferation of those malignant intestinal epithelial cells that remain viable following detachment via a distinct novel mechanism that involves Ras-induced down-regulation of Beclin-1. PMID:19778902

  6. l-Arginine-Dependent Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-10, but Not Transforming Growth Factor-β, Production by Neonatal Regulatory T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuender D. Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of diseases in humans, including trauma, certain cancers, and infection, are known to be associated with l-arginine deficiency. In addition, l-arginine must be supplemented by diet during pregnancy to aid fetal development. In conditions of l-arginine depletion, T cell proliferation is impaired. We have previously shown that neonatal blood has lower l-arginine levels than adult blood, which is associated with poor neonatal lymphocyte proliferation, and that l-arginine enhances neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin (IL-2-independent pathway. In this study, we have further investigated how exogenous l-arginine enhances neonatal regulatory T-cells (Tregs function in relation to IL-10 production under epigenetic regulation. Results showed that cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs produced higher levels of IL-10 than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by phytohemagglutinin stimulation but not by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation. Addition of exogenous l-arginine had no effect on transforming growth factor-β production by PBMCs or CBMCs, but enhanced IL-10 production by neonatal CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs. Further studies showed that IL-10 promoter DNA hypomethylation, rather than histone modification, corresponded to the l-arginine-induced increase in IL-10 production by neonatal CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that l-arginine modulates neonatal Tregs through the regulation of IL-10 promoter DNA methylation. l-arginine supplementation may correct the Treg function in newborns with l-arginine deficiency.

  7. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Regulation, Functions, and Underlying Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Lipeng; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xiuquan; Wu, Yihang; Tang, Qi; Chen, Keping

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its X gene-encoded protein (HBx) play important roles in the progression of HCC. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) cannot encode proteins, growing evidence indicates that they play essential roles in HCC progression, and contribute to cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, autophagy, and apoptosis by targeting a large number of pivota...

  8. Hsp90 interacts specifically with viral RNA and differentially regulates replication initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and associated satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Host factors play crucial roles in the replication of plus-strand RNA viruses. In this report, a heat shock protein 90 homologue of Nicotiana benthamiana, NbHsp90, was identified in association with partially purified replicase complexes from BaMV-infected tissue, and shown to specifically interact with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of BaMV genomic RNA, but not with the 3' UTR of BaMV-associated satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA or that of genomic RNA of other viruses, such as Potato virus X (PVX or Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Mutational analyses revealed that the interaction occurs between the middle domain of NbHsp90 and domain E of the BaMV 3' UTR. The knockdown or inhibition of NbHsp90 suppressed BaMV infectivity, but not that of satBaMV RNA, PVX, or CMV in N. benthamiana. Time-course analysis further revealed that the inhibitory effect of 17-AAG is significant only during the immediate early stages of BaMV replication. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays demonstrated the existence of an interaction between NbHsp90 and the BaMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results reveal a novel role for NbHsp90 in the selective enhancement of BaMV replication, most likely through direct interaction with the 3' UTR of BaMV RNA during the initiation of BaMV RNA replication.

  9. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

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    Polona Kogovšek

    Full Text Available Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation, virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed.

  10. Regulation of endothelin-1 synthesis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewitz, B A; Farrukh, I S; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Michael, J R

    2001-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) potently regulates pulmonary vascular tone and promotes vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Clinical and animal studies implicate increased ET-1 production in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Although pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) synthesize ET-1 under basal conditions, it is unknown whether factors that may be important in pulmonary hypertension, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or hypoxia, augment ET-1 production by these cells. We determined the effect of TGF-beta and hypoxia on ET-1 release and preproET-1 mRNA from cultured rat and human PASMCs. In the basal state, rat and human PASMCs synthesize, on average (mean+/-S.E.M.), 872+/-114 and 563+/-57 pg ET-1/mg cell protein over 24 h, respectively, a level that causes autocrine and paracrine effects in other tissues. TGF-beta significantly increases the expression of preproET-1 mRNA and ET-1 production by both rat and human PASMCs. Hypoxia for 24 h, however, does not affect ET-1 release from rat or human PASMCs. Cultured rat and human PASMCs are a source of ET-1 production. Enhanced ET-1 release from PASMCs may contribute to the pathophysiology of TGF-beta-induced pulmonary hypertension. ET-1 production by PASMCs is unlikely to contribute to the role of ET-1 in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta1 expression is up-regulated in maturation-stage enamel organ and may induce ameloblast apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Tye, Coralee E; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Bartlett, John D

    2009-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates a variety of cellular responses that are dependent on the developmental stage and on the origins of the cell or the tissue. In mature tissues, and especially in tissues of epithelial origin, TGF-beta1 is generally considered to be a growth inhibitor that may also promote apoptosis. The ameloblast cells of the enamel organ epithelium are adjacent to and responsible for the developing enamel layer on unerupted teeth. Once the enamel layer reaches its full thickness, the tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts shorten, and a portion of these maturation-stage ameloblasts become apoptotic. Here we investigate whether TGF-beta1 plays a role in apoptosis of the maturation-stage ameloblasts. We demonstrate in vitro that ameloblast lineage cells are highly susceptible to TGF-beta1-mediated growth arrest and are prone to TGF-beta1-mediated cell death/apoptosis. We also demonstrate in vivo that TGF-beta1 is expressed in the maturation-stage enamel organ at significantly higher levels than in the earlier secretory-stage enamel organ. This increased expression of TGF-beta1 correlates with an increase in expression of the enamel organ immediate-early stress-response gene and with a decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 : Bax expression ratio. We conclude that TGF-beta1 may play an important role in ameloblast apoptosis during the maturation stage of enamel development.

  12. Myrtol improves post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis by regulation of reactive oxygen species, transforming growth factor β1 and apoptosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liqun; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Haiping

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested whether myrtol improves post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTKO) by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and apoptosis in a mouse model. PTKO model mice were administered with 150, 300 or 450 mg/kg myrtol for 8 weeks. ELISA analysis was used to measure tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species and TGF-β1 levels. Caspase-3 and Bax protein expressions were analyzed using western blot analysis. In the current study, treatment with myrtol improved the tissue damage and osteoarthritis score, while it also reversed the subchondral bone thickness, subchondral bone density, trabecular bone volume/relative trabecular bone volume ratio and trabecular bone spacing in PTKO mice. The activity of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, TGF-β1, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and ROS were effectively inhibited, and the protein expression of caspase-3 and Bax were clearly suppressed by treatment with myrtol in a mouse model of PTKO. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that myrtol treatment improved PTKO through the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, ROS, TGF-β1 and Bax/caspase-3 in mice, and myrtol may be a potential agent for clinical therapy.

  13. Role of transforming growth factor-β1 in down-regulating TNF production by alveolar macrophages during asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis

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    Irma Lemaire

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of alveolar macrophages (AM for tumour necrosis factor production is suppressed initially during the inflammatory response to fibrogenic dusts. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TNF suppression, notably the role of other AM-derived mediators including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and interleukin 6 (IL-6. The action of PGE2 and TGF-β1, on AM was different. At physiologically relevant doses (25–300 pg/ml, PGE2 did not cause significant inhibition of Hpopolysaccharide (Lps-induced TNF release by AM in vitro but stimulated IL-6 (up to six fold, an inhibitor of AM-derived TNT. In contrast, TGF-β1 (0.5–50 ng/ml inhibited both LPS-induced TNT and IL-6 release by 50% but had no effect on PGE2 production by AM. To determine the respective contribution of these different inhibitors in TNF suppression, AM from rats exposed to fibrogenic asbestos for weeks were treated with neutralizing antibody against TGF-β1 or indomethacin, an inhibitor of PGE2 synthesis. Treatment of rat AM with anti-TGF-β1 but not indomethacin, abrogated the observed TNT suppression. These results suggest that an autocrine, TGF-β1-dependent mechanism is involved in the down-regulation of TNF production by rat AM from animals with lung fibrosis.

  14. Interleukin-10 but not transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression is up-regulated by vitamin D treatment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Zeinab Shirvani; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Variety of different genetics and environmental factors are involved in MS pathology. The epidemiological studies demonstrated that vitamin D has immune and immunomodulating effects on MS disease. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of vitamin D treatment on the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) genes in MS patients. We found that, the expression level of IL-10 gene in treated patients was up-regulated 3.84 times more than before treatment, but the expression level of TGF-β1 was not affected by vitamin D treatment. Also, a significant relationship was observed between vitamin D level and EDSS in MS patients. Our results indicated that the increased level of serum vitamin D and IL-10 gene expression may be associated with the reduction of EDSS scores in MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitotic protein kinase CDK1 phosphorylation of mRNA translation regulator 4E-BP1 Ser83 may contribute to cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Celestino; Cheng, Erdong; Shuda, Masahiro; Lee-Oesterreich, Paula J.; Pogge von Strandmann, Lisa; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2016-07-11

    mTOR-directed 4E-BP1 phosphorylation promotes cap-dependent translation and tumorigen-esis. During mitosis, CDK1 substitutes for mTOR and fully phosphorylates 4E-BP1 at canoni-cal as well a non-canonical S83 site resulting in a mitosis-specific hyperphosphorylated δ isoform. Colocalization studies with a phospho-S83 specific antibody indicate that 4E-BP1 S83 phosphorylation accumulates at centrosomes during prophase, peaks at metaphase, and decreases through telophase. While S83 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 does not affect in vitro cap-dependent translation, nor eIF4G/4E-BP1 cap-binding, expression of an alanine substitution mutant 4E-BP1.S83A partially reverses rodent cell transformation induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) small T (sT) antigen viral oncoprotein. In contrast to inhibitory mTOR 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, these findings suggest that mitotic CDK1-directed phosphorylation of δ-4E-BP1 may yield a gain-of-function, distinct from translation regulation, that may be important in tumorigenesis and mitotic centrosome function.

  16. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  17. Association of SRC-related kinase Lyn with the interleukin-2 receptor and its role in maintaining constitutive phosphorylation of JAK/STAT in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuh, Maureen; Morse, Barry A; Heidecker, Gisela; Derse, David

    2011-05-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and transformation are associated with an incremental switch in the expression of the Src-related protein tyrosine kinases Lck and Lyn. We examined the physical and functional interactions of Lyn with receptors and signal transduction proteins in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Lyn coimmunoprecipitates with the interleukin-2 beta receptor (IL-2Rβ) and JAK3 proteins; however, the association of Lyn with the IL-2Rβ and Lyn kinase activity was independent of IL-2 stimulation. Phosphorylation of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) and signal transducers and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) proteins was reduced by treatment of cells with the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 or by ectopic expression of a dominant negative Lyn kinase protein.

  18. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

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    Amalia Torre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  19. Cutting edge: innate immune response triggered by influenza A virus is negatively regulated by SOCS1 and SOCS3 through a RIG-I/IFNAR1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothlichet, Julien; Chignard, Michel; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2008-02-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) triggers a contagious respiratory disease that produces considerable lethality. Although this lethality is likely due to an excessive host inflammatory response, the negative feedback mechanisms aimed at regulating such a response are unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the eight "suppressor of cytokine signaling" (SOCS) regulatory proteins in IAV-triggered cytokine expression in human respiratory epithelial cells. SOCS1 to SOCS7, but not cytokine-inducible Src homology 2-containing protein (CIS), are constitutively expressed in these cells and only SOCS1 and SOCS3 expressions are up-regulated upon IAV challenge. Using distinct approaches affecting the expression and/or the function of the IFNalphabeta receptor (IFNAR)1, the viral sensors TLR3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) as well as the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, a RIG-I signaling intermediate), we demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 up-regulation requires a TLR3-independent, RIG-I/MAVS/IFNAR1-dependent pathway. Importantly, by using vectors overexpressing SOCS1 and SOCS3 we revealed that while both molecules inhibit antiviral responses, they differentially modulate inflammatory signaling pathways.

  20. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyuk Yoo

    Full Text Available Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs are differentiated from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs during embryogenesis and this physiological cell fate specification is controlled by PROX1, the master regulator for lymphatic development. When Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infects host cells, it activates the otherwise silenced embryonic endothelial differentiation program and reprograms their cell fates. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that KSHV drives BECs to acquire a partial lymphatic phenotype by upregulating PROX1 (forward reprogramming, but stimulates LECs to regain some BEC-signature genes by downregulating PROX1 (reverse reprogramming. Despite the significance of this KSHV-induced bidirectional cell fate reprogramming in KS pathogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we report that IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα and NOTCH play integral roles in the host cell type-specific regulation of PROX1 by KSHV. In BECs, KSHV upregulates IL3Rα and phosphorylates STAT5, which binds and activates the PROX1 promoter. In LECs, however, PROX1 was rather downregulated by KSHV-induced NOTCH signal via HEY1, which binds and represses the PROX1 promoter. Moreover, PROX1 was found to be required to maintain HEY1 expression in LECs, establishing a reciprocal regulation between PROX1 and HEY1. Upon co-activation of IL3Rα and NOTCH, PROX1 was upregulated in BECs, but downregulated in LECs. Together, our study provides the molecular mechanism underlying the cell type-specific endothelial fate reprogramming by KSHV.

  1. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

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    Clare Jolly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  2. Hepatitis C virus non-structural 5B protein interacts with cyclin A2 and regulates viral propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long; Ngo, HT; Lim, YS

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires host cellular proteins for its own propagation. To identify the cellular factors necessary for HCV propagation, we have recently screened the small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting cell cycle genes using cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc......)-infected cells. In the current study, we have selected and characterized the gene encoding Cyclin A2 (CycA2). Deregulation of CycA2 has been implicated in many types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods The effects of CycA2 on HCV propagation were investigated by siRNA-mediated knockdown assay...

  3. The amino acid residues at 102 and 104 in GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus regulate viral neutralization susceptibility to the porcine serum neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baochao; Liu, Xing; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Tingjie; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-06-02

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is mainly responsible for the heavy economic losses in pig industry in the world. A number of neutralizing epitopes have been identified in the viral structural proteins GP3, GP4, GP5 and M. In this study, the important amino acid (aa) residues of HP-PRRSV strain BB affecting neutralization susceptibility of antibody were examined using resistant strains generated under neutralizing antibody (NAb) pressure in MARC-145 cells, reverse genetic technique and virus neutralization assay. HP-PRRSV strain BB was passaged under the pressure of porcine NAb serum in vitro. A resistant strain BB34s with 102 and 104 aa substitutions in GP5, which have been predicted to be the positive sites for pressure selection (Delisle et al., 2012), was cloned and identified. To determine the effect of the two aa residues on neutralization, eight recombinant PRRSV strains were generated, and neutralization assay results confirmed that the aa residues 102 and 104 in GP5 played an important role in NAbs against HP-PRRSV in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Alignment of GP5 sequences revealed that the variant aa residues at 102 and 104 were frequent among type 2 PRRSV strains. It may be helpful for understanding the mechanism regulating the neutralization susceptibility of PRRSV to the NAbs and monitoring the antigen variant strains in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vivo fitness associated with high virulence in a vertebrate virus is a complex trait regulated by host entry, replication, and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between pathogen fitness and virulence is typically examined by quantifying only one or two pathogen fitness traits. More specifically, it is regularly assumed that within-host replication, as a precursor to transmission, is the driving force behind virulence. In reality, many traits contribute to pathogen fitness, and each trait could drive the evolution of virulence in different ways. Here, we independently quantified four viral infection cycle traits, namely, host entry, within-host replication, within-host coinfection fitness, and shedding, in vivo, in the vertebrate virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). We examined how each of these stages of the viral infection cycle contributes to the fitness of IHNV genotypes that differ in virulence in rainbow trout. This enabled us to determine how infection cycle fitness traits are independently associated with virulence. We found that viral fitness was independently regulated by each of the traits examined, with the largest impact on fitness being provided by within-host replication. Furthermore, the more virulent of the two genotypes of IHNV we used had advantages in all of the traits quantified. Our results are thus congruent with the assumption that virulence and within-host replication are correlated but suggest that infection cycle fitness is complex and that replication is not the only trait associated with virulence.

  5. A novel link of HLA locus to the regulation of immunity and infection: NFKBIL1 regulates alternative splicing of human immune-related genes and influenza virus M gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jianbo; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Shibata, Hiroki; Arimura, Takuro; Yasunami, Michio; Kimura, Akinori

    2013-12-01

    HLA locus contains immune-related genes and genetically regulates immune responses against both foreign- and self-antigens in humans. Inhibitor of κB-like protein (IκBL), encoded by HLA-linked NFKBIL1, is a protein of unknown function, while genetic variations in NFKBIL1 are known to associate with the susceptibility to inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases. In this study, we found that IκBL suppressed exon exclusion in alternative splicing of human immune-related genes such as CD45. Yeast-two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation assay revealed molecular association of IκBL with CLK1, a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase, which plays a role in the alternative splicing. Unexpectedly, we found that the regulation of alternative splicing in CD45 by IκBL was independent from the kinase activity of CLK1. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that an SR protein, ASF/SF2, bound both IκBL and CLK1 at the RNA-recognition motifs of ASF/SF2, implying a competition of IκBL and CLK1 on SR protein. In addition, IκBL was found to regulate the CLK1-dependent synthesis of M2 RNA, a splice variant of influenza A virus M gene. These observations suggest a functional involvement of IκBL in the regulation of alternative splicing in both human and viral genes, which is a novel link of HLA locus to the regulation of immunity and infection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  7. In vitro expression of the alpha-smooth muscle actin isoform by rat lung mesenchymal cells: regulation by culture condition and transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J J; Woodcock-Mitchell, J L; Perry, L; Zhao, J; Low, R B; Baldor, L; Absher, P M

    1993-07-01

    alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha SM actin)-containing cells recently have been demonstrated in intraalveolar lesions in both rat and human tissues following lung injury. In order to develop model systems for the study of such cells, we examined cultured lung cell lines for this phenotype. The adult rat lung fibroblast-like "RL" cell lines were found to express alpha SM actin mRNA and protein and to organize this actin into stress fiber-like structures. Immunocytochemical staining of subclones of the RL87 line demonstrated the presence in the cultures of at least four cell phenotypes, one that fails to express alpha SM actin and three distinct morphologic types that do express alpha SM actin. The proportion of cellular actin that is the alpha-isoform was modulated by the culture conditions. RL cells growing at low density expressed minimal alpha SM actin. On reaching confluent densities, however, alpha SM actin increased to at least 20% of the total actin content. This effect, combined with the observation that the most immunoreactive cells were those that displayed overlapping cell processes in culture, suggests that cell-cell contact may be involved in actin isoform regulation in these cells. Similar to the response of some smooth muscle cell lines, alpha SM actin expression in RL cells also was promoted by conditions, e.g., maintenance in low serum medium, which minimize cell division. alpha SM actin expression was modulated in RL cells by the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta. Addition of this cytokine to growing cells substantially elevated the proportion of alpha SM actin protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Transcriptional Activity of Arsenic-Reducing Bacteria and Genes Regulated by Lactate and Biochar during Arsenic Transformation in Flooded Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Li, Xiao-Min; Hu, Min; Li, Fang-Bai; Young, Lily Y; Sun, Wei-Min; Huang, Weilin; Cui, Jiang-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Organic substrates and biochar are important in controlling arsenic release from sediments and soils; however, little is known about their impact on arsenic-reducing bacteria and genes during arsenic transformation in flooded paddy soils. In this study, microcosm experiments were established to profile transcriptional activity of As(V)-respiring gene (arrA) and arsenic resistance gene (arsC) as well as the associated bacteria regulated by lactate and/or biochar in anaerobic arsenic-contaminated paddy soils. Chemical analyses revealed that lactate as the organic substrate stimulated microbial reduction of As(V) and Fe(III), which was simultaneously promoted by lactate+biochar, due to biochar's electron shuttle function that facilitates electron transfer from bacteria to As(V)/Fe(III). Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that both arrA closely associated with Geobacter (>60%, number of identical sequences/number of the total sequences) and arsC related to Enterobacteriaceae (>99%) were selected by lactate and lactate+biochar. Compared with the lactate microcosms, transcriptions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, Geobacter spp., and Geobacter arrA and arsC genes were increased in the lactate+biochar microcosms, where transcript abundances of Geobacter and Geobacter arrA closely tracked with dissolved As(V) concentrations. Our findings indicated that lactate and biochar in flooded paddy soils can stimulate the active As(V)-respiring bacteria Geobacter species for arsenic reduction and release, which probably increases arsenic bioavailability to rice plants.

  9. Thalidomide Accelerates the Degradation of Extracellular Matrix in Rat Hepatic Cirrhosis via Down-Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Meng, Qingshun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Chuanfang

    2015-11-01

    The degradation of the extracellular matrix has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, the effect of thalidomide on the degradation of extracellular matrix was evaluated in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) three times weekly for 8 weeks. Then CCl₄ was discontinued and thalidomide (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered daily by gavage for 6 weeks. Serum hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen type III, and collagen type IV were examined by using a radioimmunoassay. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein in the liver, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) protein in cytoplasm by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 mRNA levels in the liver were studied using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Liver histopathology was significantly better in rats given thalidomide than in the untreated model group. The levels of TIMP-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased significantly and MMP-13 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly elevated in the thalidomide-treated group. Thalidomide may exert its effects on the regulation of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 via inhibition of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway, which enhances the degradation of extracellular matrix and accelerates the regression of hepatic cirrhosis in rats.

  10. WISP genes are members of the connective tissue growth factor family that are up-regulated in wnt-1-transformed cells and aberrantly expressed in human colon tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennica, D; Swanson, T A; Welsh, J W; Roy, M A; Lawrence, D A; Lee, J; Brush, J; Taneyhill, L A; Deuel, B; Lew, M; Watanabe, C; Cohen, R L; Melhem, M F; Finley, G G; Quirke, P; Goddard, A D; Hillan, K J; Gurney, A L; Botstein, D; Levine, A J

    1998-12-08

    Wnt family members are critical to many developmental processes, and components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been linked to tumorigenesis in familial and sporadic colon carcinomas. Here we report the identification of two genes, WISP-1 and WISP-2, that are up-regulated in the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG transformed by Wnt-1, but not by Wnt-4. Together with a third related gene, WISP-3, these proteins define a subfamily of the connective tissue growth factor family. Two distinct systems demonstrated WISP induction to be associated with the expression of Wnt-1. These included (i) C57MG cells infected with a Wnt-1 retroviral vector or expressing Wnt-1 under the control of a tetracyline repressible promoter, and (ii) Wnt-1 transgenic mice. The WISP-1 gene was localized to human chromosome 8q24.1-8q24.3. WISP-1 genomic DNA was amplified in colon cancer cell lines and in human colon tumors and its RNA overexpressed (2- to >30-fold) in 84% of the tumors examined compared with patient-matched normal mucosa. WISP-3 mapped to chromosome 6q22-6q23 and also was overexpressed (4- to >40-fold) in 63% of the colon tumors analyzed. In contrast, WISP-2 mapped to human chromosome 20q12-20q13 and its DNA was amplified, but RNA expression was reduced (2- to >30-fold) in 79% of the tumors. These results suggest that the WISP genes may be downstream of Wnt-1 signaling and that aberrant levels of WISP expression in colon cancer may play a role in colon tumorigenesis.

  11. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and

  12. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Marcondes

    Full Text Available The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the recombinant plasmid. It is the first description of a lettuce Brazilian variety "Vitória de Verão" genetically modified.

  13. Adenovirus E1A targets the DREF nuclear factor to regulate virus gene expression, DNA replication, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Sandi; Koleva, Maria; James, Kris M D; Jung, Richard; Mymryk, Joe S; Pelka, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The adenovirus E1A gene is the first gene expressed upon viral infection. E1A remodels the cellular environment to maximize permissivity for viral replication. E1A is also the major transactivator of viral early gene expression and a coregulator of a large number of cellular genes. E1A carries out its functions predominantly by binding to cellular regulatory proteins and altering their activities. The unstructured nature of E1A enables it to bind to a large variety of cellular proteins and form new molecular complexes with novel functions. The C terminus of E1A is the least-characterized region of the protein, with few known binding partners. Here we report the identification of cellular factor DREF (ZBED1) as a novel and direct binding partner of E1A. Our studies identify a dual role for DREF in the viral life cycle. DREF contributes to activation of gene expression from all viral promoters early in infection. Unexpectedly, it also functions as a growth restriction factor for adenovirus as knockdown of DREF enhances virus growth and increases viral genome copy number late in the infection. We also identify DREF as a component of viral replication centers. E1A affects the subcellular distribution of DREF within PML bodies and enhances DREF SUMOylation. Our findings identify DREF as a novel E1A C terminus binding partner and provide evidence supporting a role for DREF in viral replication. This work identifies the putative transcription factor DREF as a new target of the E1A oncoproteins of human adenovirus. DREF was found to primarily localize with PML nuclear bodies in uninfected cells and to relocalize into virus replication centers during infection. DREF was also found to be SUMOylated, and this was enhanced in the presence of E1A. Knockdown of DREF reduced the levels of viral transcripts detected at 20 h, but not at 40 h, postinfection, increased overall virus yield, and enhanced viral DNA replication. DREF was also found to localize to viral promoters during

  14. IgG-derived Fc down-regulates virus-induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) IFNalpha production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel S; Lum, Tom; Green, Jon A

    2004-06-07

    Interferon alpha (IFNalpha) produced primarily by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) is a potent component of the anti-viral innate immune response, and modulates adaptive immunity. Primary control of IFNalpha production occurs at a cellular level and is highly dependent upon regulatory factors and their products. Recent studies have identified up-regulation of IFNalpha production mediated by the adaptive immune response in the form of immune specific IgG. These studies establish a role for the external control of IFNalpha production. The current work demonstrates that the Fc portion of IgG is a potent inhibitor of IFNalpha produced by pDCs in response to HIV, HSV, and VSV. Fc down-regulation occurs after IFNalpha production can be detected by bioassay, and suggests the existence of late regulatory events in the control of IFNalpha production. Down-regulation of IFNalpha is not caused by Fc-induced necrosis, apoptosis or neutralization of IFNalpha activity. Demonstration of Fc-mediated down-regulation of IFNalpha provides additional evidence of the role of IgG in the regulation of IFNalpha production. Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Bovine Leukemia Virus Small Noncoding RNAs Are Functional Elements That Regulate Replication and Contribute to Oncogenesis In Vivo.

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    Nicolas A Gillet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity. We further demonstrate that BLV miRNAs are essential to induce B-cell tumors in an experimental model and to promote efficient viral replication in the natural host.

  16. Differential regulation of hepatitis B virus core protein expression and genome replication by a small upstream open reading frame and naturally occurring mutations in the precore region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Li; Qin, Yanli; Jia, Haodi; Ye, Lei; Wang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Jiming; Wands, Jack R; Tong, Shuping; Li, Jisu

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcribes two subsets of 3.5-kb RNAs: precore RNA for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression, and pregenomic RNA for core and P protein translation as well as genome replication. HBeAg expression could be prevented by mutations in the precore region, while an upstream open reading frame (uORF) has been proposed as a negative regulator of core protein translation. We employed replication competent HBV DNA constructs and transient transfection experiments in Huh7 cells to verify the uORF effect and to explore the alternative function of precore RNA. Optimized Kozak sequence for the uORF or extra ATG codons as present in some HBV genotypes reduced core protein expression. G1896A nonsense mutation promoted more efficient core protein expression than mutated precore ATG, while a +1 frameshift mutation was ineffective. In conclusion, various HBeAg-negative precore mutations and mutations affecting uORF differentially regulate core protein expression and genome replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of naturally occurring amino acid variations that affect the ability of the measles virus C protein to regulate genome replication and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Wilson, Jenna; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2005-05-25

    The C protein of measles virus (MV C) is a basic protein of 186 amino acids (aa) that plays at least two roles in infected cells, interference with the innate immune response and modulation of viral polymerase activity. In this study, Northern blots were used to demonstrate that C proteins from three vaccine strains and three wild-type isolates of MV downregulated both mRNA transcription and genome replication in a plasmid-based mini-genome assay. The effect on transcription always paralleled the effect on replication; however, the six MV C proteins varied considerably in their ability to inhibit polymerase activity. Though the amino-terminal 45 aa of the C protein are more variable among different MV strains than the remaining 75% of the protein, the ability of the MV C proteins to inhibit polymerase activity was not regulated by substitutions in the amino terminus, but rather by the more conserved region containing aa 46-167. Naturally occurring substitutions at positions 147 and 166, but not 88 and 186, were found to regulate MV C protein activity. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 19 aa did not affect the polymerase-modulating activity. Though we did not find a link between the aa changes in MV C and attenuation, these data provide new information regarding the functions of this non-structural protein.

  18. The expression of PD-1 ligands and their involvement in regulation of T cell functions in acute and chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1/programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1 system may play a role in the negative regulation of T cell functions in hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Thus, it is important to study its role in the widely used animal model for HBV infection of woodchucks with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV. METHODS: Woodchuck PD-L1 (wPD-L1 and -L2 (wPD-L2 were cloned and characterized. The levels of wPD-L1 expression in primary woodchuck hepatocytes (PWH, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and liver tissue of naive and WHV-infected woodchucks were examined by real time reverse transcription (RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Using antibodies against wPD-L1 and -L2, the effect of blocking PD-1/PD-L1/PD-L2 interaction on the proliferation and degranulation of woodchuck PBMCs was examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both wPD-L1 and -L2 showed a high homology to their counterparts of other mammalian species and humans. WPD-L1 expression in PWH and PBMCs of naive animals was low but could be stimulated by Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands and interferons (IFN. WPD-L1 expression in liver tissue was significantly higher than that measured in PWHs and was slightly elevated during acute and chronic WHV infection. However, wPD-1 and wPD-L1 expression on PBMCs was strongly up-regulated during acute and chronic infection. In vitro blockade with antibodies against wPD-L1 and -L2 partially enhanced proliferation and degranulation of PBMCs from WHV-infected woodchucks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that wPD-1/wPD-L1 expression in hepatocytes and PBMCs can be induced by different inflammatory stimuli and is up-regulated mainly on PBMCs during WHV infection. A blockade of the woodchuck PD-1/PD-L pathway could partially enhance T cell functions in WHV infection.

  19. RNA helicase DEAD box protein 5 regulates Polycomb repressive complex 2/Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA function in hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xing, Zheng; Mani, Saravana Kumar Kailasam; Bancel, Brigitte; Durantel, David; Zoulim, Fabien; Tran, Elizabeth J; Merle, Philippe; Andrisani, Ourania

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis by a mechanism not yet understood. Elucidating mechanisms of HBV-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis is needed to gain insights into classification and treatment of HCC. In HBV replicating cells, including virus-associated HCCs, suppressor of zeste 12 homolog (SUZ12), a core subunit of Polycomb repressive complex2 (PRC2), undergoes proteasomal degradation. This process requires the long noncoding RNA, Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR). Intriguingly, HOTAIR interacts with PRC2 and also binds RNA-binding E3 ligases, serving as a ubiquitination scaffold. Herein, we identified the RNA helicase, DEAD box protein 5 (DDX5), as a regulator of SUZ12 stability and PRC2-mediated gene repression, acting by regulating RNA-protein complexes formed with HOTAIR. Specifically, knockdown of DDX5 and/or HOTAIR enabled reexpression of PRC2-repressed genes epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and pluripotency genes. Also, knockdown of DDX5 enhanced transcription from the HBV minichromosome. The helicase activity of DDX5 stabilized SUZ12- and PRC2-mediated gene silencing, by displacing the RNA-binding E3 ligase, Mex-3 RNA-binding family member B (Mex3b), from HOTAIR. Conversely, ectopic expression of Mex3b ubiquitinated SUZ12, displaced DDX5 from HOTAIR, and induced SUZ12 down-regulation. In G2 phase of cells expressing the HBV X protein (HBx), SUZ12 preferentially associated with Mex3b, but not DDX5, resulting in de-repression of PRC2 targets, including EpCAM and pluripotency genes. Significantly, liver tumors from HBx/c-myc bitransgenic mice and chronically HBV-infected patients exhibited a strong negative correlation between DDX5 messenger RNA levels, pluripotency gene expression, and liver tumor differentiation. Notably, chronically infected HBV patients with HCC expressing reduced DDX5 exhibited poor prognosis after tumor resection, identifying DDX5 as an

  20. Role of Litopenaeus vannamei Yin Yang 1 in the Regulation of the White Spot Syndrome Virus Immediate Early Gene ie1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Han; Huang, Ting-Yi; Cai, Pei-Si; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2017-03-15

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc finger transcription factor that regulates many key cellular processes. In this study, we report the cloning of YY1 from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp (LvYY1). This study shows that LvYY1 is ubiquitously expressed in shrimp tissues, and knockdown of LvYY1 expression by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp reduced both mRNA levels of the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 as well as overall copy numbers of the WSSV genome. The cumulative mortality rate of infected shrimp also declined with LvYY1 dsRNA injection. Using an insect cell model, we observed that LvYY1 activates ie1 expression, and a mutation introduced into the ie1 promoter subsequently repressed this capability. Moreover, reporter assay results suggested that LvYY1 is involved in basal transcriptional regulation via an interaction with L. vannamei TATA-binding protein (LvTBP). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) results further indicated that LvYY1 binds to a YY1-binding site in the region between positions -119 and -126 in the ie1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also confirmed that LvYY1 binds to the ie1 promoter in WSSV-infected shrimp. Taken together, these results indicate that WSSV uses host LvYY1 to enhance ie1 expression via a YY1-binding site and the TATA box in the ie1 promoter, thereby facilitating lytic activation and viral replication.IMPORTANCE WSSV has long been a scourge of the shrimp industry and remains a serious global threat. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand how the interactions between WSSV and its host drive infection, lytic development, pathogenesis, and mortality. Our successful cloning of L. vannamei YY1 (LvYY1) led to the elucidation of a critical virus-host interaction between LvYY1 and the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 We observed that LvYY1 regulates ie1 expression via a consensus YY1-binding site and TATA box. LvYY1 was also found to interact with L

  1. Hepatitis C virus induced miR200c down modulates FAP-1, a negative regulator of Src signaling and promotes hepatic fibrosis.

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    Sabarinathan Ramachandran

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV induced liver disease is the leading indication for liver transplantation (LTx. Reinfection and accelerated development of fibrosis is a universal phenomenon following LTx. The molecular events that lead to fibrosis following HCV infection still remains poorly defined. In this study, we determined microRNA (miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in livers from chronic HCV patients and normals using microarrays. Using Genego software and pathway finder we performed an interactive analysis to identify target genes that are modulated by miRNAs. 22 miRNAs were up regulated (>2 fold and 35 miRNAs were down regulated (>2fold compared to controls. Liver from HCV patients demonstrated increased expression of 306 genes (>3 fold and reduced expression of 133 genes (>3 fold. Combinatorial analysis of the networks modulated by the miRNAs identified regulation of the phospholipase C pathway (miR200c, miR20b, and miR31through cellular proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (cSrc, response to growth factors and hormones (miR141, miR107 and miR200c through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases, and regulation of cellular proliferation (miR20b, miR10b, and miR141 through cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 p21. Real time PCR (RT-PCR validation of the miRNA in HCV infected livers demonstrated a 3.3 ±0.9 fold increase in miR200c. In vitro transfection of fibroblasts with miR200c resulted in a 2.2 fold reduction in expression of tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 13 or FAS associated phosphatase 1 (FAP-1 and 2.3 fold increase in expression of cSrc. miR200c transfection resulted in significant increases in expression of collagen and fibroblast growth factor (2.8 and 3.4 fold, p<0.05. Therefore, we propose that HCV induced increased expression of miR200c can down modulate the expression of FAP1, a critical regulator of Src and MAP kinase pathway that

  2. The Glycoprotein B Cytoplasmic Domain Lysine Cluster Is Critical for Varicella-Zoster Virus Cell-Cell Fusion Regulation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward; Arvin, Ann M; Oliver, Stefan L

    2017-01-01

    The conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL are essential for herpesvirus entry and cell-cell fusion induced syncytium formation, a characteristic of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathology in skin and sensory ganglia. VZV syncytium formation, which has been implicated in the painful condition of postherpetic neuralgia, is regulated by the cytoplasmic domains of gB (gBcyt) via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) and gH (gHcyt). A lysine cluster (K894, K897, K898, and K900) in the VZV gBcyt was identified by sequence alignment to be conserved among alphaherpesviruses, suggesting a functional role. Alanine and arginine substitutions were used to determine if the positive charge and susceptibility to posttranslational modifications of these lysines contributed to gB/gH-gL cell-cell fusion. Critically, the positive charge of the lysine residues was necessary for fusion regulation, as alanine substitutions induced a 440% increase in fusion compared to that of the wild-type gBcyt while arginine substitutions had wild-type-like fusion levels in an in vitro gB/gH-gL cell fusion assay. Consistent with these results, the alanine substitutions in the viral genome caused exaggerated syncytium formation, reduced VZV titers (-1.5 log 10 ), and smaller plaques than with the parental Oka (pOka) strain. In contrast, arginine substitutions resulted in syncytia with only 2-fold more nuclei, a -0.5-log 10 reduction in titers, and pOka-like plaques. VZV mutants with both an ITIM mutation and either alanine or arginine substitutions had reduced titers and small plaques but differed in syncytium morphology. Thus, effective VZV propagation is dependent on cell-cell fusion regulation by the conserved gBcyt lysine cluster, in addition to the gBcyt ITIM and the gHcyt. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes chickenpox and shingles. Individuals afflicted with shingles risk developing the painful condition of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which has

  3. Non-MHC genes influence virus clearance through regulation of the antiviral T-cell response: correlation between virus clearance and Tc and Td activity in segregating backcross progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    To determine the mechanism by which non-MHC genes control the rate of virus clearance in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, a segregating backcross population was studied. Thirty BC1 animals were infected with virus, and virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH......) was followed by measurement of footpad swelling. Ten days after virus inoculation, the animals were sacrificed and spleen virus titer together with splenic Tc activity was measured. With regard to all three parameters a continuous distribution was observed in this backcross population. However, using cutoff...... values based on parental and F1 animals tested in parallel, 11/30 animals were assigned Tc responders, 23/30 DTH responders and 10/30 cleared virus with maximal efficiency. Comparison of responder status with regard to the different parameters revealed a strong correlation between Tc responsiveness...

  4. Spectra resolution for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lamivudine and zidovudine components in pharmaceutical formulation of human immunodeficiency virus drug based on using continuous wavelet transform and derivative transform techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Tayefeh Zarkesh, Mahshid

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper, two spectrophotometric methods based on signal processing are proposed for the simultaneous determination of two components of an anti-HIV drug called lamivudine (LMV) and zidovudine (ZDV). The proposed methods are applied to synthetic binary mixtures and commercial pharmaceutical tablets without the need for any chemical separation procedures. The developed methods are based on the application of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Derivative Spectrophotometry (DS) combined with the zero cross point technique. The Daubechies (db5) wavelet family (242 nm) and Dmey wavelet family (236 nm) were found to give the best results under optimum conditions for simultaneous analysis of lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively. In addition, the first derivative absorption spectra were selected for the determination of lamivudine and zidovudine at 266 nm and 248 nm, respectively. Assaying various synthetic mixtures of the components validated the presented methods. Mean recovery values were found to be between 100.31% and 100.2% for CWT and 99.42% and 97.37% for DS, respectively for determination of LMV and ZDV. The results obtained from analyzing the real samples by the proposed methods were compared to the HPLC reference method. One-way ANOVA test at 95% confidence level was applied to the results. The statistical data from comparing the proposed methods with the reference method showed no significant differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Up-regulation effect of hepatitis B virus genome A1846T mutation on viral replication and core promoter activity

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    Ling JIANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV genome nucleotide A1846T mutation on the viral replication capacity and the transcription activity of HBV core promoter (CP in vitro. Methods  A total of 385 patients with hepatitis B admitted to the 302 Hospital of PLA were enrolled in the study, including 116 with moderate chronic hepatitis B (CHB-M, 123 with severe chronic hepatitis B (CHB-S, and 146 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF. Serum HBV DNA was isolated and full-length HBV genome was amplified. The incidence of A1846T was analyzed. Full-length HBV genomes containing 1846T mutation were cloned into pGEM-T easy vector, and the counterpart wild-type 1846A plasmids were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The full-length HBV genome was released from recombinant plasmid by BspQ Ⅰ/Sca Ⅰ digestion, and then transfected into HepG2 cells. Secreted HBsAg level and intracellular HBV core particles were measured 72 hours post-transfection to analyze the replication capacity (a 1.0-fold HBV genome model. 1846 mutant and wild-type full-length HBV genomes were extracted to amplify the fragment of HBV CP region, and the dual luciferase reporter of the pGL3-CP was constructed. The luciferase activity was detected 48 hours post-transfection. Results  The incidence of A1846T mutation gradually increased with the severity of hepatitis B, reaching 31.03%, 42.27%, and 55.48% in CHB-M, CHB-S and ACLF patients respectively (P<0.01. The replication capacity of 1846T mutants, level of secreted HBsAg, and transcriptional activity of CP promoter were increased by 320%, 28% and 85% respectively, compared with 1846A wild-type strains. While the more common double mutation A1762T/G1764A in CP region was increased by 67%, 9% and 72% respectively, compared with its counterpart wild-type strains. A1846T had a greater influence on viral replication capacity in vitro. Conclusions A1846T mutation could significantly increase the

  6. CNS expression of B7-H1 regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production and alters severity of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

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    D'Anne S Duncan

    Full Text Available The CNS is a unique organ due to its limited capacity for immune surveillance. As macrophages of the CNS, microglia represent a population originally known for the ability to assist neuronal stability, are now appreciated for their role in initiating and regulating immune responses in the brain. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV-induced demyelinating disease is a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS. In response to TMEV infection in vitro, microglia produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and are efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs for activating CD4(+ T cells. However, the regulatory function of microglia and other CNS-infiltrating APCs in response to TMEV in vivo remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that microglia increase expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and phenotypically express high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-Class I and II in response to acute infection with TMEV in SJL/J mice. Microglia increase expression of the inhibitory co-stimulatory molecule, B7-H1 as early as day 5 post-infection, while CNS-infiltrating CD11b(+CD11c(-CD45(HIGH monocytes/macrophages and CD11b(+CD11c(+CD45(HIGH dendritic cells upregulate expression of B7-H1 by day 3 post-infection. Utilizing a neutralizing antibody, we demonstrate that B7-H1 negatively regulates TMEV-specific ex vivo production of interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-17, IL-10, and IL-2 from CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. In vivo blockade of B7-H1 in SJL/J mice significantly exacerbates clinical disease symptoms during the chronic autoimmune stage of TMEV-IDD, but only has minimal effects on viral clearance. Collectively, these results suggest that CNS expression of B7-H1 regulates activation of TMEV-specific T cells, which affects protection against TMEV-IDD.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein Down-regulates the Expression of Spindle Gene Aspm through PKR-p38 Signaling Pathway*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Chi; Chang, Shin C.; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liao, Pei-Ju; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus often causes persistent infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have demonstrated the roles of viral nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) in the induction of chromosome aneuploidy, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, hydrodynamics-based in vivo transfection was applied to a mouse system. Mouse hepatocytes that successfully expressed NS5A protein were isolated by laser capture microdissection. Gene expression profiles of the NS5A-expressing hepatocytes were examined by an Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray system. Aspm (abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated), which encodes the mitotic spindle protein ASPM, was identified to be differentially expressed in the absence and the presence of NS5A. The down-regulation of Aspm mRNA and ASPM protein was confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively, both in mouse model systems and in viral subgenomic replicon and in vitro transfection culturing systems. In addition, cultured cells that constitutively expressed NS5A protein showed G2/M cell cycle block and chromosome aneuploidy. Overexpression of ASPM relieved the G2/M cell cycle block. Furthermore, NS5A protein repressed the promoter activity of Aspm gene in a dose-dependent manner. The regulatory effect was abolished when amino acid substitutions P2209L, T2214A, and T2217G known to interrupt the NS5A-PKR interaction were introduced into the NS5A protein. This indicates that the down-regulation of Aspm expression is via the PKR-p38 signaling pathway. These results suggest that NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of the mitotic spindle protein ASPM and induces aberrant mitotic cell cycle associated with chromosome instability and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:18728014

  8. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of spindle gene Aspm through PKR-p38 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Chi; Chang, Shin C; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liao, Pei-Ju; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2008-10-24

    Hepatitis C virus often causes persistent infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have demonstrated the roles of viral nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) in the induction of chromosome aneuploidy, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, hydrodynamics-based in vivo transfection was applied to a mouse system. Mouse hepatocytes that successfully expressed NS5A protein were isolated by laser capture microdissection. Gene expression profiles of the NS5A-expressing hepatocytes were examined by an Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray system. Aspm (abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated), which encodes the mitotic spindle protein ASPM, was identified to be differentially expressed in the absence and the presence of NS5A. The down-regulation of Aspm mRNA and ASPM protein was confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively, both in mouse model systems and in viral subgenomic replicon and in vitro transfection culturing systems. In addition, cultured cells that constitutively expressed NS5A protein showed G(2)/M cell cycle block and chromosome aneuploidy. Overexpression of ASPM relieved the G(2)/M cell cycle block. Furthermore, NS5A protein repressed the promoter activity of Aspm gene in a dose-dependent manner. The regulatory effect was abolished when amino acid substitutions P2209L, T2214A, and T2217G known to interrupt the NS5A-PKR interaction were introduced into the NS5A protein. This indicates that the down-regulation of Aspm expression is via the PKR-p38 signaling pathway. These results suggest that NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of the mitotic spindle protein ASPM and induces aberrant mitotic cell cycle associated with chromosome instability and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Transformation of a plasmid-free, genital tract isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis with a plasmid vector carrying a deletion in CDS6 revealed that this gene regulates inclusion phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-03-01

    The development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis provides the basis for the detailed investigation of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In this study we constructed a plasmid vector with CDS6 deleted (pCDS6KO) from the original Escherichia coli/C. trachomatis shuttle vector pGFP::SW2. pCDS6KO was transformed into a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis from Sweden that is plasmid-free (C. trachomatis SWFP-). Penicillin-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. These transformants did not stain with iodine, indicating that this property is regulated by CDS6 or its gene product. In addition, mature inclusions of C. trachomatis SWFP- transformed by pCDS6KO displayed an identical morphological phenotype to the untransformed plasmid-free recipient host. In this phenotype the morphology of inclusions was altered with the chlamydiae lining the periphery of the inclusion leaving a 'hole' in the centre. These green fluorescent inclusions appear 'doughnut-shaped' with an empty centre when examined under blue light, giving rise to a characteristic 'black hole' phenotype. Our study demonstrates the power of the new genetic system for investigating chlamydial gene function using gene deletion technology. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformation of a plasmid-free, genital tract isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis with a plasmid vector carrying a deletion in CDS6 revealed that this gene regulates inclusion phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    The development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis provides the basis for the detailed investigation of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In this study we constructed a plasmid vector with CDS6 deleted (pCDS6KO) from the original Escherichia coli/C. trachomatis shuttle vector pGFP::SW2. pCDS6KO was transformed into a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis from Sweden that is plasmid-free (C. trachomatis SWFP–). Penicillin-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. These transformants did not stain with iodine, indicating that this property is regulated by CDS6 or its gene product. In addition, mature inclusions of C. trachomatis SWFP– transformed by pCDS6KO displayed an identical morphological phenotype to the untransformed plasmid-free recipient host. In this phenotype the morphology of inclusions was altered with the chlamydiae lining the periphery of the inclusion leaving a ‘hole’ in the centre. These green fluorescent inclusions appear ‘doughnut-shaped’ with an empty centre when examined under blue light, giving rise to a characteristic ‘black hole’ phenotype. Our study demonstrates the power of the new genetic system for investigating chlamydial gene function using gene deletion technology. PMID:23620154

  11. Autocrine regulation of pulmonary inflammation by effector T-cell derived IL-10 during infection with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young infants. Clinical studies have documented that certain polymorphisms in the gene encoding the regulatory cytokine IL-10 are associated with the development of severe bronchiolitis in RSV infected infants. Here, we examined the role of IL-10 in a murine model of primary RSV infection and found that high levels of IL-10 are produced in the respiratory tract by anti-viral effector T cells at the onset of the adaptive immune response. We demonstrated that the function of the effector T cell -derived IL-10 in vivo is to limit the excess pulmonary inflammation and thereby to maintain critical lung function. We further identify a novel mechanism by which effector T cell-derived IL-10 controls excess inflammation by feedback inhibition through engagement of the IL-10 receptor on the antiviral effector T cells. Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of effector T cell-derived IL-10 in controlling disease severity in clinical RSV infection.

  12. Hemozoin Differentially Regulates Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive and -Seronegative Women with Placental Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julie M.; Chaisavaneeyakorn, Sujittra; Perkins, Douglas J.; Othoro, Caroline; Otieno, Juliana; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk for malarial infection. Plasmodium falciparum accumulates in the placenta and is associated with dysregulated immune function and poor birth outcomes. Malarial pigment (hemozoin) also accumulates in the placenta and may modulate local immune function. In this study, the impact of hemozoin on cytokine production by intervillous blood mononuclear cells from malaria-infected placentas was investigated. There was a dose-dependent, suppressive effect of hemozoin on production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), with less of an effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10, in human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative (HIV−) women. In contrast, IFN-γ and TNF-α production tended to increase in HIV-seropositive women with increasing hemozoin levels. Production patterns of cytokines, especially IFN-γ in HIV− women, followed different trends as a function of parasite density and hemozoin level. The findings suggest that the influences of hemozoin accumulation and high-density parasitemia on placental cytokine production are not equivalent and may involve different mechanisms, all of which may operate differently in the context of HIV infection. Cytokine production dysregulated by accumulation of hemozoin or high-density parasitemia may induce pathology and impair protective immunity in HIV-infected and -uninfected women. PMID:15557625

  13. Regulation of interferon signaling by the C and V proteins from attenuated and wild-type strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Bankamp, Bettina; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-04-25

    The C and V proteins of the measles virus (MV) have been shown to block the signaling of type I and II interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma). The relative contribution of the C and V proteins to the inhibition of IFN signaling and the extent to which this activity differs in attenuated or wild-type strains of MV remains undefined. This study presents a comparison of the IFN-antagonist activities of C and V proteins from four attenuated and two wild-type strains of MV. The V proteins were more potent inhibitors of IFN-inducible reporter gene expression than the C proteins, and this effect was unrelated to whether the protein originated from an attenuated or wild-type strain. The results also demonstrated the importance of the tyrosine at position 110 in the inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling by the V protein, and identified a non-recombinant MV expressing a V protein that was impaired due to a mutation at this residue.

  14. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  15. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma with Reed-Sternberg-like cells and possible transformation to Hodgkin's disease. Mediation by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, H; Jaffe, E S; Shin, S S; Chen, Y Y; Weiss, L M

    1992-09-01

    The pathogenesis of Reed-Sternberg cells and variants (RS-H cells) found in rare cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) is unknown. We studied 13 such cases by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for identification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA. The RS-H cells in five cases expressed the B-lineage marker CD20 and were negative for CD15. In two cases, the RS-H cells showed expression of both CD20 and CD15, whereas in another six cases, the cells were positive for CD15 but negative for CD20. Three of the cases expressing CD15 showed subsequent evidence of disseminated Hodgkin's disease. Regardless of the phenotype or clinical behavior, the RS-H cells in 12 of 13 cases were found to contain EBV RNA by in situ hybridization, but the surrounding neoplastic lymphocytes were invariably negative for EBV RNA. It is suggested that EBV has an important role in the pathogenesis of the RS-H cells in these rare cases.

  16. Dimorphism of sister chromatid exchange in Bloom's syndrome B- and T-cell lines transformed with Epstein-Barr and adult T-cell leukemia viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Yoshimoto, S; Miyoshi, I; Kondo, N; Orii, T; Sandberg, A A

    1983-08-01

    The present study describes the establishment of both B- and T-cell lines from the peripheral blood cells of two Bloom's syndrome (BS) patients and one healthy female by using Epstein-Barr (EBV) and adult T-cell leukemia viruses (ATLV). The cell lines from normal and BS subjects exhibited cell surface markers compatible with B- and T-cell origin; in addition, the BS B- and T-cell lines retained the original cytogenetic characteristics of the syndrome. Even though phytohemagglutinin-stimulated BS lymphocytes from the two BS patients studied all showed high levels of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), the established BS B-lines with EBV yielded two separate lines each, i.e., one with increased SCE and another with normal levels of SCE; also, one of the BS T-lines retained high SCE levels in 100% of the cells, whereas the other BS T-line contained two populations, one with high SCE (70%) and the other with normal SCE levels (30%), at a relatively constant frequency over a period of 6 months. Neither EBV nor ATLV caused a significant increase in chromosome instability in the established lines compared to fresh lymphocytes. Reinfection of the BS B- and T-cell lines with EBV or ATLV did not alter the SCE or karyotypes. These results strongly suggest that BS patients have two populations in vivo, one with high and another with normal levels of SCE, at least in the lymphoid cell system.

  17. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  18. Role of hepatitis B virus X protein in regulating LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1 expression to mediate proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Renxian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx has been shown to be responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC caused by Hepatitis B virus infection. However, its potential effect on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma remains yet unclear. LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1, a focal adhesion protein, is expressed in an up-regulation manner in the HCC tissues. LASP-1 plays an important role in the regulation of proliferation and migration of HCC. In this study, we investigated the effect of LASP-1 involved in HBx-related tumor progression. Methods LASP-1 levels in the HBx stable transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells were detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The cellular localization of LASP-1 was assessed by immunofluorescence analysis. The activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K pathway was demonstrated by western blot assay. The HBx-expressing cells were transfected with specific small interference RNA (siRNA against LASP-1. The proliferation and migration ability of cells were evaluated by cell viability assay and plate clone formation assay. The migration ability of cells was detected by transwell assay and wound healing assay. Results RT-PCR and western blot analysis indicated the expression of LASP-1 was increased in the stable HBx-expressing cells compared with the control cells. Immunofluorescence study revealed that the distributions of LASP-1 in HepG2-HBX cells were mainly in pseudopods and the cytoplasm while they were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of HepG2-Mock cells. The cellular localizations of LASP-1 in Huh-7-HBX cells were in the perinuclear fractions while they were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of Huh-7-Mock cells. The upregulation of LASP-1 was inhibited after treatment with LY294002, PI3-K pathway inhibitor. Overexpression of LASP-1 in the stable HBx-expressing cells enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of hepatocellular cells. siRNA-mediated LASP-1 knowdown in

  19. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fabao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); You, Xiaona [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chi, Xiumei [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ye, Lihong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Niu, Junqi, E-mail: junqiniu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  20. Escherichia coli is naturally transformable in a novel transformation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang; Zhang, Yanmei; Mei, Yunjun; Jiang, Hui; Xie, Zhixiong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Xiangdong; Shen, Ping

    2006-12-01

    A novel transformation system, in which neither a nonphysiological concentration of Ca2+ and temperature shifts nor electronic shocks were required, was developed to determine whether Escherichia coli is naturally transformable. In the new protocol, E. coli was cultured normally to the stationary phase and then cultured statically at 37 degrees C in Luria-Bertani broth. After static culture, transformation occurred in bacteria spread on Luria-Bertani plates. The protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol inhibited this transformation process. The need for protein synthesis in plated bacteria suggests that the transformation of E. coli in this new system is regulated physiologically.

  1. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  2. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  3. Characterization of Elements Regulating the Nuclear-to-Cytoplasmic Translocation of ICP0 in Late Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Ha, Binh L; Zheng, Yi; Gu, Haidong

    2018-01-15

    Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an immediate early protein containing a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. It targets several host factors for proteasomal degradation and subsequently activates viral expression. ICP0 has a nuclear localization sequence and functions in the nucleus early during infection. However, later in infection, ICP0 is found solely in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanism and biological function of the ICP0 nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to characterize elements important for this translocation. We found that (i) in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HEL) cells, ICP0 C-terminal residues 741 to 775 were necessary but not sufficient for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation; (ii) the loss of ICP0 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which led to defective viral replication in nonpermissive cells, also caused mutant ICP0 to be retained in the nucleus of HEL cells; (iii) in permissive U2OS cells, however, ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity was translocated to the cytoplasm at a pace faster than that of wild-type ICP0, suggesting that nuclear retention of ICP0 occurs in an ICP0 E3 ligase-dependent manner; and (iv) the ICP0 C terminus and late viral proteins cooperate in order to overcome nuclear retention and stimulate ICP0 cytoplasmic translocation. Taken together, less ICP0 nuclear retention may contribute to the permissiveness of U2OS cells to HSV-1 in the absence of functional ICP0. IMPORTANCE A distinct characteristic for eukaryotes is the compartmentalization of cell metabolic pathways, which allows greater efficiency and specificity of cellular functions. ICP0 of HSV-1 is a multifunctional viral protein that travels through different compartments as infection progresses. Its main regulatory functions are carried out in the nucleus, but it is translocated to the cytoplasm late during HSV-1 infection. To understand the biological significance of cytoplasmic ICP0 in

  4. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore, this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart...... is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms, but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  5. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals that Tissue Tropism to West Nile Virus Is Regulated by Antiviral Genes and Innate Immune Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Blahnik, Gabriele; McMillan, Aimee; Ramos, Hilario J.; Proll, Sean C.; Belisle, Sarah E.; Katze, Michael G.; Gale, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The actions of the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways are essential for a protective innate immune response against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). In mice lacking RLR or IFN signaling pathways, WNV exhibits enhanced tissue tropism, indicating that specific host factors of innate immune defense restrict WNV infection and dissemination in peripheral tissues. However, the immune mechanisms by which the RLR and IFN pathways coordinate and function to impart restriction of WNV infection are not well defined. Using a systems biology approach, we defined the host innate immune response signature and actions that restrict WNV tissue tropism. Transcriptional profiling and pathway modeling to compare WNV-infected permissive (spleen) and nonpermissive (liver) tissues showed high enrichment for inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors and IFN signaling pathways, that define restriction of WNV replication in the liver. Assessment of infected livers from Mavs−/−×Ifnar−/− mice revealed the loss of expression of several key components within the natural killer (NK) cell signaling pathway, including genes associated with NK cell activation, inflammatory cytokine production, and NK cell receptor signaling. In vivo analysis of hepatic immune cell infiltrates from WT mice demonstrated that WNV infection leads to an increase in NK cell numbers with enhanced proliferation, maturation, and effector action. In contrast, livers from Mavs−/−×Ifnar−/− infected mice displayed reduced immune cell infiltration, including a significant reduction in NK cell numbers. Analysis of cocultures of dendritic and NK cells revealed both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles for the RLR and IFN signaling pathways to regulate NK cell effector activity. Taken together, these observations reveal a complex innate immune signaling network, regulated by the RLR and IFN signaling pathways, that drives tissue

  6. [Newcastle disease virus enhances tumoricidal activity of mouse NK cells against mouse Novikoff hepatoma cells via up-regulating expression of TRAIL on the NK cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dezhi; Liang, Ying; Fan, Xiaohui; Yin, Jun; Gong, Jinling; Lai, Zhenping; Gao, Lingxi

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effect of intraperitoneal injection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression in mouse spleen NK cells and NK cells-mediated tumoricidal activity against mouse Novikoff hepatoma cell line, and explore the role of interferon (IFN)-γ in NDV-induced TRAIL expression and tumoricidal activity. NDV was injected intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice and IFN-γ receptor-deficient (IFN-γR-/-) B6.129S7 mice. Twelve hours after injection, the concentration of IFN-γ in peripheral blood from BALB/c mice was determined by ELISA. Mouse spleen NK cells were separated. The mRNA and protein expression of TRAIL in NK cells were detected through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against mouse hepatoma cells. NDV injection increased the IFN-γ concentration in peripheral blood of BALB/c mice, induced up-regulation of TRAIL at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse spleen NK cells, and enhanced the killing ability of mouse spleen NK cells towards Novikoff hepatoma cells. Blocking TRAIL by neutralizing antibody suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against Novikoff hepatoma cells. Furthermore, NDV injection in IFN-γR-/- B6.129S7 mice did not make significant difference from control group in TRAIL expression in spleen NK cells, and the tumoricidal activity of IFN-γR-/- B6.129S7 mouse spleen NK cells against Novikoff hepatoma cells was significantly lower than that of BALB/c mouse NK cells. Intraperitoneal injection with NDV could enhance tumoricidal activity of mouse spleen NK cells in vitro, and one of the mechanisms might be that NDV injection up-regulates TRAIL expression in NK cells through the IFN-γ receptor pathway.

  7. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  8. A recessive resistance to rice yellow mottle virus is associated with a rice homolog of the CPR5 gene, a regulator of active defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Julie; Deless, E F Thiémélé; Kolade, Olufisayo; Chéron, Sophie; Ghesquière, Alain; Albar, Laurence

    2013-12-01

    RYMV2 is a major recessive resistance gene identified in cultivated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) which confers high resistance to the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). We mapped RYMV2 in an approximately 30-kb interval in which four genes have been annotated. Sequencing of the candidate region in the resistant Tog7291 accession revealed a single mutation affecting a predicted gene, as compared with the RYMV-susceptible O. glaberrima CG14 reference sequence. This mutation was found to be a one-base deletion leading to a truncated and probably nonfunctional protein. It affected a gene homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana CPR5 gene, known to be a defense mechanism regulator. Only seven O. glaberrima accessions showing this deletion were identified in a collection consisting of 417 accessions from three rice species. All seven accessions were resistant to RYMV, which is an additional argument in favor of the involvement of the deletion in resistance. In addition, fine mapping of a resistance quantitative trait locus in O. sativa advanced backcrossed lines pinpointed a 151-kb interval containing RYMV2, suggesting that allelic variants of the same gene may control both high and partial resistance.

  9. Free fatty acids or high-concentration glucose enhances hepatitis A virus replication in association with a reduction in glucose-regulated protein 78 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwe Win, Nan; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-29

    Although the interaction between host and hepatitis A virus (HAV) factors could lead to severe hepatitis A, the exact mechanism of acute liver failure caused by HAV infection is not yet fully understood. The effects of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus on HAV replication are still unknown. Here, we examined the effects of free fatty acids or high-concentration glucose on HAV replication and the effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway-related genes in human hepatocytes. We discovered a novel effect of free fatty acids or high-concentration glucose on HAV replication in association with a reduction in the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). We also observed that thapsigargin induced GRP78 expression and inhibited HAV replication. These findings may provide a new interpretation of the relationship between metabolic diseases and severity of hepatitis A and suggest a new understanding of the mechanism of severe HAV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  11. West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3' untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, M.; Torres, S.; Schnettler, E.; Funk, A.; Grundhoff, A.; Pijlman, G.P.; Khromykh, A.A.; Asgari, S.

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to a group of medically important single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses causing deadly disease outbreaks around the world. The 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the flavivirus genome, in particular the terminal 3' stem–loop (3'SL) fulfils multiple functions in

  12. Targeting Nucleotide Biosynthesis: A Strategy for Improving the Oncolytic Potential of DNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Chad R; Hitt, Mary M; Evans, David H

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of tumors depends upon elevated levels of dNTPs, and while dNTP concentrations are tightly regulated in normal cells, this control is often lost in transformed cells. This feature of cancer cells has been used to advantage to develop oncolytic DNA viruses. DNA viruses employ many different mechanisms to increase dNTP levels in infected cells, because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. By disrupting the virus-encoded gene(s) that normally promote dNTP biosynthesis, one can assemble oncolytic versions of these agents that replicate selectively in cancer cells. This review covers the pathways involved in dNTP production, how they are dysregulated in cancer cells, and the various approaches that have been used to exploit this biology to improve the tumor specificity of oncolytic viruses. In particular, we compare and contrast the ways that the different types of oncolytic virus candidates can directly modulate these processes. We limit our review to the large DNA viruses that naturally encode homologs of the cellular enzymes that catalyze dNTP biogenesis. Lastly, we consider how this knowledge might guide future development of oncolytic viruses.

  13. Targeting Nucleotide Biosynthesis: A Strategy for Improving the Oncolytic Potential of DNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad R. Irwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of tumors depends upon elevated levels of dNTPs, and while dNTP concentrations are tightly regulated in normal cells, this control is often lost in transformed cells. This feature of cancer cells has been used to advantage to develop oncolytic DNA viruses. DNA viruses employ many different mechanisms to increase dNTP levels in infected cells, because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. By disrupting the virus-encoded gene(s that normally promote dNTP biosynthesis, one can assemble oncolytic versions of these agents that replicate selectively in cancer cells. This review covers the pathways involved in dNTP production, how they are dysregulated in cancer cells, and the various approaches that have been used to exploit this biology to improve the tumor specificity of oncolytic viruses. In particular, we compare and contrast the ways that the different types of oncolytic virus candidates can directly modulate these processes. We limit our review to the large DNA viruses that naturally encode homologs of the cellular enzymes that catalyze dNTP biogenesis. Lastly, we consider how this knowledge might guide future development of oncolytic viruses.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-23

    Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein-Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

  15. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J.; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P.; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from th...

  16. Protective effects of transforming growth factor β2 in intestinal epithelial cells by regulation of proteins associated with stress and endotoxin responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 is an important anti-inflammatory protein in milk and colostrum. TGF-β2 supplementation appears to reduce gut inflammatory diseases in early life, such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in young mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-β2 protects...

  17. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  18. EpCAM-regulated intramembrane proteolysis induces a cancer stem cell-like gene signature in hepatitis B virus-infected hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Saravana Kumar Kailasam; Zhang, Hao; Diab, Ahmed; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Lefrançois, Lydie; Fares, Nadim; Bancel, Brigitte; Merle, Philippe; Andrisani, Ourania

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocytes in which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is replicating exhibit loss of the chromatin modifying polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), resulting in re-expression of specific, cellular PRC2-repressed genes. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a PRC2-repressed gene, normally expressed in hepatic progenitors, but re-expressed in hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs). Herein, we investigated the functional significance of EpCAM re-expression in HBV-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing molecular approaches (transfections, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunoblotting, qRT-PCR), we investigated the role of EpCAM-regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in HBV replicating cells in vitro, and in liver tumors from HBV X/c-myc mice and chronically HBV infected patients. EpCAM undergoes RIP in HBV replicating cells, activating canonical Wnt signaling. Transfection of Wnt-responsive plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) identified a GFP + population of HBV replicating cells. These GFP+/Wnt+ cells exhibited cisplatin- and sorafenib-resistant growth resembling hCSCs, and increased expression of pluripotency genes NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and hCSC markers BAMBI, CD44 and CD133. These genes are referred as EpCAM RIP and Wnt-induced hCSC-like gene signature. Interestingly, this gene signature is also overexpressed in liver tumors of X/c-myc bitransgenic mice. Clinically, a group of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinomas was identified, exhibiting elevated expression of the hCSC-like gene signature and associated with reduced overall survival post-surgical resection. The hCSC-like gene signature offers promise as prognostic tool for classifying subtypes of HBV-induced HCCs. Since EpCAM RIP and Wnt signaling drive expression of this hCSC-like signature, inhibition of these pathways can be explored as therapeutic strategy for this subtype of HBV-associated HCCs. In this study, we provide evidence for a molecular mechanism by which chronic infection by

  19. Transcription factor regulation and cytokine expression following in vitro infection of primary chicken cell culture with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) induced proinflammatory cytokine expression is believed to contribute to the disease pathogenesis following infection. However, there is limited information on the avian immune response to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). To gain a better under...

  20. Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Involved in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis through Regulating Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Xin Yu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The data support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of EMs through regulating VEGF expression. An additive effect of TGF-β1 and hypoxia is taking place at the transcriptional level.

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta isoforms regulate the surface expression of membrane cofactor protein (CD46) and CD59 on human keratinocytes [corrected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasch, M. C.; Bos, J. D.; Daha, M. R.; Asghar, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the regulation of the expression of complement regulatory proteins, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), decay accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59, on human keratinocytes by supernatant of activated mononuclear cells and by some individual cytokines present therein. Cultured keratinocytes

  2. MHC and non-MHC genes regulate elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity mediating T lymphocyte activity in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1989-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion, indicat......The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion...... responsiveness measured in terms of virus-specific cytotoxicity and delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas no correlation was found with regard to NK cell activity and antiviral antibody response. Analysis of F1 progeny between H-2 identical high and low responder strains showed that low responsiveness...

  3. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release...... or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...

  4. Genome-wide identification and quantification of cis- and trans-regulated genes responding to Marek’s disease virus infection via analysis of allele-specific expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eMaceachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease (MD is a commercially important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek’s disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. Selecting for increased genetic resistance to MD is a control strategy that can augment vaccinal control measures. To identify high-confidence candidate MD resistance genes, we conducted a genome-wide screen for allele-specific expression (ASE amongst F1 progeny of two inbred chicken lines that differ in MD resistance. High throughput sequencing was used to profile transcriptomes from pools of uninfected and infected individuals at 4 days post-infection to identify any genes showing ASE in response to MDV infection. RNA sequencing identified 22,655 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of which 5,360 in 3,773 genes exhibited significant allelic imbalance. Illumina GoldenGate assays were subsequently used to quantify regulatory variation controlled at the gene (cis and elsewhere in the genome (trans by examining differences in expression between F1 individuals and artificial F1 RNA pools over 6 time periods in 1,536 of the most significant SNPs identified by RNA sequencing. Allelic imbalance as a result of cis-regulatory changes was confirmed in 861 of the 1,233 GoldenGate assays successfully examined. Furthermore we have identified 7 genes that display trans-regulation only in infected animals and approximately 500 SNP that show a complex interaction between cis- and trans-regulatory changes. Our results indicate ASE analyses are a powerful approach to identify regulatory variation responsible for differences in transcript abundance in genes underlying complex traits. And the genes with SNPs exhibiting ASE provide a strong foundation to further investigate the causative polymorphisms and genetic mechanisms for MD resistance. Finally, the methods used here for identifying specific genes and SNPs may have practical implications for applying marker-assisted selection to complex traits that are

  5. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C McFadden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Rasha E.; Iram, Saira; Oropeza, Claudia E.; Landolfi, Jennifer A.; Lyubimov, Alexander V.; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2017-01-01

    The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28235042

  7. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα and type II interferon (IFNγ against duck plague virus (DPV. Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79% and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%. In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001 by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  8. C4 Protein of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Regulates Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway through Interaction with AtBIN2 and Affects Male Fertility in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Bi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweepoviruses have been identified globally and cause substantial yield losses and cultivar decline in sweet potato. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sweepovirus and plant host by analyzing the function of the viral protein C4 of Sweet potato leaf curl virus-Jiangsu (SPLCV-JS, a sweepovirus cloned from diseased sweet potato plants in East China. Ectopic expression of the C4 in Arabidopsis altered plant development drastically with phenotypic changes including leaf curling, seedling twisting, deformation of floral tissues and reduction of pollen fertility, and seed number. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis, this study demonstrated that the SPLCV-JS C4 protein interacted with brassinosteroid-insensitive 2 (AtBIN2 in the plasma membrane of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. The C4 AtBIN2 interaction was further confirmed by yeast two-hybrid assays. This interaction led to the re-localization of AtBIN2-interacting proteins AtBES1/AtBZR1 into the nucleus which altered the expression of brassinosteroid (BR-response genes, resulting in the activation of BR-signaling pathway. The interaction of SPLCV-JS C4 and AtBIN2 also led to the down-regulated expression of key genes involved in anther and pollen development, including SPROROCYTELESS/NOZZLE, DEFECTIVE IN TAPEL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION 1, and ABORTED MICROSPORES, which caused abnormal tapetal development, followed by defective exine pattern formation of microspores and pollen release. Consequently, male fertility in the C4 transgenic Arabidopsis was reduced. The present study illustrated how the sweepovirus C4 protein functioned in host cells and affected male fertility by interacting with the key components of BR-signaling pathway.

  9. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...... studies and to reveal the relationship between viral integration and DNA methylation. BS-virus-finder is the first software tool to detect virus integration loci by using bisulfite sequencing data....

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Accelerates Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Kaposin A-Mediated Tumorigenesis of Transformed Fibroblasts In Vitro as well as in Nude and Immunocompetent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is necessary but not sufficient to cause Kaposi sarcoma (KS. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, in the absence of antiretroviral suppressive therapy, drastically increases the risk of KS. Previously, we identified that HIV-1 transactivative transcription protein (Tat was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the potential of Tat to influence tumorigenesis induced by KSHV Kaposin A, a product of KSHV that was encoded by the open reading frame K12 (a KSHV-transforming gene. By using colony formation in soft agar, 3H-TdR incorporation, cell cycle, and microarray gene expression analyses, we demonstrated that Tat enhanced proliferation as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling induced by Kaposin A in NIH3T3 cells. Animal experiments further demonstrated that Tat accelerated tumorigenesis by Kaposin A in athymic nu/nu mice. Cells obtained from primary tumors of nude mice succeeded inducing tumors in immunocompetent mice. These data suggest that Tat can accelerate tumorigenesis induced by Kaposin A. Our data present the first line of evidence that Tat may participate in KS pathogenesis by collaborating with Kaposin A in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS patients. Our data also suggest that the model for Kaposin and Tat-mediated oncogenesis will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of AIDS-KS at the molecular level and may even be important in exploring a novel therapeutic method for AIDS-KS.

  11. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  12. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?

  13. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  14. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  15. Transforming growth factor-β stimulates human ovarian cancer cell migration by up-regulating connexin43 expression via Smad2/3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhao, Jianfang; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-10-01

    Reduced connexin43 (Cx43) expression is frequently detected in different types of human cancer. Cx43 has been shown to regulate cancer cell migration in a cell-type dependent manner. In both primary and recurrent human ovarian cancer, overexpression of TGF-β ligand and its receptors have been detected. TGF-β can regulate Cx43 expression in other cell types and stimulate human ovarian cancer cell migration. However, whether Cx43 can be regulated by TGF-β and is involved in TGF-β-stimulated cell migration in human ovarian cancer cells remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that TGF-β up-regulates Cx43 in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR4. The stimulatory effect of TGF-β on Cx43 expression is blocked by inhibition of TGF-β receptor. Treatment with TGF-β activates Smad2 and Smad3 signaling pathways in both ovarian cancer cell lines. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad2 or Smd3 abolishes TGF-β-induced up-regulation of Cx43 expression. Moreover, knockdown of Cx43 attenuates TGF-β-stimulated cell migration. This study demonstrates an important role for Cx43 in mediating the effects of TGF-β on human ovarian cancer cell migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tg737 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties via a negative feedback circuit between Snail and HNF4α during liver stem cell malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qike; Pu, Meng; Zhao, Ge; Dai, Bin; Bian, Zhenyuan; Tang, Haili; Chen, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xuan; Shen, Liangliang; Tao, Kaishan

    2017-08-28

    Determining the origin of liver cancer stem cells is important for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. Tg737 deficiency plays an important role in the malignant transformation of liver stem cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we established a chemical-induced mouse hepatoma model and found that Tg737 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) expression decreased and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker expression increased during liver cancer development. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we knocked down Tg737 in WB-F344 (WB) rat hepatic oval cells. Loss of Tg737 resulted in nuclear β-catenin accumulation and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which further promoted EMT and the malignant phenotype. XAV939, a β-catenin inhibitor, attenuated WB cell malignant transformation due to Tg737 knockdown. To clarify the relationships of Tg737, the β-catenin pathway, and HNF4α, we inhibited Snail and overexpressed HNF4α after Tg737 knockdown in WB cells and found that Snail and HNF4α comprise a negative feedback circuit. Taken together, the results showed that Tg737 regulates a Wnt/β-catenin/Snail-HNF4α negative feedback circuit, thereby blocking EMT and the malignant transformation of liver stem cells to liver cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered gene expression changes in Arabidopsis leaf tissues and protoplasts in response to Plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Mohan; Griffiths, Jonathan S; Huang, Tyng-Shyan; Wang, Aiming

    2008-07-09

    Virus infection induces the activation and suppression of global gene expression in the host. Profiling gene expression changes in the host may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie host physiological and phenotypic responses to virus infection. In this study, the Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 array was used to assess global gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with Plum pox virus (PPV). To identify early genes in response to PPV infection, an Arabidopsis synchronized single-cell transformation system was developed. Arabidopsis protoplasts were transfected with a PPV infectious clone and global gene expression changes in the transfected protoplasts were profiled. Microarray analysis of PPV-infected Arabidopsis leaf tissues identified 2013 and 1457 genes that were significantly (Q or = 2.5 fold) and downregulated (viruses revealed a common set of 416 genes. These identified genes, particularly the early responsive genes, may be critical in virus infection. Gene expression changes in PPV-infected Arabidopsis are the molecular basis of stress and defence-like responses, PPV pathogenesis and symptom development. The differentially regulated genes, particularly the early responsive genes, and a common set of genes regulated by infections of PPV and other positive sense RNA viruses identified in this study are candidates suitable for further functional characterization to shed lights on molecular virus-host interactions.

  18. Inhibition of Geranylgeranyl Transferase-I Decreases Cell Viability of HTLV-1-Transformed Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Pise-Masison

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, an aggressive and highly chemoresistant malignancy. Rho family GTPases regulate multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis: cytoskeletal organization, transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Geranylgeranylation of Rho family GTPases is essential for cell membrane localization and activation of these proteins. It is currently unknown whether HTLV-1-transformed cells are preferentially sensitive to geranylgeranylation inhibitors, such as GGTI-298. In this report, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 decreased cell viability and induced G2/M phase accumulation of HTLV-1-transformed cells, independent of p53 reactivation. HTLV-1-LTR transcriptional activity was inhibited and Tax protein levels decreased following treatment with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 decreased activation of NF-κB, a downstream target of Rho family GTPases. These studies suggest that protein geranylgeranylation contributes to dysregulation of cell survival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  19. Inhibition of geranylgeranyl transferase-I decreases cell viability of HTLV-1-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dustin C; McKinnon, Katherine M; Fenizia, Claudio; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Brady, John N; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A

    2011-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive and highly chemoresistant malignancy. Rho family GTPases regulate multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis: cytoskeletal organization, transcription, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Geranylgeranylation of Rho family GTPases is essential for cell membrane localization and activation of these proteins. It is currently unknown whether HTLV-1-transformed cells are preferentially sensitive to geranylgeranylation inhibitors, such as GGTI-298. In this report, we demonstrate that GGTI-298 decreased cell viability and induced G(2)/M phase accumulation of HTLV-1-transformed cells, independent of p53 reactivation. HTLV-1-LTR transcriptional activity was inhibited and Tax protein levels decreased following treatment with GGTI-298. Furthermore, GGTI-298 decreased activation of NF-κB, a downstream target of Rho family GTPases. These studies suggest that protein geranylgeranylation contributes to dysregulation of cell survival pathways in HTLV-1-transformed cells.

  20. Comprehensive Small RNA-Seq of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-Infected Human Cells Detects Patterns of Novel, Non-Coding AAV RNAs in the Absence of Cellular miRNA Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic.

  1. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  2. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... of T antigen by the associated kinase is reduced whereas a p34cdc2-kinase-specific peptide has no influence. In addition, the T-antigen-associated protein kinase can use GTP and ATP as phosphate donors. These properties together with the observation that immunopurified T antigen can be phosphorylated...

  3. Viral replication rate regulates clinical outcome and CD8 T cell responses during highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Hatta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first recorded infection of humans with H5N1 viruses of avian origin in 1997, sporadic human infections continue to occur with a staggering mortality rate of >60%. Although sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet, there is a growing concern that these H5N1 viruses might acquire this trait and raise the specter of a pandemic. Despite progress in deciphering viral determinants of pathogenicity, we still lack crucial information on virus/immune system interactions pertaining to severe disease and high mortality associated with human H5N1 influenza virus infections. Using two human isolates of H5N1 viruses that differ in their pathogenicity in mice, we have defined mechanistic links among the rate of viral replication, mortality, CD8 T cell responses, and immunopathology. The extreme pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses was directly linked to the ability of the virus to replicate rapidly, and swiftly attain high steady-state titers in the lungs within 48 hours after infection. The remarkably high replication rate of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus did not prevent the induction of IFN-β or activation of CD8 T cells, but the CD8 T cell response was ineffective in controlling viral replication in the lungs and CD8 T cell deficiency did not affect viral titers or mortality. Additionally, BIM deficiency ameliorated lung pathology and inhibited T cell apoptosis without affecting survival of mice. Therefore, rapidly replicating, highly lethal H5N1 viruses could simply outpace and overwhelm the adaptive immune responses, and kill the host by direct cytopathic effects. However, therapeutic suppression of early viral replication and the associated enhancement of CD8 T cell responses improved the survival of mice following a lethal H5N1 infection. These findings suggest that suppression of early H5N1 virus replication is key to the programming of an effective host response, which has implications in treatment of this infection in humans.

  4. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  5. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  6. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  7. Transformational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Katrien; Dewulf, Art; Biesbroek, Robbert

    2017-01-01

    Although transformational change is a rather new topic in climate change adaptation literature, it has been studied in organisational theory for over 30 years. This paper argues that governance scholars can learn much from organisation theory, more specifically regarding the conceptualisation of

  8. [Molecular basis of oncogenesis induced by human papilloma viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korita, P V; Trotsenko, O E; Annenkov, A Iu; Filimonov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) of high carcinogenesis risk play important role in development of cancer of oropharyngeal and anogenital areas. Possible malignant transformation of cells, infected by HPV, is due to the expression of three proteins, E6, E7 and E5. These proteins mostly influence on mechanisms that regulate cellular cycle, proliferation and apoptosis inducing and maintaining oncogenesis. This review briefly presents data on malignant tumors induced by HPV as well as biology of these viruses and their vital cycle. Special accent is made on description of current trends in molecular basis of oncogenesis, induced by HPV, which understanding is necessary for elaboration of new methods of treatment for HPV-infection such as therapeutic vaccines.

  9. Weight-cycling decreases incidence and increases latency of mammary tumors to a greater extent than does chronic caloric restriction in mouse mammary tumor virus-transforming growth factor-alpha female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Margot P; Jacobson, Michelle K; Phillips, Frederick C; Getzin, Susan C; Grande, Joseph P; Maihle, Nita J

    2002-09-01

    Multiple periods of caloric restriction (or fasting)/refeeding in rodents have had inconsistent effects on mammary tumor (MT) development. In the present study, the consequence of intermittent caloric restriction/refeeding resulting in weight-cycling was evaluated using an oncogene-induced MT mouse model. Hybrid mouse MT virus-transforming growth factor alpha (MMTV-TGF-alpha)/Lep(+)Lep(ob) female mice were used. Ad libitum-fed mice (n = 30) were fed American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet. Beginning at 10 weeks of age, weight-cycled mice (n = 30) were fed an AIN-93 modified diet (2-fold increase in protein, fat, vitamin, and mineral contents) at 50% of ad libitum for 3-week intervals followed by 3-week intervals of ad libitum feeding using AIN-93M diet. Pair-fed mice (n = 33), were fed a 2:1 mixture of AIN-93M:AIN-93 modified diets to match the caloric intake of weight-cycled mice for each 6-week age-matched caloric restriction/refeeding interval. Food intakes were determined daily and body weights weekly. Mice were euthanized when MTs exceeded 20 mm in length or at 80 weeks of age. Final body weights were similar, but cumulative food intake of ad libitum-fed mice was 21% greater than that of the other groups. Ad libitum-fed mice had a 77% MT incidence versus 3% for weight-cycled and 44% for pair-fed mice. MTs were detected earlier for ad libitum-fed mice, 64.1 weeks versus 73.5 weeks for pair-fed mice. The only MT in one weight-cycled mouse was excised at necropsy (80 weeks of age) and weighed only 0.063 g. Average MT weight for ad libitum-fed mice was 1.034 g and for pair-fed mice was 0.667 g. Intervals of caloric restriction/refeeding resulting in weight-cycling were protective against MT development in this mouse model. Future studies should address the application of this intervention to additional transgenic mice as well as other MT models.

  10. Regulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in porcine thyroid follicles in vitro by growth factors, iodine, or delta-iodolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gărtner, R; Schopohl, D; Schaefer, S; Dugrillon, A; Erdmann, A; Toda, S; Bechtner, G

    1997-08-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is an autocrine growth factor for thyrocytes and is supposed to be the mediator of iodine-induced growth inhibition of thyroid epithelial cells, but this is still controversial. We further investigated this hypothesis using intact porcine thyroid follicles ex vivo in a three-dimensional culture system. In this culture system it has been shown previously that both iodide as well as delta-iodolactone, the putative iodocompound mediating thyroid cell proliferation, inhibit growth of these follicles. We measured the amount of TGF beta 1 mRNA expression in these follicles after treatment either with thyrotropin (TSH), epidermal growth factor (EGF), or transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) for growth stimulation or with inorganic iodine or delta-iodolactone in concentrations known to inhibit growth. TGF beta 1-mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis. The known major transcript of 2.5 kb was detected in a steady state level up to 48 hours in untreated thyroid follicles. EGF and TGF alpha (5 ng/mL each) enhanced TGF beta 1 mRNA about threefold within 4 and 8 hours. This increase of TGF beta 1 mRNA was slightly decreased by simultaneous incubation with delta-iodolactone (1 microM) or iodide (40 microM KI). In contrast, both TSH (1 mU/mL) and forskolin (16 microM) decreased TGF beta 1 mRNA expression to about 70%, and this effect was abolished when follicles were pretreated with iodide (40 microM KI) in a concentration known to inhibit TSH action on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation and proliferation. Iodide or delta-iodolactone alone had no significant effect on basal TGF beta 1 mRNA expression. We conclude that the growth inhibitory effect of iodide as well as of delta-iodolactone is not mediated through TGF beta 1 in intact porcine thyroid follicles ex vivo. The stimulatory effect of EGF and TGF alpha on TGF beta 1 expression might be related to extracellular matrix modulation during proliferation.

  11. The Neck Region of the C-type Lectin DC-SIGN Regulates Its Surface Spatiotemporal Organization and Virus-binding Capacity on Antigen-presenting Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Carlo; Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Joosten, Ben; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Gualda, Emilio J.; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Figdor, Carl G.; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F.; Cambi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) facilitates capture and internalization of a plethora of different pathogens. Although it is known that DC-SIGN organizes in nanoclusters at the surface of DCs, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this well defined nanopatterning and role in viral binding remain enigmatic. By combining biochemical and advanced biophysical techniques, including optical superresolution and single particle tracking, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN intrinsic nanoclustering strictly depends on its molecular structure. DC-SIGN nanoclusters exhibited free, Brownian diffusion on the cell membrane. Truncation of the extracellular neck region, known to abrogate tetramerization, significantly reduced nanoclustering and concomitantly increased lateral diffusion. Importantly, DC-SIGN nanocluster dissolution exclusively compromised binding to nanoscale size pathogens. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that heterogeneity on nanocluster density and spatial distribution confers broader binding capabilities to DC-SIGN. As such, our results underscore a direct relationship between spatial nanopatterning, driven by intermolecular interactions between the neck regions, and receptor diffusion to provide DC-SIGN with the exquisite ability to dock pathogens at the virus length scale. Insight into how virus receptors are organized prior to virus binding and how they assemble into functional platforms for virus docking is helpful to develop novel strategies to prevent virus entry and infection. PMID:23019323

  12. Hypoxia-induced irreversible up-regulation of type I collagen and transforming growth factor-beta1 in human peritoneal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether restoration of normoxia after a hypoxic insult returns the molecular expression of type I collagen and TGF-beta1 to baseline levels. Prospective experimental study. University medical center. Primary cultures of fibroblasts established from peritoneal tissues of five patients. Hypoxia treatment of the primary cultured fibroblasts. Cultured human peritoneal fibroblasts (HPF) were maintained under hypoxic conditions (2% oxygen) for 24 hours and then transferred into normal culture conditions (normoxia) for another 24 hours. Total cellular RNA from cells was collected and subjected to multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantitate type I collagen and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA levels in response to these treatments. Hypoxia treatment resulted in 30% and 50% increases in type I collagen and TGF-beta1 expression, respectively. Restoration of normoxia after hypoxia treatment failed to restore type I collagen and TGF-beta1 expression to their baseline levels. These data support the hypothesis that hypoxia induces irreversible molecular changes in peritoneal fibroblasts that produce a phenotype that increases extracellular matrix expression and thereby would promote adhesion development. Thus once a phenotype consistent with increased adhesion development is manifested, restoration of oxygen supply does not reverse the stimulation of HPF type I collagen and TGF-beta1 expression. This observation may in part explain the clinical observation that adhesion reformation is more difficult to prevent than de novo adhesion formation.

  13. Genotoxicity of chemical compounds identification and assessment by yeast cells transformed with GFP reporter constructs regulated by the PLM2 or DIN7 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Van Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thu Huyen; Bettarel, Yvan; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Thu; Pham, Thuy Linh; Hoang, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Vu Thanh Thanh; Nghiem, Ngoc Minh; Wölfl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells transformed with high-copy number plasmids comprising a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene optimized for yeast under the control of the new DIN7 or PLM2 and the established RNR2 and RAD54 promoters were used to assess the genotoxic potential of chemical compounds. The activity of potential DNA-damaging agents was investigated by genotoxicity assays and by OxoPlate assay in the presence of various test compounds. The fluorescence signal generated by GFP in response to DNA damage was related to the different concentrations of analytes and the analyte-dependent GFP synthesis. The use of distinct DNA damage-inducible promoters presents alternative genotoxicity testing strategies by selective induction of promoters in response to DNA damage. The new DIN7 and PLM2 systems show higher sensitivity than the RNR2 and RAD54 systems in detecting 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and actinomycin D. Both DIN7 and PLM2 systems are able to detect camptothecin while RNR2 and RAD54 systems are not. Automated laboratory systems with assay performance on 384-well microplates provide for cost-effective high-throughput screening of DNA-damaging agents, reducing compound consumption to about 53% as compared with existing eukaryotic genotoxicity bioassays. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. alpha 2-HS glycoprotein/fetuin, a transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, regulates postnatal bone growth and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweras, Melanie; Liu, Danmei; Partridge, Emily A; Pawling, Judy; Sukhu, Balram; Clokie, Cameron; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Swallow, Carol J; Grynpas, Marc D; Dennis, James W

    2002-05-31

    Soluble transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-binding proteins are widely distributed in mammalian tissues and control cytokine access to membrane signaling receptors. The serum and bone-resident glycoprotein alpha2-HS-glycoprotein/fetuin (ASHG) binds to TGF-beta/BMP cytokines and blocks TGF-beta1 binding to cell surface receptors. Therefore, we examined bone growth and remodeling phenotypes in ASHG-deficient mice. The skeletal structure of Ahsg(-/-) mice appeared normal at birth, but abnormalities were observed in adult Ahsg(-/-) mice. Maturation of growth plate chondrocytes was impaired, and femurs lengthened more slowly between 3 and 18 months of age in Ahsg(-/-) mice. However, bone formation was increased in Ahsg(-/-) mice as indicated by greater cortical thickness, accelerated trabecular bone remodeling, and increased osteoblast numbers on bone surfaces. The normal age-related increase in cortical thickness and bone mineral density was accelerated in Ahsg(-/-) mice and was associated with increased energy required to fracture. Bone formation in response to implanted BMP cytokine extended further from the implant in Ahsg(-/-) compared with Ahsg(+/+) mice, confirming the interaction between ASHG and TGF-beta/BMP cytokines in vivo. Our results demonstrate that ASHG blocks TGF-beta-dependent signaling in osteoblastic cells, and mice lacking ASHG display growth plate defects, increased bone formation with age, and enhanced cytokine-dependent osteogenesis.

  15. Innate immune signaling in Drosophila is regulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-activated kinase (Tak1)-triggered ubiquitin editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Paquette, Nicholas; Mamoor, Shahan; Rus, Florentina; Nandy, Anubhab; Leszyk, John; Shaffer, Scott A; Silverman, Neal

    2017-05-26

    Coordinated regulation of innate immune responses is necessary in all metazoans. In Drosophila the Imd pathway detects Gram-negative bacterial infections through recognition of diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan and activation of the NF-κB precursor Relish, which drives robust antimicrobial peptide gene expression. Imd is a receptor-proximal adaptor protein homologous to mammalian RIP1 that is regulated by proteolytic cleavage and Lys-63-polyubiquitination. However, the precise events and molecular mechanisms that control the post-translational modification of Imd remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Imd is rapidly Lys-63-polyubiquitinated at lysine residues 137 and 153 by the sequential action of two E2 enzymes, Ubc5 and Ubc13-Uev1a, in conjunction with the E3 ligase Diap2. Lys-63-ubiquitination activates the TGFβ-activated kinase (Tak1), which feeds back to phosphorylate Imd, triggering the removal of Lys-63 chains and the addition of Lys-48 polyubiquitin. This ubiquitin-editing process results in the proteasomal degradation of Imd, which we propose functions to restore homeostasis to the Drosophila immune response. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  17. Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3'-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23.

  18. Modulation of the myxoma virus plaque phenotype by vaccinia virus protein F11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Chad R; Evans, David H

    2012-07-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments that promote VACV exit and spread. This suggested that although MYXV carries homologs of the required genes (A33R, A34R, A36R, and B5R), they are dysfunctional. To test this, we produced MYXV recombinants expressing these genes, but we could not enhance actin projectile formation even in cells expressing all four VACV proteins. Another notable difference between these viruses is that MYXV lacks a homolog of the F11L gene. F11 inhibits the RhoA-mDia signaling that maintains the integrity of the cortical actin layer. We constructed an MYXV strain encoding F11L and observed that, unlike wild-type MYXV, the recombinant virus disrupted actin stress fibers and produced plaques up to 4-fold larger than those of controls, and these plaques expanded ∼6-fold faster. These viruses also grew to higher titers in multistep growth conditions, produced higher levels of actin projectiles, and promoted infected cell movement, although neither process was to the extent of that observed in VACV-infected cells. Thus, one reason for why MYXV produces small plaques is that it cannot spread via actin filaments, although the reason for this deficiency remains obscure. A second reason is that leporipoxviruses lack vaccinia's capacity to disrupt cortical actin.

  19. Regulation of the O-glycan-type Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) Bio-synthesis Pathway during Cell Transformation Programs: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Molecular Subtypes in Breast Carcinoma and Human T Cell Activation

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman

    2017-12-01

    During tumor progression and development of distant metastases, a subset of cancer cells undergoes transformation programs, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to acquire enhanced migratory attributes to commence the metastatic cascade with the intension of achieving an active cell adhesion molecule-mediated organ-specific homing. Similarly, naive T cells reform the assemblage of their surface adhesion molecules during differentiation to activated T cells in order to successfully home to sites of inflammation and other extra-lymphoid organs for surveillance purposes. Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) is well-known for mediating the homing of epithelial circulating tumor cellss (CTCs) and activated T cells to target sites through the interaction with endothelial selectins. Since glycan structures are not directly encoded by the genome, their expression is dependent on the glycosyltransferase (GT) expression and activity. Yet, the modulation of GTs during breast cancer transformation and in different molecular subtypes is still unknown. In addition, although the regulation of GTs during T cell activation is well-understood, the regulation at the epigenetic level is lacking. O-glycan-type sLex expression and E-selectin binding under static and flow conditions varies among molecular subtypes of breast cancer and upon the induction of EMT which is linked to the expression patterns of GTs. GTs displayed a significant prognostic value of in the association with the patients\\' survival profiles and in the ability to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes from the expression data of a random patient sample. Also, GTs were able to differentiate between tumor and their normal counterparts as well as cancer types and glioblastoma subtypes. On the other hand, we studied the regulation of GTs in human CD4+ memory T cells compared to the naive cells at the epigenetic level. Memory T cell subsets demonstrated differential chromatin accessibility and histone marks within

  20. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9)-pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) pathway mediates transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling to regulate cell proliferation in palatal mesenchyme during mouse palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Jun-ichi; Tung, Lily; Urata, Mark; Hacia, Joseph G; Pelikan, Richard; Suzuki, Akiko; Ramenzoni, Liza; Chaudhry, Obaid; Parada, Carolina; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang

    2012-01-20

    Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling plays crucial functions in regulating craniofacial development, and loss of TGFβ receptor type II in cranial neural crest cells leads to craniofacial malformations, including cleft palate in mice (Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice). Here we have identified candidate target genes of TGFβ signaling during palatal formation. These target genes were selected based on combining results from gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 palates from Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice and previously identified cleft palate phenotypes in genetically engineered mouse models. We found that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9) and transcription factor pituitary homeobox 2 (Pitx2) expressions are significantly down-regulated in the palate of Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice, and Fgf9 and Pitx2 loss of function mutations result in cleft palate in mice. Pitx2 expression is down-regulated by siRNA knockdown of Fgf9, suggesting that Fgf9 is upstream of Pitx2. We detected decreased expression of both cyclins D1 and D3 in the palates of Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice, consistent with the defect in cell proliferation. Significantly, exogenous FGF9 restores expression of cyclins D1 and D3 in a Pitx2-dependent manner and rescues the cell proliferation defect in the palatal mesenchyme of Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice. Our study indicates that a TGFβ-FGF9-PITX2 signaling cascade regulates cranial neural crest cell proliferation during palate formation.

  2. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  3. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  4. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  5. [Study of vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1 genes regulate the mineral-related genes in human cells from apical papilla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibing; Han, Xuan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    To clone the VEGF165 gene and to construct eucaryotic expression vector, investigate the effect of overexpressed VEGF165 and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) on the mineral-related genes in human cells from apical papilla. Total RNA of ECV304 cell was extracted. The VEGF165 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and then was subcloned into eucaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1hisA to construct the recombinant vector pcDNA3.1hisA-VEGF165. After being identified by digestion and DNA sequencing, pcDNA3.1hisA-VEGF165, and pcDNA3.1hisA-TGFbeta1 were transfected into human cells from apical papilla Then the efficiency of gene transfection and the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) were detected by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cloned VEGF165 gene sequences and inserted into expression vector of the VEGF165 sequences showed 100% homology related to the sequence in GenBank database. VEGF165 and TGFbeta1 mRNA were upregulated after transfection. The expression of DSPP mRNA were significantly increased in each experiment group (P 0.05), while no expression of DMP1 mRNA in each experiment group. The recombinant eucaryotic expression vector of pcDNA3.1hisA-VEGF165 was constructed successfully. VEGF165 and TGFbeta1 can induce the expression of most mineral-related genes and they may play a key role during the differentiation of human cells from apical papilla.

  6. Expression of human papilloma virus type 16 E5 protein in amelanotic melanoma cells regulates endo-cellular pH and restores tyrosinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coccia Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanin synthesis, the elective trait of melanocytes, is regulated by tyrosinase activity. In tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas this rate limiting enzyme is inactive because of acidic endo-melanosomal pH. The E5 oncogene of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 is a small transmembrane protein with a weak transforming activity and a role during the early steps of viral infections. E5 has been shown to interact with 16 kDa subunit C of the trans-membrane Vacuolar ATPase proton pump ultimately resulting in its functional suppressions. However, the cellular effects of such an interaction are still under debate. With this work we intended to explore whether the HPV16 E5 oncoprotein does indeed interact with the vacuolar ATPase proton pump once expressed in intact human cells and whether this interaction has functional consequences on cell metabolism and phenotype. Methods The expression of the HPV16-E5 oncoproteins was induced in two Tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas (the cell lines FRM and M14 by a retroviral expression construct. Modulation of the intracellular pH was measured with Acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy. Expression of tyrosinase and its activity was followed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and enzyme assay. The anchorage-independence growth and the metabolic activity of E5 expressing cells were also monitored. Results We provide evidence that in the E5 expressing cells interaction between E5 and V-ATPase determines an increase of endo-cellular pH. The cellular alkalinisation in turn leads to the post-translational activation of tyrosinase, melanin synthesis and phenotype modulation. These effects are associated with an increased activation of tyrosine analogue anti-blastic drugs. Conclusion Once expressed within intact human cells the HPV16-E5 oncoprotein does actually interact with the vacuolar V-ATPase proton pump and this interaction induces a number of functional effects. In amelanotic melanomas these

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus induced type I IFN production by pDC is regulated by RSV-infected airway epithelial cells, RSV-exposed monocytes and virus specific antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel A Schijf

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses elicited upon virus exposure are crucial for the effective eradication of viruses, the onset of adaptive immune responses and for establishing proper immune memory. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is responsible for a high disease burden in neonates and immune compromised individuals, causing severe lower respiratory tract infections. During primary infections exuberant innate immune responses may contribute to disease severity. Furthermore, immune memory is often insufficient to protect during RSV re-exposure, which results in frequent symptomatic reinfections. Therefore, identifying the cell types and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in RSV-specific innate immune responses is necessary to understand incomplete immunity against RSV. We investigated the innate cellular response triggered upon infection of epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show that CD14(+ myeloid cells and epithelial cells are the major source of IL-8 and inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, when exposed to live RSV Three routes of RSV-induced IFN-α production can be distinguished that depend on the cross-talk of different cell types and the presence or absence of virus specific antibodies, whereby pDC are the ultimate source of IFN-α. RSV-specific antibodies facilitate direct TLR7 access into endosomal compartments, while in the absence of antibodies, infection of monocytes or epithelial cells is necessary to provide an early source of type I interferons, required to engage the IFN-α,β receptor (IFNAR-mediated pathway of IFN-α production by pDC. However, at high pDC density infection with RSV causes IFN-α production without the need for a second party cell. Our study shows that cellular context and immune status are factors affecting innate immune responses to RSV. These issues should therefore be addressed during the process of vaccine development and other interventions for RSV disease.

  8. MicroRNA Transcriptome of Poly I:C-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Reveals Evidence for MicroRNAs in Regulating Host Response to RNA Viruses in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiying Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are one family of small noncoding RNAs that function to modulate the activity of specific mRNA targets in animals. To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host immune response to RNA viruses, we profiled and characterized the miRNAs of swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA analog, by miRNA-sequencing (miRNA-seq. We identified a total of 905 miRNAs, of which 503 miRNAs were firstly exploited herein with no annotation in the latest miRBase 21.0. Expression analysis demonstrated that poly I:C stimulation can elicit significantly differentially expressed (DE miRNAs in Dapulian (n = 20, one Chinese indigenous breed, as well as Landrace (n = 23. By integrating the mRNA expression profiles of the same sample with miRNA profiles, we carried out function analyses of the target genes of these DE miRNAs, with the results indicating that target genes were most enriched in some immune-related pathways and gene ontology (GO terms, suggesting that DE miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of host to poly I:C stimulation. Furthermore, we also detected 43 and 61 significantly DE miRNAs between the two breeds in the control sample groups and poly I:C stimulation groups, respectively, which may be involved in regulation of the different characteristics of the two breeds. This study describes for the first time the PBMC miRNA transcriptomic response to poly I:C stimulation in pigs, which not only contributes to a broad view of the pig miRNAome but improves our understanding of miRNA function in regulating host immune response to RNA viruses.

  9. Thalidomide suppresses Up-regulation of human immunodeficiency virus coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 on CD4+ T cells in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juffermans, N. P.; Verbon, A.; Olszyna, D. P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Speelman, P.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Concurrent infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the expression of HIV coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Thalidomide has beneficial effects in a number of HIV-associated diseases. The effect of thalidomide on CXCR4 and CCR5 expression on CD4+ T cells was

  10. Alternative way to test the efficacy of swine FMD vaccines: measurement of pigs median infected dose (PID50) and regulation of live virus challenge dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lu, Zeng-Jun; Xie, Bao-Xia; Sun, Pu; Chen, Ying-Li; Fu, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Zai-Xin

    2010-09-08

    Foot-and -mouth disease to pigs is serious recently around the world. "Vaccination prevention" is still an important policy. OIE specifies 10,000 TCID50(0.2 ml) of virulent virus for challenge test in pigs to test the potency of FMD vaccine by intradermal route inoculating the virus in the heel bulbs of one foot or by intramuscular route administering into one site of the neck behind the ear. Convenience and speediness are available in the process of potency test of commercial FMD vaccine. We selected the route of "administering into one site of the muscular part of the neck behind the ear" because of convenience and speediness. However, it was difficult to infect control pigs even up to 100,000TCID50, so we changed the challenged virus from cell-passaged strain to suckling mice-passaged one, measured its PID50 (pigs median infected dose) and defined the virus challenge dose as 1000PID50. Meanwhile, we arranged the number of control pigs from two to three for easy evaluation.

  11. Oncogenic Potential of Hepatitis C Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Ray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver disease progression, and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The HCV genome contains a single-stranded positive sense RNA with a cytoplasmic lifecycle. HCV proteins interact with many host-cell factors and are involved in a wide range of activities, including cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and cell growth promotion. Increasing experimental evidences suggest that HCV contributes to HCC by modulating pathways that may promote malignant transformation of hepatocytes. At least four of the 10 HCV gene products, namely core, NS3, NS5A and NS5B play roles in several potentially oncogenic pathways. Induction of both endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and oxidative stress by HCV proteins may also contribute to hepatocyte growth promotion. The current review identifies important functions of the viral proteins connecting HCV infections and potential for development of HCC. However, most of the putative transforming potentials of the HCV proteins have been defined in artificial cellular systems, and need to be established relevant to infection and disease models. The new insight into the mechanisms for HCV mediated disease progression may offer novel therapeutic targets for one of the most devastating human malignancies in the world today.

  12. CD63 Regulates Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Exosomal Packaging, Enhancement of Vesicle Production, and Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Stephanie N; Nkosi, Dingani; Conlon, Meghan M; York, Sara B; Liu, Xia; Tremblay, Deanna C; Meckes, David G

    2017-03-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncoprotein that is packaged into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) called exosomes. Trafficking of LMP1 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) alters the content and function of exosomes. LMP1-modified exosomes enhance the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant cells, demonstrating the capacity to manipulate the tumor microenvironment and enhance the progression of EBV-associated cancers. Despite the growing evidence surrounding the significance of LMP1-modified exosomes in cancer, very little is understood about the mechanisms that orchestrate LMP1 incorporation into these vesicles. Recently, LMP1 was shown to be copurified with CD63, a conserved tetraspanin protein enriched in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CD63 presence for exosomal packaging of LMP1. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and gradient purification revealed an increase in extracellular vesicle secretion and exosomal proteins following LMP1 expression. Immunoisolation of CD63-positive exosomes exhibited accumulation of LMP1 in this vesicle population. Functionally, CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of CD63 resulted in a reduction of LMP1-induced particle secretion. Furthermore, LMP1 packaging was severely impaired in CD63 knockout cells, concomitant with a disruption in the perinuclear localization of LMP1. Importantly, LMP1 trafficking to lipid rafts and activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways remained intact following CD63 knockout, while mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and noncanonical NF-κB activation were observed to be increased. These results suggest that CD63 is a critical player in LMP1 exosomal trafficking and LMP1-mediated enhancement of exosome production and may play further roles in limiting downstream LMP1 signaling.IMPORTANCE EBV is a ubiquitous gamma herpesvirus linked to malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  13. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette; Ferris, Nigel; Owens, Ray; Kotecha, Abhay; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Jones, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF VIRUS FREE SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    translatable coat protein (CP) gene fragments of Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and. Potato virus X (PVX) with and without selectable marker gene was conducted using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. Preliminary ...... Plant–cell. 5:1749–1759. 30. Lu, H-J., Zhou, X.R., Gong, Z–X. and Upadhyaya,.

  15. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  16. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  17. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  18. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)