WorldWideScience

Sample records for virus proteins inhibits

  1. Cross-Species Virus-Host Protein-Protein Interactions Inhibiting Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    virus families with know or suspected histories of changes in host-species tropism from animal to humans. In the Paramyxoviridae family, Hendra ...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-79 Cross-species virus -host...Cross-species virus -host protein-protein interactions inhibiting innate immunity What are the major goals of the project? List the major goals of

  2. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  3. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  4. The C, V and W proteins of Nipah virus inhibit minigenome replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Katrina; Bankamp, Bettina; Hummel, Kimberly B; Lo, Michael K; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-05-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emergent, highly pathogenic, zoonotic paramyxovirus of the genus Henipavirus. Like the phosphoprotein (P) gene of other paramyxoviruses, the P gene of NiV is predicted to encode three additional proteins, C, V and W. When the C, V and W proteins of NiV were tested for their ability to inhibit expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in plasmid-based, minigenome replication assays, each protein inhibited CAT expression in a dose-dependent manner. The C, V and W proteins of NiV also inhibited expression of CAT from a measles virus (MV) minigenome, but not from a human parainfluenzavirus 3 (hPIV3) minigenome. Interestingly, the C and V proteins of MV, which have previously been shown to inhibit MV minigenome replication, also inhibited NiV minigenome replication; however, they were not able to inhibit hPIV3 minigenome replication. In contrast, the C protein of hPIV3 inhibited minigenome replication of hPIV3, NiV and MV. Although there is very limited amino acid sequence similarity between the C, V and W proteins within the paramyxoviruses, the heterotypic inhibition of replication suggests that these proteins may share functional properties.

  5. Evasion of antiviral innate immunity by Theiler's virus L* protein through direct inhibition of RNase L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sorgeloos

    Full Text Available Theiler's virus is a neurotropic picornavirus responsible for chronic infections of the central nervous system. The establishment of a persistent infection and the subsequent demyelinating disease triggered by the virus depend on the expression of L*, a viral accessory protein encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the virus. We discovered that L* potently inhibits the interferon-inducible OAS/RNase L pathway. The antagonism of RNase L by L* was particularly prominent in macrophages where baseline oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS and RNase L expression levels are elevated, but was detectable in fibroblasts after IFN pretreatment. L* mutations significantly affected Theiler's virus replication in primary macrophages derived from wild-type but not from RNase L-deficient mice. L* counteracted the OAS/RNase L pathway through direct interaction with the ankyrin domain of RNase L, resulting in the inhibition of this enzyme. Interestingly, RNase L inhibition was species-specific as Theiler's virus L* protein blocked murine RNase L but not human RNase L or RNase L of other mammals or birds. Direct RNase L inhibition by L* and species specificity were confirmed in an in vitro assay performed with purified proteins. These results demonstrate a novel viral mechanism to elude the antiviral OAS/RNase L pathway. By targeting the effector enzyme of this antiviral pathway, L* potently inhibits RNase L, underscoring the importance of this enzyme in innate immunity against Theiler's virus.

  6. Evasion of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Theiler's Virus L* Protein through Direct Inhibition of RNase L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Jha, Babal Kant; Silverman, Robert H.; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Theiler's virus is a neurotropic picornavirus responsible for chronic infections of the central nervous system. The establishment of a persistent infection and the subsequent demyelinating disease triggered by the virus depend on the expression of L*, a viral accessory protein encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the virus. We discovered that L* potently inhibits the interferon-inducible OAS/RNase L pathway. The antagonism of RNase L by L* was particularly prominent in macrophages where baseline oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L expression levels are elevated, but was detectable in fibroblasts after IFN pretreatment. L* mutations significantly affected Theiler's virus replication in primary macrophages derived from wild-type but not from RNase L-deficient mice. L* counteracted the OAS/RNase L pathway through direct interaction with the ankyrin domain of RNase L, resulting in the inhibition of this enzyme. Interestingly, RNase L inhibition was species-specific as Theiler's virus L* protein blocked murine RNase L but not human RNase L or RNase L of other mammals or birds. Direct RNase L inhibition by L* and species specificity were confirmed in an in vitro assay performed with purified proteins. These results demonstrate a novel viral mechanism to elude the antiviral OAS/RNase L pathway. By targeting the effector enzyme of this antiviral pathway, L* potently inhibits RNase L, underscoring the importance of this enzyme in innate immunity against Theiler's virus. PMID:23825954

  7. The cellular endosomal protein stannin inhibits intracellular trafficking of human papillomavirus during virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, Alex; Erden, Asu; Kanaya, Eriko; Zhang, Wei; Crite, Mac; Bradfield, Clinton; MacMicking, John; DiMaio, Daniel; Schoggins, John W; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2017-10-23

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common sexually transmitted viruses and one of the most important infectious causes of cancers worldwide. While prophylactic vaccines are effective against certain strains of HPV, established infections still cause deadly cancers in both men and women. HPV traffics to the nucleus via the retrograde transport pathway, but the mechanism of intracellular transport of non-enveloped viruses such as HPV is incompletely understood. Using an overexpression screen, we identify several genes that control HPV16 entry. We focused on the mechanism by which one of the screen hits, stannin, blocks HPV16 infection. Stannin has not been previously implicated in virus entry. Overexpression of stannin specifically inhibits infection by several HPV types, but not other viruses tested. Stannin is constitutively expressed in human keratinocytes, and its basal levels limit entry by HPV16. Stannin is localized to the endolysosomal compartment and does not affect HPV16 binding to cells, virus uptake, or virus uncoating, but inhibits the entry of HPV into the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and stimulates HPV degradation. We further show that stannin interacts with L1 major capsid protein and impairs the interaction of the L2 minor capsid protein with retromer, which is required for virus trafficking to the TGN. Our findings shed light on a novel cellular protein that interferes with HPV entry and highlight the role of retrograde transport in HPV entry.

  8. Cross-species Virus-host Protein-Protein Interactions Inhibiting Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    protein- protein interactions inhibiting innate immunity Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July 2016...protein interactions inhibiting innate immunity Sb. GRANT NUMBER HDTRA1-13-1-0017 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Timothy...first-line innate immunity response against viral infection. The inhibition or avoidance of this initial innate immune response is a commonly occurring

  9. Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meschi, Joseph; Crouch, Erika C; Skolnik, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. These glycoconjugates contribute to resistance to antibody neutralization, and binding to cell surface lectins on macrophages and dendritic cells. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL......) binds to gp120 and plays a role in defence against the virus. In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly lower concentrations than MBL. The binding of SP-D was mediated by its calcium-dependent carbohydrate...... defence against HIV. A chimeric protein containing the N-terminal and collagen domains of SP-D linked to the neck and carbohydrate-recognition domains of MBL (called SP-D/MBL(neck+CRD)) had greater ability to bind to gp120 and inhibit virus replication than either SP-D or MBL. The enhanced binding of SP...

  10. Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Wolfram J; Wagner, Hans J; Maurmann, Susanne; Hennig, Holger; Kreft, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exerts substantially immunomodulating activities in vitro and in vivo. In this context, EBV-induced chemokine production and the influence of EBV on this highly redundant system of inflammatory proteins have hardly been investigated. This study analyzed the production of interleukin-8, RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) on EBV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from immune EBV-seropositive (EBV(+)) and noninfected EBV-seronegative (EBV(-)) individuals. EBV failed to induce the production of MIP-1 alpha in EBV(+) as well as EBV(-) individuals, whereas the other chemokines studied were readily expressed. Moreover, EBV completely down-regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and phytohemagglutinin-induced MIP-1 alpha production up to 4 hours after induction. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of EBV- and LPS-stimulated cultures revealed that EBV inhibited MIP-1 alpha production on the transcriptional level. This effect was abolished by addition of antiglycoprotein (gp)350/220, a monoclonal antibody against EBV's major envelope glycoprotein, which mediates binding of the virus to the EBV receptor, CD21. However, recombinant gp350/220 protein alone did not inhibit the LPS-induced MIP-1 alpha production, indicating that infection of the target cell is indispensable for this effect. In summary, we demonstrate a new immunomodulating activity of EBV on the chemokine system that probably helps the virus to evade the host's immune system favoring lifelong infection.

  11. The C protein of measles virus inhibits the type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jessica A; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2003-10-25

    Type I interferons (IFNalpha/beta) are an important part of innate immunity to viral infections because they induce an antiviral response and limit viral replication until the adaptive response clears the infection. Since the nonstructural proteins of several paramyxoviruses inhibit the IFNalpha/beta response, we chose to explore the role of the C protein of measles virus (MV) in such inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that the MV C protein may serve as a virulence factor, but its role in the pathogenesis of MV remains undefined. In the present study, a recombinant MV strain that does not express the C protein (MV C-) and its parental strain (Ed Tag) were used. Growth of MV C- was restricted in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HeLa cells, but in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to IFNalpha/beta, MV C- produced titers that were equivalent to those of Ed Tag. In addition, expression of the MV C protein from plasmid DNA inhibited the production of an IFNalpha/beta responsive reporter gene and, to a lesser extent, inhibited an IFNgamma responsive reporter gene. The ability of the MV C protein to suppress the IFNalpha/beta response was confirmed using a biologic assay. After IFNbeta stimulation, HeLa cells infected with Ed Tag produced five-fold less IFNalpha/beta than cells infected with MV C-. While the mechanism of inhibition remains unclear, these data suggest that the MV C protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MV by inhibiting IFNalpha/beta signaling.

  12. The hepatitis B virus x protein inhibits thymine DNA glycosylase initiated base excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten A A van de Klundert

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV genome encodes the X protein (HBx, a ubiquitous transactivator that is required for HBV replication. Expression of the HBx protein has been associated with the development of HBV infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Previously, we generated a 3D structure of HBx by combined homology and ab initio in silico modelling. This structure showed a striking similarity to the human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG, a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway. To further explore this finding, we investigated whether both proteins interfere with or complement each other's functions. Here we show that TDG does not affect HBV replication, but that HBx strongly inhibits TDG-initiated base excision repair (BER, a major DNA repair pathway. Inhibition of the BER pathway may contribute substantially to the oncogenic effect of HBV infection.

  13. [Protein kinase inhibitor flavopiridol inhibits the replication of influenza virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixiong; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Xin

    2012-09-04

    To investigate the antiviral effect of the flavonoid compound flavopiridol on influenza A virus and explore its antiviral mechanism. The A549 or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with influenza A virus A/WSN/33 and treated with flavopiridol. The viral proteins were determined by immunolotting and immunofluorescence. The virus titer was measured by plaque assay. To verify whether the activity of host RNA polymerase II was affected by flavopiridol, the phosphorylation status of RNA polymerase II CTD domain was analyzed by immunoblotting with phosphor-specific antibody. The amount of viral mRNA, vRNA and cRNA was measured by reverse transcription and PCR. The amount of viral proteins was significantly decreased and the titer of virus was greatly reduced in cells treated with flavopiridol. Further analysis showed that the phosphorylation of Ser-2 in the heptad repeat of the CTD domain in RNA polymerase II was decreased in falvopiridol treated cell. This result indicated that the transcription elongation activity of RNA pol II was impaired upon treatment with flavopiridol. Then we found that the amount of viral vRNA was significantly decreased in flavopiridol treated cells while only moderate decrease of mRNA was observed and almost no reduction of cRNA was detected. Flavopiridol can greatly suppress the replication of influenza virus. We propose that the inhibition of the transcription elongation activity of host RNA polymerase II would cause the decrease of viral mRNA transcription.

  14. Spironolactone blocks Epstein-Barr virus production by inhibiting EBV SM protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2016-03-29

    Clinically available drugs active against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other human herpesviruses are limited to those targeting viral DNA replication. To identify compounds directed against other steps in the viral life cycle, we searched for drugs active against the EBV SM protein, which is essential for infectious virus production. SM has a highly gene-specific mode of action and preferentially enhances expression of several late lytic cycle EBV genes. Here we demonstrate that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist approved for clinical use, inhibits SM function and infectious EBV production. Expression of EBV viral capsid antigen is highly SM dependent, and spironolactone inhibits viral capsid antigen synthesis and capsid formation, blocking EBV virion production at a step subsequent to viral DNA replication. In addition, spironolactone inhibits expression of other SM-dependent genes necessary for infectious virion formation. We further demonstrate that molecules structurally related to spironolactone with similar antimineralocorticoid blocking activity do not inhibit EBV production. These findings pave the way for development of antiherpesvirus drugs with new mechanisms of action directed against SM and homologous essential proteins in other herpesviruses.

  15. Spironolactone blocks Epstein–Barr virus production by inhibiting EBV SM protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Clinically available drugs active against Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and other human herpesviruses are limited to those targeting viral DNA replication. To identify compounds directed against other steps in the viral life cycle, we searched for drugs active against the EBV SM protein, which is essential for infectious virus production. SM has a highly gene-specific mode of action and preferentially enhances expression of several late lytic cycle EBV genes. Here we demonstrate that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist approved for clinical use, inhibits SM function and infectious EBV production. Expression of EBV viral capsid antigen is highly SM dependent, and spironolactone inhibits viral capsid antigen synthesis and capsid formation, blocking EBV virion production at a step subsequent to viral DNA replication. In addition, spironolactone inhibits expression of other SM-dependent genes necessary for infectious virion formation. We further demonstrate that molecules structurally related to spironolactone with similar antimineralocorticoid blocking activity do not inhibit EBV production. These findings pave the way for development of antiherpesvirus drugs with new mechanisms of action directed against SM and homologous essential proteins in other herpesviruses. PMID:26976570

  16. Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein inhibits influenza A virus and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R White

    Full Text Available Accumulation of β-Amyloid (βA is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's disease; however, the normal function of βA is unknown. Recent studies have shown that βA can inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. In this paper we show that βA also inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV in vitro. The 42 amino acid fragment of βA (βA42 had greater activity than the 40 amino acid fragment. Direct incubation of the virus with βA42 was needed to achieve optimal inhibition. Using quantitative PCR assays βA42 was shown to reduce viral uptake by epithelial cells after 45 minutes and to reduce supernatant virus at 24 hours post infection. βA42 caused aggregation of IAV particles as detected by light transmission assays and electron and confocal microscopy. βA42 did not stimulate neutrophil H2O2 production or extracellular trap formation on its own, but it increased both responses stimulated by IAV. In addition, βA42 increased uptake of IAV by neutrophils. βA42 reduced viral protein synthesis in monocytes and reduced IAV-induced interleukin-6 production by these cells. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that βA has antiviral activity and modulates viral interactions with phagocytes.

  17. RAGE inhibits human respiratory syncytial virus syncytium formation by interfering with F-protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jane; Huang, Kelly; Krishnan, Subramaniam; Svabek, Catherine; Rowe, Daniel C; Brewah, Yambasu; Sanjuan, Miguel; Patera, Andriani C; Kolbeck, Roland; Herbst, Ronald; Sims, Gary P

    2013-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection. Infection is critically dependent on the RSV fusion (F) protein, which mediates fusion between the viral envelope and airway epithelial cells. The F protein is also expressed on infected cells and is responsible for fusion of infected cells with adjacent cells, resulting in the formation of multinucleate syncytia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor that is constitutively highly expressed by type I alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we report that RAGE protected HEK cells from RSV-induced cell death and reduced viral titres in vitro. RAGE appeared to interact directly with the F protein, but, rather than inhibiting RSV entry into host cells, virus replication and budding, membrane-expressed RAGE or soluble RAGE blocked F-protein-mediated syncytium formation and sloughing. These data indicate that RAGE may contribute to protecting the lower airways from RSV by inhibiting the formation of syncytia, viral spread, epithelial damage and airway obstruction.

  18. Chemical Genomics Identifies the PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Stress Response as a Cellular Target for Influenza Virus Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Landeras-Bueno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and the economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable to anti-influenza virus therapy. Here we have addressed the identification of such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that screening with a green fluorescent protein-based recombinant replicon system would identify cellular targets involved in virus transcription/replication and/or gene expression and hence address an early stage of virus infection. By using such a strategy, we identified Montelukast (MK as an inhibitor of virus multiplication. MK inhibited virus gene expression but did not alter viral RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo. The low selectivity index of MK prevented its use as an antiviral, but it was sufficient to identify a new cellular pathway suitable for anti-influenza virus intervention. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated with MK or left untreated, we showed that it stimulates the PERK-mediated unfolded protein stress response. The phosphorylation of PERK was partly inhibited in virus-infected cells but stimulated in MK-treated cells. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PERK phosphorylation led to increased viral gene expression, while inhibition of PERK phosphatase reduced viral protein synthesis. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection.

  19. West Nile virus envelope protein inhibits dsRNA-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Ledizet, Michel; Anthony, Karen; Bonafé, Nathalie; Modis, Yorgo; Town, Terrence; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-12-15

    The immune response against viral infection relies on the early production of cytokines that induce an antiviral state and trigger the activation of immune cells. This response is initiated by the recognition of virus-associated molecular patterns such as dsRNA, a viral replication intermediate recognized by TLR3 and certain RNA helicases. Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) can lead to lethal encephalitis in susceptible individuals and constitutes an emerging health threat. In this study, we report that WNV envelope protein (WNV-E) specifically blocks the production of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines induced by dsRNA in murine macrophages. This immunosuppressive effect was not dependent on TLR3 or its adaptor molecule Trif. Instead, our experiments show that WNV-E acts at the level of receptor-interacting protein 1. Our results also indicate that WNV-E requires a certain glycosylation pattern, specifically that of dipteran cells, to inhibit dsRNA-induced cytokine production. In conclusion, these data show that the major structural protein of WNV impairs the innate immune response and suggest that WNV exploits differential vector/host E glycosylation profiles to evade antiviral mechanisms.

  20. The antiviral protein viperin inhibits hepatitis C virus replication via interaction with nonstructural protein 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Karla J; Eyre, Nicholas S; Yip, Evelyn; Narayana, Sumudu; Li, Kui; Fiches, Guillaume; McCartney, Erin M; Jangra, Rohit K; Lemon, Stanley M; Beard, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene, viperin, has been shown to have antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the context of the HCV replicon, although the molecular mechanisms responsible are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that viperin plays an integral part in the ability of interferon to limit the replication of cell-culture-derived HCV (JFH-1) that accurately reflects the complete viral life cycle. Using confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis, we demonstrate that viperin localizes and interacts with HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) at the lipid-droplet (LD) interface. In addition, viperin also associates with NS5A and the proviral cellular factor, human vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein subtype A (VAP-A), at the HCV replication complex. The ability of viperin to limit HCV replication was dependent on residues within the C-terminus, as well as an N-terminal amphipathic helix. Removal of the amphipathic helix-redirected viperin from the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum and the LD to a homogenous cytoplasmic distribution, coinciding with a loss of antiviral effect. C-terminal viperin mutants still localized to the LD interface and replication complexes, but did not interact with NS5A proteins, as determined by FRET analysis. In conclusion, we propose that viperin interacts with NS5A and the host factor, VAP-A, to limit HCV replication at the replication complex. This highlights the complexity of the host control of viral replication by interferon-stimulated gene expression. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. A Novel Benzodiazepine Compound Inhibits Yellow Fever Virus Infection by Specifically Targeting NS4B Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Wu, Shuo; Julander, Justin; Ma, Julia; Zhang, Xuexiang; Kulp, John; Cuconati, Andrea; Block, Timothy M; Du, Yanming; Guo, Ju-Tao; Chang, Jinhong

    2016-09-21

    Although a highly effective vaccine is available, the number of yellow fever cases has increased over the past two decades, which highlights the pressing need for antiviral therapeutics. In a high throughput screening campaign, we identified an acetic acid benzodiazepine (BDAA) compound, which potently inhibits yellow fever virus (YFV). Interestingly, while treatment of YFV infected cultures with 2 μM of BDAA reduced the virion production by greater than 2 logs, the compound is not active against 21 other viruses from 14 different viral families. Selection and genetic analysis of drug resistant viruses revealed that substitution of proline at amino acid 219 (P219) of the nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) with serine, threonine or alanine confers YFV resistance to BDAA without apparent loss of replication fitness in cultured mammalian cells. However, substitution of P219 with glycine confers BDAA resistance with significant loss of replication ability. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that the P219 localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum lumen side of the fifth putative trans-membrane domain of NS4B and the mutation may render the viral protein incapable of interacting with BDAA. Our studies thus revealed important role and structural basis for NS4B protein in supporting YFV replication. Moreover, in YFV-infected hamsters, oral administration of BDAA protected 90% of the animals from death, significantly reduced viral load by greater than 2 logs and attenuated viral infection-induced liver injury and body weight loss. The encouraging preclinical results thus warrant further development of BDAA or its derivatives as antiviral agents to treat yellow fever. Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease which threatens approximately one billion people living in tropical areas of Africa and Latin America. Although a highly effective yellow fever vaccine has been available for more than seven decades, the low vaccination rate fails to prevent outbreaks in at

  2. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: Implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J. [Institute for Molecular Virology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Basta, Holly A. [Department of Biology, Rocky Mountain College, Billings, MT (United States); Palmenberg, Ann C., E-mail: acpalmen@wisc.edu [Institute for Molecular Virology and Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (L{sub X}) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus L{sub M} structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus L{sub E}, and also larger complexes with L{sub E}:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant L{sub S} and L{sub T} from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the L{sub E} zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on L{sub E} must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by L{sub E}.

  3. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Strnadova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169 replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. [Hepatitis C virus F protein-mediated inhibition of hepatoma cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Liu, Jiao; Chen, Qing-mei; Shan, Xiao-ling; Chen, Lin-lin; Quan, Hui-qin; Tang, Ni

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the biological function of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-encoded F protein in hepatocytes. The full-length F gene was amplified by PCR from HCV genotype 1a and cloned into plasmid pSEB-3Flag by restriction enzyme digestion and ligation. Hepatoma cell lines, Huh7 and SMMC7721, were transfected with the resultant recombinant pSEB-3Flag-F or the original pSEB-3Flag (negative control) and screened with the selective antibiotic, blasticidin. Stable F gene and protein expression was verified by RT-PCR analysis. Analysis of cell growth and cell cycle was carried out by MTS assay, crystal violet staining and flow cytometry. Huh7 and SMMC7721 cells transfected with pSEB-3Flag-F plasmid (Huh7-F and SMMC7721-F, respectively) uniquely expressed the F gene and protein. The Huh7-F and SMMC7721-F cells showed significantly decreased proliferation rates, compared to the respective control groups. A similar HCV F-mediated growth-inhibiting activity was observed by the cell viability assay. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis revealed that the S-phase distribution was much lower in Huh7-F (47.12%) and SMMC7721-F (30.75%) cells than in the respective controls (55.35% and 33.23%, respectively) (P less than 0.05). Stable expression of the HCV F gene reduced the in vitro proliferation rate of hepatoma cell lines, indicating that the F protein may function as a growth inhibitor of infected cells.

  6. [Targeted inhibition of Rabies virus gene expression by a chimeric multidomain protein mediated shRNA delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruimei; Wang, Hualei; Shan, Hu; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-04

    In this study, a new chimeric protein SEG expressed in previous work was applied to evaluate its translocating efficiency of shRNA to rabies virus infected cells in mice, meanwhile, the capability of anti-rabies virus was investigated. Rabies virus strain CVS-24 was inoculated into the hind leg to establish a mouse model of rabies in a dose of 50 LD₅₀; 12 h thereafter the mice were injected intravenously with shRNA-producing plasmid mixed with SEG. To test shRNA delivery, single-cell suspensions from brain, spleen and liver were examined by flow cytometry. Rabies virus in brain tissue of mice was detected by qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, western blot and directed immunofluorescence assay. Mice were monitored for survival and serum samples were tested for IFN-α levels. No green fluorescent protein (GFP) was seen in the spleen or liver, suggesting that SEG allows specific targeting of RV-infected cells. RT-PCR and western blot showed that mice treated with SEG-shRNA had lower rabies virus RNA and protein levels than the controls. Real-time PCR showed that rabies virus was reduced 4.88 fold compared to the mock cells. Survival of RV-infected mouse showed a significant protection from rabies virus infection by SEG-shRNA treatment. The survival was up to 50% whereas the control group all died. IFN was not induced in SEG-shRNA treated animals. shRNA-producing plasmid was specifically delivered into rabies virus infected cells using the SEG protein, and effectively inhibited rabies virus geneexpression and replication in vivo. SEG-shRNA can be used for adjuvant treatment for rabies.

  7. Inhibition of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant influenza virus by DAS181, a novel sialidase fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallen B Triana-Baltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drug resistance for influenza therapies remains a concern due to the high prevalence of H1N1 2009 seasonal influenza isolates which display H274Y associated oseltamivir-resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of novel H1N1 raises the potential that additional reassortments can occur, resulting in drug resistant virus. Thus, additional antiviral approaches are urgently needed. DAS181 (Fludase, a sialidase fusion protein, has been shown to have inhibitory activity against a large number of seasonal influenza strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI strain (H5N1. Here, we examine the in vitro activity of DAS181 against a panel of 2009 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 clinical isolates. The activity of DAS181 against nine 2009, two 2007, and two 2004 clinical isolates of seasonal IFV H1N1 was examined using plaque number reduction assay on MDCK cells. DAS181 strongly inhibited all tested isolates. EC50 values remained constant against isolates from 2004, 2007, and 2009, suggesting that there was no change in DAS181 sensitivity over time. As expected, all 2007 and 2009 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir, consistent with the identification of the H274Y mutation in the NA gene of all these isolates. Interestingly, several of the 2007 and 2009 isolates also exhibited reduced sensitivity to zanamivir, and accompanying HA mutations near the sialic acid binding site were observed. DAS181 inhibits IFV that is resistant to NAIs. Thus, DAS181 may offer an alternative therapeutic option for seasonal or pandemic IFVs that become resistant to currently available antiviral drugs.

  8. Non-structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit NF-κB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohari Siamak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus infection activates NF-κB and is a general prerequisite for a productive influenza virus infection. On the other hand, non-structural protein 1 (NS1 suppresses this viral activated NF-κB, presumably to prevent expression of NF-κB mediated anti-viral response. NS1 proteins of influenza A viruses are divided into two groups, known as allele A and allele B. The possible functional relevance of this NS1 division to viral pathogenicity is lacking. Findings The ability of NS1 protein from two avian influenza subtypes, H6N8 and H4N6, to inhibit NF-κB promoter activation was assessed. Further, efforts were made to characterize the genetic basis of this inhibition. We found that allele A NS1 proteins of H6N8 and H4N6 are significantly better in preventing dsRNA induced NF-κB promoter activation compared to allele B of corresponding subtypes, in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the ability to suppress NF-κB promoter activation was mapped to the effector domain while the RNA binding domain alone was unable to suppress this activation. Chimeric NS1 proteins containing either RNA binding domain of allele A and effector domain of allele B or vice versa, were equally potent in preventing NF-κB promoter activation compared to their wt. NS1 protein of allele A and B from both subtypes expressed efficiently as detected by Western blotting and predominantly localized in the nucleus in both A549 and MiLu cells as shown by in situ PLA. Conclusions Here, we present another aspect of NS1 protein in inhibiting dsRNA induced NF-κB activation in an allele dependent manner. This suggests a possible correlation with the virus's pathogenic potential.

  9. Non-structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit NF-κB promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael

    2011-08-02

    Influenza virus infection activates NF-κB and is a general prerequisite for a productive influenza virus infection. On the other hand, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) suppresses this viral activated NF-κB, presumably to prevent expression of NF-κB mediated anti-viral response. NS1 proteins of influenza A viruses are divided into two groups, known as allele A and allele B. The possible functional relevance of this NS1 division to viral pathogenicity is lacking. The ability of NS1 protein from two avian influenza subtypes, H6N8 and H4N6, to inhibit NF-κB promoter activation was assessed. Further, efforts were made to characterize the genetic basis of this inhibition. We found that allele A NS1 proteins of H6N8 and H4N6 are significantly better in preventing dsRNA induced NF-κB promoter activation compared to allele B of corresponding subtypes, in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the ability to suppress NF-κB promoter activation was mapped to the effector domain while the RNA binding domain alone was unable to suppress this activation. Chimeric NS1 proteins containing either RNA binding domain of allele A and effector domain of allele B or vice versa, were equally potent in preventing NF-κB promoter activation compared to their wt. NS1 protein of allele A and B from both subtypes expressed efficiently as detected by Western blotting and predominantly localized in the nucleus in both A549 and MiLu cells as shown by in situ PLA. Here, we present another aspect of NS1 protein in inhibiting dsRNA induced NF-κB activation in an allele dependent manner. This suggests a possible correlation with the virus's pathogenic potential.

  10. GB virus C particles inhibit T cell activation via envelope E2 protein-mediated inhibition of T cell receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Landay, Alan L.; Chivero, Ernest T.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses enter into complex interactions within human hosts leading to facilitation or suppression of each other's replication. Upon coinfection, GB virus C (GBV-C) suppresses HIV-1 replication in vivo and in vitro, and GBV-C coinfection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected people. GBV-C is a lymphotropic virus capable of persistent infection. GBV-C infection is associated with reduced T cell activation in HIV-infected humans, and immune activation is a critical component of HIV disease pathogenesis. We demonstrate that serum GBV-C particles inhibited activation of primary human T cells. T cell activation inhibition was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein E2, as expression of E2 inhibited T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of tyrosine kinase (Lck). The region on the E2 protein was characterized and revealed a highly conserved peptide motif sufficient to inhibit TCR-mediated signaling. The E2 region contained a predicted Lck substrate site, and substitution of an alanine or histidine for the tyrosine reversed TCR signaling inhibition. GBV-C E2 protein and a synthetic peptide representing the inhibitory amino acid sequence were phosphorylated by Lck in vitro. The synthetic peptide also inhibited TCR-mediated activation of primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Extracellular microvesicles from GBV-C E2-expressing cells contained E2 protein and inhibited TCR signaling in bystander T cells not expressing E2. Thus, GBV-C reduced global T cell activation via competition between its envelope protein E2 and Lck following TCR engagement. This novel inhibitory mechanism of T cell activation may provide new approaches for HIV and immunoactivation therapy. PMID:23686495

  11. A peptide derived from hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein inhibits a post-binding step in HCV entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Tewari, M; Kong, R; Zhang, R; Ingravallo, P; Ralston, R

    2010-05-01

    The HCV envelope proteins E1 and E2 are required for virus binding to cellular receptors and pH-dependent fusion with endosomal membranes. Envelope protein interactions within this multistep process may provide novel targets for development of antiviral agents. To identify E1 and E2 regions involved in critical steps of HCV entry, we screened an E1E2 overlapping peptide library for inhibition of infection using a lentiviral reporter vector pseudotyped with E1E2 envelope proteins. A 16-residue polypeptide containing a portion of the E2 transmembrane domain (Peptide 75) inhibited HCV pseudoparticle infection with an IC50 of approximately 0.3microM and did not inhibit infection by VSV-g pseudoparticles at concentrations up to 50microM. Structure-activity analysis of Peptide 75 showed that antiviral activity was dependent upon L-configuration and hydrophobic character, and that the native sequence was required for maximal activity. Peptide 75 did not show virocidal activity against HCV pseudoparticles or other viruses. Temperature-shift experiments showed that the peptide acted at a post-binding step and that inhibition was further increased when used in combination with an anti-CD81 antibody previously shown to inhibit pseudoparticle entry at a post-binding step. These data suggest that interactions involving the C terminal region of E2 may play an important role in the HCV entry process.

  12. Orf virus 002 protein targets ovine protein S100A4 and inhibits NF-kappa B signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orf virus (ORFV, a member of Parapoxvirus, has evolved various strategies to modulate the immune responses of host cells. The ORFV-encoded protein ORFV002, a regulator factor, has been found to inhibit the acetylation of NF-κB-p65 by blocking phosphorylation of NF-kB-p65 at Ser276 and also to disrupt the binding of NF-kB-p65 and p300. To explore the mechanism by which ORFV002 regulates NF-κB signaling, the understanding of ORFV002 potential binding partners in host cells is critical. In this study, ovine S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4, prolylendopeptidase-like (PREPL and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex 8 (NDUFA8 were found to interact with ORFV002 based on the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assay using a cDNA library derived from primary ovine fetal turbinate cells (OFTu. GST pull-down and bidirectional co-immunoprecipitation assay results demonstrate that ORFV002 interacts with S100A4 directly. Following the pEGFP-ORFV002 (p002GFP transfection, we found that cytoplasmic S100A4 translocates into the nucleus and co-localizes with ORFV002. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of ORFV002 on NF-κB signaling was significantly restored by S100A4 knock-down phenotype, suggesting ovine S100A4 participating in the ORFV002-mediated NF-κB signaling. These data demonstrate that ORFV002 inhibits the NF-κB activation through its interaction with S100A4 along with its nucleus translocation.

  13. RAGE inhibits human respiratory syncytial virus syncytium formation by interfering with F-protein function

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jane; Huang, Kelly; Krishnan, Subramaniam; Svabek, Catherine; Rowe, Daniel C.; Brewah, Yambasu; Sanjuan, Miguel; Patera, Andriani C.; Kolbeck, Roland; Herbst, Ronald; Sims, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection. Infection is critically dependent on the RSV fusion (F) protein, which mediates fusion between the viral envelope and airway epithelial cells. The F protein is also expressed on infected cells and is responsible for fusion of infected cells with adjacent cells, resulting in the formation of multinucleate syncytia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognitio...

  14. Inhibition of the Membrane Attack Complex by Dengue Virus NS1 through Interaction with Vitronectin and Terminal Complement Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Jonas Nascimento; da Silva, Emiliana Mandarano; Allonso, Diego; Coelho, Diego Rodrigues; Andrade, Iamara da Silva; de Medeiros, Luciano Neves; Menezes, Joice Lima; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2016-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people worldwide and is a major public health problem. DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a conserved glycoprotein that associates with membranes and is also secreted into the plasma in DENV-infected patients. The present study describes a novel mechanism by which NS1 inhibits the terminal complement pathway. We first identified the terminal complement regulator vitronectin (VN) as a novel DENV2 NS1 binding partner by using a yeast two-hybrid system. This interaction was further assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. The NS1-VN complex was also detected in plasmas from DENV-infected patients, suggesting that this interaction occurs during DENV infection. We also demonstrated that the DENV2 NS1 protein, either by itself or by interacting with VN, hinders the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and C9 polymerization. Finally, we showed that DENV2, West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) NS1 proteins produced in mammalian cells inhibited C9 polymerization. Taken together, our results points to a role for NS1 as a terminal pathway inhibitor of the complement system. Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease nowadays and is caused by dengue virus (DENV). The flavivirus NS1 glycoprotein has been characterized functionally as a complement evasion protein that can attenuate the activation of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. The present study describes a novel mechanism by which DENV NS1 inhibits the terminal complement pathway. We identified the terminal complement regulator vitronectin (VN) as a novel DENV NS1 binding partner, and the NS1-VN complex was detected in plasmas from DENV-infected patients, suggesting that this interaction occurs during DENV infection. We also demonstrated that the NS1-VN complex inhibited membrane attack complex (MAC) formation, thus interfering with the complement terminal pathway. Interestingly

  15. The Us3 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Inhibits T Cell Signaling by Confining Linker for Activation of T Cells (LAT) Activation via TRAF6 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yin; Wu, Songfang; Wang, Yu; Pan, Shuang; Lan, Bei; Liu, Yaohui; Zhang, Liming; Leng, Qianli; Chen, Da; Zhang, Cuizhu; He, Bin; Cao, Youjia

    2015-06-19

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the most prevalent human virus and causes global morbidity because the virus is able to infect multiple cell types. Remarkably, HSV infection switches between lytic and latent cycles, where T cells play a critical role. However, the precise way of virus-host interactions is incompletely understood. Here we report that HSV-1 productively infected Jurkat T-cells and inhibited antigen-induced T cell receptor activation. We discovered that HSV-1-encoded Us3 protein interrupted TCR signaling and interleukin-2 production by inactivation of the linker for activation of T cells. This study unveils a mechanism by which HSV-1 intrudes into early events of TCR-mediated cell signaling and may provide novel insights into HSV infection, during which the virus escapes from host immune surveillance. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 inhibits signaling responses to salicylic acid and regulates innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Love

    Full Text Available Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV encodes a multifunctional protein P6 that is required for translation of the 35S RNA and also acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate that P6 additionally acts as a pathogenicity effector of an unique and novel type, modifying NPR1 (a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA- and jasmonic acid (JA-dependent signaling and inhibiting SA-dependent defence responses We find that that transgene-mediated expression of P6 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana has profound effects on defence signaling, suppressing expression of representative SA-responsive genes and increasing expression of representative JA-responsive genes. Relative to wild-type Arabidopsis P6-expressing transgenics had greatly reduced expression of PR-1 following SA-treatment, infection by CaMV or inoculation with an avirulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst. Similarly transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of P6 (including a mutant form defective in translational transactivation activity suppressed PR-1a transcript accumulation in response to Agrobacterium infiltration and following SA-treatment. As well as suppressing the expression of representative SA-regulated genes, P6-transgenic Arabidopsis showed greatly enhanced susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent Pst (titres elevated 10 to 30-fold compared to non-transgenic controls but reduced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Necrosis following SA-treatment or inoculation with avirulent Pst was reduced and delayed in P6-transgenics. NPR1 an important regulator of SA/JA crosstalk, was more highly expressed in the presence of P6 and introduction of the P6 transgene into a transgenic line expressing an NPR1:GFP fusion resulted in greatly increased fluorescence in nuclei even in the absence of SA. Thus in the presence of P6 an inactive form of NPR1 is mislocalized in the nucleus even in uninduced plants

  17. Inhibition of H9N2 virus invasion into dendritic cells by the S-layer protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signalling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention.

  18. Influenza A virus encoding secreted Gaussia luciferase as useful tool to analyze viral replication and its inhibition by antiviral compounds and cellular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Eckert

    Full Text Available Reporter genes inserted into viral genomes enable the easy and rapid quantification of virus replication, which is instrumental to efficient in vitro screening of antiviral compounds or in vivo analysis of viral spread and pathogenesis. Based on a published design, we have generated several replication competent influenza A viruses carrying either fluorescent proteins or Gaussia luciferase. Reporter activity could be readily quantified in infected cultures, but the virus encoding Gaussia luciferase was more stable than viruses bearing fluorescent proteins and was therefore analyzed in detail. Quantification of Gaussia luciferase activity in the supernatants of infected culture allowed the convenient and highly sensitive detection of viral spread, and enzymatic activity correlated with the number of infectious particles released from infected cells. Furthermore, the Gaussia luciferase encoding virus allowed the sensitive quantification of the antiviral activity of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI zanamivir and the host cell interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins 1-3, which are known to inhibit influenza virus entry. Finally, the virus was used to demonstrate that influenza A virus infection is sensitive to a modulator of endosomal cholesterol, in keeping with the concept that IFITMs inhibit viral entry by altering cholesterol levels in the endosomal membrane. In sum, we report the characterization of a novel influenza A reporter virus, which allows fast and sensitive detection of viral spread and its inhibition, and we show that influenza A virus entry is sensitive to alterations of endosomal cholesterol levels.

  19. Borna disease virus blocks potentiation of presynaptic activity through inhibition of protein kinase C signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Borna disease virus (BDV enables the study of the molecular mechanisms whereby a virus can persist in the central nervous system and lead to altered brain function in the absence of overt cytolysis and inflammation. This neurotropic virus infects a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral diseases. The basis of BDV-induced behavioral impairment remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether BDV infection of neurons affected synaptic activity, by studying the rate of synaptic vesicle (SV recycling, a good indicator of synaptic activity. Vesicular cycling was visualized in cultured hippocampal neurons synapses, using an assay based on the uptake of an antibody directed against the luminal domain of synaptotagmin I. BDV infection did not affect elementary presynaptic functioning, such as spontaneous or depolarization-induced vesicular cycling. In contrast, infection of neurons with BDV specifically blocked the enhancement of SV recycling that is observed in response to stimuli-induced synaptic potentiation, suggesting defects in long-term potentiation. Studies of signaling pathways involved in synaptic potentiation revealed that this blockade was due to a reduction of the phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC of proteins that regulate SV recycling, such as myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS and Munc18-1/nSec1. Moreover, BDV interference with PKC-dependent phosphorylation was identified downstream of PKC activation. We also provide evidence suggesting that the BDV phosphoprotein interferes with PKC-dependent phosphorylation. Altogether, our results reveal a new mechanism by which a virus can cause synaptic dysfunction and contribute to neurobehavioral disorders.

  20. Borna Disease Virus Blocks Potentiation of Presynaptic Activity through Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Romain; Monnet, Céline; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Infection by Borna disease virus (BDV) enables the study of the molecular mechanisms whereby a virus can persist in the central nervous system and lead to altered brain function in the absence of overt cytolysis and inflammation. This neurotropic virus infects a wide variety of vertebrates and causes behavioral diseases. The basis of BDV-induced behavioral impairment remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether BDV infection of neurons affected synaptic activity, by studying the rate of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling, a good indicator of synaptic activity. Vesicular cycling was visualized in cultured hippocampal neurons synapses, using an assay based on the uptake of an antibody directed against the luminal domain of synaptotagmin I. BDV infection did not affect elementary presynaptic functioning, such as spontaneous or depolarization-induced vesicular cycling. In contrast, infection of neurons with BDV specifically blocked the enhancement of SV recycling that is observed in response to stimuli-induced synaptic potentiation, suggesting defects in long-term potentiation. Studies of signaling pathways involved in synaptic potentiation revealed that this blockade was due to a reduction of the phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) of proteins that regulate SV recycling, such as myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and Munc18–1/nSec1. Moreover, BDV interference with PKC-dependent phosphorylation was identified downstream of PKC activation. We also provide evidence suggesting that the BDV phosphoprotein interferes with PKC-dependent phosphorylation. Altogether, our results reveal a new mechanism by which a virus can cause synaptic dysfunction and contribute to neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:16552443

  1. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  2. Inhibition of the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome Is Protective in Juvenile Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bria M. Coates

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a significant cause of life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children. Antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment, but its effectiveness in this age group has been questioned. In addition, damage inflicted on the lungs by the immune response to the virus may be as important to the development of severe lung injury during IAV infection as the cytotoxic effects of the virus itself. A crucial step in the immune response to IAV is activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome and the subsequent secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and interleukin-18 (IL-18. The IAV matrix 2 proton channel (M2 has been shown to be an important activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome during IAV infection. We sought to interrupt this ion channel-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through inhibition of NLRP3 or the cytokine downstream from its activation, IL-1β. Using our juvenile mouse model of IAV infection, we show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, beginning 3 days after infection with IAV, improves survival in juvenile mice. Treatment with MCC950 reduces NLRP3 levels in lung homogenates, decreases IL-18 secretion into the alveolar space, and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 does not impair viral clearance. In contrast, inhibition of IL-1β signaling with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, is insufficient to protect juvenile mice from IAV. Our findings suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in juvenile IAV infection may improve disease outcomes in this age group.

  3. Aptamer That Binds to the gD Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Efficiently Inhibits Viral Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hayashi, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the gD protein of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) plays an important role in viral entry by binding to specific cellular coreceptors and mediating viral entry to the host cells. In the present study, we isolated RNA aptamers (aptamer-1 and aptamer-5) that specifically bind to the gD protein of HSV-1 with high affinity and are able to discriminate the gD protein of a different virus, HSV-2. Aptamer-1 efficiently interfered with the interaction between the gD protein and the HSV-1 target cell receptor (HVEM) in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of aptamer-1 was estimated to be in the nanomolar range (60 nM). Furthermore, aptamer-1 was analyzed for anti-HSV-1 activity by using plaque assays, and it efficiently inhibited viral entry with an estimated Ki of 0.8 μM. To expand the future applications of aptamer-1, a shorter variant was designed by using both mapping and boundary analyses, resulting in the mini-1 aptamer (44-mer). Compared to the full-length aptamer, mini-1 had at least as high an affinity, specificity, and ability to interfere with gD-HVEM interactions. These studies suggest that the mini-1 aptamer could be explored further as an anti-HSV-1 topical therapy designed to prevent the risk of acquiring HSV-1 infection through physical contact. PMID:22514343

  4. Geraniin extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum binds to dengue virus type-2 envelope protein and inhibits early stage of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Ahmad, Siti Aisyah; Palanisamy, Uma D; Tejo, Bimo A; Chew, Miaw Fang; Tham, Hong Wai; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2017-11-21

    The rapid rise and spread in dengue cases, together with the unavailability of safe vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, warrant the need to discover and develop novel anti-dengue treatments. In this study the antiviral activity of geraniin, extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum, against dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) was investigated. Geraniin was prepared from Nephelium lappaceum rind by reverse phase C-18 column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of geraniin towards Vero cells was evaluated using MTT assay while IC 50 value was determined by plaque reduction assay. The mode-of-action of geraniin was characterized using the virucidal, attachment, penetration and the time-of-addition assays'. Docking experiments with geraniin molecule and the DENV envelope (E) protein was also performed. Finally, recombinant E Domain III (rE-DIII) protein was produced to physiologically test the binding of geraniin to DENV-2 E-DIII protein, through ELISA competitive binding assay. Cytotoxicity assay confirmed that geraniin was not toxic to Vero cells, even at the highest concentration tested. The compound exhibited DENV-2 plaque formation inhibition, with an IC 50 of 1.75 μM. We further revealed that geraniin reduced viral infectivity and inhibited DENV-2 from attaching to the cells but had little effect on its penetration. Geraniin was observed to be most effective when added at the early stage of DENV-2 infection. Docking experiments showed that geraniin binds to DENV E protein, specifically at the DIII region, while the ELISA competitive binding assay confirmed geraniin's interaction with rE-DIII with high affinity. Geraniin from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum has antiviral activity against DENV-2. It is postulated that the compound inhibits viral attachment by binding to the E-DIII protein and interferes with the initial cell-virus interaction. Our results demonstrate that geraniin has the potential to be developed into an effective antiviral treatment, particularly for

  5. Short interfering RNA inhibits Rift Valley fever virus replication and degradation of protein kinase R in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonto Faburay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that siRNA duplexes directed against the RVFV nucleoprotein can effectively inhibit RVFV replication in human (MRC5 cells and African green monkey cells (Vero E6 cells. Using these cells, we demonstrate that individual or complex siRNAs, targeting the RVFV nucleoprotein gene completely abrogate viral protein expression and prevent degradation of the host innate antiviral factor, protein kinase R (PKR. Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with the nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs markedly reduces the virus titer. The antiviral effect of the siRNAs was not attributable to interferon or the interferon response effector molecule, protein kinase R. Thus, the antiviral activity of RVFV nucleoprotein-specific siRNAs may provide novel therapeutic strategy against RVFV infections in animals and humans.

  6. GB virus type C E2 protein inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag assembly by downregulating human ADP-ribosylation factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenliang; Timmons, Christine L; Shao, Qiujia; Kinlock, Ballington L; Turner, Tiffany M; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Huanliang; Liu, Bindong

    2015-12-22

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) glycoprotein E2 protein disrupts HIV-1 assembly and release by inhibiting Gag plasma membrane targeting, however the mechanism by which the GBV-C E2 inhibits Gag trafficking remains unclear. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) contributed to the inhibitory effect of GBV-C E2 on HIV-1 Gag membrane targeting. Expression of GBV-C E2 decreased ARF1 expression in a proteasomal degradation-dependent manner. The restoration of ARF1 expression rescued the HIV-1 Gag processing and membrane targeting defect imposed by GBV-C E2. In addition, GBV-C E2 expression also altered Golgi morphology and suppressed protein traffic through the secretory pathway, which are all consistent with a phenotype of disrupting the function of ARF1 protein. Thus, our results indicate that GBV-C E2 inhibits HIV-1 assembly and release by decreasing ARF1, and may provide insights regarding GBV-C E2's potential for a new therapeutic approach for treating HIV-1.

  7. A fusion-inhibiting peptide against Rift Valley fever virus inhibits multiple, diverse viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus, Class II (Andes virus, or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors.

  8. The ORF61 Protein Encoded by Simian Varicella Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus Inhibits NF-κB Signaling by Interfering with IκBα Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Travis; Malouli, Daniel; Uebelhoer, Luke S; DeFilippis, Victor R; Früh, Klaus; Verweij, Marieke C

    2015-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox upon primary infection and establishes latency in ganglia. Reactivation from latency causes herpes zoster, which may be complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. Innate immunity mediated by interferon and proinflammatory cytokines represents the first line of immune defense upon infection and reactivation. VZV is known to interfere with multiple innate immune signaling pathways, including the central transcription factor NF-κB. However, the role of these inhibitory mechanisms in vivo is unknown. Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of rhesus macaques recapitulates key aspects of VZV pathogenesis, and this model thus permits examination of the role of immune evasion mechanisms in vivo. Here, we compare SVV and VZV with respect to interference with NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that both viruses prevent ubiquitination of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, whereas SVV additionally prevents IκBα phosphorylation. We show that the ORF61 proteins of VZV and SVV are sufficient to prevent IκBα ubiquitination upon ectopic expression. We further demonstrate that SVV ORF61 interacts with β-TrCP, a subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the degradation of IκBα. This interaction seems to inactivate SCF-mediated protein degradation in general, since the unrelated β-TrCP target Snail is also stabilized by ORF61. In addition to ORF61, SVV seems to encode additional inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway, since SVV with ORF61 deleted still prevented IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SVV interferes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation at multiple levels, which is consistent with the importance of these countermechanisms for varicella virus infection. The role of innate immunity during the establishment of primary infection, latency, and reactivation by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is incompletely understood. Since infection of rhesus

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate, an active green tea compound inhibits the Zika virus entry into host cells via binding the envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitin; Murali, Aarthy; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Giri, Rajanish

    2017-11-01

    Emerging infections of Zika virus (ZIKV) are associated with serious consequences like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It leads to a situation of global health emergency and demand an intensive research investigation to develop safe and effective therapeutics. Various efforts have been made to reduce the pathological pressure of ZIKV, but no effective drug has been introduced against ZIKV infections. A recent study has reported the inhibition of ZIKV entry into the host cells by an active green tea ingredient, Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) in Vero E6cells. The effect of EGCG seems remarkable but lacking the information of the mechanism of action. In this study, we have investigated the binding site (Site1) of EGCG on envelope protein and provided the insights into various interactions of molecule with the binding site using molecular docking studies. Further, using molecular dynamics approaches we proposed the possible associated mechanism of inhibition of ZIKV entry by EGCG molecule. EGCG has found to interact with several residues and providing stability to the protein conformations up to 50ns simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stage-specific inhibition of MHC class I presentation by the Epstein-Barr virus BNLF2a protein during virus lytic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Croft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV persists for life in infected individuals despite the presence of a strong immune response. During the lytic cycle of EBV many viral proteins are expressed, potentially allowing virally infected cells to be recognized and eliminated by CD8+ T cells. We have recently identified an immune evasion protein encoded by EBV, BNLF2a, which is expressed in early phase lytic replication and inhibits peptide- and ATP-binding functions of the transporter associated with antigen processing. Ectopic expression of BNLF2a causes decreased surface MHC class I expression and inhibits the presentation of indicator antigens to CD8+ T cells. Here we sought to examine the influence of BNLF2a when expressed naturally during EBV lytic replication. We generated a BNLF2a-deleted recombinant EBV (DeltaBNLF2a and compared the ability of DeltaBNLF2a and wild-type EBV-transformed B cell lines to be recognized by CD8+ T cell clones specific for EBV-encoded immediate early, early and late lytic antigens. Epitopes derived from immediate early and early expressed proteins were better recognized when presented by DeltaBNLF2a transformed cells compared to wild-type virus transformants. However, recognition of late antigens by CD8+ T cells remained equally poor when presented by both wild-type and DeltaBNLF2a cell targets. Analysis of BNLF2a and target protein expression kinetics showed that although BNLF2a is expressed during early phase replication, it is expressed at a time when there is an upregulation of immediate early proteins and initiation of early protein synthesis. Interestingly, BNLF2a protein expression was found to be lost by late lytic cycle yet DeltaBNLF2a-transformed cells in late stage replication downregulated surface MHC class I to a similar extent as wild-type EBV-transformed cells. These data show that BNLF2a-mediated expression is stage-specific, affecting presentation of immediate early and early proteins, and

  11. An Approach for Zika Virus Inhibition Using Homology Structure of the Envelope Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernando, S.; Fernando, T.; Štefánik, M.; Eyer, Luděk; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 12 (2016), s. 801-806 ISSN 1073-6085 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * homology model * druggability * drug discovery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2016

  12. Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 requires a mimic of an endoplasmic reticulum export signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence and function. However, unlike normal ER export signals, the ER export signal mimic of p22 is necessary for apparent inhibition of normal COPII vesicle trafficking, which leads to Golgi disassembly and antagonism of Golgi-dependent cellular protein secretion. This is the first reported function for p22. Disassembly of the Golgi apparatus was also observed in cells replicating Norwalk virus, which may contribute to pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes that are dependent on an intact secretory pathway. These results indicate that the ER export signal mimic is critical to the antagonistic function of p22, shown herein to be a novel antagonist of ER/Golgi trafficking. This unique and well-conserved human norovirus motif is therefore an appealing target for antiviral drug development.

  13. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Abe, Yusaku; Kodama, Eiichi N; Nabika, Ryota; Oishi, Shinya; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV) infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain) and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain) viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model.

  14. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Watanabe

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1, a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model.

  15. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Besnard-Guérin

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs. Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2. Although a majority of Drosophila miRNAs exerts their silencing activity through their loading into the Argonaute-1 protein, recent studies highlighted that a fraction of miRNAs can be loaded into Ago-2, thus acting as siRNAs. In light of these recent findings, we re-examined the role of insect VSRs on Ago-2-mediated miRNA silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Using specific reporter systems in cultured Schneider-2 cells and transgenic flies, we showed here that the Cricket Paralysis virus VSR CrPV1-A but not the Flock House virus B2 VSR abolishes silencing by miRNAs loaded into the Ago-2 protein. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway.

  16. Vaccinia virus proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl-2-like fold but have evolved to inhibit NF-kappaB rather than apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Graham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-kappaB, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 A and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins adopt a Bcl-2-like fold despite sharing no significant sequence similarity with other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. Unlike cellular and viral Bcl-2-like proteins described previously, A52 and B14 lack a surface groove for binding BH3 peptides from pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-like proteins and they do not modulate apoptosis. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis of 32 cellular and viral Bcl-2-like protein structures reveals that A52 and B14 are more closely related to each other and to VACV N1 and myxoma virus M11 than they are to other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. This suggests that a progenitor poxvirus acquired a gene encoding a Bcl-2-like protein and, over the course of evolution, gene duplication events have allowed the virus to exploit this Bcl-2 scaffold for interfering with distinct host signalling pathways.

  17. Mayaro virus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Mezencio

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus was grown in BHK-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%. The electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 ñ 2.3 nm in diameter. Three structural virus proteins were identified and designated pl, p2 and p3. Their average molecular weight were p1, 54 KDa; p2, 50 KDa and p3, 34 KDa. In Mayaro virus infected. Aedes albopictus cells and in BHK-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in wich three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 KDa, 64 KDa and 110 KDa. The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein sinthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.

  18. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  19. Inability of NS1 protein from an H5N1 influenza virus to activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway correlates to the enhanced virus replication upon PI3K inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weizhong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, activated during influenza A virus infection, can promote viral replication via multiple mechanisms. Direct binding of NS1 protein to p85β subunit of PI3K is required for activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Binding and subsequent activation of PI3K is believed to be a conserved character of influenza A virus NS1 protein. Sequence variation of NS1 proteins in different influenza A viruses led us to investigate possible deviation from the conservativeness. Results In the present study, NS1 proteins from four different influenza A virus subtypes/strains were tested for their ability to bind p85β subunit of PI3K and to activate PI3K/Akt. All NS1 proteins efficiently bound to p85β and activated PI3K/Akt, with the exception of NS1 protein from an H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Guangdong/1/05, abbreviated as GD05, which bound to p85β but failed to activate PI3K/Akt, implying that as-yet-unidentified domain(s in NS1 may alternatively mediate the activation of PI3K. Moreover, PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, did not suppress but significantly increased the replication of GD05 virus. Conclusions Our study indicates that activation of PI3K/Akt by NS1 protein is not highly conserved among influenza A viruses and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway as an anti-influenza strategy may not work for all influenza A viruses.

  20. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmudur M Rahman

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR and RNA helicase A (RHA/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication

  1. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  2. An interferon-alpha-induced tethering mechanism inhibits HIV-1 and Ebola virus particle release but is counteracted by the HIV-1 Vpu protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Stuart J D; Sandrin, Virginie; Sundquist, Wesley I; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2007-09-13

    Type 1 interferon (IFN) inhibits the release of HIV-1 virus particles via poorly defined mechanisms. Here, we show that IFNalpha induces retention of viral particles on the surface of fibroblasts, T cells, or primary lymphocytes infected with HIV-1 lacking the Vpu protein. Retained particles are tethered to cell surfaces, can be endocytosed, appear fully assembled, exhibit mature morphology, and can be detached by protease. Strikingly, expression of the HIV-1 Vpu protein attenuates the ability of human cells to adhere to, and thereby retain, nascent HIV-1 particles upon IFNalpha treatment. Vpu also counteracts the IFNalpha-induced retention of virus-like particles assembled from the Ebola virus matrix protein. Furthermore, levels of IFNalpha that suppress replication of Vpu-defective HIV-1 have little effect on wild-type HIV-1. Thus, we propose that HIV-1 expresses Vpu to counteract an IFNalpha-induced, general host defense that inhibits dissemination of enveloped virions from the surface of infected cells.

  3. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  4. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.

  5. Alleles A and B of non-structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit beta interferon production in human and mink lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Zohari, Siamak; Metreveli, Giorgi; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor; Berg, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) counteracts the production of host type I interferons (IFN-α/β) for the efficient replication and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. Here, we reveal another dimension of the NS1 protein of avian influenza A viruses in suppressing IFN-β production in cultured cell lines. We found that allele A NS1 proteins of H6N8 and H4N6 have a strong capacity to inhibit the activation of IFN-β production, compared with allele B from corresponding subtypes, as measured by IFN stimulatory response element (ISRE) promoter activation, IFN-β mRNA transcription and IFN-β protein expression. Furthermore, the ability to suppress IFN-β promoter activation was mapped to the C-terminal effector domain (ED), while the RNA-binding domain (RBD) alone was unable to suppress IFN-β promoter activation. Chimeric studies indicated that when the RBD of allele A was fused to the ED of allele B, it was a strong inhibitor of IFN-β promoter activity. This shows that well-matched ED and RBD are crucial for the function of the NS1 protein and that the RBD could be one possible cause for this differential IFN-β inhibition. Notably, mutagenesis studies indicated that the F103Y and Y103F substitutions in alleles A and B, respectively, do not influence the ISRE promoter activation. Apart from dsRNA signalling, differences were observed in the expression pattern of NS1 in transfected human and mink lung cells. This study therefore expands the versatile nature of the NS1 protein in inhibiting IFN responses at multiple levels, by demonstrating for the first time that it occurs in a manner dependent on allele type.

  6. Glycyrrhizin inhibits porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection and attenuates the proinflammatory responses by inhibition of high mobility group box-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chang-Chao; Wang, Hua-Xia; Sheng, Xiang-Xiang; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xin; Mao, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. In our studies, we found that glycyrrhizin, the major component of licorice root extracts, could moderately inhibit PEDV infection in Vero cells, when analyzed by western blot, qRT-PCR and a plaque formation assay. We also revealed that glycyrrhizin inhibited the entry and replication of PEDV. In addition, we demonstrated that glycyrrhizin decreased the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Since glycyrrhizin is a competitive inhibitor of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), we confirmed that TLR4 and RAGE (£ associated with PEDV pathogenesis during the infection in Vero cells. In summary, our studies provide a molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic methods to control PEDV infection, based on glycyrrhizin and its derivatives.

  7. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bharaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I system. Nipah virus (NiV, a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus, is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M, which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε. We previously showed that the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 catalyzes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, and activate IKKε for induction of IFN-I mediated antiviral responses. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy we show here that the NiV-M protein interacts with TRIM6 and promotes TRIM6 degradation. Consequently, NiV-M expression results in reduced levels of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains associated with IKKε leading to impaired IKKε oligomerization, IKKε autophosphorylation and reduced IFN-mediated responses. This IFN antagonist function of NiV-M requires a conserved lysine residue (K258 in the bipartite nuclear localization signal that is found in divergent henipaviruses. Consistent with this, the matrix proteins of Ghana, Hendra and Cedar viruses were also able to inhibit IFNβ induction. Live NiV infection, but not a recombinant NiV lacking the M protein, reduced the levels of endogenous TRIM6 protein expression. To our knowledge, matrix proteins of paramyxoviruses have never been reported to be involved in innate immune antagonism. We report here a novel mechanism of viral innate immune evasion by targeting TRIM6, IKKε and unanchored polyubiquitin chains. These findings expand the universe of viral IFN antagonism strategies and provide a new

  8. Influenza A Virus Virulence Depends on Two Amino Acids in the N-Terminal Domain of Its NS1 Protein To Facilitate Inhibition of the RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Kristina L.; Jolmes, Fabian; Bespalowa, Julia; Saenger, Sandra; Peteranderl, Christin; Dzieciolowski, Julia; Mielke, Maja; Budt, Matthias; Pleschka, Stephan; Herrmann, Andreas; Herold, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has broad antiviral activity inducing translational shutdown of viral and cellular genes and is therefore targeted by various viral proteins to facilitate pathogen propagation. The pleiotropic NS1 protein of influenza A virus acts as silencer of PKR activation and ensures high-level viral replication and virulence. However, the exact manner of this inhibition remains controversial. To elucidate the structural requirements within the NS1 protein for PKR inhibition, we generated a set of mutant viruses, identifying highly conserved arginine residues 35 and 46 within the NS1 N terminus as being most critical not only for binding to and blocking activation of PKR but also for efficient virus propagation. Biochemical and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based interaction studies showed that mutation of R35 or R46 allowed formation of NS1 dimers but eliminated any detectable binding to PKR as well as to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Using in vitro and in vivo approaches to phenotypic restoration, we demonstrated the essential role of the NS1 N terminus for blocking PKR. The strong attenuation conferred by NS1 mutation R35A or R46A was substantially alleviated by stable knockdown of PKR in human cells. Intriguingly, both NS1 mutant viruses did not trigger any signs of disease in PKR+/+ mice, but replicated to high titers in lungs of PKR−/− mice and caused lethal infections. These data not only establish the NS1 N terminus as highly critical for neutralization of PKR's antiviral activity but also identify this blockade as an indispensable contribution of NS1 to the viral life cycle. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus inhibits activation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) by means of its nonstructural NS1 protein, but the underlying mode of inhibition is debated. Using mutational analysis, we identified arginine residues 35 and 46 within the N-terminal NS1 domain as highly critical for binding to and functional

  9. Identification of peptides that bind hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 and inhibit viral cellular entry from a phage-display peptide library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xin; Yao, Min; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Jing; Lei, Ying-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Ma, Li; Lan, Hai-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Kai; Yin, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein E2 is required for the entry of HCV into cells. Viral envelope proteins interact with cell receptors in a multistep process, which may be a promising target for the development of novel antiviral agents. In this study, a heptapeptide M13 phage-display library was screened for peptides that bind specifically to prokaryotically expressed, purified truncated HCV envelope protein E2. ELISA assay was used to quantify the binding of the peptides to HCV E2 protein. Flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and western blotting were used to investigate the inhibition effect of one peptide on HCV infection in hepatoma cells (Huh7.5) in vitro. Four peptides capable of binding specifically to HCV E2 protein were obtained after three rounds of biopanning. Peptide C18 (WPWHNHR), with the highest affinity for binding HCV E2 protein, was synthesized. The results showed that peptide C18 inhibited the viral infectivity of both HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) harboring HCV envelope glycoproteins and cell-culture produced HCV (HCVcc). Thus, this study demonstrated that peptide C18 is a potential candidate for anti-HCV therapy as a novel viral entry inhibitor.

  10. Dengue virus induces expression of CXC chemokine ligand 10/IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, which competitively inhibits viral binding to cell surface heparan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Perng; Lu, Hsin-Lin; Lai, Szu-Liang; Campanella, Gabriele S; Sung, Jui-Ming; Lu, Mei-Yi; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A; Lin, Yi-Ling; Lane, Thomas E; Luster, Andrew D; Liao, Fang

    2006-09-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes a mild febrile illness, dengue fever, or a potentially fatal syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Chemokines primarily orchestrate leukocyte recruitment to the areas of viral infection, which makes them critical mediators of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the induction and function of chemokines in mice early after infection with dengue virus in vivo. We found that CXCL10/IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) expression was rapidly and transiently induced in liver following infection. The expressed CXCL10/IP-10 likely mediates the recruitment of activated NK cells, given that anti-CXCL10/IP-10-treated mice showed diminished NK cell infiltration and reduced hepatic expression of effector molecules in activated NK cells after dengue virus infection. Of particular interest, we found that CXCL10/IP-10 also was able to inhibit viral binding to target cells in vitro. Further investigation revealed that various CXCL10/IP-10 mutants, in which the residues that mediate the interaction between the chemokine and heparan sulfate were substituted, failed to exert the inhibitory effect on dengue binding, which suggests that CXCL10/IP-10 competes with dengue virus for binding to heparan sulfate on the cell surface. Moreover, subsequent plaque assays showed that this inhibition of dengue binding blocked viral uptake and replication. The inhibitory effect of CXCL10/IP-10 on the binding of dengue virus to cells may represent a novel contribution of this chemokine to the host defense against viral infection.

  11. Hepatitis B virus X protein-induced upregulation of CAT-1 stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rongjuan; Peng, Feng; Xiao, Xinqiang; Gong, Xing; Jiang, Yongfang; Zhang, Min; Tian, Yi; Xu, Yun; Ma, Jing; Li, Mingming; Luo, Yue; Gong, Guozhong

    2017-09-22

    The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is widely recognized to be a critical oncoprotein contributing to the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) gene is a target of miR-122. In this study, we found that CAT-1 protein levels were higher in HBV-related HCC carcinomatous tissues than in para-cancerous tumor tissues, and that CAT-1 promoted HCC cell growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Moreover, HBx-induced decreases in Gld2 and miR-122 levels that contributed to the upregulation of CAT-1 in HCC. These results indicate that a Gld2/miR-122/CAT-1 pathway regulated by HBx likely participates in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

  12. Recruitment of Tat to heterochromatin protein HP1 via interaction with CTIP2 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Olivier; Lecestre, Dominique; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Marban, Céline; Avram, Dorina; Aunis, Dominique; Leid, Mark; Schaeffer, Evelyne

    2003-05-01

    The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a key role as inducer of viral gene expression. We report that Tat function can be potently inhibited in human microglial cells by the recently described nuclear receptor cofactor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2). Overexpression of CTIP2 leads to repression of HIV-1 replication, as a result of inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation. In contrast, the related CTIP1 was unable to affect Tat function and viral replication. Using confocal microscopy to visualize Tat subcellular distribution in the presence of the CTIPs, we found that overexpression of CTIP2, and not of CTIP1, leads to disruption of Tat nuclear localization and recruitment of Tat within CTIP2-induced nuclear ball-like structures. In addition, our studies demonstrate that CTIP2 colocalizes and associates with the heterochromatin-associated protein HP1alpha. The CTIP2 protein harbors two Tat and HP1 interaction interfaces, the 145-434 and the 717-813 domains. CTIP2 and HP1alpha associate with Tat to form a three-protein complex in which the 145-434 CTIP2 domain interacts with the N-terminal region of Tat, while the 717-813 domain binds to HP1. The importance of this Tat binding interface and of Tat subnuclear relocation was confirmed by analysis of CTIP2 deletion mutants. Our findings suggest that inhibition of HIV-1 expression by CTIP2 correlates with recruitment of Tat within CTIP2-induced structures and relocalization within inactive regions of the chromatin via formation of the Tat-CTIP2-HP1alpha complex. These data highlight a new mechanism of Tat inactivation through subnuclear relocalization that may ultimately lead to inhibition of viral pathogenesis.

  13. Protein X of Borna disease virus inhibits apoptosis and promotes viral persistence in the central nervous systems of newborn-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenisch, Marion; Burger, Nils; Staeheli, Peter; Bauer, Georg; Schneider, Urs

    2009-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic member of the order Mononegavirales with noncytolytic replication and obligatory persistence in cultured cells and animals. Here we show that the accessory protein X of BDV represents the first mitochondrion-localized protein of an RNA virus that inhibits rather than promotes apoptosis induction. Rat C6 astroglioma cells persistently infected with wild-type BDV were significantly more resistant to death receptor-dependent and -independent apoptotic stimuli than uninfected cells or cells infected with a BDV mutant expressing reduced amounts of X. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that X colocalizes with mitochondria and expression of X from plasmid DNA rendered human 293T and mouse L929 cells resistant to apoptosis induction. A recombinant virus encoding a mutant X protein unable to associate with mitochondria (BDV-X(A6A7)) failed to block apoptosis in C6 cells. Furthermore, Lewis rats neonatally infected with BDV-X(A6A7) developed severe neurological symptoms and died around day 30 postinfection, whereas all animals infected with wild-type BDV remained healthy and became persistently infected. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) staining revealed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the brain of BDV-X(A6A7)-infected animals, whereas the numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes were comparable to those detected in animals infected with wild-type BDV. Our data thus indicate that inhibition of apoptosis by X promotes noncytolytic viral persistence and is required for the survival of cells in the central nervous system of BDV-infected animals.

  14. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  15. Nuclear import inhibitor N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide targets Zika virus (ZIKV) nonstructural protein 5 to inhibit ZIKV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Yang, Sundy N Y; Smith, Kate; Forwood, Jade K; Jans, David A

    2017-12-02

    In the absence of approved therapeutics, Zika virus (ZIKV)'s recent prolific outbreaks in the Americas, together with impacts on unborn fetuses of infected mothers, make it a pressing human health concern worldwide. Although a key player in viral replication in the infected host cell cytoplasm, ZIKV non-structural protein 5 (NS5) appears to contribute integrally to pathogenesis by localising in the host cell nucleus, in similar fashion to NS5 from Dengue virus (DENV). We show here for the first time that ZIKV NS5 is recognized with high nanomolar affinity by the host cell importin α/β1 heterodimer, and that this interaction can be blocked by the novel DENV NS5 targeting inhibitor N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR). Importantly, we show that 4-HPR has potent anti-ZIKV activity at low μM concentrations. With an established safety profile for human use, 4-HPR represents an exciting possibility as an anti-ZIKV agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits extracellular IFN-α-mediated signal transduction by downregulation of type I IFN receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il-Rae; Oh, Myungju; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Jhun, Byung Hak; Pellegrini, Sandra; Fuchs, Serge Y; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein X (HBX), a regulatory protein of HBV, activates Stat1, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. Type I IFN secreted from HBX-expressing hepatic cells enforces antiviral signals through its binding to the cognate type I IFN receptor. We therefore investigated how cells handle this detrimental situation. Interestingly, compared to Chang cells stably expressing an empty vector (Chang-Vec), Chang cells stably expressing HBX (Chang-HBX) showed lower levels of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) protein, a subunit of type I IFN receptor. The levels of IFNAR1 transcripts detected in Chang-HBX cells were lower than the levels in Chang-Vec cells, indicating that HBX regulates IFNAR1 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we observed that HBX induced the translocation of IFNAR1 to the cytoplasm. Consistent with these observations, HBX also downregulated Tyk2, which is required for the stable expression of IFNAR1 on the cell surface. Eventually, Chang-HBX cells consistently maintained a lower level of IFNAR1 expression and displayed no proper response to IFN-α, while Chang-Vec cells exhibited a proper response to IFN-α treatment. Taken together, we propose that HBX downregulates IFNAR1, leading to the avoidance of extracellular IFN-α signal transduction.

  17. The K186E Amino Acid Substitution in the Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 NS1 Protein Restores Its Ability To Inhibit Host Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Chauché, Caroline; DeDiego, Marta L; Topham, David J; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2017-11-15

    Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) are the causative agents of canine influenza, a contagious respiratory disease in dogs, and include the equine-origin H3N8 and the avian-origin H3N2 viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor essential for counteracting the innate immune response. Here, we evaluated the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses. We found that H3N8 CIV NS1 was able to efficiently counteract interferon (IFN) responses but was unable to block general gene expression in human or canine cells. Such ability was restored by a single amino acid substitution in position 186 (K186E) that resulted in NS1 binding to the 30-kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30), a cellular protein involved in pre-mRNA processing. We also examined the frequency distribution of K186 and E186 among H3N8 CIVs and equine influenza viruses (EIVs), the ancestors of H3N8 CIV, and experimentally determined the impact of amino acid 186 in the ability of different CIV and EIV NS1s to inhibit general gene expression. In all cases, the presence of E186 was responsible for the control of host gene expression. In contrast, the NS1 protein of H3N2 CIV harbors E186 and blocks general gene expression in canine cells. Altogether, our results confirm previous studies on the strain-dependent ability of NS1 to block general gene expression. Moreover, the observed polymorphism on amino acid 186 between H3N8 and H3N2 CIVs might be the result of adaptive changes acquired during long-term circulation of avian-origin IAVs in mammals.IMPORTANCE Canine influenza is a respiratory disease of dogs caused by two CIV subtypes, the H3N8 and H3N2 viruses, of equine and avian origins, respectively. Influenza NS1 is the main viral factor responsible for the control of host innate immune responses, and changes in NS1 can play an important role in host adaptation. Here we assessed the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit

  18. The B-Cell Specific Transcription Factor, Oct-2, Promotes Epstein-Barr Virus Latency by Inhibiting the Viral Immediate-Early Protein, BZLF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda R.; Kwek, Swee Sen; Kenney, Shannon C.

    2012-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent-lytic switch is mediated by the BZLF1 immediate-early protein. EBV is normally latent in memory B cells, but cellular factors which promote viral latency specifically in B cells have not been identified. In this report, we demonstrate that the B-cell specific transcription factor, Oct-2, inhibits the function of the viral immediate-early protein, BZLF1, and prevents lytic viral reactivation. Co-transfected Oct-2 reduces the ability of BZLF1 to activate lytic gene expression in two different latently infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, Oct-2 inhibits BZLF1 activation of lytic EBV promoters in reporter gene assays, and attenuates BZLF1 binding to lytic viral promoters in vivo. Oct-2 interacts directly with BZLF1, and this interaction requires the DNA-binding/dimerization domain of BZLF1 and the POU domain of Oct-2. An Oct-2 mutant (Δ262–302) deficient for interaction with BZLF1 is unable to inhibit BZLF1-mediated lytic reactivation. However, an Oct-2 mutant defective for DNA-binding (Q221A) retains the ability to inhibit BZLF1 transcriptional effects and DNA-binding. Importantly, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Oct-2 expression in several EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines increases the level of lytic EBV gene expression, while decreasing EBNA1 expression. Moreover, treatments which induce EBV lytic reactivation, such as anti-IgG cross-linking and chemical inducers, also decrease the level of Oct-2 protein expression at the transcriptional level. We conclude that Oct-2 potentiates establishment of EBV latency in B cells. PMID:22346751

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  20. Endothelial galectin-1 binds to specific glycans on nipah virus fusion protein and inhibits maturation, mobility, and function to block syncytia formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omai B Garner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus targets human endothelial cells via NiV-F and NiV-G envelope glycoproteins, resulting in endothelial syncytia formation and vascular compromise. Endothelial cells respond to viral infection by releasing innate immune effectors, including galectins, which are secreted proteins that bind to specific glycan ligands on cell surface glycoproteins. We demonstrate that galectin-1 reduces NiV-F mediated fusion of endothelial cells, and that endogenous galectin-1 in endothelial cells is sufficient to inhibit syncytia formation. Galectin-1 regulates NiV-F mediated cell fusion at three distinct points, including retarding maturation of nascent NiV-F, reducing NiV-F lateral mobility on the plasma membrane, and directly inhibiting the conformational change in NiV-F required for triggering fusion. Characterization of the NiV-F N-glycome showed that the critical site for galectin-1 inhibition is rich in glycan structures known to bind galectin-1. These studies identify a unique set of mechanisms for regulating pathophysiology of NiV infection at the level of the target cell.

  1. GB virus C envelope protein E2 inhibits T cell receptor induced IL-2 production and alters IL-2 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nirjal; McLinden, James H.; Xiang, Jinhua; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) viremia is associated with reduced CD4+ T cell expansion following Interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy and with a reduction in T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals. Mechanism(s) by which GBV-C might alter T-cell activation or IL-2 signaling have not been studied. Here, we assess IL-2 release, IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression, IL-2 signaling, and cell proliferation in Tet-off Jurkat cells expressing the GBV-C envelope glycoprotein (E2) following activation through the T cell receptor (TCR). TCR activation was induced by incubation in anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. IL-2 release was measured by ELISA, STAT5 phosphorylation was assessed by immunoblot, and IL-2Rα (CD25) expression and cell proliferation were determined by flow cytometry. IL-2 and IL-2Rα steady-state mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR. GBV-C E2 expression significantly inhibited IL-2 release, CD25 expression, STAT5 phosphorylation and cellular proliferation in Jurkat cells following activation through the TCR compared to control cell lines. Reducing E2 expression by doxycycline reversed the inhibitory effects observed in the E2-expressing cells. The N-terminal 219 a.a of E2 was sufficient to inhibit IL-2 signaling. Addition of purified recombinant GBV-C E2 protein to primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells inhibited TCR activation-induced IL-2 release and upregulation of IL-2Rα expression. These data provide evidence that the GBV-C E2 protein may contribute to the block in CD4+ T cell expansion following IL-2 therapy in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, the effects of GBV-C on IL-2 and IL-2 signaling pathways may contribute to the reduction in chronic immune activation observed in GBV-C/HIV co-infected individuals. PMID:22844114

  2. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication by the Cyclic GMP/Protein Kinase G and NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Angke; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Na; Duan, Hong; Liu, Hongliang; Pu, Fengxing; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Xiao, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide each year. Our previous research demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can suppress PRRSV replication via an unknown molecular mechanism. In this study, inhibition of PRRSV replication was demonstrated to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO), a downstream metabolite of HO-1. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that CO significantly inhibited PRRSV replication in both a PRRSV permissive cell line, MARC-145, and the predominant cell type targeted during in vivo PRRSV infection, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Our results showed that CO inhibited intercellular spread of PRRSV; however, it did not affect PRRSV entry into host cells. Furthermore, CO was found to suppress PRRSV replication via the activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G (cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. CO significantly inhibits PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation, a required step for PRRSV replication. Moreover, CO significantly reduced PRRSV-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CO exerts its anti-PRRSV effect by activating the cellular cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and by negatively regulating cellular NF-κB signaling. These findings not only provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of HO-1 inhibition of PRRSV replication but also suggest potential new control measures for future PRRSV outbreaks. PRRSV causes great economic losses each year to the swine industry worldwide. Carbon monoxide (CO), a metabolite of HO-1, has been shown to have antimicrobial and antiviral activities in infected cells. Our previous research demonstrated that HO-1 can suppress PRRSV replication. Here we show that endogenous CO produced through HO-1 catalysis mediates the antiviral effect of HO-1. CO inhibits PRRSV replication by activating the cellular cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and by negatively regulating cellular NF

  3. Hantaan Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binds to Importin alpha Proteins and Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-19

    C in 5% CO2 for the periods of time indicated below. The pNF -B-hrGFP reporter plasmid (Stratagene) expresses green fluores- cent protein (GFP) from a...the same incubation conditions for 5 days. NF-B GFP reporter assay. 293T cells were seeded into 24-well plates and cotransfected with the pNF -B...inhibition in this assay, some cells were transfected with pNF -B-hrGFP only and treated with 0 to 50 M concentra- tions of the proteosomal inhibitor

  4. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus E2 protein bind discontinuous epitopes and inhibit infection at a postattachment step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Prentoe, Jannick

    2011-01-01

    The E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediates viral attachment and entry into target hepatocytes and elicits neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. To characterize the structural and functional basis of HCV neutralization, we generated a novel panel of 78 monoclonal antibodies (M...

  5. Sorafenib impedes Rift Valley fever virus egress by inhibiting Valosin containing protein function in the cellular secretory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    arboviral zoonosis that can cause 56 severe disease in humans and livestock. In ruminants, the disease is characterized by 57 spontaneous abortion rate...Molecule FISH Reveals Non- selective 433 Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments. PLoS Pathog 12. 434 TR-17-166 Distribution Statement

  6. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  7. Polysulfonate suramin inhibits Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Sam, I-Ching; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log 10  PFU viral reduction with IC 50 value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insertions in the gG Gene of Pseudorabies Virus Reduce Expression of the Upstream Us3 Protein and Inhibit Cell-to-Cell Spread of Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demmin, Gretchen L.; Clase, Amanda C.; Randall, Jessica A.; Enquist, L.W.; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2001-01-01

    The alphaherpesvirus Us4 gene encodes glycoprotein G (gG), which is conserved in most viruses of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. In the swine pathogen pseudorabies virus (PRV), mutant viruses with internal deletions and insertions in the gG gene have shown no discernible phenotypes. We report that insertions in the gG locus of the attenuated PRV strain Bartha show reduced virulence in vivo and are defective in their ability to spread from cell to cell in a cell-type-specific manner. Similar i...

  9. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition suppresses hepatitis B virus X protein-induced transformation in an in vitro model of liver cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studach, Leo L; Rakotomalala, Lova; Wang, Wen-Horng; Hullinger, Ronald L; Cairo, Stefano; Buendia, Marie-Annick; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2009-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV X protein (pX) is implicated in HCC pathogenesis acting as a weak oncogene or a cofactor in hepatocarcinogenesis. pX induces DNA re-replication, DNA damage, and partial polyploidy in a poorly differentiated, immortalized hepatocyte cell line. In this study we employed sorted, pX-induced polyploid cells to investigate their growth and oncogenic transformation potential over the course of 70 cell doublings. Immediately after live cell-sorting, nearly 40% of pX-induced polyploid cells undergo apoptosis, whereas the surviving cells exhibit proliferation sensitive to p53. After 40 cell generations the pX-expressing polyploid cultures exhibit loss of p53 function and become growth factor- and anchorage-independent, indicative of oncogenic transformation. The pX-induced polyploid cultures in the course of 70 cell generations undergo progressively increasing DNA damage, propagate damaged DNA to daughter cells, and display increased expression of a cluster of proliferation genes shown to be elevated in human HCC, including HBV-HCC. One of these genes is the mitotic kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Oncogenic transformation is suppressed in the absence of pX expression, and significantly, by inhibition of Plk1. These results identify Plk1 as crucial in pX-mediated oncogenic transformation. Partial polyploidy induced by pX is not immediately associated with oncogenic transformation. Continued DNA damage for 40 cell generations is reproducibly associated with loss of p53 function, enhanced expression of Plk1, and oncogenic transformation. Because Plk1 expression is also elevated in HBV-HCC tumors, this in vitro cellular model simulates liver cancer progression and pathogenesis in chronic HBV patients. Inhibition of Plk1 activity suppresses pX-mediated oncogenic transformation, identifying Plk1 as a promising therapeutic target for HBV-mediated HCC.

  10. Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holzer

    Full Text Available The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV. NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus. We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.

  11. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  12. Antibody to Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70 Inhibits Human T-Cell Lymphoptropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I Production by Transformed Rabbit T-Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Fallouh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia is a fatal malignant transformation caused by the human T-cell lymphoptropic virus type I (HTLV-I. HTLV-I is only associated with the development of this disease in a small percentage of infected individuals. Using two rabbit transformed T-cell lines; RH/K30 (asymptomatic and RH/K34 (leukemogenic, we have investigated the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 90 and 70 and the role of anti-HSPs antibodies on virus production. HSPs surface expression was higher on RH/K34 than RH/K30 cells. Heat treatment of cells increased the expression of HSPs proteins and virus production; HSPs augmentation was stabilized after 12 h and virus production reached a maximum between 8 h–12 h then returned to normal level after 24 h of culture. Incubation of cells only with rabbit anti-HSP 70 antibodies prevented virus production specifically in the leukemogenic cell line. The results indicate a relationship between HSP 70 and virus production.

  13. Zika Virus NS4A and NS4B Proteins Deregulate Akt-mTOR Signaling in Human Fetal Neural Stem Cells to Inhibit Neurogenesis and Induce Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Qiming; Luo, Zhifei; Zeng, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    The current widespread outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to severe clinical birth defects, particularly microcephaly, warranting urgent study of the molecular mechanisms underlying ZIKV pathogenesis. Akt-mTOR signaling is one of the key cellular pathways essential for brain...... present in ZIKV, we found that two, NS4A and NS4B, cooperatively suppress the Akt-mTOR pathway and lead to cellular dysregulation. Corresponding proteins from the closely related dengue virus do not have the same effect on neurogenesis. Thus, our study highlights ZIKV NS4A and NS4B as candidate...

  14. Inhibition of virus-like particle release of Sendai virus and Nipah virus, but not that of mumps virus, by tetherin/CD317/BST-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weng-Sheng; Irie, Takashi; Yoshida, Asuka; Kawabata, Ryoko; Kadoi, Takahiro; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2012-09-01

    Tetherin (also known as BST-2 or CD317) has recently been identified as a potent IFN-induced anti-viral protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped virus particles from infected cells. The anti-viral activity of tetherin on a number of enveloped viruses, including retroviruses, filoviruses and arenaviruses, has been examined. Here, we show that tetherin is also capable of blocking the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) driven by the matrix protein of Sendai virus. Together with inhibition of Nipah virus VLP release by tetherin, these results indicate that paramyxoviruses are to be added to the list of viruses that are susceptible to tetherin inhibition. Tetherin co-localized with Nipah virus matrix proteins and accumulated in cells, indicating that it is present at, or recruited to, sites of particle assembly. It should be noted, however, that tetherin was not effective against the release of paramyxovirus mumps VLPs, indicating that certain enveloped viruses may not be sensitive to tetherin activity.

  15. Transcriptional inhibition by the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattaey, A; Helin, K; Harlow, E

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein, pRB, appears to play a key role in coordinating the regulation of cell cycle position and transcriptional events. pRB undergoes specific cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation, being underphosphorylated in G1 and heavily phosphorylated in S, G2, and M....... The underphosphorylated form is able to interact with the E2F transcription factor. Recently, we have cloned a cDNA for E2F-1. By using this clone and a series of non-pRB binding mutants, we have been able to show that the binding of pRB to E2F-1 causes inhibition of E2F-mediated transactivation. pRB's inhibition of E2F......-mediated transcription would be lost by mutation in the retinoblastoma gene in human tumours, by pRB's interaction with DNA tumour virus oncoproteins, or by phosphorylation during the cell cycle....

  16. Legume Lectins Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection by Interfering with the Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles O’Brien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2. The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA and peanut agglutinin (PNA, inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein (NP gene synthesis was largely inhibited, but fusion (F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene syntheses were not. An indirect immunofluorescence study showed that Con A inhibited virus NP, F and HN protein syntheses, but LCA did not completely inhibit them, and that PNA inhibited only NP protein synthesis. Using a recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, without matrix protein (rghPIV-2ΔM, it was found that virus entry into the cells was not completely prevented. The lectins considerably reduced the number of viruses released compared with that of virus infected cells. The lectins bound to cell surface within 10 min, and many aggregates were observed at 30 min. Con A and LCA slightly disrupted actin microfilaments and microtubules, but PNA had almost no effect on them. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of the lectins were caused mainly by the considerable prevention of virus adsorption to the cells by the lectin binding to their receptors.

  17. Inhibition of Monkeypox virus replication by RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahrling Peter B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Orthopoxvirus genus of Poxviridae family is comprised of several human pathogens, including cowpox (CPXV, Vaccinia (VACV, monkeypox (MPV and Variola (VARV viruses. Species of this virus genus cause human diseases with various severities and outcome ranging from mild conditions to death in fulminating cases. Currently, vaccination is the only protective measure against infection with these viruses and no licensed antiviral drug therapy is available. In this study, we investigated the potential of RNA interference pathway (RNAi as a therapeutic approach for orthopox virus infections using MPV as a model. Based on genome-wide expression studies and bioinformatic analysis, we selected 12 viral genes and targeted them by small interference RNA (siRNA. Forty-eight siRNA constructs were developed and evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit viral replication. Two genes, each targeted with four different siRNA constructs in one pool, were limiting to viral replication. Seven siRNA constructs from these two pools, targeting either an essential gene for viral replication (A6R or an important gene in viral entry (E8L, inhibited viral replication in cell culture by 65-95% with no apparent cytotoxicity. Further analysis with wild-type and recombinant MPV expressing green fluorescence protein demonstrated that one of these constructs, siA6-a, was the most potent and inhibited viral replication for up to 7 days at a concentration of 10 nM. These results emphasis the essential role of A6R gene in viral replication, and demonstrate the potential of RNAi as a therapeutic approach for developing oligonucleotide-based drug therapy for MPV and other orthopox viruses.

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  19. In vitro inhibition of monkeypox virus production and spread by Interferon-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orthopoxvirus genus contains numerous virus species that are capable of causing disease in humans, including variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus (the prototypical member of the genus. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is characterized by systemic lesion development and prominent lymphadenopathy. Like variola virus, monkeypox virus is a high priority pathogen for therapeutic development due to its potential to cause serious disease with significant health impacts after zoonotic, accidental, or deliberate introduction into a naïve population. Results The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of interferon-β (IFN-β for use against monkeypox virus. We found that treatment with human IFN-β results in a significant decrease in monkeypox virus production and spread in vitro. IFN-β substantially inhibited monkeypox virus when introduced 6-8 h post infection, revealing its potential for use as a therapeutic. IFN-β induced the expression of the antiviral protein MxA in infected cells, and constitutive expression of MxA was shown to inhibit monkeypox virus infection. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the successful inhibition of monkeypox virus using human IFN-β and suggest that IFN-β could potentially serve as a novel safe therapeutic for human monkeypox disease.

  20. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S; Rennert, Paul D; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C; Freed, Eric O; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-09-02

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors.

  1. Genomic Methylation Inhibits Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein in Transgenic Mice: A Non-Infectious Mouse Model to Study Silencing of HBV Surface Antigen Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Franziska; Churin, Yuri; Tschuschner, Annette; Reifenberg, Kurt; Glebe, Dieter; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The Hepatitis B virus genome persists in the nucleus of virus infected hepatocytes where it serves as template for viral mRNA synthesis. Epigenetic modifications, including methylation of the CpG islands contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous age dependent loss of hepatitis B surface protein- (HBs) expression due to HBV-genome specific methylation as well as its proximate positive effects in HBs transgenic mice. Liver and serum of HBs transgenic mice aged 5-33 weeks were analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, serum analysis, PCR, and qRT-PCR. From the third month of age hepatic loss of HBs was observed in 20% of transgenic mice. The size of HBs-free area and the relative number of animals with these effects increased with age and struck about 55% of animals aged 33 weeks. Loss of HBs-expression was strongly correlated with amelioration of serum parameters ALT and AST. In addition lower HBs-expression went on with decreased ER-stress. The loss of surface protein expression started on transcriptional level and appeared to be regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The amount of the HBs-expression correlated negatively with methylation of HBV DNA in the mouse genome. Our data suggest that methylation of specific CpG sites controls gene expression even in HBs-transgenic mice with truncated HBV genome. More important, the loss of HBs expression and intracellular aggregation ameliorated cell stress and liver integrity. Thus, targeted modulation of HBs expression may offer new therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, HBs-transgenic mice depict a non-infectious mouse model to study one possible mechanism of HBs gene silencing by hypermethylation.

  2. The Acyclic Retinoid Peretinoin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Infectious Virus Release in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakami, Tetsuro; Honda, Masao; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Takabatake, Riuta; Liu, Fanwei; Murai, Kazuhisa; Shiomoto, Takayuki; Funaki, Masaya; Yamane, Daisuke; Murakami, Seishi; Lemon, Stanley M.; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-04-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the oral acyclic retinoid Peretinoin may reduce the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgical ablation of primary tumours. Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of HCC, we assessed whether Peretinoin and other retinoids have any effect on HCV infection. For this purpose, we measured the effects of several retinoids on the replication of genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a HCV in vitro. Peretinoin inhibited RNA replication for all genotypes and showed the strongest antiviral effect among the retinoids tested. Furthermore, it reduced infectious virus release by 80-90% without affecting virus assembly. These effects could be due to reduced signalling from lipid droplets, triglyceride abundance, and the expression of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase. These negative effects of Peretinoin on HCV infection may be beneficial in addition to its potential for HCC chemoprevention in HCV-infected patients.

  3. eEF1A Interacts with the NS5A Protein and Inhibits the Growth of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV is involved in the RNA synthesis and viral replication. However, the NS5A-interacting cellular proteins engaged in the CSFV replication are poorly defined. Using yeast two-hybrid screen, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A was identified to be an NS5A-binding partner. The NS5A–eEF1A interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays. The domain I of eEF1A was shown to be critical for the NS5A–eEF1A interaction. Overexpression of eEF1A suppressed the CSFV growth markedly, and conversely, knockdown of eEF1A enhanced the CSFV replication significantly. Furthermore, eEF1A, as well as NS5A, was found to reduce the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES of CSFV in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay. Streptavidin pulldown assay revealed that eEF1A could bind to the CSFV IRES. Collectively, our results suggest that eEF1A interacts with NS5A and negatively regulates the growth of CSFV.

  4. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by adlay tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Emiko; Iwai, Miwa; Koketsu, Ritsuko; Sogabe, Riho; Morimoto, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Yuri; Ohta, Yoichiro; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ohshima, Atsushi; Enomoto, Toshiki; Isegawa, Yuji

    2017-09-13

    The present study was conducted aiming to examine the antiviral activity of adlay tea and its components against influenza viruses. We further aimed to clarify the mechanism by which these components regulate virus replication. Adlay tea at a concentration suitable for drinking inhibited the multiplication of influenza viruses. Moreover, our results suggest that individual components of the tea had antiviral activities against the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. Adlay tea inhibited multiplication of the H1N1, H3N2 and B types of influenza virus, including oseltamivir-resistant viruses. In addition, adlay tea inhibited influenza infection during the periods of virus adsorption to the cell and virus replication. Adlay tea did not suppress hemagglutination inhibition or cell fusion, although it slightly inhibited virus binding to Malin Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the antiviral compounds included in adlay tea were ingredients other than polyphenols and that there were several types of effective compounds in adlay tea inhibiting several steps of viral replication. The results of the present study demonstrate that adlay tea had antiviral effects against influenza viruses. Our findings with respect to adlay tea suggest that the polyphenols might have a small influence on its antiviral activity and that other ingredients might have more influence. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Comparative interactomics for virus-human protein-protein interactions: DNA viruses versus RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Saliha; Ülgen, Kutlu Ö

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage. Experimentally-verified protein-protein interaction (PPI) data of pathogen-host systems only became available at large scale within the last decade. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the current PHI networks belonging to DNA and RNA viruses and their human host, to get insights into the infection strategies used by these viral groups. We investigated the functional properties of human proteins in the PHI networks, to observe and compare the attack strategies of DNA and RNA viruses. We observed that DNA viruses are able to attack both human cellular and metabolic processes simultaneously during infections. On the other hand, RNA viruses preferentially interact with human proteins functioning in specific cellular processes as well as in intracellular transport and localization within the cell. Observing virus-targeted human proteins, we propose heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and transporter proteins as potential antiviral therapeutic targets. The observed common and specific infection mechanisms in terms of viral strategies to attack human proteins may provide crucial information for further design of broad and specific next-generation antiviral therapeutics.

  6. Mildiomycin: a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Cosín, M; Carrasco, L

    1985-03-01

    Mildiomycin, a new nucleoside antibiotic, selectively inhibits protein synthesis in HeLa cells, and is less active in the inhibition of RNA or DNA synthesis. An increased inhibition of translation by mildiomycin is observed in cultured HeLa cells when they are permeabilized by encephalomyocarditis virus. This observation suggests that this antibiotic does not easily pass through the cell membrane, as occurs with other nucleoside and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The inhibition of translation is also observed in cell-free systems, such as endogenous protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or the synthesis of polyphenylalanine directed by poly (U). Finally the mode of action of mildiomycin was investigated and the results suggest that the compound blocks the peptidyl-transferase center.

  7. Inhibition of dengue virus through suppression of host pyrimidine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Yin; Bushell, Simon; Qing, Min; Xu, Hao Ying; Bonavia, Aurelio; Nunes, Sandra; Zhou, Jing; Poh, Mee Kian; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Dong, Hongping; Hoffmaster, Keith; Goh, Anne; Nilar, Shahul; Schul, Wouter; Jones, Susan; Kramer, Laura; Compton, Teresa; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2011-07-01

    Viral replication relies on the host to supply nucleosides. Host enzymes involved in nucleoside biosynthesis are potential targets for antiviral development. Ribavirin (a known antiviral drug) is such an inhibitor that suppresses guanine biosynthesis; depletion of the intracellular GTP pool was shown to be the major mechanism to inhibit flavivirus. Along similar lines, inhibitors of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway could be targeted for potential antiviral development. Here we report on a novel antiviral compound (NITD-982) that inhibits host dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), an enzyme required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. The inhibitor was identified through screening 1.8 million compounds using a dengue virus (DENV) infection assay. The compound contains an isoxazole-pyrazole core structure, and it inhibited DENV with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 2.4 nM and a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of >5 μM. NITD-982 has a broad antiviral spectrum, inhibiting both flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses with nanomolar EC(90)s. We also show that (i) the compound inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant DHODH, (ii) an NITD-982 analogue directly bound to the DHODH protein, (iii) supplementing the culture medium with uridine reversed the compound-mediated antiviral activity, and (iv) DENV type 2 (DENV-2) variants resistant to brequinar (a known DHODH inhibitor) were cross resistant to NITD-982. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the compound inhibits DENV through depleting the intracellular pyrimidine pool. In contrast to the in vitro potency, the compound did not show any efficacy in the DENV-AG129 mouse model. The lack of in vivo efficacy is likely due to the exogenous uptake of pyrimidine from the diet or to a high plasma protein-binding activity of the current compound.

  8. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  9. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W.; Konowalchuk, Jack

    2017-07-18

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods of inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further includes methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  10. Inhibition of type III interferon activity by orthopoxvirus immunomodulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Prasanthi; Pagliaccetti, Nicole E; Robek, Michael D

    2010-03-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-alpha/beta. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-lambda1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-alpha/beta response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-alpha/beta because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-alpha/beta, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-alpha/beta effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-lambda-induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-lambda antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-lambda; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-lambda-mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-lambdaR-mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-lambda to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus.

  11. Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gannagé, Monique; Dormann, Dorothee; Albrecht, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of this virus to develop strategies to control its pathogenicity. Here, we...... demonstrate that influenza A virus inhibits macroautophagy, a cellular process known to be manipulated by diverse pathogens. Influenza A virus infection causes accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking their fusion with lysosomes, and one viral protein, matrix protein 2, is necessary and sufficient...... for this inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Macroautophagy inhibition by matrix protein 2 compromises survival of influenza virus-infected cells but does not influence viral replication. We propose that influenza A virus, which also encodes proapoptotic proteins, is able to determine the death of its host cell...

  12. Inhibition of Bim enhances replication of varicella-zoster virus and delays plaque formation in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqiao; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Accordingly, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate apoptosis to enhance replication. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts and melanoma cells. We found that VZV triggered the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and BAD but had little or no effect on other Bcl-2 family members. Since phosphorylation of Bim and BAD reduces their proapoptotic activity, this may prevent or delay apoptosis in VZV-infected cells. Phosphorylation of Bim but not BAD in VZV-infected cells was dependent on activation of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Cells knocked down for Bim showed delayed VZV plaque formation, resulting in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased replication of virus, compared with wild-type cells infected with virus. Conversely, overexpression of Bim resulted in earlier plaque formation, smaller plaques, reduced virus replication, and increased caspase 3 activity. Inhibition of caspase activity in VZV-infected cells overexpressing Bim restored levels of virus production similar to those seen with virus-infected wild-type cells. Previously we showed that VZV ORF12 activates ERK and inhibits apoptosis in virus-infected cells. Here we found that VZV ORF12 contributes to Bim and BAD phosphorylation. In summary, VZV triggers Bim phosphorylation; reduction of Bim levels results in longer survival of VZV-infected cells and increased VZV replication.

  13. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. In furtherance of these goals, we have developed the hepatitis C virus protein interaction database (HCVpro) by integrating manually verified hepatitis C virus-virus and virus-human protein interactions curated from literature and databases. HCVpro is a comprehensive and integrated HCV-specific knowledgebase housing consolidated information on PPIs, functional genomics and molecular data obtained from a variety of virus databases (VirHostNet, VirusMint, HCVdb and euHCVdb), and from BIND and other relevant biology repositories. HCVpro is further populated with information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related genes that are mapped onto their encoded cellular proteins. Incorporated proteins have been mapped onto Gene Ontologies, canonical pathways, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and extensively cross-referenced to other essential annotations. The database is enriched with exhaustive reviews on structure and functions of HCV proteins, current state of drug and vaccine development and links to recommended journal articles. Users can query the database using specific protein identifiers (IDs), chromosomal locations of a gene, interaction detection methods, indexed PubMed sources as well as HCVpro, BIND and VirusMint IDs. The use of HCVpro is free and the resource can be accessed via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/hcvpro/ or http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hcvpro/. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Myxoma Virus dsRNA Binding Protein M029  Inhibits the Type I IFN-Induced Antiviral State in a  Highly Species-Specific Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2017-02-02

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is Leporipoxvirus that possesses a specific rabbit-restricted host tropism but exhibits a much broader  cellular host range in cultured cells. MYXV is able to efficiently  block all aspects of the type I interferon (IFN)-induced  antiviral  state  in rabbit cells, partially in  human  cells  and  very  poorly  in  mouse  cells.  The mechanism(s) of this species-specific inhibition of  type I IFN-induced antiviral state is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that MYXV encoded  protein  M029, a truncated relative of the vaccinia virus (VACV) E3 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)  binding  protein  that  inhibits  protein  kinase  R (PKR),  can  also  antagonize the type I IFN-induced  antiviral state in a highly species-specific manner. In cells pre-treated with type I IFN prior to  infection,  MYXV  exploits  M029  to  overcome  the  induced  antiviral  state completely in rabbit cells,  partially  in  human  cells,  but  not at all in mouse cells. However, in cells pre-infected with MYXV,  IFN-induced  signaling  is fully  inhibited  even  in the  absence  of M029 in cells from all three species,  suggesting  that  other  MYXV  protein(s)  apart  from  M029  block  IFN  signaling  in  a  speciesindependent  manner.  We  also  show  that  the  antiviral  state  induced in rabbit, human or mouse cells  by  type  I IFN  can  inhibit M029-knockout MYXV even when PKR is genetically knocked-out, suggesting  that  M029  targets  other  host  proteins  for  this  antiviral state inhibition. Thus, the MYXV  dsRNA  binding  protein  M029  not  only  antagonizes  PKR  from  multiple  species  but  also blocks the  type I IFN antiviral state independently of PKR in a highly species-specific fashion.

  15. Myxoma Virus dsRNA Binding Protein M029  Inhibits the Type I IFN‐Induced Antiviral State in a  Highly Species‐Specific Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masmudur M. Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV is Leporipoxvirus that possesses a specific rabbit‐restricted host tropism but exhibits a much broader  cellular host range in cultured cells. MYXV is able to efficiently  block all aspects of the type I interferon (IFN‐induced  antiviral  state  in rabbit cells, partially in  human  cells  and  very  poorly  in  mouse  cells.  The mechanism(s of this species‐specific inhibition of  type I IFN‐induced antiviral state is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that MYXV encoded  protein  M029, a truncated relative of the vaccinia virus (VACV E3 double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA  binding  protein  that  inhibits  protein  kinase  R (PKR,  can  also  antagonize the type I IFN‐induced  antiviral state in a highly species‐specific manner. In cells pre‐treated with type I IFN prior to  infection,  MYXV  exploits  M029  to  overcome  the  induced  antiviral  state completely in rabbit cells,  partially  in  human  cells,  but  not at all in mouse cells. However, in cells pre‐infected with MYXV,  IFN‐induced  signaling  is fully  inhibited  even  in the  absence  of M029 in cells from all three species,  suggesting  that  other  MYXV  protein(s  apart  from  M029  block  IFN  signaling  in  a  speciesindependent  manner.  We  also  show  that  the  antiviral  state  induced in rabbit, human or mouse cells  by  type  I IFN  can  inhibit M029‐knockout MYXV even when PKR is genetically knocked‐out, suggesting  that  M029  targets  other  host  proteins  for  this  antiviral state inhibition. Thus, the MYXV  dsRNA  binding  protein  M029  not  only  antagonizes  PKR  from  multiple  species  but  also blocks the  type I IFN antiviral state independently of PKR in a highly species‐specific fashion.

  16. Inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.J.; Wagner, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    DNA synthesis in mouse myeloma (MPC-11) cells and L cells was rapidly and progressively inhibited by infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). No significant difference in cellular DNA synthesis inhibition was noted between synchronized and unsynchronized cells, nor did synchronized cells vary in their susceptibility to VSV infection after release from successive thymidine and hydroxyurea blocks. Cellular RNA synthesis was inhibited to about the same extent as DNA synthesis, but cellular protein synthesis was less affected by VSV at the same multiplicity of infection. The effect of VSV on cellular DNA synthesis could not be attributed to degradation of existing DNA or to decreased uptake of deoxynucleoside triphosphates, nor were DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase activities significantly different in VSV-infected and uninfected cell extracts. Analysis by alkaline sucrose gradients of DNA in pulse-labeled uninfected and VSV-infected cells indicated that VSV infection did not appear to influence DNA chain elongation. Cellular DNA synthesis was not significantly inhibited by infection with the VSV polymerase mutant tsG114(I) at the restrictive temperature or by infection with defective-interfering VSV DI-011 (5' end of the genome), but DI-HR-LT (3' end of genome) exhibited initially rapid but not prolonged inhibition of MPC-11 cell DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis inhibitory activity of wild-type VSV was only slowly and partially inactivated by very large doses of UV irradiation. These data suggest that, as in the effect of VSV on cellular RNA synthesis inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by VSV requires transcription of a small segment of the viral genome.

  17. The Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL)-mediated Lipid Mobilization and Enhances the ATGL Interaction with Comparative Gene Identification 58 (CGI-58) and Lipid Droplets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S.; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V.; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL−/− mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs. PMID:25381252

  18. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  19. Inhibition of the Secretory pathway by Foot-and-Mouth disease virus 2BC protein is reproduced by co-expression of 2B with 2C, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moffat, Katy; Knox, Caroline; Howell, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    immune responses in vivo. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), another picornavirus, can cause persistent infection of ruminants, suggesting it too may inhibit immune responses. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi apparatus transport of proteins is blocked by the FMDV 2BC protein. The observation that 2...... blocked in FMDV-infected cells. The block could be reconstituted by coexpression of 2B and 2C, showing that processing of 2BC did not compromise the ability of FMDV to slow secretion. Under these conditions, 2C was located to the Golgi apparatus, and the block in transport also occurred in the Golgi...... apparatus. Interestingly, the block in transport could be redirected to the ER when 2B was coexpressed with a 2C protein fused to an ER retention element. Thus, for FMDV a block in secretion is dependent on both 2B and 2C, with the latter determining the site of the block....

  20. Virus inhibition induced by polyvalent nanoparticles of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnemann, Jonathan; Sieben, Christian; Wolff, Christopher; Ludwig, Kai; Böttcher, Christoph; Herrmann, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The development of antiviral agents is one of the major challenges in medical science. So far, small monovalent molecular drugs that inhibit the late steps in the viral replication cycle, i.e., virus budding, have not worked well which emphasizes the need for alternative approaches. Polyvalently presented viral receptors, however, show potential as good inhibitors of virus-cell binding, which is the first step in the viral infection cycle. By gradually increasing the size of ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles, up to virus-like dimensions, we are now able to quantify the polyvalent enhancement of virus-cell binding inhibition and to identify varying mechanisms of virus inhibition with different efficacies: by employing a new binding assay we found that surface area-normalized polysulfated gold nanoparticles of diameters equal to and larger than the virus diameter (>50 nm) more efficiently inhibit the binding of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to cells than smaller particles. On a per particle basis, larger sized gold nanoparticles were surprisingly shown to inhibit the viral infection up to two orders of magnitude more efficiently than smaller particles, which suggests different mechanisms of virus inhibition. Based on complementary electron microscopic data, we noticed that larger gold nanoparticles act as efficient cross-linkers between virions, whereas smaller gold nanoparticles decorate the surface of individual virus particles. Our systematic study accentuates the need for the design of biodegradable, virus-sized inhibitors capitalizing on polyvalent binding.The development of antiviral agents is one of the major challenges in medical science. So far, small monovalent molecular drugs that inhibit the late steps in the viral replication cycle, i.e., virus budding, have not worked well which emphasizes the need for alternative approaches. Polyvalently presented viral receptors, however, show potential as good inhibitors of virus-cell binding, which is the

  1. The Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay by Interacting with INT6/EIF3E and UPF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocquet, Vincent; Neusiedler, Julia; Rende, Francesca; Cluet, David; Robin, Jean-Philippe; Terme, Jean-Michel; Duc Dodon, Madeleine; Wittmann, Jürgen; Morris, Christelle; Le Hir, Hervé; Ciminale, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we analyzed whether the degradation of mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway was affected in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells. This pathway was indeed strongly inhibited in C91PL, HUT102, and MT2 cells, and such an effect was also observed by the sole expression of the Tax protein in Jurkat and HeLa cells. In line with this activity, Tax binds INT6/EIF3E (here called INT6), which is a subunit of the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) required for efficient NMD, as well as the NMD core factor upstream frameshift protein 1 (UPF1). It was also observed that Tax expression alters the morphology of processing bodies (P-bodies), the cytoplasmic structures which concentrate RNA degradation factors. The presence of UPF1 in these subcellular compartments was increased by Tax, whereas that of INT6 was decreased. In line with these effects, the level of the phosphorylated form of UPF1 was increased in the presence of Tax. Analysis of several mutants of the viral protein showed that the interaction with INT6 is necessary for NMD inhibition. The alteration of mRNA stability was observed to affect viral transcripts, such as that coding for the HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), and also several cellular mRNAs sensitive to the NMD pathway. Our data indicate that the effect of Tax on viral and cellular gene expression is not restricted to transcriptional control but can also involve posttranscriptional regulation. PMID:22553336

  2. Luteolin restricts dengue virus replication through inhibition of the proprotein convertase furin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Minhua; Watanabe, Satoru; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; He, Qiuyan; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Zhongde; Lai, Xiaoping; Luo, Dahai; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Li, Geng

    2017-07-01

    In many countries afflicted with dengue fever, traditional medicines are widely used as panaceas for illness, and here we describe the systematic evaluation of a widely known natural product, luteolin, originating from the "heat clearing" class of herbs. We show that luteolin inhibits the replication of all four serotypes of dengue virus, but the selectivity of the inhibition was weak. In addition, ADE-mediated dengue virus infection of human cell lines and primary PBMCs was inhibited. In a time-of-drug-addition study, luteolin was found to reduce infectious virus particle formation, but not viral RNA synthesis, in Huh-7 cells. During the virus life cycle, the host protease furin cleaves the pr moiety from prM protein of immature virus particles in the trans-Golgi network to produce mature virions. Analysis of virus particles from luteolin-treated cells revealed that prM was not cleaved efficiently. Biochemical interrogation of human furin showed that luteolin inhibited the enzyme activity in an uncompetitive manner, with Ki value of 58.6 μM, suggesting that treatment may restrict the virion maturation process. Luteolin also exhibited in vivo antiviral activity in mice infected with DENV, causing reduced viremia. Given the mode of action of luteolin and its widespread source, it is possible that it can be tested in combination with other dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibiting Translation One Protein at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Historically, translational inhibitors have been confined to anti-bacterials that globally affect translation. Lintner et al. demonstrate that small molecules can specifically inhibit translation of a single disease-associated protein by stalling the ribosome's nascent chain [1], opening up a new therapeutic strategy for 'undruggable' proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Avian influenza virus directly infects human natural killer cells and inhibits cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huawei; Liu, Yinping; Sia, Sin Fun; Peiris, J S Malik; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei

    2017-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is a key component of innate immunity and plays an important role in host defense against virus infection by directly destroying infected cells. Influenza is a respiratory disease transmitted in the early phase of virus infection. Evasion of host innate immunity including NK cells is critical for the virus to expand and establish a successful acute infection. Previously, we showed that human influenza H1N1 virus infects NK cells and induces cell apoptosis, as well as inhibits NK cell activity. In this study, we further demonstrated that avian influenza virus also directly targeted NK cells as an immunoevasion strategy. The avian virus infected human NK cells and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, avian influenza virion and HA protein inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity. This novel strategy has obvious advantages for avian influenza virus, allowing the virus sufficient time to expand and subsequent spread before the onset of the specific immune response. Our findings provide an important clue for the immunopathogenesis of avian influenza, and also suggest that direct targeting NK cells may be a common strategy used by both human and avian influenza viruses to evade NK cell immunity.

  5. Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Exploits Hsp40 to Inhibit PKR Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Priya; Kumar, Purnima; Garten, Rebecca; Deyde, Varough; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Lal, Renu B.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lal, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a key regulator of the anti-viral innate immune response in mammalian cells. PKR activity is regulated by a 58 kilo Dalton cellular inhibitor (P58IPK), which is present in inactive state as a complex with Hsp40 under normal conditions. In case of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, P58IPK is known to dissociate from Hsp40 and inhibit PKR activation. However the influenza virus component responsible for PKR inhibition through P58IPK activation was hitherto unknown. Principal Findings Human heat shock 40 protein (Hsp40) was identified as an interacting partner of Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (IAV NP) using a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation studies from mammalian cells transfected with IAV NP expressing plasmid. Further, the IAV NP-Hsp40 interaction was validated in mammalian cells infected with various seasonal and pandemic strains of influenza viruses. Cellular localization studies showed that NP and Hsp40 co-localize primarily in the nucleus. During IAV infection in mammalian cells, expression of NP coincided with the dissociation of P58IPK from Hsp40 and decrease PKR phosphorylation. We observed that, plasmid based expression of NP in mammalian cells leads to decrease in PKR phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of NP expression during influenza virus replication led to PKR activation and concomitant increase in eIF2α phosphorylation. Inhibition of NP expression also led to reduced IRF3 phosphorylation, enhanced IFN β production and concomitant reduction of virus replication. Taken together our data suggest that NP is the viral factor responsible for P58IPK activation and subsequent inhibition of PKR-mediated host response during IAV infection. Significance Our findings demonstrate a novel role of IAV NP in inhibiting PKR-mediated anti-viral host response and help us understand P58IPK mediated inhibition of PKR activity during IAV infection

  6. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Retinoblastoma protein, E2F transcription factor, high throughput screen, drug discovery, x-ray crystallography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...the hypothesized mechanism by which Rb-E2F affinity can be enhanced, examined a set of 108 hit compounds identified in the primary screen, and

  7. HCVpro: hepatitis C virus protein interaction database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Samuel K; Schaefer, Ulf; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Christoffels, Alan

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. In furtherance of these goals, we have developed the hepatitis C virus protein interaction database (HCVpro) by integrating manually verified hepatitis C virus-virus and virus-human protein interactions curated from literature and databases. HCVpro is a comprehensive and integrated HCV-specific knowledgebase housing consolidated information on PPIs, functional genomics and molecular data obtained from a variety of virus databases (VirHostNet, VirusMint, HCVdb and euHCVdb), and from BIND and other relevant biology repositories. HCVpro is further populated with information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related genes that are mapped onto their encoded cellular proteins. Incorporated proteins have been mapped onto Gene Ontologies, canonical pathways, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and extensively cross-referenced to other essential annotations. The database is enriched with exhaustive reviews on structure and functions of HCV proteins, current state of drug and vaccine development and links to recommended journal articles. Users can query the database using specific protein identifiers (IDs), chromosomal locations of a gene, interaction detection methods, indexed PubMed sources as well as HCVpro, BIND and VirusMint IDs. The use of HCVpro is free and the resource can be accessed via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/hcvpro/ or http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hcvpro/. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aeginetia indica Decoction Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lo, Chieh-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Ni; Pan, Ting-Chun; Chen, Pin-Yin; Yu, Ming-Jiun

    2018-01-09

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a global epidemic despite the introduction of several highly effective direct-acting antivirals that are tagged with sky-high prices. The present study aimed to identify an herbal decoction that ameliorates HCV infection. Among six herbal decoctions tested, the Aeginetia indica decoction had the most profound effect on the HCV reporter activity in infected Huh7.5.1 liver cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The Aeginetia indica decoction exerted multiple inhibitory effects on the HCV life cycle. Pretreatment of the cells with the Aeginetia indica decoction prior to HCV infection reduced the HCV RNA and non-structural protein 3 (NS3) protein levels in the infected cells. The Aeginetia indica decoction reduced HCV internal ribosome entry site-mediated protein translation activity. It also reduced the HCV RNA level in the infected cells in association with reduced NS5A phosphorylation at serine 235, a predominant phosphorylation event indispensable to HCV replication. Thus, the Aeginetia indica decoction inhibits HCV infection, translation, and replication. Mechanistically, the Aeginetia indica decoction probably reduced HCV replication via reducing NS5A phosphorylation at serine 235.

  9. Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits XMRV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV, HIV-1, and certain alphaviruses and filoviruses. ZAP binds to specific viral mRNAs and recruits cellular mRNA degradation machinery to degrade the target RNA. The common features of ZAP-responsive RNA sequences remain elusive and thus whether a virus is susceptible to ZAP can only be determined experimentally. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently identified γ-retrovirus that was originally thought to be involved in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome but recently proved to be a laboratory artefact. Nonetheless, XMRV as a new retrovirus has been extensively studied. Since XMRV and MoMLV share only 67.9% sequence identity in the 3'UTRs, which is the target sequence of ZAP in MoMLV, whether XMRV is susceptible to ZAP remains to be determined. FINDINGS: We constructed an XMRV-luc vector, in which the coding sequences of Gag-Pol and part of Env were replaced with luciferase-coding sequence. Overexpression of ZAP potently inhibited the expression of XMRV-luc in a ZAP expression-level-dependent manner, while downregulation of endogenous ZAP rendered cells more sensitive to infection. Furthermore, ZAP inhibited the spreading of replication-competent XMRV. Consistent with the previously reported mechanisms by which ZAP inhibits viral infection, ZAP significantly inhibited the accumulation of XMRV-luc mRNA in the cytoplasm. The ZAP-responsive element in XMRV mRNA was mapped to the 3'UTR. CONCLUSIONS: ZAP inhibits XMRV replication by preventing the accumulation of viral mRNA in the cytoplasm. Documentation of ZAP inhibiting XMRV helps to broaden the spectrum of ZAP's antiviral activity. Comparison of the target sequences of ZAP in XMRV and MoMLV helps to better understand the features of ZAP-responsive elements.

  10. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  11. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Accomplishments: Task 1: Optimize screen for 1536-well format The Rubin laboratory provided protocols and a test lot of reagents for the 1536-well formatted...we committed to completing scale-up of a production lot of protein reagents (~100 µL of 100 µM E2FTMR, ~50 µL of 80 µM RbNP, and 200 µL). Reagents ...bonafide starting points for further elucidation of SAR by catalog to derive bonafide, chemically tractable, potent and selective small molecule

  12. Serum amyloid P component binds to influenza A virus haemagglutinin and inhibits the virus infection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Vilsgaard Ravn, K; Juul Sørensen, I

    1997-01-01

    that SAP can bind to influenza A virus and inhibit agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by the virus subtypes H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. SAP also inhibits the production of haemagglutinin (HA) an the cytopathogenic effect of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. The binding of SAP to the virus requires...

  13. Inhibition of influenza virus internalization by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehyein; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Hye Won; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Pilho; Jung, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hyeong-Seop; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Chong-Kyo

    2013-11-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major flavonoid components of green tea, is known to have a broad antiviral activity against several enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus. However, its mode of action and the mechanism that allows it to target influenza virus molecules have not been fully elucidated. Thus, this study investigated the molecular mechanism by which EGCG suppresses influenza virus infections. EGCG was found to block an early step in the influenza viral life cycle, but it did not affect viral adsorption to target cells or viral RNA replication. However, EGCG inhibited hemifusion events between virus particles and the cellular membrane by reducing the viral membrane integrity, thereby resulting in the loss of the cell penetration capacity of the influenza virus. EGCG also marginally suppressed the viral and nonviral neuraminidase (NA) activity in an enzyme-based assay system. In conclusion, it is suggested that the anti-influenza viral efficacy of EGCG is attributable to damage to the physical properties of the viral envelope and partial inhibition of the NA surface glycoprotein. These results may facilitate future investigations of the antiviral activity of EGCG against other enveloped viruses as well as influenza virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A peptide-based viral inactivator inhibits Zika virus infection in pregnant mice and fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yufeng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zou, Peng; Wang, Qian; Dai, Yanyan; Yu, Fei; Du, Lanying; Zhang, Na-Na; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Meng, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fuk-Woo Chan, Jasper; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupt...

  15. Inhibition of multiplication of herpes simplex virus by caffeic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Nishide, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Yukiko; Koyama, A Hajime; Yamasaki, Hisashi

    2011-10-01

    Hot water extracts of coffee grinds and commercial instant coffee solutions have been shown to exhibit marked antiviral and virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Specifically, it has been shown that caffeine and N-methyl-pyridinium formate inhibit the multiplication of HSV-1 in HEp-2 cells. The present study examined the virological properties and the antiviral activity of caffeic acid against HSV-1. Caffeic acid inhibited the multiplication of HSV-1 in vitro, while chlorogenic acid, a caffeic acid ester with quinic acid, did not. These reagents did not have a direct virucidal effect. The one-step growth curve of HSV-1 showed that the addition of caffeic acid at 8 h post infection (h p.i.) did not significantly affect the formation of progeny viruses. An analysis of the influence of the time of caffeic acid addition, revealed that addition at an early time post infection remarkably inhibited the formation of progeny infectious virus in the infected cells, but its addition after 6 h p.i. (i.e., the time of the completion of viral genome replication) did not efficiently inhibit this process. These results indicate that caffeic acid inhibits HSV-1 multiplication mainly before the completion of viral DNA replication, but not thereafter. Although caffeic acid showed some cytotoxicity by prolonged incubation, the observed antiviral activity is likely not the secondary result of the cytotoxic effect of the reagent, because the inhibition of the virus multiplication was observed before appearance of the notable cytotoxicity.

  16. Inhibition of virus replication by RNA interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, P. C. Joost; Cupac, Daniel; Berkhout, Ben

    2003-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism in eukaryotes, which is believed to function as a defence against viruses and transposons. Since its discovery, RNAi has been developed into a widely used technique for generating genetic knock-outs and for studying gene

  17. Anticancer Alkaloid Lamellarins Inhibit Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meijer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamellarins, a family of hexacyclic pyrrole alkaloids originally isolated from marine invertebrates, display promising anti-tumor activity. They induce apoptotic cell death through multi-target mechanisms, including inhibition of topoisomerase I, interaction with DNA and direct effects on mitochondria. We here report that lamellarins inhibit several protein kinases relevant to cancer such as cyclin-dependent kinases, dualspecificity tyrosine phosphorylation activated kinase 1A, casein kinase 1, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and PIM-1. A good correlation is observed between the effects of lamellarins on protein kinases and their action on cell death, suggesting that inhibition of specific kinases may contribute to the cytotoxicity of lamellarins. Structure/activity relationship suggests several paths for the optimization of lamellarins as kinase inhibitors.

  18. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola A. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2 is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S. These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  19. Molecular principles of human virus protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halehalli, Rachita Ramachandra; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu Adimurthy

    2015-04-01

    Viruses, from the human protein-protein interaction network perspective, target hubs, bottlenecks and interconnected nodes enriched in certain biological pathways. However, not much is known about the general characteristic features of the human proteins interacting with viral proteins (referred to as hVIPs) as well as the motifs and domains utilized by human-virus protein-protein interactions (referred to as Hu-Vir PPIs). Our study has revealed that hVIPs are mostly disordered proteins, whereas viral proteins are mostly ordered proteins. Protein disorder in viral proteins and hVIPs varies from one subcellular location to another. In any given viral-human PPI pair, at least one of the two proteins is structurally disordered suggesting that disorder associated conformational flexibility as one of the characteristic features of virus-host interaction. Further analyses reveal that hVIPs are (i) slowly evolving proteins, (ii) associated with high centrality scores in human-PPI network, (iii) involved in multiple pathways, (iv) enriched in eukaryotic linear motifs (ELMs) associated with protein modification, degradation and regulatory processes, (v) associated with high number of splice variants and (vi) expressed abundantly across multiple tissues. These aforementioned findings suggest that conformational flexibility, spatial diversity, abundance and slow evolution are the characteristic features of the human proteins targeted by viral proteins. Hu-Vir PPIs are mostly mediated via domain-motif interactions (DMIs) where viral proteins employ motifs that mimic host ELMs to bind to domains in human proteins. DMIs are shared among viruses belonging to different families indicating a possible convergent evolution of these motifs to help viruses to adopt common strategies to subvert host cellular pathways. Hu-Vir PPI data, DDI and DMI data for human-virus PPI can be downloaded from http://cdfd.org.in/labpages/computational_biology_datasets.html. Supplementary data are

  20. Regulation of Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein by SUMO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maite Baz-martínez; Ahmed El Motiam; Paula Ruibal; Gabriela N Condezo; Carlos F De La Cruz-herrera; Valerie Lang; Manuel Collado; Carmen San Martín; Manuel S Rodríguez; Cesar Muñoz-fontela; Carmen Rivas

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 regulates viral budding, nucleocapsid recruitment, virus structure and stability, viral genome replication and transcription, and has an intrinsic ability to form virus-like particles...

  1. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  2. Different effect of proteasome inhibition on vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Neznanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome activity is an important part of viral replication. In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and poliovirus. We found that the proteasome inhibitors significantly suppressed VSV protein synthesis, virus accumulation, and protected infected cells from toxic effect of VSV replication. In contrast, poliovirus replication was delayed, but not diminished in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib. We also found that inhibition of proteasomes stimulated stress-related processes, such as accumulation of chaperone hsp70, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and overall inhibition of translation. VSV replication was sensitive to this stress with significant decline in replication process. Poliovirus growth was less sensitive with only delay in replication. Inhibition of proteasome activity suppressed cellular and VSV protein synthesis, but did not reduce poliovirus protein synthesis. Protein kinase GCN2 supported the ability of proteasome inhibitors to attenuate general translation and to suppress VSV replication. We propose that different mechanisms of translational initiation by VSV and poliovirus determine their sensitivity to stress induced by the inhibition of proteasomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study that connects the effect of stress induced by proteasome inhibition with the efficiency of viral infection.

  3. Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Polly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. Earlier studies have detected mature virus particles associated with intermediate filaments in virus infected cells but the viral determinant for this association and the effect of disrupting intermediate filaments on virus assembly and release are unknown. Results In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. Further, the determinants of vimentin localisation are mapped to the N-terminus of the protein and deletions of aminio acids between residues 65 and 114 are shown to disrupt VP2-vimentin association. Site directed mutation also reveals that amino acid residues Gly 70 and Val 72 are important in the VP2-vimentin association. Mutation of these amino acids resulted in a soluble VP2 capable of forming trimeric structures similar to unmodified protein that no longer associated with vimentin. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of intermediate filaments, either directly or indirectly through the disruption of the microtubule network, inhibited virus release from BTV infected cells. Conclusion The principal findings of the research are that the association of mature BTV particles with intermediate filaments are driven by the interaction of VP2 with vimentin and that this interaction contributes to virus egress. Furthermore, i the N-terminal 118 amino acids of VP2 are sufficient to confer vimentin interaction. ii Deletion of amino acids 65–114 or mutation of amino acids 70–72 to DVD abrogates vimentin association. iii Finally

  4. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly M Choy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.

  5. MAVS-mediated apoptosis and its inhibition by viral proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host responses to viral infection include both immune activation and programmed cell death. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor, MAVS (IPS-1, VISA or Cardif is critical for host defenses to viral infection by inducing type-1 interferons (IFN-I, however its role in virus-induced apoptotic responses has not been elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that MAVS causes apoptosis independent of its function in initiating IFN-I production. MAVS-induced cell death requires mitochondrial localization, is caspase dependent, and displays hallmarks of apoptosis. Furthermore, MAVS(-/- fibroblasts are resistant to Sendai virus-induced apoptosis. A functional screen identifies the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV nonstructural protein (NSP15 as inhibitors of MAVS-induced apoptosis, possibly as a method of immune evasion. SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes a novel role for MAVS in controlling viral infections through the induction of apoptosis, and identifies viral proteins which inhibit this host response.

  6. Interaction of influenza A virus M1 matrix protein with caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, O P; Ksenofontov, A L; Kuzmina, S G; Klenk, H D

    2002-05-01

    In this investigation, an ability of influenza A virus M1 matrix protein to bind intracellular caspases, the key enzymes of cell apoptosis, has been examined. Protein-protein binding on polystyrene plates and polyvinyl pyrrolidone membrane was employed for this purpose. Under a comparative study of caspases-3, -6, -7, -8 influenza virus M1 protein specifically bound caspase-8 and weakly bound caspase-7. Using a computer analysis of the N-terminal region of M1 protein, a site similar to the anti-caspase site of baculovirus p35 protein, which inhibits caspases and displays antiapoptotic activity, was identified. These results are in good agreement with the supposition that influenza virus M1 protein is involved in a caspase-8-mediated apoptosis pathway in influenza virus infected cells.

  7. The virus-encoded chemokine vMIP-II inhibits virus-induced Tc1-driven inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Nansen, Anneline; Bartholdy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The human herpesvirus 8-encoded protein vMIP-II is a potent in vitro antagonist of many chemokine receptors believed to be associated with attraction of T cells with a type 1 cytokine profile. For the present report we have studied the in vivo potential of this viral chemokine antagonist to inhibit....... Consistent with these in vitro findings treatment with vMIP-II inhibited the adoptive transfer of a virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response in vivo, but only when antigen-primed donor cells were transferred via the intravenous route and required to migrate actively, not when the cells were......-induced signals are pivotal in directing antiviral effector cells toward virus-infected organ sites and that vMIP-II is a potent inhibitor of type 1 T-cell-mediated inflammation....

  8. Proteins of purified Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Eric; Luftig, Micah; Chase, Michael R; Weicksel, Steve; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen; Illanes, Diego; Sarracino, David; Kieff, Elliott

    2004-11-16

    Mature Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was purified from the culture medium of infected lymphocytes made functionally conditional for Zta activation of lytic replication by an in-frame fusion with a mutant estrogen receptor. Proteins in purified virus preparations were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis and trypsin-digested; peptides were then analyzed by tandem hydrophobic chromatography, tandem MS sequencing, and MS scans. Potential peptides were matched with EBV and human gene ORFs. Mature EBV was mostly composed of homologues of proteins previously found in a herpes virion. However, EBV homologues to herpes simplex virus capsid-associated or tegument components UL7 (BBRF2), UL14 (BGLF3), and EBV BFRF1 were not significantly detected. Instead, probable tegument components included the EBV and gamma-herpesvirus-encoded BLRF2, BRRF2, BDLF2 and BKRF4 proteins. Actin was also a major tegument protein, and cofilin, tubulin, heat shock protein 90, and heat shock protein 70 were substantial components. EBV envelope glycoprotein gp350 was highly abundant, followed by glycoprotein gH, intact and furin-cleaved gB, gM, gp42, gL, gp78, gp150, and gN. BILF1 (gp64) and proteins associated with latent EBV infection were not detected in virions.

  9. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k-mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k-mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  10. Serum amyloid P component binds to influenza A virus haemagglutinin and inhibits the virus infection in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Vilsgaard Ravn, K; Juul Sørensen, I

    1997-01-01

    that SAP can bind to influenza A virus and inhibit agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by the virus subtypes H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. SAP also inhibits the production of haemagglutinin (HA) an the cytopathogenic effect of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. The binding of SAP to the virus requires...... to the mass of the HA1 peptide. Of several monosaccharides tested only D-mannose interfered with SAP's inhibition of both HA and infectivity. The glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and heparin, which bind SAP, reduced SAPs binding to the virus. The results indicate that the inhibition by SAP is due to steric...

  11. Computational design of protein interactions: designing proteins that neutralize influenza by inhibiting its hemagglutinin surface protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Sarel

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition underlies all life processes. Design of interactions not seen in nature is a test of our understanding of molecular recognition and could unlock the vast potential of subtle control over molecular interaction networks, allowing the design of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for basic and applied research. We developed the first general method for designing protein interactions. The method starts by computing a region of high affinity interactions between dismembered amino acid residues and the target surface and then identifying proteins that can harbor these residues. Designs are tested experimentally for binding the target surface and successful ones are affinity matured using yeast cell surface display. Applied to the conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin we designed two unrelated proteins that, following affinity maturation, bound hemagglutinin at subnanomolar dissociation constants. Co-crystal structures of hemagglutinin bound to the two designed binders were within 1Angstrom RMSd of their models, validating the accuracy of the design strategy. One of the designed proteins inhibits the conformational changes that underlie hemagglutinin's cell-invasion functions and blocks virus infectivity in cell culture, suggesting that such proteins may in future serve as diagnostics and antivirals against a wide range of pathogenic influenza strains. We have used this method to obtain experimentally validated binders of several other target proteins, demonstrating the generality of the approach. We discuss the combination of modeling and high-throughput characterization of design variants which has been key to the success of this approach, as well as how we have used the data obtained in this project to enhance our understanding of molecular recognition. References: Science 332:816 JMB, in press Protein Sci 20:753

  12. Functional Evolution of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein in Currently Circulating Human 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amelia M; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J; DeDiego, Marta L

    2017-09-01

    In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein. Notably, these 6 residue changes restore the ability of pH1N1 NS1 to inhibit general host gene expression, mainly by their ability to restore binding to the cellular factor CPSF30. This is the first report describing the ability of the pH1N1 NS1 protein to naturally acquire mutations that restore this function. Importantly, a recombinant pH1N1 virus containing these 6 amino acid changes in the NS1 protein (pH1N1/NSs-6mut) inhibited host IFN and proinflammatory responses to a greater extent than that with the parental virus (pH1N1/NS1-wt), yet virus titers were not significantly increased in cell cultures or in mouse lungs, and the disease was partially attenuated. The pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus grew similarly to pH1N1/NSs-wt in mouse lungs, but infection with pH1N1/NSs-6mut induced lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, likely due to a general inhibition of gene expression mediated by the mutated NS1 protein. This lower level of inflammation induced by the pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus likely accounts for the attenuated disease phenotype and may represent a host-virus adaptation affecting influenza virus pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory infections in humans. In addition, occasional pandemics are caused when IAVs circulating in other species emerge in the human population. In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 IAV (pH1N1) was transmitted to humans, infecting people then and up

  13. MAVS-mediated host cell defense is inhibited by Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujun; Song, Wuqi; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Qingmeng; He, Junming; Li, Aimei; Qian, Jun; Zhai, Aixia; Hu, Yunlong; Kao, Wenping; Wei, Lanlan; Zhang, Fengmin; Xu, Dakang

    2013-08-01

    Viruses often have strategies for preventing host cell apoptosis, which antagonizes viral replication. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus that establishes a non-cytolytic persistent infection. Although BDV suppresses type I Interferon (IFN) through (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1) associated BDV P protein, it is still unclear how BDV can survive in the host cell and establish a persistent infection. Recently, it has been recognized that mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is a crucial component of the innate immune response. In this work we show that BDV X protein colocalizes and interacts with MAVS in the mitochondria to block programmed cell death. BDV X protein-mediated inhibition of apoptosis was independent of type I IFN production and NF-κB activity. The reduction of BDV X expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or the mutation of BDV X enhanced MAVS-induced cell death. Collectively, our data provide novel insights into how BDV X protein inhibits antiviral-associated programmed cell death, through its action of MAVS function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 5-(Perylen-3-yl)ethynyl-arabino-uridine (aUY11), an arabino-based rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitor, targets virion envelope lipids to inhibit fusion of influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, and other enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Ustinov, Alexey V; Epand, Raquel F; Epand, Richard M; Korshun, Vladimir A; Schang, Luis M

    2013-04-01

    Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Fusion requires the formation of an intermediate stalk structure, in which only the outer leaflets are fused. The stalk structure, in turn, requires the lipid bilayer of the envelope to bend into negative curvature. This process is inhibited by enrichment in the outer leaflet of lipids with larger polar headgroups, which favor positive curvature. Accordingly, phospholipids with such shape inhibit viral fusion. We previously identified a compound, 5-(perylen-3-yl)ethynyl-2'-deoxy-uridine (dUY11), with overall shape and amphipathicity similar to those of these phospholipids. dUY11 inhibited the formation of the negative curvature necessary for stalk formation and the fusion of a model enveloped virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). We proposed that dUY11 acted by biophysical mechanisms as a result of its shape and amphipathicity. To test this model, we have now characterized the mechanisms against influenza virus and HCV of 5-(perylen-3-yl)ethynyl-arabino-uridine (aUY11), which has shape and amphipathicity similar to those of dUY11 but contains an arabino-nucleoside. aUY11 interacted with envelope lipids to inhibit the infectivity of influenza virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2), and other enveloped viruses. It specifically inhibited the fusion of influenza virus, HCV, VSV, and even protein-free liposomes to cells. Furthermore, aUY11 inhibited the formation of negative curvature in model lipid bilayers. In summary, the arabino-derived aUY11 and the deoxy-derived dUY11 act by the same antiviral mechanisms against several enveloped but otherwise unrelated viruses. Therefore, chemically unrelated compounds of appropriate shape and amphipathicity target virion envelope lipids to inhibit formation of the negative curvature required for fusion, inhibiting infectivity by biophysical, not biochemical, mechanisms.

  15. Inhibition of RNA recruitment and replication of an RNA virus by acridine derivatives with known anti-prion activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Sasvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ and quinacrine (QC, which are active against prion-based diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses.

  16. Inhibition of RNA Recruitment and Replication of an RNA Virus by Acridine Derivatives with Known Anti-Prion Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Bach, Stéphane; Blondel, Marc; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ) and quinacrine (QC), which are active against prion-based diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i) inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii) reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii) inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. Conclusion/Significance Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses. PMID:19823675

  17. Nonstructural Protein L* Species Specificity Supports a Mouse Origin for Vilyuisk Human Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drappier, Melissa; Opperdoes, Fred R; Michiels, Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV) is a picornavirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). VHEV was isolated from human material passaged in mice. Whether this VHEV is of human or mouse origin is therefore unclear. We took advantage of the species-specific activity of the nonstructural L* protein of theiloviruses to track the origin of TMEV isolates. TMEV L* inhibits RNase L, the effector enzyme of the interferon pathway. By using coimmunoprecipitation and functional RNase L assays, the species specificity of RNase L antagonism was tested for L* from mouse (DA) and rat (RTV-1) TMEV strains as well as for VHEV. Coimmunoprecipitation and functional assay data confirmed the species specificity of L* activity and showed that L* from rat strain RTV-1 inhibited rat but not mouse or human RNase L. Next, we showed that the VHEV L* protein was phylogenetically related to L* of mouse viruses and that it failed to inhibit human RNase L but readily antagonized mouse RNase L, unambiguously showing the mouse origin of VHEV. IMPORTANCE Defining the natural host of a virus can be a thorny issue, especially when the virus was isolated only once or when the isolation story is complex. The species Theilovirus includes Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), infecting mice and rats, and Saffold virus (SAFV), infecting humans. One TMEV strain, Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV), however, was isolated from mice that were inoculated with cerebrospinal fluid of a patient presenting with chronic encephalitis. It is therefore unclear whether VHEV was derived from the human sample or from the inoculated mouse. The L* protein encoded by TMEV inhibits RNase L, a cellular enzyme involved in innate immunity, in a species-specific manner. Using binding and functional assays, we show that this species specificity even allows discrimination between TMEV strains of mouse and of rat origins. The VHEV L* protein clearly inhibited mouse but not human RNase L

  18. Oligomerization of Uukuniemi virus nucleocapsid protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Anna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uukuniemi virus (UUKV belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. As a non-pathogenic virus for humans UUKV has served as a safe model bunyavirus in a number of studies addressing fundamental questions such as organization and regulation of viral genes, genome replication, structure and assembly. The present study is focused on the oligomerization of the UUKV nucleocapsid (N protein, which plays an important role in several steps of virus replication. The aim was to locate the domains involved in the N protein oligomerization and study the process in detail. Results A set of experiments concentrating on the N- and C-termini of the protein was performed, first by completely or partially deleting putative N-N-interaction domains and then by introducing point mutations of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis strategy was based on the computer modeling of secondary and tertiary structure of the N protein. The N protein mutants were studied in chemical cross-linking, immunofluorescence, mammalian two-hybrid, minigenome, and virus-like particle-forming assays. The data showed that the oligomerization ability of UUKV-N protein depends on the presence of intact α-helices on both termini of the N protein molecule and that a specific structure in the N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the N-N interaction(s. This structure is formed by two α-helices, rich in amino acid residues with aromatic (W7, F10, W19, F27, F31 or long aliphatic (I14, I24 side chains. Furthermore, some of the N-terminal mutations (e.g. I14A, I24A, F31A affected the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays. Conclusions UUKV-N protein has ability to form oligomers in chemical cross-linking and mammalian two-hybrid assays. In mutational analysis, some of the introduced single-point mutations abolished the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays, suggesting that especially the N

  19. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  20. Mumps Virus Decreases Testosterone Production and Gamma Interferon-Induced Protein 10 Secretion by Human Leydig Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Mouchel, Thomas; Ruffault, Annick; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Jégou, Bernard; Samson, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Mumps virus is responsible for sterility. Here, we show that the mumps virus infects Leydig cells in vitro and totally inhibits testosterone secretion and that ribavirin in mumps virus-infected Leydig cell cultures completely restores testosterone production. Moreover, we show that gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) is highly expressed by mumps virus-infected Leydig cells and that ribavirin does not block IP-10 production.

  1. Zika virus infection dysregulates human neural stem cell growth and inhibits differentiation into neuroprogenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devhare, Pradip; Meyer, Keith; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs. Zika virus MR766 strain increased serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a known early cellular response proteins to DNA damage. On the other hand, PRVABC59 strain upregulated serine 15 phosphorylation of p53, p21 and PUMA expression. MR766-infected cells displayed poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage. Interestingly, infection of hNSCs by both strains of Zika virus for 24 h, followed by incubation in astrocyte differentiation medium, induced rounding and cell death. However, astrocytes generated from hNSCs by incubation in differentiation medium when infected with Zika virus displayed minimal cytopathic effect at an early time point. Infected hNSCs incubated in astrocyte differentiating medium displayed PARP cleavage within 24–36 h. Together, these results showed that two distinct strains of Zika virus potentiate hNSC growth inhibition by different mechanisms, but both viruses strongly induce death in early differentiating neuroprogenitor cells even at a very low multiplicity of infection. Our observations demonstrate further mechanistic insights for impaired neuronal homeostasis during active Zika virus infection. PMID:29022904

  2. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jemielity

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4 specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS. TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  3. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielity, Stephanie; Wang, Jinyize J; Chan, Ying Kai; Ahmed, Asim A; Li, Wenhui; Monahan, Sheena; Bu, Xia; Farzan, Michael; Freeman, Gordon J; Umetsu, Dale T; Dekruyff, Rosemarie H; Choe, Hyeryun

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4) specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS). TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  4. Matrix proteins of Nipah and Hendra viruses interact with beta subunits of AP-3 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998, killing 109 people

  5. Human transbodies to VP40 inhibit cellular egress of Ebola virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoori, Salma; Seesuay, Watee; Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Chaisri, Urai; Sookrung, Nitat; Densumite, Jaslan; Saelim, Nawannaporn; Chulanetra, Monrat; Maneewatch, Santi; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-10-14

    A direct acting anti-Ebola agent is needed. VP40, a conserved protein across Ebolavirus (EBOV) species has several pivotal roles in the virus life cycle. Inhibition of VP40 functions would lessen the virion integrity and interfere with the viral assembly, budding, and spread. In this study, cell penetrable human scFvs (HuscFvs) that bound to EBOV VP40 were produced by phage display technology. Gene sequences coding for VP40-bound-HuscFvs were subcloned from phagemids into protein expression plasmids downstream to a gene of cell penetrating peptide, i.e., nonaarginine (R9). By electron microscopy, transbodies from three clones effectively inhibited egress of the Ebola virus-like particles from human hepatic cells transduced with pseudo-typed-Lentivirus particles carrying EBOV VP40 and GP genes. Computerized simulation indicated that the effective HuscFvs bound to multiple basic residues in the cationic patch of VP40 C-terminal domain which are important in membrane-binding for viral matrix assembly and virus budding. The transbodies bound also to VP40 N-terminal domain and L domain peptide encompassed the PTAPPEY (WW binding) motif, suggesting that they might confer VP40 function inhibition through additional mechanism(s). The generated transbodies are worthwhile tested with authentic EBOV before developing to direct acting anti-Ebola agent for preclinical and clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Silkworm hemolymph inhibits hemolysin production by Staphylococcus aureus. We purified a factor in the silkworm hemolymph responsible for this inhibitory activity. The final fraction with the greatest specific activity contained 220- and 74-kDa proteins. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the 220- and 74-kDa proteins were apolipophorin I and apolipophorin II, respectively, indicating that the factor was apolipophorin (ApoLp). The purified ApoLp fraction showed decreased expression of S. aureus hla encoding α-hemolysin, hlb encoding β-hemolysin, saeRS, and RNAIII, which activate the expression of these hemolysin genes. Injection of an anti-ApoLp antibody into the hemolymph increased the sensitivity of silkworms to the lethal effect of S. aureus. Hog gastric mucin, a mammalian homologue of ApoLp, decreased the expression of S. aureus hla and hlb. These findings suggest that ApoLp in the silkworm hemolymph inhibits S. aureus virulence and contributes to defense against S. aureus infection and that its activity is conserved in mammalian mucin. PMID:21937431

  7. The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 inhibits hepatitis A virus replication in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Saito, Kengo; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Sakamoto, Naoya; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-03-20

    The JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 has been reported to inhibit La protein expression. We previously demonstrated that the inhibition of La expression could inhibit hepatitis A virus (HAV) internal ribosomal entry-site (IRES)-mediated translation and HAV replication in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the effects of AZD1480 on HAV IRES-mediated translation and replication. HAV IRES-mediated translation in COS7-HAV-IRES cells was inhibited by 0.1-1 μM AZD1480, a dosage that did not affect cell viability. Results showed a significant reduction in intracellular HAV HA11-1299 genotype IIIA RNA levels in Huh7 cells treated with AZD1480. Furthermore, AZD1480 inhibited the expression of phosphorylated-(Tyr-705)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and La in Huh7 cells. Therefore, we propose that AZD1480 can inhibit HAV IRES activity and HAV replication through the inhibition of the La protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An unexpected inhibition of antiviral signaling by virus-encoded tumor suppressor p53 in pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Steuerwald, Nury; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.

    2015-01-01

    Virus-encoded tumor suppressor p53 transgene expression has been successfully used in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and other oncolytic viruses (OVs) to enhance their anticancer activities. However, p53 is also known to inhibit virus replication via enhanced type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses. To examine whether p53 transgenes enhance antiviral signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, we engineered novel VSV recombinants encoding human p53 or the previously described chimeric p53-CC, which contains the coiled-coil (CC) domain from breakpoint cluster region (BCR) protein and evades the dominant-negative activities of endogenously expressed mutant p53. Contrary to an expected enhancement of antiviral signaling by p53, our global analysis of gene expression in PDAC cells showed that both p53 and p53-CC dramatically inhibited type I IFN responses. Our data suggest that this occurs through p53-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Importantly, VSV-encoded p53 or p53-CC did not inhibit antiviral signaling in non-malignant human pancreatic ductal cells, which retain their resistance to all VSV recombinants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of p53-mediated inhibition of antiviral signaling, and it suggests that OV-encoded p53 can simultaneously produce anticancer activities while assisting, rather than inhibiting, virus replication in cancer cells. PMID:25965802

  9. An unexpected inhibition of antiviral signaling by virus-encoded tumor suppressor p53 in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Steuerwald, Nury; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2015-09-01

    Virus-encoded tumor suppressor p53 transgene expression has been successfully used in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and other oncolytic viruses (OVs) to enhance their anticancer activities. However, p53 is also known to inhibit virus replication via enhanced type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses. To examine whether p53 transgenes enhance antiviral signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, we engineered novel VSV recombinants encoding human p53 or the previously described chimeric p53-CC, which contains the coiled-coil (CC) domain from breakpoint cluster region (BCR) protein and evades the dominant-negative activities of endogenously expressed mutant p53. Contrary to an expected enhancement of antiviral signaling by p53, our global analysis of gene expression in PDAC cells showed that both p53 and p53-CC dramatically inhibited type I IFN responses. Our data suggest that this occurs through p53-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Importantly, VSV-encoded p53 or p53-CC did not inhibit antiviral signaling in non-malignant human pancreatic ductal cells, which retained their resistance to all tested VSV recombinants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of p53-mediated inhibition of antiviral signaling, and it suggests that OV-encoded p53 can simultaneously produce anticancer activities while assisting, rather than inhibiting, virus replication in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  11. In vitro inhibition of mumps virus by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soye, Kaitlin J; Trottier, Claire; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z; Restori, Katherine H; Reichman, Lee; Miller, Wilson H; Ward, Brian J

    2013-11-14

    Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly infectious paramyxovirus closely related to measles virus (MeV). Despite the availability of a mumps vaccine, outbreaks continue to occur and no treatment options are available. Vitamin A and other naturally occurring retinoids inhibit the replication of MeV in vitro. Anti-viral effects of retinoids were observed in cell culture using the myelomonocytic U937, NB4/R4, and Huh7/7.5 cells. Observations of anti-viral effect were quantified using TCID50 analysis. Molecular properties of the antiviral effect were analysed using quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. The current work demonstrates that retinoids inhibit MuV in vitro due to up-regulation of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN stimulated genes. This effect is mediated by nuclear retinoid receptor signalling and RIG-I is required. The antiviral retinoid-induced state makes cells less permissive to viral replication from subsequent challenge with either MuV or MeV for less than 12 hours. These results demonstrate that retinoids inhibit MuV replication in uninfected bystander cells through a retinoid inducible gene I (RIG-I), retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and IFN dependent manner making them refractory to subsequent rounds of viral replication. These observations raise the possibility that pharmacological doses of retinoids might have clinical benefit in MuV infection.

  12. Lipoprotein lipase inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV infection by blocking virus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maillard

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of HCV is that its life cycle depends on lipoprotein metabolism. Viral morphogenesis and secretion follow the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL biogenesis pathway and, consequently, infectious HCV in the serum is associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyzes TRL within chylomicrons and VLDL but, independently of its catalytic activity, it has a bridging activity, mediating the hepatic uptake of chylomicrons and VLDL remnants. We previously showed that exogenously added LPL increases HCV binding to hepatoma cells by acting as a bridge between virus-associated lipoproteins and cell surface heparan sulfate, while simultaneously decreasing infection levels. We show here that LPL efficiently inhibits cell infection with two HCV strains produced in hepatoma cells or in primary human hepatocytes transplanted into uPA-SCID mice with fully functional human ApoB-lipoprotein profiles. Viruses produced in vitro or in vivo were separated on iodixanol gradients into low and higher density populations, and the infection of Huh 7.5 cells by both virus populations was inhibited by LPL. The effect of LPL depended on its enzymatic activity. However, the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin restored only a minor part of HCV infectivity, suggesting an important role of the LPL bridging function in the inhibition of infection. We followed HCV cell entry by immunoelectron microscopy with anti-envelope and anti-core antibodies. These analyses demonstrated the internalization of virus particles into hepatoma cells and their presence in intracellular vesicles and associated with lipid droplets. In the presence of LPL, HCV was retained at the cell surface. We conclude that LPL efficiently inhibits HCV infection by acting on TRL associated with HCV particles through mechanisms involving its lipolytic function, but mostly its bridging function. These mechanisms lead to immobilization of the virus at the cell

  13. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication prior to Reverse Transcription by Influenza Virus Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Blazevic, Vesna; Patterson, Bruce K.; Mac Trubey, C.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Gene M Shearer

    2000-01-01

    It is now recognized that, in addition to drug-mediated therapies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the immune system can exert antiviral effects via CD8+ T-cell-generated anti-HIV factors. This study demonstrates that (i) supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with influenza A virus inhibit replication of CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 isolates prior to reverse transcription; (ii) the HIV-suppressive supernatants can be generated by CD4- or CD...

  14. Paramyxovirus V proteins interact with the RIG-I/TRIM25 regulatory complex and inhibit RIG-I signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T; Feinman, Leighland J; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Shaw, Megan L

    2018-01-10

    Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both the RIG-I regulatory protein, TRIM25, and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem CARDs of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25-ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs. Furthermore, we show that V interaction with TRIM25 and RIG-I prevents TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination of RIG-I and disrupts downstream RIG-I signaling to MAVS. This is a novel mechanism for innate immune inhibition by paramyxovirus V proteins, distinct from other known V protein functions such as MDA5 and STAT1 antagonism.IMPORTANCE The host RIG-I signaling pathway is a key early obstacle to paramyxovirus infection as it results in rapid induction of an antiviral response. This study shows that paramyxovirus V proteins interact with, and inhibit the activation of, RIG-I, thereby interrupting the antiviral signaling pathway, and facilitating virus replication. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2016-12-21

    The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol shows efficacy against influenza viruses by targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) fusion machinery. However, the structural basis of the mechanism underlying fusion inhibition by Arbidol has remained obscure, thereby hindering its further development as a specific and optimized influenza therapeutic. We determined crystal structures of Arbidol in complex with influenza virus HA from pandemic 1968 H3N2 and recent 2013 H7N9 viruses. Arbidol binds in a hydrophobic cavity in the HA trimer stem at the interface between two protomers. This cavity is distal to the conserved epitope targeted by broadly neutralizing stem antibodies and is ~16 Å from the fusion peptide. Arbidol primarily makes hydrophobic interactions with the binding site but also induces some conformational rearrangements to form a network of inter- and intraprotomer salt bridges. By functioning as molecular glue, Arbidol stabilizes the prefusion conformation of HA that inhibits the large conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion in the low pH of the endosome. This unique binding mode compared with the small-molecule inhibitors of other class I fusion proteins enhances our understanding of how small molecules can function as fusion inhibitors and guides the development of broad-spectrum therapeutics against influenza virus.

  16. Direct Inhibition of Cellular Fatty Acid Synthase Impairs Replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohol, Yamini M; Wang, Zhaoti; Kemble, George; Duke, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of palmitate, a fatty acid utilized for synthesis of more complex fatty acids, plasma membrane structure, and post-translational palmitoylation of host and viral proteins. We have developed a potent inhibitor of FASN (TVB-3166) that reduces the production of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) progeny in vitro from infected human lung epithelial cells (A549) and in vivo from mice challenged intranasally with RSV. Addition of TVB-3166 to the culture medium of RSV-infected A549 cells reduces viral spread without inducing cytopathic effects. The antiviral effect of the FASN inhibitor is a direct consequence of reducing de novo palmitate synthesis; similar doses are required for both antiviral activity and inhibition of palmitate production, and the addition of exogenous palmitate to TVB-3166-treated cells restores RSV production. TVB-3166 has minimal effect on RSV entry but significantly reduces viral RNA replication, protein levels, viral particle formation and infectivity of released viral particles. TVB-3166 substantially impacts viral replication, reducing production of infectious progeny 250-fold. In vivo, oral administration of TVB-3166 to RSV-A (Long)-infected BALB/c mice on normal chow, starting either on the day of infection or one day post-infection, reduces RSV lung titers 21-fold and 9-fold respectively. Further, TVB-3166 also inhibits the production of RSV B, human parainfluenza 3 (PIV3), and human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16) progeny from A549, HEp2 and HeLa cells respectively. Thus, inhibition of FASN and palmitate synthesis by TVB-3166 significantly reduces RSV progeny both in vitro and in vivo and has broad-spectrum activity against other respiratory viruses. FASN inhibition may alter the composition of regions of the host cell membrane where RSV assembly or replication occurs, or change the membrane composition of RSV progeny particles, decreasing their infectivity.

  17. A peptide-based viral inactivator inhibits Zika virus infection in pregnant mice and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zou, Peng; Wang, Qian; Dai, Yanyan; Yu, Fei; Du, Lanying; Zhang, Na-Na; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Meng, Yu; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaohui; Fuk-Woo Chan, Jasper; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2017-07-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupts the integrity of the viral membrane. Z2 can penetrate the placental barrier to enter fetal tissues and is safe for use in pregnant mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Z2 inhibits vertical transmission of ZIKV in pregnant C57BL/6 mice and protects type I or type I/II interferon receptor-deficient mice against lethal ZIKV challenge. Thus, Z2 has potential to be further developed as an antiviral treatment against ZIKV infection in high-risk populations, particularly pregnant women.

  18. Pseudotype formation of murine leukemia virus with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Emi, N; Friedmann, T; Yee, J K

    1991-01-01

    Mixed infection of a cell by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and retroviruses results in the production of progeny virions bearing the genome of one virus encapsidated by the envelope proteins of the other. The mechanism for the phenomenon of pseudotype formation is not clear, although specific recognition of a viral envelope protein by the nucleocapsid of an unrelated virus is presumably involved. In this study, we used Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retroviral vectors encoding...

  19. Virus inhibition assay for measurement of acyclovir levels in human plasma and urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.F.; Taylor, S. C.; Bryson, Y J

    1981-01-01

    A simple microplate virus inhibition assay which measures the levels of acyclovir in plasma and urine samples from patients was developed. The assay is based upon the inhibition of the cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 on human fibroblast cells. The extent of inhibition of virus cytopathic effect, caused by dilutions of samples from patients, allowed determination of acyclovir concentrations to be made. The assay, which measured biological activity, could detect acyclovir level...

  20. Innate Defense against Influenza A Virus: Activity of Human Neutrophil Defensins and Interactions of Defensins with Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; White, Mitchell R.; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection, in part by modifying interactions with neutrophils. Human neutrophil defensins (HNPs) inhibit infectivity of enveloped viruses, including IAV. Our goal in this study...

  1. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler׳s murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Major Capsid Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Affects its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate rose to 85 % compared with virus control. Knocking down VP5 expression abrogated the changes to F-actin that were induced by HSV-1 infection. Conclusion: Interfering with UL19 gene expression inhibits HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. The results indicate that the major capsid protein VP5 encoding gene UL19 ...

  3. Interferon-α inhibits cell migration and invasion and induces the expression of antiviral proteins in Huh-7 cells transfected with hepatitis B virus X gene-expressing lentivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Xiao-Peng; Zhong, Yuan-Bin; Xiang, Tian-Xin; Zhang, Lun-Li

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) serves an important role in HBV infection and the development of HBV-related liver cancer. Interferon-α (IFN-α) is used to treat patients with HBV; however, the role of IFN-α in the development of HBV-related liver cancer remains unclear. The present study established a new HBV-related liver cancer model (Huh-7-HBx) by transfecting the hepatoma cell line Huh-7, with HBx-expressing lentivirus. Following IFN-α treatment, cell viability, migration and invasion, as well as the expression of antiviral proteins in Huh-7-HBx, were subsequently determined. The results demonstrated that HBx-expressing lentivirus had no significant effect on cell viability but promoted the migration and invasion of Huh-7 cells. The expression of the antiviral genes IFN α and β receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1), IFNAR2, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase and ribonuclease L, was also increased. Following treatment of Huh-7-HBx cells with IFN-α, the expression of antiviral genes was increased at the level of transcription and translation, whereas cell migration and invasion was decreased. The present study suggests that IFN-α may attenuate the development of HBV-related liver cancer by reducing cell migration and invasion and promoting the expression of antiviral proteins.

  4. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread.

  5. A Short Double-Stapled Peptide Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Entry and Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Vanessa; Galloux, Marie; Garcin, Dominique; Eléouët, Jean-François; Le Goffic, Ronan; Larcher, Thibaut; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Boukadiri, Abdelhak; Héritier, Julien; Segura, Jean-Manuel; Baechler, Elodie; Arrell, Miriam; Mottet-Osman, Geneviève; Nyanguile, Origène

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the heptad repeat (HR) of fusion (F) proteins can be used as dominant negative inhibitors to inhibit the fusion mechanism of class I viral F proteins. Here, we have performed a stapled-peptide scan across the HR2 domain of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F protein with the aim to identify a minimal domain capable of disrupting the formation of the postfusion six-helix bundle required for viral cell entry. Constraining the peptides with a single staple was not sufficient to inhibit RSV infection. However, the insertion of double staples led to the identification of novel short stapled peptides that display nanomolar potency in HEp-2 cells and are exceptionally robust to proteolytic degradation. By replacing each amino acid of the peptides by an alanine, we found that the substitution of residues 506 to 509, located in a patch of polar contacts between HR2 and HR1, severely affected inhibition. Finally, we show that intranasal delivery of the most potent peptide to BALB/c mice significantly decreased RSV infection in upper and lower respiratory tracts. The discovery of this minimal HR2 sequence as a means for inhibition of RSV infection provides the basis for further medicinal chemistry efforts toward developing RSV fusion antivirals. Copyright © 2017 Gaillard et al.

  6. Analysis of VSV pseudotype virus infection mediated by rubella virus envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masafumi; Tani, Hideki; Anraku, Masaki; Kataoka, Michiyo; Nagata, Noriyo; Seki, Fumio; Tahara, Maino; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Okamoto, Kiyoko; Takeda, Makoto; Mori, Yoshio

    2017-09-14

    Rubella virus (RV) generally causes a systemic infection in humans. Viral cell tropism is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis, but the tropism of RV is currently poorly understood. We analyzed various human cell lines and determined that RV only establishes an infection efficiently in particular non-immune cell lines. To establish an infection the host cells must be susceptible and permissible. To assess the susceptibility of individual cell lines, we generated a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus bearing RV envelope proteins (VSV-RV/CE2E1). VSV-RV/CE2E1 entered cells in an RV envelope protein-dependent manner, and thus the infection was neutralized completely by an RV-specific antibody. The infection was Ca2+-dependent and inhibited by endosomal acidification inhibitors, further confirming the dependency on RV envelope proteins for the VSV-RV/CE2E1 infection. Human non-immune cell lines were mostly susceptible to VSV-RV/CE2E1, while immune cell lines were much less susceptible than non-immune cell lines. However, susceptibility of immune cells to VSV-RV/CE2E1 was increased upon stimulation of these cells. Our data therefore suggest that immune cells are generally less susceptible to RV infection than non-immune cells, but the susceptibility of immune cells is enhanced upon stimulation.

  7. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C envelope glycoprotein (E2) that inhibits HIV replication☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Mohr, Emma L.; Bhattarai, Nirjal; Chang, Qing; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected cohorts, and GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV entry when added to CD4+ T cells. To further characterize E2 effects on HIV replication, stably transfected Jurkat cell lines expressing GBV-C E2 or control sequences were infected with HIV and replication was measured. HIV replication (all 6 isolates studied) was inhibited in all cell lines expressing a region of 17 amino acids of GBV-C E2, but not in cell lines expressing E2 without this region. In contrast, mumps and yellow fever virus replication was not inhibited by E2 protein expression. Synthetic GBV-C E2 17mer peptides did not inhibit HIV replication unless they were fused to a tat-protein-transduction-domain (TAT) for cellular uptake. These data identify the region of GBV-C E2 protein involved in HIV inhibition, and suggest that this GBV-C E2 peptide must gain entry into the cell to inhibit HIV. PMID:22608061

  8. Modulation of the myxoma virus plaque phenotype by vaccinia virus protein F11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Chad R; Evans, David H

    2012-07-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) produces large plaques consisting of a rapidly expanding ring of infected cells surrounding a lytic core, whereas myxoma virus (MYXV) produces small plaques that resemble a focus of transformed cells. This is odd, because bioinformatics suggests that MYXV carries homologs of nearly all of the genes regulating Orthopoxvirus attachment, entry, and exit. So why does MYXV produce foci? One notable difference is that MYXV-infected cells produce few of the actin microfilaments that promote VACV exit and spread. This suggested that although MYXV carries homologs of the required genes (A33R, A34R, A36R, and B5R), they are dysfunctional. To test this, we produced MYXV recombinants expressing these genes, but we could not enhance actin projectile formation even in cells expressing all four VACV proteins. Another notable difference between these viruses is that MYXV lacks a homolog of the F11L gene. F11 inhibits the RhoA-mDia signaling that maintains the integrity of the cortical actin layer. We constructed an MYXV strain encoding F11L and observed that, unlike wild-type MYXV, the recombinant virus disrupted actin stress fibers and produced plaques up to 4-fold larger than those of controls, and these plaques expanded ∼6-fold faster. These viruses also grew to higher titers in multistep growth conditions, produced higher levels of actin projectiles, and promoted infected cell movement, although neither process was to the extent of that observed in VACV-infected cells. Thus, one reason for why MYXV produces small plaques is that it cannot spread via actin filaments, although the reason for this deficiency remains obscure. A second reason is that leporipoxviruses lack vaccinia's capacity to disrupt cortical actin.

  9. Zinc ions bind to and inhibit activated protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Tianqing; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Nickolaus, Noëlle

    2010-01-01

    Zn2+ ions were found to efficiently inhibit activated protein C (APC), suggesting a potential regulatory function for such inhibition. APC activity assays employing a chromogenic peptide substrate demonstrated that the inhibition was reversible and the apparent K I was 13 +/- 2 microM. k cat was ...

  10. Oncogenic Potential of Hepatitis C Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Ray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver disease progression, and may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The HCV genome contains a single-stranded positive sense RNA with a cytoplasmic lifecycle. HCV proteins interact with many host-cell factors and are involved in a wide range of activities, including cell cycle regulation, transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and cell growth promotion. Increasing experimental evidences suggest that HCV contributes to HCC by modulating pathways that may promote malignant transformation of hepatocytes. At least four of the 10 HCV gene products, namely core, NS3, NS5A and NS5B play roles in several potentially oncogenic pathways. Induction of both endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and oxidative stress by HCV proteins may also contribute to hepatocyte growth promotion. The current review identifies important functions of the viral proteins connecting HCV infections and potential for development of HCC. However, most of the putative transforming potentials of the HCV proteins have been defined in artificial cellular systems, and need to be established relevant to infection and disease models. The new insight into the mechanisms for HCV mediated disease progression may offer novel therapeutic targets for one of the most devastating human malignancies in the world today.

  11. Varicella Viruses Inhibit Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke C Verweij

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV causes chickenpox in humans and, subsequently, establishes latency in the sensory ganglia from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster. Infection of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV recapitulates VZV pathogenesis in humans thus representing a suitable animal model for VZV infection. While the type I interferon (IFN response has been shown to affect VZV replication, the virus employs counter mechanisms to prevent the induction of anti-viral IFN stimulated genes (ISG. Here, we demonstrate that SVV inhibits type I IFN-activated signal transduction via the JAK-STAT pathway. SVV-infected rhesus fibroblasts were refractory to IFN stimulation displaying reduced protein levels of IRF9 and lacking STAT2 phosphorylation. Since previous work implicated involvement of the VZV immediate early gene product ORF63 in preventing ISG-induction we studied the role of SVV ORF63 in generating resistance to IFN treatment. Interestingly, SVV ORF63 did not affect STAT2 phosphorylation but caused IRF9 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that SVV employs multiple mechanisms to counteract the effect of IFN. Control of SVV ORF63 protein levels via fusion to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-degradation domain additionally confirmed its requirement for viral replication. Our results also show a prominent reduction of IRF9 and inhibition of STAT2 phosphorylation in VZV-infected cells. In addition, cells expressing VZV ORF63 blocked IFN-stimulation and displayed reduced levels of the IRF9 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that varicella ORF63 prevents ISG-induction both directly via IRF9 degradation and indirectly via transcriptional control of viral proteins that interfere with STAT2 phosphorylation. SVV and VZV thus encode multiple viral gene products that tightly control IFN-induced anti-viral responses.

  12. An Alphavirus E2 Membrane-Proximal Domain Promotes Envelope Protein Lateral Interactions and Virus Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Byrd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and the equine encephalitis viruses. The virus membrane is covered by a lattice composed of 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E2 and E1 transmembrane proteins. During virus endocytic entry, the E1 glycoprotein mediates the low-pH-dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane, thus initiating virus infection. While much is known about E1 structural rearrangements during membrane fusion, it is unclear how the E1/E2 dimer dissociates, a step required for the fusion reaction. A recent Alphavirus cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed a previously unidentified D subdomain in the E2 ectodomain, close to the virus membrane. A loop within this region, here referred to as the D-loop, contains two highly conserved histidines, H348 and H352, which were hypothesized to play a role in dimer dissociation. We generated Semliki Forest virus mutants containing the single and double alanine substitutions H348A, H352A, and H348/352A. The three D-loop mutations caused a reduction in virus growth ranging from 1.6 to 2 log but did not significantly affect structural protein biosynthesis or transport, dimer stability, virus fusion, or specific infectivity. Instead, growth reduction was due to inhibition of a late stage of virus assembly at the plasma membrane. The virus particles that are produced show reduced thermostability compared to the wild type. We propose the E2 D-loop as a key region in establishing the E1-E2 contacts that drive glycoprotein lattice formation and promote Alphavirus budding from the plasma membrane.

  13. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  14. Effect of Phosphorylation of CM2 Protein on Influenza C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takanari; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Sho, Ri; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Hongo, Seiji

    2017-11-15

    CM2 is the second membrane protein of the influenza C virus and has been demonstrated to play a role in the uncoating and genome packaging processes in influenza C virus replication. Although the effects of N-linked glycosylation, disulfide-linked oligomerization, and palmitoylation of CM2 on virus replication have been analyzed, the effect of the phosphorylation of CM2 on virus replication remains to be determined. In this study, a phosphorylation site(s) at residue 78 and/or 103 of CM2 was replaced with an alanine residue(s), and the effects of the loss of phosphorylation on influenza C virus replication were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the packaging of the reporter gene between influenza C virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from 293T cells expressing wild-type CM2 and those from the cells expressing the CM2 mutants lacking the phosphorylation site(s). Reporter gene expression in HMV-II cells infected with VLPs containing the CM2 mutants was inhibited in comparison with that in cells infected with wild-type VLPs. The virus production of the recombinant influenza C virus possessing CM2 mutants containing a serine-to-alanine change at residue 78 was significantly lower than that of wild-type recombinant influenza C virus. Furthermore, the virus growth of the recombinant viruses possessing CM2 with a serine-to-aspartic acid change at position 78, to mimic constitutive phosphorylation, was virtually identical to that of the wild-type virus. These results suggest that phosphorylation of CM2 plays a role in efficient virus replication, probably through the addition of a negative charge to the Ser78 phosphorylation site. IMPORTANCE It is well-known that many host and viral proteins are posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which plays a role in the functions of these proteins. In influenza A and B viruses, phosphorylation of viral proteins NP, M1, NS1, and the nuclear export protein (NEP), which are not integrated into the

  15. Tubule-forming capacity of the movement proteins of alfalfa mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteel, D. T.; van der Wel, N. N.; Jansen, K. A.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The structural phenotype of the movement proteins (MPs) of two representatives of the Bromoviridae, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and brome mosaic virus (BMV), was studied in protoplasts. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the MPs of these viruses, for which there has been no evidence of a

  16. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The study described here concerns the proteins, synthesized as a result of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) multiplication in tobacco protoplasts and in cowpea protoplasts. The identification of proteins involved in the TMV infection, for instance in the virus RNA replication, helps to elucidate

  17. Modulation of Host Immunity by Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Virulence Factors: A Synergic Inhibition of Both Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Canedo-Marroquín

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins. These include the Fusion protein (F, the Glycoprotein (G, and the Small Hydrophobic (SH protein, which are located on the virus surface. In addition, the Nucleoprotein (N, Phosphoprotein (P large polymerase protein (L part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex, the M2-1 protein as a transcription elongation factor, the M2-2 protein as a regulator of viral transcription and (M protein all of which locate inside the virion. Apart from the structural proteins, the hRSV genome encodes for the non-structural 1 and 2 proteins (NS1 and NS2. HRSV has developed different strategies to evade the host immunity by means of the function of some of these proteins that work as virulence factors to improve the infection in the lung tissue. Also, hRSV NS-1 and NS-2 proteins have been shown to inhibit the activation of the type I interferon response. Furthermore, the hRSV nucleoprotein has been shown to inhibit the immunological synapsis between the dendritic cells and T cells during infection, resulting in an inefficient T cell activation. Here, we discuss the hRSV virulence factors and the host immunological features raised during infection with this virus.

  18. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-04-12

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted.

  19. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted. PMID:27067133

  20. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by RNA interference using long-hairpin RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinova, P.; de Vries, W.; Haasnoot, J.; ter Brake, O.; de Haan, P.; Berkhout, B.

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of virus replication by means of RNA interference has been reported for several important human pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). RNA interference against these pathogens has been accomplished by introduction of virus-specific synthetic small interfering

  1. Chimpanzee GB virus C and GB virus A E2 envelope glycoproteins contain a peptide motif that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human CD4+ T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, James H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Klinzman, Donna; Murthy, Krishna K.; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Bhattarai, Nirjal

    2013-01-01

    GB virus type C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus that can cause persistent infection in humans. GBV-C is not associated with any disease, but is associated with reduced mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Related viruses have been isolated from chimpanzees (GBV-Ccpz) and from New World primates (GB virus type A, GBV-A). These viruses are also capable of establishing persistent infection. We determined the nucleotide sequence encoding the envelope glycoprotein (E2) of two GBV-Ccpz isolates obtained from the sera of captive chimpanzees. The deduced GBV-Ccpz E2 protein differed from human GBV-C by 31 % at the amino acid level. Similar to human GBV-C E2, expression of GBV-Ccpz E2 in a tet-off human CD4+ Jurkat T-cell line significantly inhibited the replication of diverse HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-replication effect of GBV-Ccpz E2 protein was reversed by maintaining cells in doxycycline to reduce E2 expression. Previously, we found a 17 aa region within human GBV-C E2 that was sufficient to inhibit HIV-1. Although GBV-Ccpz E2 differed by 3 aa differences in this region, the chimpanzee GBV-C 17mer E2 peptide inhibited HIV-1 replication. Similarly, the GBV-A peptide that aligns with this GBV-C E2 region inhibited HIV-1 replication despite sharing only 5 aa with the human GBV-C E2 sequence. Thus, despite amino acid differences, the peptide region on both the GBV-Ccpz and the GBV-A E2 protein inhibit HIV-1 replication similar to human GBV-C. Consequently, GBV-Ccpz or GBV-A infection of non-human primates may provide an animal model to study GB virus–HIV interactions. PMID:23288422

  2. Inhibition of Activator Protein 1 Activity and Neoplastic Transformation by Aspirin*

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zigang; Huang, Chuanshu; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Ma, Wei-Ya

    1997-01-01

    Aspirin, along with its analgesic-antipyretic uses, is now also being considered for prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although many of aspirin's pharmacological actions are related to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis, some of its beneficial therapeutic effects are not completely understood. Transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) is critical for the induction of neoplastic transformation and inducti...

  3. Adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Fontana, Judith M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-10-27

    Live, attenuated measles virus (MeV) vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. The genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. We previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type MeV to Vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. The CEF-adapted virus (D-CEF) contained single amino acid changes in the C and matrix (M) proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) and V protein. The Vero-adapted virus (D-VI) had a mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. In vitro assays were used to test the functions of the wild-type and mutant proteins. The substitution in the C protein of D-CEF decreased its ability to inhibit mini-genome replication, while the wild-type and mutant M proteins inhibited replication to the same extent. The substitution in the cytoplasmic tail of the D-VI H protein resulted in reduced fusion in a quantitative fusion assay. Co-expression of M proteins with wild-type fusion and H proteins decreased fusion activity, but the mutation in the M protein of D-CEF did not affect this function. Both mutations in the P and V proteins of D-CEF reduced the ability of these proteins to inhibit type I and II interferon signaling. Adaptation of a wild-type MeV to cell culture selected for genetic changes that caused measurable functional differences in viral proteins.

  4. Adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rota Paul A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Live, attenuated measles virus (MeV vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. The genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. We previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type MeV to Vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. The CEF-adapted virus (D-CEF contained single amino acid changes in the C and matrix (M proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P and V protein. The Vero-adapted virus (D-VI had a mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin (H protein. Results In vitro assays were used to test the functions of the wild-type and mutant proteins. The substitution in the C protein of D-CEF decreased its ability to inhibit mini-genome replication, while the wild-type and mutant M proteins inhibited replication to the same extent. The substitution in the cytoplasmic tail of the D-VI H protein resulted in reduced fusion in a quantitative fusion assay. Co-expression of M proteins with wild-type fusion and H proteins decreased fusion activity, but the mutation in the M protein of D-CEF did not affect this function. Both mutations in the P and V proteins of D-CEF reduced the ability of these proteins to inhibit type I and II interferon signaling. Conclusion Adaptation of a wild-type MeV to cell culture selected for genetic changes that caused measurable functional differences in viral proteins.

  5. Lycorine reduces mortality of human enterovirus 71-infected mice by inhibiting virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chuan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children under 6 years old and this infection occasionally induces severe neurological complications. No vaccines or drugs are clinical available to control EV71 epidemics. In present study, we show that treatment with lycorine reduced the viral cytopathic effect (CPE on rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells by inhibiting virus replication. Analysis of this inhibitory effect of lycorine on viral proteins synthesis suggests that lycorine blocks the elongation of the viral polyprotein during translation. Lycorine treatment of mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 resulted in reduction of mortality, clinical scores and pathological changes in the muscles of mice, which were achieved through inhibition of viral replication. When mice were infected with a moderate dose of EV71, lycorine treatment was able to protect them from paralysis. Lycorine may be a potential drug candidate for the clinical treatment of EV71-infected patients.

  6. Borna disease virus encoded phosphoprotein inhibits host innate immunity by regulating miR-155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Kao, Wenping; Li, Aimei; Li, Yujun; He, Junming; Zhang, Qingmeng; Song, Wuqi; Fu, Yingmei; Wu, Jing; Chen, Xiaobei; Li, Hui; Zhong, Zhaohua; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-04-01

    It has been reported that the Borna disease virus (BDV) encoded phosphoprotein (P protein) can inhibit the activity of Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1), thus preventing the induction of type I interferon (IFN). However, the effects of microRNA on the regulation of BDV infection and the host's immune response have not been characterized. miR-155 was predicted to be complementary to the BDV P mRNA by RNAhybrid software. Here, we showed that miR-155 was down-regulated in BDV persistently infected human oligodendroglial (OL/BDV) cells and that the BDV P protein, but not the X protein, directly inhibited miR-155 expression in cells. When miR-155 was over-expressed, the inhibition of type I IFNs by BDV in cells was reversed, and the expression of type I IFNs was increased. When miR-155 expression was specifically blocked, cellular IFN expression and the induction of IFN by poly I:C treatment were suppressed. Furthermore, miR-155 promoted type I IFN production by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3. Mutations in the nt1138-nt1158 region of SOCS3 abandoned the impact of miR-155 on the expression of SOCS3-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The levels of BDV P mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in OL/BDV cells when miR-155 was over-expressed; however, miR-155-mutation did not affect the expression of BDV P-EGFP. Thus, BDV persistent infection inhibited the expression of type I IFNs through the suppression of miR-155, and miR-155 played an important immune regulatory role in BDV persistent infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. West Nile virus infection induces depletion of IFNAR1 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jared D; Crown, Rachel A; Sohn, Ji A; Seeger, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Productive virus infection requires evasion, inhibition, or subversion of innate immune responses. West Nile virus (WNV), a human pathogen that can cause symptomatic infections associated with meningitis and encephalitis, inhibits the interferon (IFN) signal transduction pathway by preventing phosphorylation of Janus kinases and STAT transcription factors. Inhibition of the IFN signal cascade abrogates activation of IFN-induced genes, thus attenuating an antiviral response. We investigated the mechanism responsible for this inhibition and found that WNV infection prevents accumulation of the IFN-α receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1). The WNV-induced depletion of IFNAR1 was conserved across multiple cell types. Our results indicated that expression of WNV nonstructural proteins resulted in activated lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation pathways independent of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Furthermore, WNV infection did not induce serine phosphorylation, a modification on IFNAR1 that precedes its natural turnover. These data demonstrate that WNV infection results in a reduction of IFNAR1 protein through a non-canonical protein degradation pathway, and may participate in the inhibition of the IFN response.

  8. The YLDL sequence within Sendai virus M protein is critical for budding of virus-like particles and interacts with Alix/AIP1 independently of C protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takashi; Shimazu, Yukie; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Takemasa

    2007-03-01

    For many enveloped viruses, cellular multivesicular body (MVB) sorting machinery has been reported to be utilized for efficient viral budding. Matrix and Gag proteins have been shown to contain one or two L-domain motifs (PPxY, PT/SAP, YPDL, and FPIV), some of which interact specifically with host cellular proteins involved in MVB sorting, which are recruited to the viral budding site. However, for many enveloped viruses, L-domain motifs have not yet been identified and the involvement of MVB sorting machinery in viral budding is still unknown. Here we show that both Sendai virus (SeV) matrix protein M and accessory protein C contribute to virus budding by physically interacting with Alix/AIP1. A YLDL sequence within the M protein showed L-domain activity, and its specific interaction with the N terminus of Alix/AIP1(1-211) was important for the budding of virus-like particles (VLPs) of M protein. In addition, M-VLP budding was inhibited by the overexpression of some deletion mutant forms of Alix/AIP1 and depletion of endogenous Alix/AIP1 with specific small interfering RNAs. The YLDL sequence was not replaceable by other L-domain motifs, such as PPxY and PT/SAP, and even YPxL. C protein was also able to physically interact with the N terminus of Alix/AIP1(212-357) and enhanced M-VLP budding independently of M-Alix/AIP1 interaction, although it was not released from the transfected cells itself. Our results suggest that the interaction of multiple viral proteins with Alix/AIP1 may enhance the efficiency of the utilization of cellular MVB sorting machinery for efficient SeV budding.

  9. Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibits influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, posing a serious health threat worldwide. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of Cryptoporus volvatus extract on influenza virus infection. Our results demonstrated that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibited different influenza virus strain replication in MDCK cells. Time course analysis indicated that the extract exerted its inhibition at earlier and late stages in the replication cycle of influenza virus. Subsequently, we confirmed that the extract suppressed virus internalization into and released from cells. Moreover, the extract significantly reduced H1N1/09 influenza virus load in lungs and dramatically decreased lung lesions in mice. And most importantly, the extract protected mice from lethal challenge with H1N1/09 influenza virus. Our results suggest that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract could be a potential candidate for the development of a new anti-influenza virus therapy.

  10. Cryptoporus volvatus Extract Inhibits Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianyong; Liu, Jinhua; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo; Cao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, posing a serious health threat worldwide. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of Cryptoporus volvatus extract on influenza virus infection. Our results demonstrated that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibited different influenza virus strain replication in MDCK cells. Time course analysis indicated that the extract exerted its inhibition at earlier and late stages in the replication cycle of influenza virus. Subsequently, we confirmed that the extract suppressed virus internalization into and released from cells. Moreover, the extract significantly reduced H1N1/09 influenza virus load in lungs and dramatically decreased lung lesions in mice. And most importantly, the extract protected mice from lethal challenge with H1N1/09 influenza virus. Our results suggest that the Cryptoporus volvatus extract could be a potential candidate for the development of a new anti-influenza virus therapy. PMID:25437846

  11. Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Irina C; Kovacikova, Kristina; Tas, Ali; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that mostly causes asymptomatic infections or mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and malaise. However, the recent massive ZIKV epidemics in the Americas have also linked ZIKV infection to fetal malformations like microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and have uncovered previously unrecognized routes of vertical and sexual transmission. Here we describe inhibition of ZIKV replication by suramin, originally an anti-parasitic drug, which was more recently shown to inhibit multiple viruses. In cell culture-based assays, using reduction of cytopathic effect as read-out, suramin had an EC50 of ∼40 μM and a selectivity index of 48. In single replication cycle experiments, suramin treatment also caused a strong dose-dependent decrease in intracellular ZIKV RNA levels and a >3-log reduction in infectious progeny titers. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that suramin inhibits a very early step of the replication cycle as well as the release of infectious progeny. Only during the first 2 h of infection suramin treatment strongly reduced the fraction of cells that became infected with ZIKV, suggesting the drug affects virus binding/entry. Binding experiments at 4 °C using 35S-labeled ZIKV demonstrated that suramin interferes with attachment to host cells. When suramin treatment was initiated post-entry, viral RNA synthesis was unaffected, while both the release of genomes and the infectivity of ZIKV were reduced. This suggests the compound also affects virion biogenesis, possibly by interfering with glycosylation and the maturation of ZIKV during its traffic through the secretory pathway. The inhibitory effect of suramin on ZIKV attachment and virion biogenesis and its broad-spectrum activity warrant further evaluation of this compound as a potential therapeutic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide inhibits subgroup J avian leucosis virus infection by directly blocking virus infection and improving immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Liu, Liping; Yang, Shifa; Hu, Liping; Zhao, Peng; Meng, Xiuyan; Shao, Mingxu; Wang, Chuanwen; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yang; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2017-03-13

    Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) generally causes neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression and subsequently increases susceptibility to secondary infection in birds. The spread of ALV-J mainly depends on congenital infection and horizontal contact. Although ALV-J infection causes enormous losses yearly in the poultry industry worldwide, effective measures to control ALV-J remain lacking. In this study, we demonstrated that Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a natural polysaccharide extracted from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen, can significantly inhibit ALV-J replication in vitro by blocking viral adsorption to host cells. Electron microscopy and blocking ELISA tests revealed that TPPPS possibly blocks viral adsorption to host cells by interacting with the glycoprotein 85 protein of ALV-J. Furthermore, we artificially established a congenitally ALV-J-infected chicken model to examine the anti-viral effects of TPPPS in vivo. TPPPS significantly inhibited viral shedding and viral loads in immune organs and largely eliminated the immunosuppression caused by congenital ALV-J infection. Additionally, pre-administration of TPPPS obviously reduced the size and delayed the occurrence of tumors induced by acute oncogenic ALV-J infection. This study revealed the prominent effects and feasible mechanisms of TPPPS in inhibiting ALV-J infection, thereby providing a novel prospect to control ALV-J spread.

  13. Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins of vero cells: exploration of potential proteins responsible for virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghua; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Dongbo

    2014-01-01

    Vero cells are highly susceptible to many viruses in humans and animals, and its membrane proteins (MPs) are responsible for virus entry. In our study, the MP proteome of the Vero cells was investigated using a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. Six hundred twenty-seven proteins, including a total of 1839 peptides, were identified in MP samples of the Vero cells. In 627 proteins, 307 proteins (48.96%) were annotated in terms of biological process of gene ontology (GO) categories; 356 proteins (56.78%) were annotated in terms of molecular function of GO categories; 414 proteins (66.03%) were annotated in terms of cellular components of GO categories. Of 627 identified proteins, seventeen proteins had been revealed to be virus receptor proteins. The resulting protein lists and highlighted proteins may provide valuable information to increase understanding of virus infection of Vero cells.

  14. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, Richard C., E-mail: condit@mgm.ufl.edu; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  15. IMMUNE INHIBITION OF VIRUS RELEASE FROM HUMAN AND NONHUMAN CELLS BY ANTIBODY TO VIRAL AND HOST-CELL DETERMINANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHARIFF, DM; DESPERBASQUES, M; BILLSTROM, M; GEERLIGS, HJ; WELLING, GW; WELLINGWESTER, S; BUCHAN, A; SKINNER, GRB

    1991-01-01

    Immune inhibition of release of the DNA virues, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus by anti-viral and anti-host cell sera occurred while two RNA viruses, influenza and encephalomyocarditis, were inhibited only by anti-viral sera (not anti-host cell sera). Simian virus 40 and

  16. Regulation of Viral RNA Synthesis by the V Protein of Parainfluenza Virus 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zengel, James; Sun, Minghao; Sleeman, Katrina; Timani, Khalid Amine; Aligo, Jason; Rota, Paul; Wu, Jianguo; He, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. The genome of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a prototypical paramyxovirus, encodes a V protein that inhibits viral RNA synthesis. In this work, the mechanism of inhibition was investigated. Using mutational analysis and a minigenome system, we identified regions in the N and C termini of the V protein that inhibit viral RNA synthesis: one at the very N terminus of V and the second at the C terminus of V. Furthermore, we determined that residues L16 and I17 are critical for the inhibitory function of the N-terminal region of the V protein. Both regions interact with the nucleocapsid protein (NP), an essential component of the viral RNA genome complex (RNP). Mutations at L16 and I17 abolished the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain of V. This suggests that the interaction between NP and the N-terminal domain plays a critical role in V inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by the N-terminal domain. Both the N- and C-terminal regions inhibited viral RNA replication. The C terminus inhibited viral RNA transcription, while the N-terminal domain enhanced viral RNA transcription, suggesting that the two domains affect viral RNA through different mechanisms. Interestingly, V also inhibited the synthesis of the RNA of other paramyxoviruses, such as Nipah virus (NiV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3), measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This suggests that a common host factor may be involved in the replication of these paramyxoviruses. We identified two regions of the V protein that interact with NP and determined that one of these regions enhances viral RNA transcription via its interaction with NP. Our data suggest that a common host factor may be involved in the regulation of paramyxovirus replication and could be a target for broad antiviral drug development. Understanding the regulation of paramyxovirus replication will enable the rational design of

  17. Three cardiovirus Leader proteins equivalently inhibit four different nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J. [Institute for Molecular Virology, and Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Basta, Holly A. [Department of Biology, Rocky Mountain College, Billings, MT (United States); Palmenberg, Ann C., E-mail: acpalmen@wisc.edu [Institute for Molecular Virology, and Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. - Highlights: • Nup98, but not Nup50 becomes phosphorylated by cardiovirus Leader protein-dependent mechanisms. • At least four independent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways are inhibited by this process. • Nups must be presented in a nuclear pore context for Leader-directed phosphorylation. • Leader, by itself, does not cause activation of cellular kinases.

  18. Impact of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus M Proteins on Different Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Redondo

    Full Text Available Three different matrix (M proteins termed M1, M2 and M3 have been described in cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. Individual expression of VSV M proteins induces an evident cytopathic effect including cell rounding and detachment, in addition to a partial inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, likely mediated by an indirect mechanism. Analogous to viroporins, M1 promotes the budding of new virus particles; however, this process does not produce an increase in plasma membrane permeability. In contrast to M1, M2 and M3 neither interact with the cellular membrane nor promote the budding of double membrane vesicles at the cell surface. Nonetheless, all three species of M protein interfere with the transport of cellular mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and also modulate the redistribution of the splicing factor. The present findings indicate that all three VSV M proteins share some activities that interfere with host cell functions.

  19. Zinc ionophores pyrithione inhibits herpes simplex virus replication through interfering with proteasome function and NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Chu, Ying; Song, Siwei; Yang, Na; Gao, Jie; Wu, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pyrithione (PT), known as a zinc ionophore, is effective against several pathogens from the Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera. The antiviral activity of PT was also reported against a number of RNA viruses. In this paper, we showed that PT could effectively inhibit herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PT inhibited HSV late gene (Glycoprotein D, gD) expression and the production of viral progeny, and this action was dependent on Zn(2+). Further studies showed that PT suppressed the expression of HSV immediate early (IE) gene, the infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4), but had less effect on another regulatory IE protein, ICP0. It was found that PT treatment could interfere with cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), leading to the inhibition of HSV-2-induced IκB-α degradation to inhibit NF-κB activation and enhanced promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) stability in nucleus. However, PT did not show direct inhibition of 26S proteasome activity. Instead, it induced Zn(2+) influx, which facilitated the dysregulation of UPS and the accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-conjugates. UPS inhibition by PT caused disruption of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation thus leading to marked reduction of viral titer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  2. Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming heat shock protein inhibition at critical temperature vital for survival in Solanum tuberosum L. in vivo condition. Bengyella Louis, Pranab Roy, Tamgue Ousman, Sayanika Waikhom Devi, Narayan Chandra Talukdar ...

  3. Epstein Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in Hodgkin's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1), CD15 and CD30 immunohistochemistry was also performed. The clinical characteristics of each patient were documented. Objectives: To document the frequency of involvement of Epstein-Barr virus in cases of HL seen in a university hospital in Nigeria. Results: Out of ...

  4. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  5. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that β-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV ...

  6. Assessing the expression of chicken anemia virus proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen of chicken worldwide, causing severe anemia and immunodeficiency. Its small single-stranded DNA genome (2.3 kb) encodes three proteins: VP1, the only structural protein, VP2, a protein phosphatase, and VP3, also known as apoptin, which induces

  7. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by activation of the cGAS-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Hao, Ruidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xing; Wu, Shaoshuai; Guo, Shuting; Wang, Yuan; Tien, Po; Guo, Deyin

    2016-12-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyses synthesis of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the downstream signalling adaptor protein STING, leading to the expression of type I interferons. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus, and the cGAS-STING pathway may inhibit HBV RNA synthesis and viral assembly in cell culture, but the exact roles of the cGAS pathway in the restriction of HBV replication in infection systems remain to be elucidated. In this study, replication of HBV was significantly inhibited both in cell culture and in vivo in a mouse model when the cGAS-STING pathway was activated by dsDNA or cGAMP. In contrast, the presence of enzymatically inactive cGAS mutant did not influence HBV replication. Moreover, knockdown of cGAS in human peripheral blood monocytes led to a higher level of intracellular HBV DNA. Collectively, our data indicate that the cGAS-STING pathway plays a role in the surveillance of HBV infection and may be exploited for development of novel anti-HBV strategies.

  8. Phloem protein partners of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus: possible involvement of phloem proteins in virus transmission by aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharki, B; Boissinot, S; Revollon, S; Ziegler-Graff, V; Erdinger, M; Wiss, L; Dinant, S; Renard, D; Beuve, M; Lemaitre-Guillier, C; Brault, V

    2010-06-01

    Poleroviruses are phytoviruses strictly transmitted by phloem-feeding aphids in a circulative and nonpropagative mode. During ingestion, aphids sample virions in sieve tubes along with sap. Therefore, any sap protein bound to virions will be acquired by the insects and could potentially be involved in the transmission process. By developing in vitro virus-overlay assays on sap proteins collected from cucumber, we observed that approximately 20 proteins were able to bind to purified particles of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV). Among them, eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The role of two candidates belonging to the PP2-like family (predominant lectins found in cucurbit sap) in aphid transmission was further pursued by using purified orthologous PP2 proteins from Arabidopsis. Addition of these proteins to the virus suspension in the aphid artificial diet greatly increased virus transmission rate. This shift was correlated with an increase in the number of viral genomes in insect cells and with an increase of virion stability in vitro. Surprisingly, increase of the virus transmission rate was also monitored after addition of unrelated proteins in the aphid diet, suggesting that any soluble protein at sufficiently high concentration in the diet and acquired together with virions could stimulate virus transmission.

  9. Tinkering with Translation: Protein Synthesis in Virus-Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Derek; Mathews, Michael B.; Mohr, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, and their replication requires host cell functions. Although the size, composition, complexity, and functions encoded by their genomes are remarkably diverse, all viruses rely absolutely on the protein synthesis machinery of their host cells. Lacking their own translational apparatus, they must recruit cellular ribosomes in order to translate viral mRNAs and produce the protein products required for their replication. In addition, there are other constraints on viral protein production. Crucially, host innate defenses and stress responses capable of inactivating the translation machinery must be effectively neutralized. Furthermore, the limited coding capacity of the viral genome needs to be used optimally. These demands have resulted in complex interactions between virus and host that exploit ostensibly virus-specific mechanisms and, at the same time, illuminate the functioning of the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. PMID:23209131

  10. Antibody inhibition of protein activity in starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Eiichi; Hara, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are widely utilized in cell and molecule biology for immunoblots, immunostaining, immunoprecipitation, immunoaffinity purification, and immunoassay. Some antibodies can be used for in vivo inhibition experiments. These antibodies bind to their target molecules and neutralize their functions, providing functional information in the study of their biological role. Here, we describe our methods for obtaining inhibitory antibodies against desired proteins. We then describe in the starfish oocyte system how to inhibit a target protein, even in the nucleus, by injection of antibody into the cytoplasm, and how to evaluate antibody inhibition of cell cycle regulators in small numbers of oocytes.

  11. Monocytes inhibit hepatitis C virus-induced TRAIL expression on CD56bright NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Dalila; Mantovani, Stefania; Oliviero, Barbara; Grossi, Giulia; Lombardi, Andrea; Mondelli, Mario U; Varchetta, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We have previously shown that culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) enhance tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on healthy NK cells, but not on those from patients infected with HCV, which was likely dependent on accessory cells. Here we sought to elucidate the mechanisms involved in altered TRAIL upregulation in this setting. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from controls and patients infected with HCV were exposed to HCVcc. Cell depletions were performed to identify cells responsible for NK cell activation. Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to identify the cytokines involved in the NK activation process. In patients infected with HCV, soluble factors secreted by control PBMC restored the ability of NK cells to express TRAIL. Of note, CD14+ cell depletion had identical effects upon virus exposure and promoted increased degranulation. Moreover, increased concentrations of interleukin (IL)-18 binding protein a (IL-18BPa) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36RA) were observed after PBMC exposure to HCVcc in patients with HCV. HCVcc-induced NK cell TRAIL expression was inhibited by IL-18BPa and IL-36RA in control subjects. There were statistically significant correlations between IL-18BPa and indices of liver inflammation and fibrosis, supporting a role for this protein in the pathogenesis of chronic HCV infection. During chronic HCV infection, monocytes play a key role in negative regulation of NK cell activation, predominantly via secretion of inhibitors of IL-18 and IL-36. Coordination and collaboration between immune cells are essential to fight pathogens. Herein we show that during HCV infection monocytes secrete IL-18 and IL-36 inhibitory proteins, reducing NK cell activation, and consequently inhibiting their ability to express TRAIL and kill target cells. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the

  12. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Camila R. Fontes-Garfias; Chao Shan; Huanle Luo; Muruato, Antonio E.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Elizabeth Mays; Xuping Xie; Jing Zou; Roundy, Christopher M; Maki Wakamiya; Rossi, Shannan L.; Tian Wang; Weaver, Scott C.; Pei-Yong Shi

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E) protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models...

  13. C1q binding to Dengue Virus inhibits infection of THP-1 and cellular inflammatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douradinha, Bruno; McBurney, Sean P.; de Melo, Klecia M. Soares; Smith, Amanda P.; Krishna, Neel K.; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M.; Evans, Jared D.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Marques, Ernesto T. A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dengue virus infection elicits a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to severe disease. The mechanisms leading to severe dengue are not known, however it has been reported that the complement system is hyper-activated in severe dengue. Screening of complement proteins demonstrated that C1q, a pattern recognition molecule, can bind directly to Dengue Virus Envelope protein and to whole Dengue Virus serotype 2. Incubation of Dengue Virus serotype 2 with C1q prior to infection of THP-1 cells led to decreased virus infectivity and modulation of mRNA expression of immunoregulatory molecules suggesting reduced inflammatory responses. PMID:24246304

  14. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Tyler M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. Findings All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. Conclusions These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  15. Nelfinavir impairs glycosylation of herpes simplex virus 1 envelope proteins and blocks virus maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Gachelet, Eliora; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Barcy, Serge; Casper, Corey; Lagunoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs). Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication.

  16. Nelfinavir Impairs Glycosylation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins and Blocks Virus Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Gantt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelfinavir (NFV is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs. Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication.

  17. Lloviu virus VP24 and VP35 proteins function as innate immune antagonists in human and bat cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagins, Alicia R.; Basler, Christopher F., E-mail: chris.basler@mssm.edu

    2015-11-15

    Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV). LLOV has not been cultured; however, its genomic RNA sequence indicates the coding capacity to produce homologs of the EBOV and MARV VP24, VP35, and VP40 proteins. EBOV and MARV VP35 proteins inhibit interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta production and EBOV VP35 blocks activation of the antiviral kinase PKR. The EBOV VP24 and MARV VP40 proteins inhibit IFN signaling, albeit by different mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that LLOV VP35 suppresses Sendai virus induced IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production, and PKR phosphorylation. Additionally, LLOV VP24 blocks tyrosine phosphorylated STAT1 binding to karyopherin alpha 5 (KPNA5), STAT1 nuclear accumulation, and IFN-induced gene expression. LLOV VP40 lacks detectable IFN antagonist function. These activities parallel EBOV IFN inhibitory functions. EBOV and LLOV VP35 and VP24 proteins also inhibit IFN responses in bat cells. These data suggest that LLOV infection will block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV. - Highlights: • Lloviu virus (LLOV) is a new member of the filovirus family. • LLOV VP35 blocks IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production and PKR phosphorylation. • LLOV VP24 inhibits IFN responses by targeting phospho-STAT1 KPNA interaction. • Infection by LLOV may block innate immune responses in a manner similar to EBOV.

  18. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  19. Viroporin Activity of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Non-Structural 2B Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Ao

    Full Text Available Viroporins are a family of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that are encoded by various animal viruses. Viroporins form transmembrane pores in host cells via oligomerization, thereby destroying cellular homeostasis and inducing cytopathy for virus replication and virion release. Among the Picornaviridae family of viruses, the 2B protein encoded by enteroviruses is well understood, whereas the viroporin activity of the 2B protein encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV has not yet been described. An analysis of the FMDV 2B protein domains by computer-aided programs conducted in this study revealed that this protein may contain two transmembrane regions. Further biochemical, biophysical and functional studies revealed that the protein possesses a number of features typical of a viroporin when it is overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in FMDV-infected cells. The protein was found to be mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, with both the N- and C-terminal domains stretched into the cytosol. It exhibited cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli, which attenuated 2B protein expression. The release of virions from cells infected with FMDV was inhibited by amantadine, a viroporin inhibitor. The 2B protein monomers interacted with each other to form both intracellular and extracellular oligomers. The Ca(2+ concentration in the cells increased, and the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane was disrupted in cells that expressed the 2B protein. Moreover, the 2B protein induced intense autophagy in host cells. All of the results of this study demonstrate that the FMDV 2B protein has properties that are also found in other viroporins and may be involved in the infection mechanism of FMDV.

  20. Gene- and protein-delivered zinc finger-staphylococcal nuclease hybrid for inhibition of DNA replication of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Takashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs) inhibited virus DNA replication in planta and in mammalian cells by blocking binding of a viral replication protein to its replication origin. However, the replication mechanisms of viruses of interest need to be disentangled for the application. To develop more widely applicable methods for antiviral therapy, we explored the feasibility of inhibition of HPV-18 replication as a model system by cleaving its viral genome. To this end, we fused the staphylococcal nuclease cleaving DNA as a monomer to an AZP that binds to the viral genome. The resulting hybrid nuclease (designated AZP-SNase) cleaved its target DNA plasmid efficiently and sequence-specifically in vitro. Then, we confirmed that transfection with a plasmid expressing AZP-SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication in transient replication assays using mammalian cells. Linker-mediated PCR analysis revealed that the AZP-SNase cleaved an HPV-18 ori plasmid around its binding site. Finally, we demonstrated that the protein-delivered AZP-SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication as well and did not show any significant cytotoxicity. Thus, both gene- and protein-delivered hybrid nucleases efficiently inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication, leading to development of a more universal antiviral therapy for human DNA viruses.

  1. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Don B; Duraffour, Sophie; Rozelle, Daniel K; Hehnly, Heidi; Sharma, Rita; Sparks, Michael E; West, Cara C; Chen, Ying; Moresco, James J; Andrei, Graciela; Connor, John H; Conte, Darryl; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E; Marshall, William L; Yates, John R; Silverman, Neal; Mello, Craig C

    2014-01-01

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-κB, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. Surprisingly, a highly conserved, uncharacterized VACV protein, A51R, can partially overcome this virus restriction. We show that A51R is also critical for VACV replication in vertebrate cells and for pathogenesis in mice. Interestingly, A51R colocalizes with, and stabilizes, host microtubules and also associates with ubiquitin. We show that A51R promotes viral protein stability, possibly by preventing ubiquitin-dependent targeting of viral proteins for destruction. Importantly, our studies reveal exciting new opportunities to study virus-host interactions in experimentally-tractable Lepidopteran systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02910.001 PMID:24966209

  2. Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF protein of influenza C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.

  3. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  4. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Delgado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance.

  5. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Wan eChan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR, a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR.

  6. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  7. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hailing

    2010-05-01

    RNA viruses are particularly vulnerable to RNAi-based defenses in the host, and thus have evolved specific proteins, known as viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), as a counterdefense. In this issue of Genes & Development, Azevedo and colleagues (pp. 904-915) discovered that P38, the VSR of Turnip crinkle virus, uses its glycine/tryptophane (GW) motifs as an ARGONAUTE (AGO) hook to attract and disarm the host\\'s essential effector of RNA silencing. Several GW motif-containing cellular proteins are known to be important partners of AGOs in RNA silencing effector complexes in yeast, plants, and animals. The GW motif appears to be a versatile and effective tool for regulating the activities of RNA silencing pathways, and the use of GW mimicry to compete for and inhibit host AGOs may be a strategy used by many pathogens to counteract host RNAi-based defenses. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Conserved immunogenic region of a major core protein (p24) of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koito, A; Hattori, T; Matsushita, S; Maeda, Y; Nozaki, C; Sagawa, K; Takatsuki, K

    1988-12-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb), VAK 4, has been known to specifically react with a major core protein (p24) as well as with its precursor (p55-57) and intermediate precursor (p40) of human immunodeficiency virus strain IIIB (HTLV-IIIB). Radioimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that VAK 4 MoAb precipitated a major core protein and its precursors from a variety of strains of HIV and also from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), although the molecular weights of the precursor proteins in each viral strain were slightly different. A protein synthesized by transfected Escherichia coli containing amino acid sequences corresponding to residues 121-436 of the HTLV-IIIB gag gene was reactive with VAK 4 MoAb, but the protein carrying only residues 121-309 was not reactive, suggesting that the epitope recognized by VAK 4 MoAb resides at the carboxyl terminus of p24 protein. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that patient sera containing anticore protein antibody inhibited the binding of VAK 4 to HTLV-IIIB. These findings suggested that VAK 4 MoAb recognized an immunogenic and conserved epitope belonging to a major core protein of HIV-related viruses.

  9. [Application of artificial DNA-binding proteins and artificial nucleases to prevention of virus infection: development of virus-resistant plants and protein-based anti-viral drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Various DNA viruses are known to cause severe infectious diseases in both plants and mammals, including humans. For many of these infectious diseases, we have yet to find an effective prevention or treatment. Therefore, new methodologies for the prevention of virus infections in both agricultural crops and humans have been vigorously sought for a long time. One attractive approach to the prevention is inhibition of virus replication. We first inhibited virus replication by blocking binding of a viral replication protein, which initiates virus replication, to its replication origin, with using an artificial DNA-binding protein. We demonstrated that this new methodology was very effective in plants and mammalian cells: especially, we created transgenic plants that were immune to a geminivirus. We also developed novel protein-based antiviral drugs by fusing a cell-penetrating peptide to an artificial DNA-binding protein. Furthermore, we successfully generated a more effective protein-based antiviral, which was one hundred thousand times more active than the antiviral chemical drug Cidofovia, by alternatively fusing an DNA-cleaving enzyme to an artificial DNA-binding protein. Since this artificial protein has little cytotoxicity, it is expected that it will be used as a new antiviral drug.

  10. Cissampelos sympodialis has anti-viral effect inhibiting dengue non-structural viral protein-1 and pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Carvalho Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dengue is the most important viral infection transmitted among humans by arthropod-borne. There are currently no vaccines or specific therapeutical treatment. Therefore, immunomodulatory compounds from plants have been widely examined for their antiviral effects. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, has scientifically proven to present immunomodulatory activities. Here we assessed the antiviral activity of leaf hydroalcoholic extract, warifteine or methylwarifteine from C. sympodialis in an in vitro dengue virus infection model. The results demonstrated that leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine treatment did not reduce dengue virus-Ag+ hepatocyte (Huh-7 cell rates in present experimental conditions. However, we assessed the potential antiviral effect of leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine on dengue virus-infection by the production of inflammatory molecules, TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2. Dengue virus infection enhanced TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2 production in infected Huh-7 cells and leaf hydroalcoholic extract but not warifteine/methylwarifteine treatments, significantly reduced these molecules in infected cells. In dengue virus-infected Huh-7 cells, non-structural protein-1 is produced and leaf hydroalcoholic extract significantly inhibited it independently of alkaloids. Our findings imply that leaf hydroalcoholic extract may attenuate dengue virus infection in Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the enhanced of pro-inflammatory mediators and non-structural protein-1 production induce by dengue virus independently of warifteine/methywarifteine its major compound.

  11. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchelkunov Sergei N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variola virus (VARV the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  12. Analysis of VSV pseudotype virus infection mediated by rubella virus envelope proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masafumi Sakata; Hideki Tani; Masaki Anraku; Michiyo Kataoka; Noriyo Nagata; Fumio Seki; Maino Tahara; Noriyuki Otsuki; Kiyoko Okamoto; Makoto Takeda; Yoshio Mori

    2017-01-01

    .... To establish an infection the host cells must be susceptible and permissible. To assess the susceptibility of individual cell lines, we generated a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus bearing RV envelope proteins (VSV-RV/CE2E1...

  13. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. [Internal epidemic influenza virus proteins: isolation and investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V T; Rakutina, R O; Kordiukova, L V; Manykin, A A; Fedorova, N V; Ksenofontov, A L; Slepushkin, A N

    2006-01-01

    The internal influenza virus proteins M1 and RNP free from surface protein impurities were isolated from subviral particles (virions free from HA and NA ectomenes). The spikeless particles had no propensity to aggregate in the solution at pH 5.0 as compared with native viruses. The subviral particles of B/Hong Kong/330/01 influenza virus, which belonged to B/Victoria/2/87-lineage, were obtained by proteolytic treatment with the enzyme bromelain under the same conditions as in cases of influenza B viruses of B/Jamagata/16/88 lineage. A chromatographic analysis of the tryptic hydrolyzates obtained for matrix (M1) proteins of A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) influenza viruses revealed differences that were greatest between the protein M1 molecules isolated from influenza viruses of different subtypes of hemagglutinine. These findings suggest there are variations in the structure of this conservative internal viral protein M1 during evolution.

  15. Serum amyloid P component inhibits influenza A virus infections: in vitro and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, A; Andersen, I; Junker, K

    2001-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds in vitro Ca(2+)-dependently to several ligands including oligosaccharides with terminal mannose and galactose. We have earlier reported that SAP binds to human influenza A virus strains, inhibiting hemagglutinin (HA) activity and virus infectivity in vitro. T...

  16. Inhibition of cdk9 during herpes simplex virus 1 infection impedes viral transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ou

    Full Text Available During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 infection there is a loss of the serine-2 phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II found in elongation complexes. This occurs in part because RNAP II undergoes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation during times of highly active viral transcription, which may result from stalled elongating complexes. In addition, a viral protein, ICP22, was reported to trigger a loss of serine-2 RNAP II. These findings have led to some speculation that the serine-2 phosphorylated form of RNAP II may not be required for HSV-1 transcription, although this form is required for cellular transcription elongation and RNA processing. Cellular kinase cdk9 phosphorylates serine-2 in the C-terminal domain (CTD of RNAP II. To determine if serine-2 phosphorylated RNAP II is required for HSV-1 transcription, we inhibited cdk9 during HSV-1 infection and measured viral gene expression. Inhibition was achieved by adding cdk9 inhibitors 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazone-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB or flavopiridol (FVP or by expression of a dominant-negative cdk9 or HEXIM1, which in conjunction with 7SK snRNA inhibits cdk9 in complex with cyclin 1. Here we report that inhibition of cdk9 resulted in decreased viral yields and levels of late proteins, poor formation of viral transcription-replication compartments, reduced levels of poly(A+ mRNA and decreased RNA synthesis as measured by uptake of 5-bromouridine into nascent RNA. Importantly, a global reduction in viral mRNAs was seen as determined by microarray analysis. We conclude that serine-2 phosphorylation of the CTD of RNAP II is required for HSV-1 transcription.

  17. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus surface gene expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in a human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, M; Reinisová, M; Korec, E; Hlozánek, I

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on the expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens. Human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5 harbors several integrated copies of the HBV genome and produces and secretes hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) to the medium. Synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to various regions of the surface antigen gene were synthesized and their ability to block its expression was tested. Oligodeoxynucleotides (17- and 21-mers) complementary to regions covering ATG codons of both preS2 and S genes significantly inhibited preS2 and S protein production. Less efficient inhibition was achieved when the oligonucleotide complementary to the inside S gene region was assayed.

  18. Development of RNA aptamer that inhibits methyltransferase activity of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae In; Han, Seung Ryul; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2018-02-01

    To develop an RNA aptamer specific for the methyltransferase (MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) which is essential for viral genome replication and translation acting directly on N-7 and 2'-O-methylation of the type-I cap structure of the viral RNA. We identified 2'-fluoro-modified RNA aptamers that can specifically bind DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) MTase using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology. We truncated the chosen aptamer into a 45-mer RNA sequence that can bind DENV2 MTase with K d  ~ 28 nM and inhibit N-7 methylation activity of the protein. Moreover, the 45-mer truncated aptamer could not only bind with an K d  ~ 15.6 nM but also inhibit methylation activity of DENV serotype 3 (DENV3) MTase. The 45-mer aptamer competitively impeded binding of both DENV2 and DENV3 genomic RNA to MTase of each serotype. The selected 45-mer truncated RNA aptamer specifically and avidly bound DENV MTase and competitively inhibited its methylation activity, and thus could be useful for the development of anti-DENV agents.

  19. Proteins of Purified Epstein-Barr Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric Johannsen; Micah Luftig; Michael R. Chase; Steve Weicksel; Ellen Cahir-McFarland; Diego Illanes; David Sarracino; Elliott Kieff

    2004-01-01

    Mature Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was purified from the culture medium of infected lymphocytes made functionally conditional for Zta activation of lytic replication by an in-frame fusion with a mutant estrogen receptor...

  20. Dodecandrin, a new ribosome-inhibiting protein from Phytolacca dodecandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, M P; Adams, R P; Robertus, J D

    1984-12-21

    Dodecandrin, a newly discovered ribosome-inhibiting protein, has been isolated and purified from the leaves of the African endod plant, Phytolacca dodecandra. Dodecandrin has a molecular weight of approx. 29 000. It cross-reacts with antiserum prepared against pokeweed antiviral protein from Phytolacca americana and exhibits similar requirements for antiribosomal activity. It is more basic than pokeweed antiviral protein, and comparison of the first 30 amino-terminal residues of the two proteins reveals 83% homology. This level of homology is greater than that between pokeweed antiviral protein and pokeweed antiviral protein S, another antiviral protein found in P. americana. Such conservatism in sequence, coupled with the high efficiency of the proteins in deactivating ribosomes and with their abundance in plant tissue, suggests that they serve an important function in the life of the plant, probably as a defense against infection.

  1. Avian adeno-associated virus-based expression of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein for poultry vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, F; Villegas, P; Estevez, C; Alvarado, I R; Purvis, L B; Saume, E

    2008-06-01

    The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication-defective nonpathogenic virus member of the family Parvoviridae that has been proved to be useful as a viral vector for gene delivery. The use of AAAV for transgenic expression of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and its ability to induce immunity in chickens were assessed. Proposed advantages of this system include no interference with maternal antibodies, diminished immune response against the vector, and the ability to accommodate large fragments of genetic information. In this work the generation of recombinant AAAV virions expressing the HN protein (rAAAV-HN) was demonstrated by electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis. Serological evidence of HN protein expression after in ovo or intramuscular inoculation of the recombinant virus in specific-pathogen-free chickens was obtained. Serum from rAAAV-HN-vaccinated birds showed a systemic immune response evidenced by NDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition testing. Positive virus neutralization in embryonated chicken eggs and indirect immunofluorescence detection of NDV infected cells by serum from rAAAV-HN vaccinated birds is also reported. A vaccine-challenge experiment in commercial broiler chickens using a Venezuelan virulent viscerotropic strain of NDV was performed. All unvaccinated controls died within 5 days postchallenge. Protection up to 80% was observed in birds vaccinated in ovo and revaccinated at 7 days of age with the rAAAV-HN. The results demonstrate the feasibility of developing and using an AAAV-based gene delivery system for poultry vaccination.

  2. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  3. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  4. Functional Carboxy-Terminal Fluorescent Protein Fusion to Pseudorabies Virus Small Capsid Protein VP26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Jean, Jolie; Esteves, Andrew D; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Scherer, Julian; Enquist, Lynn W

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent protein fusions to herpesvirus capsids have proven to be a valuable method to study virus particle transport in living cells. Fluorescent protein fusions to the amino terminus of small capsid protein VP26 are the most widely used method to visualize pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles in living cells. However, these fusion proteins do not incorporate to full occupancy and have modest effects on virus replication and pathogenesis. Recent cryoelectron microscopy studies have revealed that herpesvirus small capsid proteins bind to capsids via their amino terminus, whereas the carboxy terminus is unstructured and therefore may better tolerate fluorescent protein fusions. Here, we describe a new recombinant PRV expressing a carboxy-terminal VP26-mCherry fusion. Compared to previously characterized viruses expressing amino-terminal fusions, this virus expresses more VP26 fusion protein in infected cells and incorporates more VP26 fusion protein into virus particles, and individual virus particles exhibit brighter red fluorescence. We performed single-particle tracking of fluorescent virus particles in primary neurons to measure anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, demonstrating the usefulness of this novel VP26-mCherry fusion for the study of viral intracellular transport.IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are among the very few viruses that are adapted to invade the mammalian nervous system. Intracellular transport of virus particles in neurons is important, as this process underlies both mild peripheral nervous system infection and severe spread to the central nervous system. VP26, the small capsid protein of HSV and PRV, was one of the first herpesvirus proteins to be fused to a fluorescent protein. Since then, these capsid-tagged virus mutants have become a powerful tool to visualize and track individual virus particles. Improved capsid tags will facilitate fluorescence microscopy studies of virus particle intracellular

  5. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4...

  6. Antagonistic Effects of Cellular Poly(C) Binding Proteins on Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Gene Expression ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Beura, Lalit K.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of the cellular proteins from cells expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) P protein identified the poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as one of the P protein-interacting proteins. To investigate the role of PCBP2 in the viral life cycle, we examined the effects of depletion or overexpression of this protein on VSV growth. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PCBP2 promoted VSV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PCBP2 in transfected cells suppressed VSV growth. Further studies revealed that PCBP2 negatively regulates overall viral mRNA accumulation and subsequent genome replication. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence microscopic studies showed that PCBP2 interacts and colocalizes with VSV P protein in virus-infected cells. The P-PCBP2 interaction did not result in reduced levels of protein complex formation with the viral N and L proteins, nor did it induce degradation of the P protein. In addition, PCBP1, another member of the poly(C) binding protein family with homology to PCBP2, was also found to interact with the P protein and inhibit the viral mRNA synthesis at the level of primary transcription without affecting secondary transcription or genome replication. The inhibitory effects of PCBP1 on VSV replication were less pronounced than those of PCBP2. Overall, the results presented here suggest that cellular PCBP2 and PCBP1 antagonize VSV growth by affecting viral gene expression and highlight the importance of these two cellular proteins in restricting virus infections. PMID:21752917

  7. The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engdahl Cecilia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rift Valley Fever is an infectious viral disease and an emerging problem in many countries of Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The causative virus is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes and high mortality and abortion rates characterize outbreaks in animals while symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever are noticed among infected humans. For a better prevention and treatment of the infection, an increased knowledge of the infectious process of the virus is required. The focus of this work was to identify protein-protein interactions between the non-structural protein (NSm, encoded by the M-segment of the virus, and host cell proteins. This study was initiated by screening approximately 26 million cDNA clones of a mouse embryonic cDNA library for interactions with the NSm protein using a yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified nine murine proteins that interact with NSm protein of Rift Valley Fever virus, and the putative protein-protein interactions were confirmed by growth selection procedures and β-gal activity measurements. Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2, the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin-like 2 protein (Ppil2, and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25 are the most promising targets for the NSm protein of the virus during an infection.

  8. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); M.M.J.W. Baars (Marianne); P. de Lijster; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractNitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mouse models. Here we show that replication of influenza A and B viruses in Mabin Darby canine kidney cells is severely impaired by the NO donor,

  9. Xanthones from Polygala karensium inhibit neuraminidases from influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Dang, Thai Trung; Nguyen, Phi Hung

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the H1N1 swine flu pandemic has the possibility to develop the occurrence of disaster- or drug-resistant viruses by additional reassortments in novel influenza A virus. In the course of an anti-influenza screening program for natural products, 10 xanthone derivatives (1-10) were...

  10. Development of an influenza virus protein array using Sortagging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, Antonia; Popp, Maximilian Wei-Lin; Antos, John M; Pansegrau, Werner; Savino, Silvana; Nissum, Mikkel; Rappuoli, Rino; Ploegh, Hidde L; Buti, Ludovico

    2012-06-20

    Protein array technology is an emerging tool that enables high-throughput screening of protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions and identification of immunodominant antigens during the course of a bacterial or viral infection. In this work, we developed an Influenza virus protein array using the sortase-mediated transpeptidation reaction known as "Sortagging". LPETG-tagged Influenza virus proteins from bacterial and eukaryotic cellular extracts were immobilized at their carboxyl-termini onto a preactivated amine-glass slide coated with a Gly3 linker. Immobilized proteins were revealed by specific antibodies, and the newly generated Sortag-protein chip can be used as a device for antigen and/or antibody screening. The specificity of the Sortase A (SrtA) reaction avoids purification steps in array building and allows immobilization of proteins in an oriented fashion. Previously, this versatile technology has been successfully employed for protein labeling and protein conjugation. Here, the tool is implemented to covalently link proteins of a viral genome onto a solid support. The system could readily be scaled up to proteins of larger genomes in order to develop protein arrays for high-throughput screening.

  11. GAPDH--a recruits a plant virus movement protein to cortical virus replication complexes to facilitate viral cell-to-cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kaido

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of virus movement protein (MP-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV, a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A, which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.

  12. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Yuan; Teng, Ru-Hsiou; Wang, Meilin; Chen, Pei-Lain; Lin, Mien-Chun; Chao, Chun-Nun; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2017-01-01

    The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs) and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections. PMID:28757888

  13. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  14. Lambda Interferon Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Macrophages ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei; Wang,Xu; Ye, Li; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Riedel, Eric; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2009-01-01

    The newly identified type III interferon (IFN-λ) has antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. We thus examined whether IFN-λ has the ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of blood monocyte-derived macrophages that expressed IFN-λ receptors. Both IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2, when added to macrophage cultures, inhibited HIV-1 infection and replication. This IFN-λ-mediated anti-HIV-1 activity is broad, as IFN-λ could inhibit infection by both laboratory-ad...

  15. A spatio-temporal analysis of matrix protein and nucleocapsid trafficking during vesicular stomatitis virus uncoating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To study VSV entry and the fate of incoming matrix (M protein during virus uncoating we used recombinant viruses encoding M proteins with a C-terminal tetracysteine tag that could be fluorescently labeled using biarsenical (Lumio compounds. We found that uncoating occurs early in the endocytic pathway and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative (DN Rab5, but is not inhibited by DN-Rab7 or DN-Rab11. Uncoating, as defined by the separation of nucleocapsids from M protein, occurred between 15 and 20 minutes post-entry and did not require microtubules or an intact actin cytoskeleton. Unexpectedly, the bulk of M protein remained associated with endosomal membranes after uncoating and was eventually trafficked to recycling endosomes. Another small, but significant fraction of M distributed to nuclear pore complexes, which was also not dependent on microtubules or polymerized actin. Quantification of fluorescence from high-resolution confocal micrographs indicated that after membrane fusion, M protein diffuses across the endosomal membrane with a concomitant increase in fluorescence from the Lumio label which occurred soon after the release of RNPs into the cytoplasm. These data support a new model for VSV uncoating in which RNPs are released from M which remains bound to the endosomal membrane rather than the dissociation of M protein from RNPs after release of the complex into the cytoplasm following membrane fusion.

  16. Borna disease virus P protein affects neural transmission through interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guiqing; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Chengliang; Wang, Shiqun; Yan, Xiaohong; Lu, Lili; Li, Wei; Hu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Mu, Yongxin; Chen, Yanni; Feng, Yong; Gong, Rui; Wu, Kailang; Zhang, Fengmin; Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the infectious agents that causes diseases of the central nervous system in a wide range of vertebrate species and, perhaps, in humans. The phosphoprotein (P) of BDV, an essential cofactor of virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, we identified the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) with functions in neurobiology as one of the viral P protein-interacting cellular factors by using an approach of phage display-based protein-protein interaction analysis. Direct binding between GABARAP and P protein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, protein pull-down, and mammalian two-hybrid analyses. GABARAP originally was identified as a linker between the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) and the microtubule to regulate receptor trafficking and plays important roles in the regulation of the inhibitory neural transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We showed that GABARAP colocalizes with P protein in the cells infected with BDV or transfected with the P gene, which resulted in shifting the localization of GABARAP from the cytosol to the nucleus. We further demonstrated that P protein blocks the trafficking of GABAR, a principal GABA-gated ion channel that plays important roles in neural transmission, to the surface of cells infected with BDV or transfected with the P gene. We proposed that during BDV infection, P protein binds to GABARAP, shifts the distribution of GABARAP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and disrupts the trafficking of GABARs to the cell membranes, which may result in the inhibition of GABA-induced currents and in the enhancement of hyperactivity and anxiety.

  17. Selective inhibition of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein synthesis by a benz-amidinohydrazone derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campadelli-Fiume, G.; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, P.; Mannini-Palenzona, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Microbiologia e Virologia); Cavrini, V. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica)

    1980-01-01

    1 H-benz(f)indene-1.3(2H)dione-bis-amidinohydrazone (benzhydrazone) inhibited incorporation of /sup 14/C-glucosamine, /sup 14/C-fucose and /sup 14/C-mannose into glycoproteins of HEp-2 cells infected with various strains of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and impaired RNA and protein synthesis to a low extent. These biochemical effects are very similar to those induced by glycosylation inhibitors such as tunicamycin, D-glucosamine and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In contrast to these inhibitors, benzhydrazone reduced HSV glycoprotein synthesis selectively since it did not significantly modify i) the saccharide uptake into glycoproteins of uninfected and of Sindbis virus-infected cells, ii) viral growth and cell fusion in paramyxovirus-infected cells, two activities which depend on viral glycoprotein synthesis. Benzhydrazone had only minor effects on the overall metabolism of uninfected cells, since it did not alter cell growth rate, and amino acid, uridine, and hexose incorporations were about 80 per cent those of untreated cells.

  18. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R. Fontes-Garfias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. : Zika virus (ZIKV causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Fontes-Garfias et al. showed that the glycosylation of ZIKV envelope protein plays an important role in infecting mosquito vectors and pathogenesis in mouse. Keywords: Zika virus, glycosylation, flavivirus entry, mosquito transmission, vaccine

  19. Daclatasvir inhibits hepatitis C virus NS5A motility and hyper-accumulation of phosphoinositides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Vineela; Berger, Kristi L.; Kelly, Sean M.; Thomas, Meryl; Deiters, Alexander; Randall, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to revolutionize the HCV therapeutic regime. An integral component of DAA combination therapies are HCV NS5A inhibitors. It has previously been proposed that NS5A DAAs inhibit two functions of NS5A: RNA replication and virion assembly. In this study, we characterize the impact of a prototype NS5A DAA, daclatasvir (DCV), on HCV replication compartment formation. DCV impaired HCV replicase localization and NS5A motility. In order to characterize the mechanism behind altered HCV replicase localization, we examined the impact of DCV on the interaction of NS5A with its essential cellular cofactor, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III α (PI4KA). We observed that DCV does not inhibit PI4KA directly, nor does it impair early events of the NS5A-PI4KA interaction that can occur when NS5A is expressed alone. NS5A functions that are unaffected by DCV include PI4KA binding, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and a basal accumulation of the PI4KA product, PI4P. However, DCV impairs late steps in PI4KA activation that requires NS5A expressed in the context of the HCV polyprotein. These NS5A functions include hyper-stimulation of PI4P levels and appropriate replication compartment formation. The data are most consistent with a model wherein DCV inhibits conformational changes in the NS5A protein or protein complex formations that occur in the context of HCV polyprotein expression and stimulate PI4P hyper-accumulation and replication compartment formation. PMID:25546252

  20. Visna virus as an in vitro model for human immunodeficiency virus and inhibition by ribavirin, phosphonoformate, and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K B; McKernan, P A; Smith, R A; Smee, D F

    1987-09-01

    Inhibition of visna virus replication in vitro by several compounds previously reported to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was examined. Ribavirin concentrations as high as 1 mM reduced virus production by less than 50% relative to controls. The concentration of phosphonoformate reducing virus replication by 50% was 80 microM. 2',3'-Dideoxynucleosides were potent inhibitors of visna virus replication. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for dideoxyguanosine, dideoxyadenosine, and dideoxycytidine were 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 microM, respectively. In contrast, weak inhibition was produced by 100 microM dideoxythymidine. These results are consistent with the reported susceptibility of HIV replication to inhibition by these compounds in vitro. The interaction of visna virus reverse transcriptase with several inhibitors was also examined. Reverse transcriptase was inhibited by phosphonoformate, ribavirin 5'-triphosphate, ddATP, ddCTP, ddGTP, and ddTTP. The last four compounds inhibited incorporation of homologous 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates into polynucleotides by a competitive mechanism. In view of the biological similarities between visna virus and HIV and the similar in vitro susceptibility of visna virus replication to known inhibitors of HIV, visna virus may provide a good model for studying the inhibition of HIV replication in vitro. Because visna virus is not pathogenic to humans, this model may facilitate the identification of compounds for further investigation into the treatment of HIV-induced disease.

  1. Influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 disrupts interferon signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlin Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs function as the first line of defense against viral infections by modulating cell growth, establishing an antiviral state and influencing the activation of various immune cells. Viruses such as influenza have developed mechanisms to evade this defense mechanism and during infection with influenza A viruses, the non-structural protein 1 (NS1 encoded by the virus genome suppresses induction of IFNs-α/β. Here we show that expression of avian H5N1 NS1 in HeLa cells leads to a block in IFN signaling. H5N1 NS1 reduces IFN-inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 and inhibits the nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT2 and the formation of IFN-inducible STAT1:1-, STAT1:3- and STAT3:3- DNA complexes. Inhibition of IFN-inducible STAT signaling by NS1 in HeLa cells is, in part, a consequence of NS1-mediated inhibition of expression of the IFN receptor subunit, IFNAR1. In support of this NS1-mediated inhibition, we observed a reduction in expression of ifnar1 in ex vivo human non-tumor lung tissues infected with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Moreover, H1N1 and H5N1 virus infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages led to inhibition of both ifnar1 and ifnar2 expression. In addition, NS1 expression induces up-regulation of the JAK/STAT inhibitors, SOCS1 and SOCS3. By contrast, treatment of ex vivo human lung tissues with IFN-α results in the up-regulation of a number of IFN-stimulated genes and inhibits both H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication. The data suggest that NS1 can directly interfere with IFN signaling to enhance viral replication, but that treatment with IFN can nevertheless override these inhibitory effects to block H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections.

  2. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Oxidants and neutrophils contribute to lung injury during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Surfactant protein (SP)-D plays a pivotal role in restricting IAV replication and inflammation in the first several days after infection. Despite its potent anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, preincubation...... of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... either show no effect or inhibit these responses. Furthermore, if neutrophils are preincubated with multimeric SP-D before IAV is added, oxidant responses to the virus are significantly reduced. The ability of SP-D to increase neutrophil uptake of IAV can be dissociated from enhancement of oxidant...

  3. Modeling of chemical inhibition from amyloid protein aggregation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-02-27

    The process of amyloid proteins aggregation causes several human neuropathologies. In some cases, e.g. fibrillar deposits of insulin, the problems are generated in the processes of production and purification of protein and in the pump devices or injectable preparations for diabetics. Experimental kinetics and adequate modelling of chemical inhibition from amyloid aggregation are of practical importance in order to study the viable processing, formulation and storage as well as to predict and optimize the best conditions to reduce the effect of protein nucleation. In this manuscript, experimental data of insulin, Aβ42 amyloid protein and apomyoglobin fibrillation from recent bibliography were selected to evaluate the capability of a bivariate sigmoid equation to model them. The mathematical functions (logistic combined with Weibull equation) were used in reparameterized form and the effect of inhibitor concentrations on kinetic parameters from logistic equation were perfectly defined and explained. The surfaces of data were accurately described by proposed model and the presented analysis characterized the inhibitory influence on the protein aggregation by several chemicals. Discrimination between true and apparent inhibitors was also confirmed by the bivariate equation. EGCG for insulin (working at pH = 7.4/T = 37°C) and taiwaniaflavone for Aβ42 were the compounds studied that shown the greatest inhibition capacity. An accurate, simple and effective model to investigate the inhibition of chemicals on amyloid protein aggregation has been developed. The equation could be useful for the clear quantification of inhibitor potential of chemicals and rigorous comparison among them.

  4. Inhibition Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on the Propagation of Influenza A Virus in MDCK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Bai§, Cui-Ying Chen§, Jun Ji, Qing-Mei Xie*, Yun Ma1, Bao-Li Sun, Chun-Yi Xue1, Yong-Chang Cao1, Jing-Yun Ma and Ying-Zuo Bi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses (IAV still pose a threat to animals and humans. Currently, M2 protein ion channel inhibitors and neuraminidase inhibitors are the two main drugs for treating IAV infections by interrupting virus assembly or release respectively, but the emergence of viral resistance was a concern for their long term uses. In this study, the inhibition effect of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA on IAV propagation has been evaluated in vitro. The results showed that α-LA inhibited IAV replication in MDCK cells at 2mM, and also reduced nucleus translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB p65 at the concentration above 1mM. Additionally, it was found that caspase-3 activity was remarkably inhibited and type I interferons (IFNs were up-regulated following α-LA treatment. This study indicated that α-LA might be a potential anti-influenza virus agent worthy of further investigations.

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins in borna disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2013-08-08

    Nuclear import and export of viral RNA and proteins are critical to the replication cycle of viruses that replicate in the nucleus. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that belongs to the order Mononegavirales. BDV has several distinguishing features, one of the most striking being the site of its replication. BDV RNA is transcribed and replicated in the nucleus, while most other negative-strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV macromolecules plays a key role in virus replication. Growing evidence indicates that several BDV proteins, including the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, protein X and large protein, contribute to the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV ribonucleoprotein (RNP). The directional control of BDV RNP trafficking is likely determined by the ratios of and interactions between the nuclear localization signals and nuclear export signals in the RNP. In this review, we present a comprehensive view of several unique mechanisms that BDV has developed to control its RNP trafficking and discuss the significance of BDV RNP trafficking in the replication cycle of BDV.

  6. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Viral Proteins in Borna Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Honda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear import and export of viral RNA and proteins are critical to the replication cycle of viruses that replicate in the nucleus. Borna disease virus (BDV is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that belongs to the order Mononegavirales. BDV has several distinguishing features, one of the most striking being the site of its replication. BDV RNA is transcribed and replicated in the nucleus, while most other negative-strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV macromolecules plays a key role in virus replication. Growing evidence indicates that several BDV proteins, including the nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, protein X and large protein, contribute to the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of BDV ribonucleoprotein (RNP. The directional control of BDV RNP trafficking is likely determined by the ratios of and interactions between the nuclear localization signals and nuclear export signals in the RNP. In this review, we present a comprehensive view of several unique mechanisms that BDV has developed to control its RNP trafficking and discuss the significance of BDV RNP trafficking in the replication cycle of BDV.

  7. Iron chelation excludes protein synthesis inhibition in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have compared the trypanocidal properties of four antibiotics that show bactericidal activities by destabilizing ribosome-mRNA complex to inhibit protein synthesis. Tetracycline and oxytetracycline that have iron chelating properties extended the lifespan of trypanosome infected rats from 6 and 5 days of control to 15 and ...

  8. Affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry to identify herpes simplex virus protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, David G

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of herpes simplex virus protein interaction complexes are fundamental to understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the replication and pathogenesis of the virus. Recent advances in affinity-based methods, mass spectrometry configurations, and bioinformatics tools have greatly increased the quantity and quality of protein-protein interaction datasets. In this chapter, detailed and reliable methods that can easily be implemented are presented for the identification of protein-protein interactions using cryogenic cell lysis, affinity purification, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometry.

  9. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A.; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS–CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. PMID:24874215

  10. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Inhibits the Pulmonary T-Cell Response to Influenza Virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Kong, Ying; Barnes, Peter F.; Huang, Fang-Fang; Klucar, Peter; Wang, Xisheng; Samten, Buka; Sengupta, Mayami; Machona, Bruce; Donis, Ruben; Tvinnereim, Amy R.; Shams, Homayoun

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis and influenza. However, little information is available on the mechanisms underlying this increased susceptibility. Mice were left unexposed or were exposed to cigarette smoke and then infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by aerosol or influenza A by intranasal infection. Some mice were given a DNA vaccine encoding an immunogenic M. tuberculosis protein. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production by T cells from the lungs and spleens was measured. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibited the lung T-cell production of IFN-γ during stimulation in vitro with anti-CD3, after vaccination with a construct expressing an immunogenic mycobacterial protein, and during infection with M. tuberculosis and influenza A virus in vivo. Reduced IFN-γ production was mediated through the decreased phosphorylation of transcription factors that positively regulate IFN-γ expression. Cigarette smoke exposure increased the bacterial burden in mice infected with M. tuberculosis and increased weight loss and mortality in mice infected with influenza virus. This study provides the first demonstration that cigarette smoke exposure directly inhibits the pulmonary T-cell response to M. tuberculosis and influenza virus in a physiologically relevant animal model, increasing susceptibility to both pathogens. PMID:20974820

  11. Autophagy and the Effects of Its Inhibition on Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein Biosynthesis and Infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Erin M.; Carpenter, John E.; Jackson, Wallen

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy and the effects of its inhibition or induction were investigated during the entire infectious cycle of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a human herpesvirus. As a baseline, we first enumerated the number of autophagosomes per cell after VZV infection compared with the number after induction of autophagy following serum starvation or treatment with tunicamycin or trehalose. Punctum induction by VZV was similar in degree to punctum induction by trehalose in uninfected cells. Treatment of infected cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) markedly reduced the viral titer, as determined by assays measuring both cell-free virus and infectious foci (P < 0.0001). We next examined a virion-enriched band purified by density gradient sedimentation and observed that treatment with 3-MA decreased the amount of VZV gE, while treatment with trehalose increased the amount of gE in the same band. Because VZV gE is the most abundant glycoprotein, we selected gE as a representative viral glycoprotein. To further investigate the role of autophagy in VZV glycoprotein biosynthesis as well as confirm the results obtained with 3-MA inhibition, we transfected cells with ATG5 small interfering RNA to block autophagosome formation. VZV-induced syncytium formation was markedly reduced by ATG5 knockdown (P < 0.0001). Further, we found that both expression and glycan processing of VZV gE were decreased after ATG5 knockdown, while expression of the nonglycosylated IE62 tegument protein was unchanged. Taken together, our cumulative results not only documented abundant autophagy within VZV-infected cells throughout the infectious cycle but also demonstrated that VZV-induced autophagy facilitated VZV glycoprotein biosynthesis and processing. PMID:24198400

  12. Interferon Lambda Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Infection of Human Astrocytes and Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JIELIANG; HU, SHUXIAN; ZHOU, LIN; YE, LI; WANG, XU; HO, JIE; HO, WENZHE

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that is capable of infecting not only neurons, but also microglia and astrocytes and can establish latent infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether IFN lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified member of IFN family, has the ability to inhibit HSV-1 infection of primary human astrocytes and neurons. Both astrocytes and neurons were found to be highly susceptible to HSV-1 infection. However, upon IFN-λ treatment, HSV-1 replication in both astrocytes and neurons was significantly suppressed, which was evidenced by the reduced expression of HSV-1 DNA and proteins. This IFN-λ-mediated action on HSV-1 could be partially neutralized by antibody to IFN-λ receptor. Investigation of the mechanisms showed that IFN-λ treatment of astrocytes and neurons resulted in the upregulation of endogenous IFN-α/β and several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To block IFN-α/β receptor by a specific antibody could compromise the IFN-λ actions on HSV-1 inhibition and ISG induction. In addition, IFN-λ treatment induced the expression of IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) in astrocytes and neurons. Furthermore, IFN-λ treatment of astrocytes and neurons resulted in the suppression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), a key negative regulator of IFN pathway. These data suggest that IFN-λ possesses the anti-HSV-1 function by promoting type I IFN-mediated innate antiviral immune response in the CNS cells. PMID:20878770

  13. Interleukin-34 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Tao; Tang, Hua; Ren, Ji-Hua; Chen, Xiang; Huang, Ai-Long; Chen, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could activate the immune system and induce extensive inflammatory response. As the most important inflammatory factor, interleukins are critical for anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated whether interleukin-34 (IL-34) play a role in HBV infection. In this study, we first found that both serum IL-34 and IL-34 mRNA in PBMCs in chronic HBV patients was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, both IL-34 protein and mRNA levels were declined hepatoma cells expressing HBV. In addition, the clinical parameters analysis found that serum IL-34 was significantly associated with HBV DNA (P = 0.0066), ALT (P = 0.0327), AST (P = 0.0435), TB (P = 0.0406), DB (P = 0.0368) and AFP (P = 0.0225). Correlation analysis also found that serum IL-34 negatively correlated with HBV DNA copies, ALT and AST. In vitro studies found that IL-34 treatment in HepAD38 and HepG2.2.15 cells markedly inhibited HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein. In vivo studies further demonstrated IL-34 treatment in HBV transgenic mice exhibited greater inhibition on HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein, suggesting the effect to IL-34 on HBV is likely due to host innate or adaptive immune response. Our study identified a novel interleukin, IL-34, which has anti-viral activity in HBV replication in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a rationale for the use of IL-34 in the HBV treatment.

  14. Mechanism of inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by delta 7-prostaglandin A1 and delta 12-prostaglandin J2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Fukushima, M; Tsurumi, T; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1987-08-14

    We studied the effect of prostaglandins (PGs) A1, delta 7-A1, A2, D2, E1, E2, F2 alpha, J2 and delta 12-J2 on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Of nine PGs we tested, delta 7-PGA1 was found to have the most potent inhibitory effect; 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) was 0.35 microgram/ml in the plaque reduction assays and HSV-2 induced protein synthesis was strongly suppressed at 0.5 microgram/ml whereas at this dose, the protein synthesis of uninfected cells was not inhibited. Dot blot hybridization analysis revealed that delta 7-PGA1 and delta 12-PGJ2 inhibited the primary transcription of HSV-2. Thus we suggest that those PGs are primarily active at the level of mRNA synthesis.

  15. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection in vitro by saliphenylhalamide-loaded porous silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Luis M; Denisova, Oxana V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; De Brabander, Jef K; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno; Kakkola, Laura; Kainov, Denis; Santos, Hélder A

    2013-08-27

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause recurrent epidemics in humans, with serious threat of lethal worldwide pandemics. The occurrence of antiviral-resistant virus strains and the emergence of highly pathogenic influenza viruses have triggered an urgent need to develop new anti-IAV treatments. One compound found to inhibit IAV, and other virus infections, is saliphenylhalamide (SaliPhe). SaliPhe targets host vacuolar-ATPase and inhibits acidification of endosomes, a process needed for productive virus infection. The major obstacle for the further development of SaliPhe as antiviral drug has been its poor solubility. Here, we investigated the possibility to increase SaliPhe solubility by loading the compound in thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles. SaliPhe-loaded nanoparticles were further investigated for the ability to inhibit influenza A infection in human retinal pigment epithelium and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, and we show that upon release from THCPSi, SaliPhe inhibited IAV infection in vitro and reduced the amount of progeny virus in IAV-infected cells. Overall, the PSi-based nanosystem exhibited increased dissolution of the investigated anti-IAV drug SaliPhe and displayed excellent in vitro stability, low cytotoxicity, and remarkable reduction of viral load in the absence of organic solvents. This proof-of-principle study indicates that PSi nanoparticles could be used for efficient delivery of antivirals to infected cells.

  16. The kinase inhibitor SFV785 dislocates dengue virus envelope protein from the replication complex and blocks virus assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Anwar

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the etiologic agent for dengue fever, for which there is no approved vaccine or specific anti-viral drug. As a remedy for this, we explored the use of compounds that interfere with the action of required host factors and describe here the characterization of a kinase inhibitor (SFV785, which has selective effects on NTRK1 and MAPKAPK5 kinase activity, and anti-viral activity on Hepatitis C, DENV and yellow fever viruses. SFV785 inhibited DENV propagation without inhibiting DENV RNA synthesis or translation. The compound did not cause any changes in the cellular distribution of non-structural 3, a protein critical for DENV RNA synthesis, but altered the distribution of the structural envelope protein from a reticulate network to enlarged discrete vesicles, which altered the co-localization with the DENV replication complex. Ultrastructural electron microscopy analyses of DENV-infected SFV785-treated cells showed the presence of viral particles that were distinctly different from viable enveloped virions within enlarged ER cisternae. These viral particles were devoid of the dense nucleocapsid. The secretion of the viral particles was not inhibited by SFV785, however a reduction in the amount of secreted infectious virions, DENV RNA and capsid were observed. Collectively, these observations suggest that SFV785 inhibited the recruitment and assembly of the nucleocapsid in specific ER compartments during the DENV assembly process and hence the production of infectious DENV. SFV785 and derivative compounds could be useful biochemical probes to explore the DENV lifecycle and could also represent a new class of anti-virals.

  17. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Chen, Siang-Jyun; Wu, Huey-Nan; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Lin, Ching-Yen; Shiuan, David; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Ying-Ray; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2015-09-10

    Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2). In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK) and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection.

  18. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2. In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection.

  19. Inhibition of measles virus infections in cell cultures by peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Katrina; Stein, David A; Tamin, Azaibi; Reddish, Michael; Iversen, Patrick L; Rota, Paul A

    2009-03-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious human pathogen. Despite the success of measles vaccination programs, measles is still responsible for an estimated 245,000 deaths each year. There are currently no antiviral compounds available for the treatment of measles. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) are antisense compounds that enter cells readily and can interfere with mRNA function by steric blocking. A panel of PPMO was designed to target various sequences of MeV RNA that are known to be important for viral replication. Five PPMO, targeting MeV genomic RNA or mRNA, inhibited the replication of MeV, in a dose-responsive and sequence-specific manner in cultured cells. One of the highly active PPMO (PPMO 454), targeting a conserved sequence in the translation start site of the mRNA coding for the nucleocapsid protein, inhibited multiple genotypes of MeV. This report provides evidence that PPMO treatment represents a promising approach for developing antiviral agents against measles and other paramyxoviruses.

  20. The movement protein and coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus accumulate in structurally modified plasmodesmata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, N. N.; Goldbach, R. W.; van Lent, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    In systemically infected tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) are detected in plasmodesmata in a layer of three to four cells at the progressing front of infection. Besides the presence of these viral proteins, the plasmodesmata are

  1. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV, an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.

  2. Quantitative analysis of Nipah virus proteins released as virus-like particles reveals central role for the matrix protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaton Bryan T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. Together with Hendra virus (HeV, they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family. NiV and HeV are also restricted to Biosafety Level-4 containment and this has hampered progress towards examining details of their replication and morphogenesis. Here, we have established recombinant expression systems to study NiV particle assembly and budding through the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs. Results When expressed by recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA or plasmid transfection, individual NiV matrix (M, fusion (F and attachment (G proteins were all released into culture supernatants in a membrane-associated state as determined by sucrose density gradient flotation and immunoprecipitation. However, co-expression of F and G along with M revealed a shift in their distribution across the gradient, indicating association with M in VLPs. Protein release was also altered depending on the context of viral proteins being expressed, with F, G and nucleocapsid (N protein reducing M release, and N release dependent on the co-expression of M. Immunoelectron microscopy and density analysis revealed VLPs that were similar to authentic virus. Differences in the budding dynamics of NiV proteins were also noted between rMVA and plasmid based strategies, suggesting that over-expression by poxvirus may not be appropriate for studying the details of recombinant virus particle assembly and release. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that NiV M, F, and G each possess some ability to bud from expressing cells, and that co-expression of these viral proteins results in a more organized budding process with M playing a central role. These findings will aid our understanding of paramyxovirus particle assembly in general and could help facilitate the development of a novel vaccine

  3. Elucidating the Interacting Domains of Chandipura Virus Nucleocapsid Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleocapsid (N protein of Chandipura virus (CHPV plays a crucial role in viral life cycle, besides being an important structural component of the virion through proper organization of its interactions with other viral proteins. In a recent study, the authors had mapped the associations among CHPV proteins and shown that N protein interacts with four of the viral proteins: N, phosphoprotein (P, matrix protein (M, and glycoprotein (G. The present study aimed to distinguish the regions of CHPV N protein responsible for its interactions with other viral proteins. In this direction, we have generated the structure of CHPV N protein by homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL workspace and Accelrys Discovery Studio client 2.55 and mapped the domains of N protein using PiSQRD. The interactions of N protein fragments with other proteins were determined by ZDOCK rigid-body docking method and validated by yeast two-hybrid and ELISA. The study revealed a unique binding site, comprising of amino acids 1–30 at the N terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N1 that is instrumental in its interactions with N, P, M, and G proteins. It was also observed that N2 associates with N and G proteins while N3 interacts with N, P, and M proteins.

  4. Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert-; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2011-12-09

    The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cholesterol reducing agents inhibit assembly of type I parainfluenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajimaya, Shringkhala; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Frankl, Tünde; Bryk, Peter; Ward, Brian; Takimoto, Toru

    2017-01-15

    Many enveloped RNA viruses utilize lipid rafts for the assembly of progeny virions, but the role of cholesterol, a major component of rafts, on paramyxovirus budding and virion formation is controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of FDA-approved cholesterol-reducing agents, gemfibrozil and lovastatin, on raft formation and assembly of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) and Sendai virus (SeV). Treatment of the human airway epithelial A549 cells with the agents, especially when combined, significantly decreased production of infectious hPIV1 and SeV. Mechanistic analysis indicated that depletion of cellular cholesterol reduced cell surface accumulation of envelope glycoproteins and association of viral matrix and nucleocapsids with raft membrane, which resulted in impaired virus budding and release from the cells. These results indicate that cellular cholesterol is required for assembly and formation of type 1 parainfluenza viruses and suggest that cholesterol could be an attractive target for antiviral agents against hPIV1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulation of Cellular Proliferation by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Madden

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV is a known risk factor in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The HBV-encoded X protein, HBx, has been investigated for properties that may explain its cancer cofactor role in transgenic mouse lines. We discuss here recent data showing that HBx is able to induce hepatocellular proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This property of HBx is predicted to sensitize hepatocytes to other HCC cofactors, including exposure to carcinogens and to other hepatitis viruses. Cellular proliferation is intimately linked to the mechanism(s by which most tumor-associated viruses transform virus-infected cells. The HBx alteration of the cell cycle provides an additional mechanism by which chronic HBV infection may contribute to HCC.

  7. The Zika virus envelope protein glycan loop regulates virion antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; DeMaso, Christina R; Pelc, Rebecca S; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Kuhn, Richard J; Pierson, Theodore C

    2018-01-02

    Because antibodies are an important component of flavivirus immunity, understanding the antigenic structure of flaviviruses is critical. Compared to dengue virus (DENV), the loop containing the single N-linked glycosylation site on Zika virus (ZIKV) envelope (E) proteins extends further towards the DII fusion loop (DII-FL) on neighboring E proteins within E dimers on mature viruses. Although ZIKV is poorly neutralized by DII-FL antibodies, we demonstrated significantly increased neutralization sensitivity of ZIKV particles incorporating the DENV glycan loop. Increased neutralization sensitivity was independent of E protein glycosylation: ZIKV lacking E protein glycans remained poorly neutralized, whereas ZIKV loop chimeras with or without an E protein glycan were potently neutralized. ZIKV particles lacking the E protein glycan were capable of infecting Raji cells expressing the lectin DC-SIGNR, suggesting the prM glycan of partially mature particles can facilitate entry. Our study provides insight into the determinants of ZIKV E protein function and antigenicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4......), and the cell type used as the infection target (MT4, PMC, or selected T4 lymphocytes). Inhibition was observed when viruses were preincubated with MAbs but not when cells were preincubated with MAbs before inoculation, and the MAbs were shown to precipitate 125I-labeled gp120. The MAbs therefore define...

  9. Characterization of host proteins interacting with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus L protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamina, Kseniya; Lercher, Alexander; Caldera, Michael; Schliehe, Christopher; Vilagos, Bojan; Sahin, Mehmet; Kosack, Lindsay; Bhattacharya, Anannya; Májek, Peter; Stukalov, Alexey; Sacco, Roberto; James, Leo C; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Bennett, Keiryn L; Menche, Jörg; Bergthaler, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) play a key role in the life cycle of RNA viruses and impact their immunobiology. The arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strain Clone 13 provides a benchmark model for studying chronic infection. A major genetic determinant for its ability to persist maps to a single amino acid exchange in the viral L protein, which exhibits RdRp activity, yet its functional consequences remain elusive. To unravel the L protein interactions with the host proteome, we engineered infectious L protein-tagged LCMV virions by reverse genetics. A subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of L protein pulldowns from infected human cells revealed a comprehensive network of interacting host proteins. The obtained LCMV L protein interactome was bioinformatically integrated with known host protein interactors of RdRps from other RNA viruses, emphasizing interconnected modules of human proteins. Functional characterization of selected interactors highlighted proviral (DDX3X) as well as antiviral (NKRF, TRIM21) host factors. To corroborate these findings, we infected Trim21-/- mice with LCMV and found impaired virus control in chronic infection. These results provide insights into the complex interactions of the arenavirus LCMV and other viral RdRps with the host proteome and contribute to a better molecular understanding of how chronic viruses interact with their host.

  10. [The structure of the nucleolus during the inhibition of RNA-and protein synthesis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romen, W; Altmann, H W

    1977-06-15

    In cells treated with antimetabolites to inhibit RNA- and protein synthesis, electron microscopic studies reveal structural alterations of the nucleolus. The morphological appearance of the nucleolus differs depending of the inhibitor used. If transcription is prevented, segregation of nucleolar components is observed. Inhibition of processing of newly synthesized RNA results in a degranulation and an increase in the amount of nucleolar fibrils. A disturbance of the release of nucleolar ribonucleoproteins into the cytoplasm leads to an enlargement and a hypergranulation of the nucleolus. On the other hand interruption of translation of mRNAs has no immediate effect on the appearance of the nucleolar structure. Only after longer treatment of the cells with the translation inhibitor the nucleolus shrinks and becomes degranulated. The use of inhibitors with clearly defined mechanisms of action in a morphological study should make it possible to interpret similar nucleolar alterations seen in cancer cells and virus-infected cells on a molecular biological basis.

  11. Ankyrin Repeat Proteins of Orf Virus Influence the Cellular Hypoxia Response Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Yuan; Fabrizio, Jacqueline-Alba; Wilkins, Sarah E; Dave, Keyur A; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Gleadle, Jonathan M; Fleming, Stephen B; Peet, Daniel J; Mercer, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional activator with a central role in regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. It is also emerging as a major target for viral manipulation of the cellular environment. Under normoxic conditions, HIF is tightly suppressed by the activity of oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. The asparaginyl hydroxylase active against HIF, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), has also been shown to hydroxylate some ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified the five ANK proteins of the parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) as potential substrates of FIH. Consistent with this prediction, coimmunoprecipitation of FIH was detected with each of the ORFV ANK proteins, and for one representative ORFV ANK protein, the interaction was shown to be dependent on the ANK domain. Immunofluorescence studies revealed colocalization of FIH and the viral ANK proteins. In addition, mass spectrometry confirmed that three of the five ORFV ANK proteins are efficiently hydroxylated by FIH in vitro While FIH levels were unaffected by ORFV infection, transient expression of each of the ORFV ANK proteins resulted in derepression of HIF-1α activity in reporter gene assays. Furthermore, ORFV-infected cells showed upregulated HIF target gene expression. Our data suggest that sequestration of FIH by ORFV ANK proteins leads to derepression of HIF activity. These findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral activation of HIF that may extend to other members of the poxvirus family. The protein-protein binding motif formed from multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif is common among chordopoxviruses. However, information on the roles of these poxviral ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins remains limited. Our data indicate that the parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is able to upregulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target gene expression. This response is mediated by the viral ANK proteins, which sequester the HIF regulator FIH

  12. In vitro and in vivo studies identify important features of dengue virus pr-E protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses bud into the endoplasmic reticulum and are transported through the secretory pathway, where the mildly acidic environment triggers particle rearrangement and allows furin processing of the prM protein to pr and M. The peripheral pr peptide remains bound to virus at low pH and inhibits virus-membrane interaction. Upon exocytosis, the release of pr at neutral pH completes virus maturation to an infectious particle. Together this evidence suggests that pr may shield the flavivirus fusion protein E from the low pH environment of the exocytic pathway. Here we developed an in vitro system to reconstitute the interaction of dengue virus (DENV pr with soluble truncated E proteins. At low pH recombinant pr bound to both monomeric and dimeric forms of E and blocked their membrane insertion. Exogenous pr interacted with mature infectious DENV and specifically inhibited virus fusion and infection. Alanine substitution of E H244, a highly conserved histidine residue in the pr-E interface, blocked pr-E interaction and reduced release of DENV virus-like particles. Folding, membrane insertion and trimerization of the H244A mutant E protein were preserved, and particle release could be partially rescued by neutralization of the low pH of the secretory pathway. Thus, pr acts to silence flavivirus fusion activity during virus secretion, and this function can be separated from the chaperone activity of prM. The sequence conservation of key residues involved in the flavivirus pr-E interaction suggests that this protein-protein interface may be a useful target for broad-spectrum inhibitors.

  13. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  14. 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterases inhibit hepatitis B virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    Full Text Available 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP is a member of the interferon-stimulated genes, which includes isoforms CNP1 and CNP2. CNP1 is locally expressed in the myelin sheath but CNP2 is additionally expressed at low levels outside the nervous system. CNPs regulate multiple cellular functions and suppress protein production by association with polyadenylation of mRNA. Polyadenylation of Hepatitis B virus (HBV RNAs is crucial for HBV replication. Whether CNPs interact with polyadenylation signal of HBV RNAs and interfere HBV replication is unknown. In this study, we evaluated expressions of CNP isoforms in hepatoma cell lines and their effects on HBV replication. We found that CNP2 is moderately expressed and gently responded to interferon treatment in HepG2, but not in Huh7 cells. The CNP1 and CNP2 potently inhibited HBV production by blocking viral proteins synthesis and reducing viral RNAs, respectively. In chronic hepatitis B patients, CNP was expressed in most of HBV-infected hepatocytes of liver specimens. Knockdown of CNP expression moderately improved viral production in the HepG2.2.15 cells treated with IFN-α. In conclusion, CNP might be a mediator of interferon-induced response against HBV.

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the NS1 protein of non-cultured influenza B virus strains circulating in Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan

    2016-08-04

    In this study we compared the NS1 protein of Influenza B/Lee/40 and several non-cultured Influenza B virus clinical strains detected in Singapore. In B/Lee/40 virus-infected cells and in cells expressing the recombinant B/Lee/40 NS1 protein a full-length 35 kDa NS1 protein and a 23 kDa NS1 protein species (p23) were detected. Mutational analysis of the NS1 gene indicated that p23 was generated by a novel cleavage event within the linker domain between an aspartic acid and proline at amino acid residues at positions 92 and 93 respectively (DP92–93), and that p23 contained the first 92 amino acids of the NS1 protein. Sequence analysis of the Singapore strains indicated the presence of either DP92–93 or NP92–93 in the NS1 protein, but protein expression analysis showed that p23 was only detected in NS1 proteins with DP92–93.. An additional adjacent proline residue at position 94 (P94) was present in some strains and correlated with increased p23 levels, suggesting that P94 has a synergistic effect on the cleavage of the NS1 protein. The first 145 amino acids of the NS1 protein are required for inhibition of ISG15-mediated ubiquitination, and our analysis showed that Influenza B viruses circulating in Singapore with DP92–93 expressed truncated NS1 proteins and may differ in their capacity to inhibit ISG15 activity. Thus, DP92–93 in the NS1 protein may confer a disadvantage to Influenza B viruses circulating in the human population and interestingly the low frequency of DP92–93detection in the NS1 protein since 2004 is consistent with this suggestion.

  16. Effect of SPLUNC1 protein on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hou-De; Li, Xiao-Ling; Li, Gui-Yuan; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Hua-Ying; Yang, Yi-Xing; Deng, Tan; Ma, Jian; Sheng, Shou-Rong

    2008-02-01

    Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) gene coded a secreted protein found at the surface of nasopharyngeal epithelium, which may be an innate immunity defensive molecular and a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we observed the effects of SPLUNC1 on the Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluated the ability of SPLUNC1 protein binding to lipopolysaccharide. To observe the effect of SPLUNC1 protein on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we raised three EBV-transformed B-lymphocyte lines and treated the cells by SPLUNC1 protein; cellular disruption, apoptosis, EBV DNA content, and viral oncogene expression were analyzed. We found that SPLUNC1 protein can bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, enhance the disruption and apoptosis of EBV-infected B-lymphocytes, downregulate protein expression of EBV latent membrane protein 1, while upregulate protein expression of EBV envelope glycoprotein gp350/220. The total EBV DNA in the culture medium was decreased significantly after 7 days of treatment by SPLUNC1. This study shows that SPLUNC1 not only has the role of antibacteria and antivirus, but also inhibits the potential oncogenicity of EBV in respiratory epithelium.

  17. A study of variability of capsid protein genes of Radish mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    The part of RNA2 genome segment of several isolates of Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) including capsid protein genes was sequenced. Variability of capsid protein genes among the isolates of Radish mosaic virus was studied.

  18. Cytotoxic, antitumour-promoting and inhibition of protein denaturation effects of flavonoids, isolated from Potentilla evestita Th. Wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Haroon; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the isolated flavonoids (chrysin 1, and umbelliferone 2) from Potentilla evestita for cytotoxic, antitumour-promoting and inhibition of protein denaturation activities. The results showed marked cytotoxic effect of compounds 1 and 2 in brine shrimp cytotoxic assay at various concentrations with LD50 of 34.5 and 31.8 mg/mL, respectively. In Epstein-Barr-virus early antigen activation assay, both compounds 1 and 2 illustrated significant antitumour-promoting effect with IC50 values of 462 and 308 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA, respectively. The cytotoxic and antitumour-promoting effects of compounds were strongly supported by inhibition of protein denaturation activity with IC50 of 119 and 112 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, both compounds possess strong cytotoxic, antitumour-promoting and inhibition of protein denaturation activities.

  19. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits TREK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kréneisz, Orsolya; Benoit, Justin P; Bayliss, Douglas A; Mulkey, Daniel K

    2009-12-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by conditions that increase the AMP : ATP ratio. In carotid body glomus cells, AMPK is thought to link changes in arterial O(2) with activation of glomus cells by inhibition of unidentified background K(+) channels. Modulation by AMPK of individual background K(+) channels has not been described. Here, we characterize effects of activated AMPK on recombinant TASK-1, TASK-3, TREK-1 and TREK-2 background K(+) channels expressed in HEK293 cells. We found that TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels but not TASK-1 or TASK-3 channels are inhibited by AMPK. AMPK-mediated inhibition of TREK involves key serine residues in the C-terminus that are also known to be important for PKA and PKC channel modulation; inhibition of TREK-1 requires Ser-300 and Ser-333 and inhibition of TREK-2 requires Ser-326 and Ser-359. Metabolic inhibition by sodium azide can also inhibit both TREK and TASK channels. The effects of azide on TREK occlude subsequent channel inhibition by AMPK and are attenuated by expression of a dominant negative catalytic subunit of AMPK (dnAMPK), suggesting that metabolic stress modulates TREK channels by an AMPK mechanism. By contrast, inhibition of TASK channels by azide was unaffected by expression of dnAMPK, suggesting an AMPK-independent mechanism. In addition, prolonged exposure (6-7 min) to hypoxia ( = 11 +/- 1 mmHg) inhibits TREK channels and this response was blocked by expression of dnAMPK. Our results identify a novel modulation of TREK channels by AMPK and indicate that select residues in the C-terminus of TREK are points of convergence for multiple signalling cascades including AMPK, PKA and PKC. To the extent that carotid body O(2) sensitivity is dependent on AMPK, our finding that TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels are inhibited by AMPK suggests that TREK channels may represent the AMPK-inhibited background K(+) channels that mediate activation of glomus cells by hypoxia.

  20. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X from Pakistan. Arshad Jamal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Munim Farooq, Zahida Qamar, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, M. Arshad Javed, Tayyab Husnain ...

  1. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sami siraj

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... 2Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Institute of Agricultural ... first report on the molecular characterization of full length PVX coat protein sequence infecting potato from Pakistan. ... sensitive and reliable detection methods (Salazar, 1994). Potato virus X ...

  2. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  3. The Tudor domain protein Spindlin1 is involved in intrinsic antiviral defense against incoming hepatitis B Virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Ducroux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV replicates from a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA that remains as an episome within the nucleus of infected cells and serves as a template for the transcription of HBV RNAs. The regulatory protein HBx has been shown to be essential for cccDNA transcription in the context of infection. Here we identified Spindlin1, a cellular Tudor-domain protein, as an HBx interacting partner. We further demonstrated that Spindlin1 is recruited to the cccDNA and inhibits its transcription in the context of infection. Spindlin1 knockdown induced an increase in HBV transcription and in histone H4K4 trimethylation at the cccDNA, suggesting that Spindlin1 impacts on epigenetic regulation. Spindlin1-induced transcriptional inhibition was greater for the HBV virus deficient for the expression of HBx than for the HBV WT virus, suggesting that HBx counteracts Spindlin1 repression. Importantly, we showed that the repressive role of Spindlin1 is not limited to HBV transcription but also extends to other DNA virus that replicate within the nucleus such as Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1. Taken together our results identify Spindlin1 as a critical component of the intrinsic antiviral defense and shed new light on the function of HBx in HBV infection.

  4. In vivo inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus by ribavirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hruska, J.F.; Morrow, P.E.; Suffin, S.C.; Douglas, R.G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ribavirin reduced the amount of respiratory syncytial virus in nasal turbinates and lung tissues of experimentally infected cotton rats by over 90%. An effect was seen when the drug was given either intraperitoneally or by aerosol; however, the antiviral effect was achieved at much lower doses when delivered by the aerosol route. No animal deaths due to the drug were seen.

  5. The core protein of classical Swine Fever virus is dispensable for virus propagation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Riedel

    Full Text Available Core protein of Flaviviridae is regarded as essential factor for nucleocapsid formation. Yet, core protein is not encoded by all isolates (GBV- A and GBV- C. Pestiviruses are a genus within the family Flaviviridae that affect cloven-hoofed animals, causing economically important diseases like classical swine fever (CSF and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD. Recent findings describe the ability of NS3 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV to compensate for disabling size increase of core protein (Riedel et al., 2010. NS3 is a nonstructural protein possessing protease, helicase and NTPase activity and a key player in virus replication. A role of NS3 in particle morphogenesis has also been described for other members of the Flaviviridae (Patkar et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2008. These findings raise questions about the necessity and function of core protein and the role of NS3 in particle assembly. A reverse genetic system for CSFV was employed to generate poorly growing CSFVs by modification of the core gene. After passaging, rescued viruses had acquired single amino acid substitutions (SAAS within NS3 helicase subdomain 3. Upon introduction of these SAAS in a nonviable CSFV with deletion of almost the entire core gene (Vp447(Δc, virus could be rescued. Further characterization of this virus with regard to its physical properties, morphology and behavior in cell culture did not reveal major differences between wildtype (Vp447 and Vp447(Δc. Upon infection of the natural host, Vp447(Δc was attenuated. Hence we conclude that core protein is not essential for particle assembly of a core-encoding member of the Flaviviridae, but important for its virulence. This raises questions about capsid structure and necessity, the role of NS3 in particle assembly and the function of core protein in general.

  6. Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-kappaB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-K Pauli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The type I interferon (IFN system is a first line of defense against viral infections. Viruses have developed various mechanisms to counteract this response. So far, the interferon antagonistic activity of influenza A viruses was mainly observed on the level of IFNbeta gene induction via action of the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1. Here we present data indicating that influenza A viruses not only suppress IFNbeta gene induction but also inhibit type I IFN signaling through a mechanism involving induction of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3 protein. Our study was based on the observation that in cells that were infected with influenza A virus and subsequently stimulated with IFNalpha/beta, phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1 (STAT1 was strongly reduced. This impaired STAT1 activation was not due to the action of viral proteins but rather appeared to be induced by accumulation of viral 5' triphosphate RNA in the cell. SOCS proteins are potent endogenous inhibitors of Janus kinase (JAK/STAT signaling. Closer examination revealed that SOCS-3 but not SOCS-1 mRNA levels increase in an RNA- and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB-dependent but type I IFN-independent manner early in the viral replication cycle. This direct viral induction of SOCS-3 mRNA and protein expression appears to be relevant for suppression of the antiviral response since in SOCS-3 deficient cells a sustained phosphorylation of STAT1 correlated with elevated expression of type I IFN-dependent genes. As a consequence, progeny virus titers were reduced in SOCS-3 deficient cells or in cells were SOCS-3 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. These data provide the first evidence that influenza A viruses suppress type I IFN signaling on the level of JAK/STAT activation. The inhibitory effect is at least in part due to the induction of SOCS-3 gene expression, which results in an impaired antiviral response.

  7. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  8. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  9. Susceptibility of domestic animals to a pseudotype virus bearing RD-114 virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Rie Nakaoka; Nakagawa, So; Hashimoto-Gotoh, Akira; Nakaya, Yuki; Shimode, Sayumi; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-08-10

    Retroviral vectors are used for gene transduction into cells and have been applied to gene therapy. Retroviral vectors using envelope protein (Env) of RD-114 virus, a feline endogenous retrovirus, have been used for gene transduction. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility to RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus in twelve domestic animals including cattle, sheep, horse, pig, dog, cat, ferret, mink, rabbit, rat, mouse, and quail. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of ASCT2 (SLC1A5), a receptor of RD-114 virus, in 10 mammalian and 2 avian species revealed that insertion and deletion events at the region C of ASCT2 where RD-114 viral Env interacts occurred independently in the mouse and rat lineage and in the chicken and quail lineage. By the pseudotype virus infection assay, we found that RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus could efficiently infect all cell lines except those from mouse and rat. Furthermore, we confirmed that bovine ASCT2 (bASCT2) functions as a receptor for RD-114 virus infection. We also investigated bASCT2 mRNA expression in cattle tissues and found that it is expressed in various tissues including lung, spleen and kidney. These results indicate that retrovirus vectors with RD-114 virus Env can be used for gene therapy in large domestic animals in addition to companion animals such as cat and dog. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A leucine residue in the C terminus of human parainfluenza virus type 3 matrix protein is essential for efficient virus-like particle and virion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyuan; Zhang, Shengwei; Ding, Binbin; Yang, Xiaodan; Chen, Longyun; Yan, Qin; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhong, Yi; Chen, Mingzhou

    2014-11-01

    Paramyxovirus particles, like other enveloped virus particles, are formed by budding from membranes of infected cells, and matrix (M) proteins are critical for this process. To identify the M protein important for this process, we have characterized the budding of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) M protein. Our results showed that expression of the HPIV3 M protein alone is sufficient to initiate the release of virus-like particles (VLPs). Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that VLPs are morphologically similar to HPIV3 virions. We identified a leucine (L302) residue within the C terminus of the HPIV3 M protein that is critical for M protein-mediated VLP production by regulating the ubiquitination of the M protein. When L302 was mutated into A302, ubiquitination of M protein was defective, the release of VLPs was abolished, and the membrane binding and budding abilities of M protein were greatly weakened, but the ML302A mutant retained oligomerization activity and had a dominant negative effect on M protein-mediated VLP production. Furthermore, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor also inhibited M protein-mediated VLP production and viral budding. Finally, recombinant HPIV3 containing the M(L302A) mutant could not be rescued. These results suggest that L302 acts as a critical regulating signal for the ubiquitination of the HPIV3 M protein and virion release. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. It can cause severe respiratory tract diseases, such as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and croup in infants and young children. However, no valid antiviral therapy or vaccine is currently available. Thus, further elucidation of its assembly and budding will be helpful in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that a leucine residue (L302) located at the C terminus of the HPIV3 M protein is essential for efficient production of virus-like particles (VLPs). Furthermore

  11. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  12. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M

    2017-05-09

    Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parainfluenza virus 5 expressing the G protein of rabies virus protects mice after rabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua; Fu, ZhenFang; He, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Retinoids irreversibly inhibit in vitro growth of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponi, F; Cariati, R; Zancai, P; De Paoli, P; Rizzo, S; Tedeschi, R M; Pivetta, B; De Vita, S; Boiocchi, M; Dolcetti, R

    1996-10-15

    Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated

  15. Separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eIF4G cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Hua Guan, Su

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus and its RNA genome encodes a large polyprotein. The N-terminal part of this polyprotein is the Leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed Lpro. The virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell capdependent protein synthesis within infected...

  16. Triggering of the Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein by a Chimeric Attachment Protein That Binds to Nipah Virus Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Anne M.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Zhu, Qiyun; Mahon, Paul J.; Rota, Paul A.; Lee, Benhur; Iorio, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    The fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are both triggered by binding to receptors, mediated in both viruses by a second protein, the attachment protein. However, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) attachment protein of NDV recognizes sialic acid receptors, whereas the NiV G attachment protein recognizes ephrinB2/B3 as receptors. Chimeric proteins composed of domains from the two attachment proteins have been evaluated for fusion-promoting activity with each F protein. Chimeras having NiV G-derived globular domains and NDV HN-derived stalks, transmembranes, and cytoplasmic tails are efficiently expressed, bind ephrinB2, and trigger NDV F to promote fusion in Vero cells. Thus, the NDV F protein can be triggered by binding to the NiV receptor, indicating that an aspect of the triggering cascade induced by the binding of HN to sialic acid is conserved in the binding of NiV G to ephrinB2. However, the fusion cascade for triggering NiV F by the G protein and that of triggering NDV F by the chimeras can be distinguished by differential exposure of a receptor-induced conformational epitope. The enhanced exposure of this epitope marks the triggering of NiV F by NiV G but not the triggering of NDV F by the chimeras. Thus, the triggering cascade for NiV G-F fusion may be more complex than that of NDV HN and F. This is consistent with the finding that reciprocal chimeras having NDV HN-derived heads and NiV G-derived stalks, transmembranes, and tails do not trigger either F protein for fusion, despite efficient cell surface expression and receptor binding. PMID:21460213

  17. Triggering of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein by a chimeric attachment protein that binds to Nipah virus receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Anne M; Aguilar, Hector C; Zhu, Qiyun; Mahon, Paul J; Rota, Paul A; Lee, Benhur; Iorio, Ronald M

    2011-05-20

    The fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are both triggered by binding to receptors, mediated in both viruses by a second protein, the attachment protein. However, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) attachment protein of NDV recognizes sialic acid receptors, whereas the NiV G attachment protein recognizes ephrinB2/B3 as receptors. Chimeric proteins composed of domains from the two attachment proteins have been evaluated for fusion-promoting activity with each F protein. Chimeras having NiV G-derived globular domains and NDV HN-derived stalks, transmembranes, and cytoplasmic tails are efficiently expressed, bind ephrinB2, and trigger NDV F to promote fusion in Vero cells. Thus, the NDV F protein can be triggered by binding to the NiV receptor, indicating that an aspect of the triggering cascade induced by the binding of HN to sialic acid is conserved in the binding of NiV G to ephrinB2. However, the fusion cascade for triggering NiV F by the G protein and that of triggering NDV F by the chimeras can be distinguished by differential exposure of a receptor-induced conformational epitope. The enhanced exposure of this epitope marks the triggering of NiV F by NiV G but not the triggering of NDV F by the chimeras. Thus, the triggering cascade for NiV G-F fusion may be more complex than that of NDV HN and F. This is consistent with the finding that reciprocal chimeras having NDV HN-derived heads and NiV G-derived stalks, transmembranes, and tails do not trigger either F protein for fusion, despite efficient cell surface expression and receptor binding. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Prediction of protein-protein interactions between viruses and human by an SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several computational methods have been developed to predict protein-protein interactions from amino acid sequences, but most of those methods are intended for the interactions within a species rather than for interactions across different species. Methods for predicting interactions between homogeneous proteins are not appropriate for finding those between heterogeneous proteins since they do not distinguish the interactions between proteins of the same species from those of different species. Results We developed a new method for representing a protein sequence of variable length in a frequency vector of fixed length, which encodes the relative frequency of three consecutive amino acids of a sequence. We built a support vector machine (SVM model to predict human proteins that interact with virus proteins. In two types of viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, our SVM model achieved an average accuracy above 80%, which is higher than that of another SVM model with a different representation scheme. Using the SVM model and Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins, we predicted new interactions between virus proteins and human proteins. Conclusions Encoding the relative frequency of amino acid triplets of a protein sequence is a simple yet powerful representation method for predicting protein-protein interactions across different species. The representation method has several advantages: (1 it enables a prediction model to achieve a better performance than other representations, (2 it generates feature vectors of fixed length regardless of the sequence length, and (3 the same representation is applicable to different types of proteins.

  19. Cutting Edge: Innate Immune Augmenting Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing Zika Virus Proteins Confers Protective Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Dillon; de Queiroz, Nina M G P; Xia, Tianli; Ahn, Jeonghyun; Barber, Glen N

    2017-04-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a serious public health concern because of its link to brain damage in developing human fetuses. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) was shown to be a highly effective and safe vector for the delivery of foreign immunogens for vaccine purposes. In this study, we generated rVSVs (wild-type and attenuated VSV with mutated matrix protein [VSVm] versions) that express either the full length ZIKV envelope protein (ZENV) alone or include the ZENV precursor to the membrane protein upstream of the envelope protein, and our rVSV-ZIKV constructs showed efficient immunogenicity in murine models. We also demonstrated maternal protective immunity in challenged newborn mice born to female mice vaccinated with VSVm-ZENV containing the transmembrane domain. Our data indicate that rVSVm may be a suitable strategy for the design of effective vaccines against ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Non-human Primate Schlafen11 Inhibits Production of Both Host and Viral Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C Stabell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Schlafen11 (encoded by the SLFN11 gene has been shown to inhibit the accumulation of HIV-1 proteins. We show that the SLFN11 gene is under positive selection in simian primates and is species-specific in its activity against HIV-1. The activity of human Schlafen11 is relatively weak compared to that of some other primate versions of this protein, with the versions encoded by chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and marmoset being particularly potent inhibitors of HIV-1 protein production. Interestingly, we find that Schlafen11 is functional in the absence of infection and reduces protein production from certain non-viral (GFP and even host (Vinculin and GAPDH transcripts. This suggests that Schlafen11 may just generally block protein production from non-codon optimized transcripts. Because Schlafen11 is an interferon-stimulated gene with a broad ability to inhibit protein production from many host and viral transcripts, its role may be to create a general antiviral state in the cell. Interestingly, the strong inhibitors such as marmoset Schlafen11 consistently block protein production better than weak primate Schlafen11 proteins, regardless of the virus or host target being analyzed. Further, we show that the residues to which species-specific differences in Schlafen11 potency map are distinct from residues that have been targeted by positive selection. We speculate that the positive selection of SLFN11 could have been driven by a number of different factors, including interaction with one or more viral antagonists that have yet to be identified.

  1. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by balsamin, a ribosome inactivating protein of Momordica balsamina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderdeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4(+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections.

  3. Inactivation of enveloped virus by laser-driven protein aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Yu, Dong; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafast lasers in the visible and near-infrared range have emerged as a potential new method for pathogen reduction of blood products and pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanism of enveloped virus inactivation by this method is unknown. We report the inactivation as well as the molecular and structural effects caused by visible (425 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation on murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Our results show that laser irradiation (1) caused a 5-log reduction in MCMV titer, (2) did not cause significant changes to the global structure of MCMV virions including membrane and capsid, as assessed by electron microscopy, (3) produced no evidence of double-strand breaks or crosslinking in MCMV genomic DNA, and (4) caused selective aggregation of viral capsid and tegument proteins. We propose a model in which ultrafast laser irradiation induces partial unfolding of viral proteins by disrupting hydrogen bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to aggregation of closely associated viral proteins and inactivation of the virus. These results provide new insight into the inactivation of enveloped viruses by visible femtosecond lasers at the molecular level, and help pave the way for the development of a new ultrafast laser technology for pathogen reduction.

  4. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  5. Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A Rothan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1 and plectasin (PLSN were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 0.5±0.1 μM. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 μM. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities.

  6. Antigenicity of the 2015-2016 seasonal H1N1 human influenza virus HA and NA proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia M Clark

    Full Text Available Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40% of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic. The circulating strains belonged to subclade 6B.1, defined by HA amino acid substitutions S101N, S179N, and I233T. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI and HA-specific neutralizing serum antibody (Ab titers from around 50% of pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects and immune ferrets were 2-4 fold lower for the 2015-2016 circulating strains compared to the vaccine strain. In addition, using a luminex-based mPlex HA assay, the binding of human sera from subjects infected with pH1N1-like viruses to the HA proteins from circulating and vaccine strains was not identical, strongly suggesting antigenic differences in the HA protein. Additionally, NA inhibition (NAI Ab titers in human sera from pH1N1-like virus-infected subjects increased after the infection and there were measurable antigenic differences between the NA protein of circulating strains and the vaccine strain using both ferret and human antisera. Despite having been vaccinated, infected subjects exhibited low HAI Ab titers against the vaccine and circulating strains. This suggests that poor responses to the H1N1 component of the vaccine as well as antigenic differences in the HA and NA proteins of currently circulating pH1N1-like viruses could be contributing to

  7. The human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase inhibition activity of novel pyridine/pyridinium-type fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Takumi; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

    2015-08-15

    In the present study, we describe the synthesis of a novel set of pyridine/pyridinium-type fullerene derivatives. The products were assessed for human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase inhibition activities. All novel fullerene derivatives showed potent human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase inhibition without cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Promote Survival of Latently Infected Sensory Neurons, in Part by Inhibiting Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    α-Herpesvirinae subfamily members, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), initiate infection in mucosal surfaces. BHV-1 and HSV-1 enter sensory neurons by cell-cell spread where a burst of viral gene expression occurs. When compared to non-neuronal cells, viral gene expression is quickly extinguished in sensory neurons resulting in neuronal survival and latency. The HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT), which is abundantly expressed in latently infected neurons, inhibits apoptosis, viral transcription, and productive infection, and directly or indirectly enhances reactivation from latency in small animal models. Three anti-apoptosis genes can be substituted for LAT, which will restore wild type levels of reactivation from latency to a LAT null mutant virus. Two small non-coding RNAs encoded by LAT possess anti-apoptosis functions in transfected cells. The BHV-1 latency related RNA (LR-RNA), like LAT, is abundantly expressed during latency. The LR-RNA encodes a protein (ORF2) and two microRNAs that are expressed in certain latently infected neurons. Wild-type expression of LR gene products is required for stress-induced reactivation from latency in cattle. ORF2 has anti-apoptosis functions and interacts with certain cellular transcription factors that stimulate viral transcription and productive infection. ORF2 is predicted to promote survival of infected neurons by inhibiting apoptosis and sequestering cellular transcription factors which stimulate productive infection. In addition, the LR encoded microRNAs inhibit viral transcription and apoptosis. In summary, the ability of BHV-1 and HSV-1 to interfere with apoptosis and productive infection in sensory neurons is crucial for the life-long latency-reactivation cycle in their respective hosts. PMID:25278776

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus induces lysosomal degradation of host protein kinase PKR by 3C proteinase to facilitate virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuntian; Zhu, Zixiang; Du, Xiaoli; Cao, Weijun; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangle; Feng, Huanhuan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2017-09-01

    The interferon-induced double-strand RNA activated protein kinase (PKR) plays important roles in host defense against viral infection. Here we demonstrate the significant antiviral role of PKR against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and report that FMDV infection inhibits PKR expression and activation in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. The viral nonstructural protein 3C proteinase (3Cpro) is identified to be responsible for this inhibition. However, it is independent of the well-known proteinase activity of 3Cpro or 3Cpro-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis. We show that 3Cpro induces PKR degradation by lysosomal pathway and no interaction is determined between 3Cpro and PKR. Together, our results indicate that PKR acts an important antiviral factor during FMDV infection, and FMDV has evolved a strategy to overcome PKR-mediated antiviral role by downregulation of PKR protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The C-terminal end of parainfluenza virus 5 NP protein is important for virus-like particle production and M-NP protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Phuong Tieu; Ray, Greeshma; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2010-12-01

    Enveloped virus particles are formed by budding from infected-cell membranes. For paramyxoviruses, viral matrix (M) proteins are key drivers of virus assembly and budding. However, other paramyxovirus proteins, including glycoproteins, nucleocapsid (NP or N) proteins, and C proteins, are also important for particle formation in some cases. To investigate the role of NP protein in parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) particle formation, NP protein truncation and substitution mutants were analyzed. Alterations near the C-terminal end of NP protein completely disrupted its virus-like particle (VLP) production function and significantly impaired M-NP protein interaction. Recombinant viruses with altered NP proteins were generated, and these viruses acquired second-site mutations. Recombinant viruses propagated in Vero cells acquired mutations that mainly affected components of the viral polymerase, while recombinant viruses propagated in MDBK cells acquired mutations that mainly affected the viral M protein. Two of the Vero-propagated viruses acquired the same mutation, V/P(S157F), found previously to be responsible for elevated viral gene expression induced by a well-characterized variant of PIV5, P/V-CPI(-). Vero-propagated viruses caused elevated viral protein synthesis and spread rapidly through infected monolayers by direct cell-cell fusion, bypassing the need to bud infectious virions. Both Vero- and MDBK-propagated viruses exhibited infectivity defects and altered polypeptide composition, consistent with poor incorporation of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) into budding virions. Second-site mutations affecting M protein restored interaction with altered NP proteins in some cases and improved VLP production. These results suggest that multiple avenues are available to paramyxoviruses for overcoming defects in M-NP protein interaction.

  11. Water extract of Cinnamomum cassia Blume inhibited human respiratory syncytial virus by preventing viral attachment, internalization, and syncytium formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia Feng; Chang, Jung San; Wang, Kuo Chih; Shieh, Den En; Chiang, Lien Chai

    2013-05-20

    Cinnamomum cassia Blume is a popular traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to manage respiratory tract disease, including common cold and chronic bronchitis for thousand years. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is one of the leading causes of severe lower respiratory tract illness worldwide. No effective therapeutic modality against HRSV infection has been proved. It is unknown whether Cinnamomum cassia is effective against HRSV. This study tested the hypothesis that Cinnamomum cassia can effectively decrease HRSV-induced plaque formation and syncytium formation in respiratory mucosal cell lines. Antiviral activity of the hot water extract of Cinnamomum cassia against HRSV was tested by plaque reduction assay in both human upper (HEp-2) and low (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Its ability to inhibit the synthesis of viral fusion (F) protein was examined by Western blot assay. Cinnamomum cassia dose-dependently inhibited HRSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cell lines (pCinnamomum cassia was more effective when given before viral infection (pCinnamomum cassia could inhibit F protein production and syncytium formation to interfere with HRSV spreading. Cinnamomum cassia prevented airway epithelia from HRSV infection through inhibiting viral attachment, internalization and syncytium formation. Cinnamomum cassia could be a candidate to develop therapeutic modalities to manage HRSV infection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic inhibition of the intrinsic factor X activation by protein S and C4b-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The complement protein C4b-binding protein plays an important role in the regulation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. C4b-binding protein can bind to protein S, thereby inhibiting the cofactor activity of protein S for activated protein C. In this report, we describe a new role for

  13. Inhibition of influenza A virus (H1N1 fusion by benzenesulfonamide derivatives targeting viral hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin (HA of the influenza virus plays a crucial role in the early stage of the viral life cycle by binding to sialic acid on the surface of host epithelial cells and mediating fusion between virus envelope and endosome membrane for the release of viral genomes into the cytoplasm. To initiate virus fusion, endosome pH is lowered by acidification causing an irreversible conformational change of HA, which in turn results in a fusogenic HA. In this study, we describe characterization of an HA inhibitor of influenza H1N1 viruses, RO5464466. One-cycle time course study in MDCK cells showed that this compound acted at an early step of influenza virus replication. Results from HA-mediated hemolysis of chicken red blood cells and trypsin sensitivity assay of isolated HA clearly showed that RO5464466 targeted HA. In cell-based assays involving multiple rounds of virus infection and replication, RO5464466 inhibited an established influenza infection. The overall production of progeny viruses, as a result of the compound's inhibitory effect on fusion, was dramatically reduced by 8 log units when compared with a negative control. Furthermore, RO5487624, a close analogue of RO5464466, with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for in vivo efficacy studies displayed a protective effect on mice that were lethally challenged with influenza H1N1 virus. These results might benefit further characterization and development of novel anti-influenza agents by targeting viral hemagglutinin.

  14. Investigation of the Lipid Binding Properties of the Marburg Virus Matrix Protein VP40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Kaveesha J; Stahelin, Robert V

    2015-12-30

    Marburg virus (MARV), which belongs to the virus family Filoviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates that is often fatal. MARV is a lipid-enveloped virus that during the replication process extracts its lipid coat from the plasma membrane of the host cell it infects. MARV carries seven genes, one of which encodes its matrix protein VP40 (mVP40), which regulates the assembly and budding of the virions. Currently, little information is available on mVP40 lipid binding properties. Here, we have investigated the in vitro and cellular mechanisms by which mVP40 associates with lipid membranes. mVP40 associates with anionic membranes in a nonspecific manner that is dependent upon the anionic charge density of the membrane. These results are consistent with recent structural determination of mVP40, which elucidated an mVP40 dimer with a flat and extensive cationic lipid binding interface. Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped filamentous virus from the family Filoviridae. MARV was discovered in 1967, and yet little is known about how its seven genes are used to assemble and form a new viral particle in the host cell it infects. The MARV matrix protein VP40 (mVP40) underlies the inner leaflet of the virus and regulates budding from the host cell plasma membrane. In vitro and cellular assays in this study investigated the mechanism by which mVP40 associates with lipids. The results demonstrate that mVP40 interactions with lipid vesicles or the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane are electrostatic but nonspecific in nature and are dependent on the anionic charge density of the membrane surface. Small molecules that can disrupt lipid trafficking or reduce the anionic charge of the plasma membrane interface may be useful in inhibiting assembly and budding of MARV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Scorpion Defensin BmKDfsin4 Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause acute and chronic hepatitis and can significantly increase the risk of liver cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nowadays, clinical therapies of HBV infection still mainly rely on nucleotide analogs and interferons, the usage of which is limited by drug-resistant mutation or side effects. Defensins had been reported to effectively inhibit the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Here, we screened the anti-HBV activity of 25 scorpion-derived peptides most recently characterized by our group. Through evaluating anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity, we found that BmKDfsin4, a scorpion defensin with antibacterial and Kv1.3-blocking activities, has a comparable high inhibitory rate of both HBeAg and HBsAg in HepG2.2.15 culture medium and low cytotoxicity to HepG2.2.15. Then, our experimental results further showed that BmKDfsin4 can dose-dependently decrease the production of HBV DNA and HBV viral proteins in both culture medium and cell lysate. Interestingly, BmKDfsin4 exerted high serum stability. Together, this study indicates that the scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 also has inhibitory activity against HBV replication along with its antibacterial and potassium ion channel Kv1.3-blocking activities, which shows that BmKDfsin4 is a uniquely multifunctional defensin molecule. Our work also provides a good molecule material which will be used to investigate the link or relationship of its antiviral, antibacterial and ion channel–modulating activities in the future.

  16. Localization of the nonstructural protein NS1 in bluetongue virus-infected cells and its presence in virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, B T; Hyatt, A D; White, J R

    1988-04-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies to the nonstructural protein NS1 of an Australian isolate of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been used in immunofluoresence and immunogold procedures to locate NS1 in virus-infected cells and cytoskeletons. The antibodies fall into three groups indicating that NS1 contains at least three antigenic sites. One group consists of four antibodies which react solely with cytoskeleton-associated virus-specific tubules. A second group contains one antibody which reacts with cytoskeleton-associated virus particles, released viruses, and purified virus and core particles. Two antibodies constituting a third group react with both tubules and cytoskeleton-associated and released virus particles. NS1 was found in [35S]methionine-labeled, purified virus and core particles. Immunofluorescence tests reveal that those antibodies which react with virus particles also bind to cytoskeleton-associated virus inclusion bodies (VIB). The nature of this association was examined by probing cytoskeletons of BTV-infected cells with antibodies to NS1 and protein A-gold. VIB observed in thin sections were not uniformly labeled. Gold was associated with fibrillar arrays found around virus particles either leaving or in close proximity to the VIB. Fibrillar material was not found in association with all virus particles elsewhere in the cell and this suggests that fibril-virus complexes may be intermediate in virus morphogenesis.

  17. Prediction of protein-protein interactions in dengue virus coat proteins guided by low resolution cryoEM structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Narayanaswamy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus along with the other members of the flaviviridae family has reemerged as deadly human pathogens. Understanding the mechanistic details of these infections can be highly rewarding in developing effective antivirals. During maturation of the virus inside the host cell, the coat proteins E and M undergo conformational changes, altering the morphology of the viral coat. However, due to low resolution nature of the available 3-D structures of viral assemblies, the atomic details of these changes are still elusive. Results In the present analysis, starting from Cα positions of low resolution cryo electron microscopic structures the residue level details of protein-protein interaction interfaces of dengue virus coat proteins have been predicted. By comparing the preexisting structures of virus in different phases of life cycle, the changes taking place in these predicted protein-protein interaction interfaces were followed as a function of maturation process of the virus. Besides changing the current notion about the presence of only homodimers in the mature viral coat, the present analysis indicated presence of a proline-rich motif at the protein-protein interaction interface of the coat protein. Investigating the conservation status of these seemingly functionally crucial residues across other members of flaviviridae family enabled dissecting common mechanisms used for infections by these viruses. Conclusions Thus, using computational approach the present analysis has provided better insights into the preexisting low resolution structures of virus assemblies, the findings of which can be made use of in designing effective antivirals against these deadly human pathogens.

  18. A thiopurine drug inhibits West Nile virus production in cell culture, but not in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yin Lim

    Full Text Available Many viruses within the Flavivirus genus cause significant disease in humans; however, effective antivirals against these viruses are not currently available. We have previously shown that a thiopurine drug, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr, inhibits replication of distantly related viruses within the Flaviviridae family in cell culture, including bovine viral diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus replicon. Here we further examined the potential antiviral effect of 6MMPr on several diverse flaviviruses. In cell culture, 6MMPr inhibited virus production of yellow fever virus, dengue virus-2 (DENV-2 and West Nile virus (WNV in a dose-dependent manner, and DENV-2 was significantly more sensitive to 6MMPr treatment than WNV. We then explored the use of 6MMPr as an antiviral against WNV in an immunocompetent mouse model. Once a day treatment of mice with 0.5 mg 6MMPr was just below the toxic dose in our mouse model, and this dose was used in subsequent studies. Mice were treated with 6MMPr immediately after subcutaneous inoculation with WNV for eight consecutive days. Treatment with 6MMPr exacerbated weight loss in WNV-inoculated mice and did not significantly affect mortality. We hypothesized that 6MMPr has low bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS and examined the effect of pre-treatment with 6MMPr on viral loads in the periphery and CNS. Pre-treatment with 6MMPr had no significant effect on viremia or viral titers in the periphery, but resulted in significantly higher viral loads in the brain, suggesting that the effect of 6MMPr is tissue-dependent. In conclusion, despite being a potent inhibitor of flaviviruses in cell culture, 6MMPr was not effective against West Nile disease in mice; however, further studies are warranted to reduce the toxicity and/or improve the bioavailability of this potential antiviral drug.

  19. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) attachment and fusion proteins protects hamsters from challenge with human PIV3 and RSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Aurelia A; Mitiku, Misrach; MacPhail, Mia

    2003-08-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the main causes of ubiquitous acute respiratory diseases of infancy and early childhood, causing 20-25 % of pneumonia and 45-50 % of bronchiolitis in hospitalized children. The primary goal of this study was to create an effective and safe RSV vaccine based on utilizing attenuated bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) as a virus vector backbone. bPIV3 had been evaluated in human clinical trials and was shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in children as young as 2 months of age. The ability of bPIV3 to function as a virus vaccine vector was explored further by introducing the RSV attachment (G) and fusion (F) genes into the bPIV3 RNA genome. The resulting virus, bPIV3/RSV(I), contained an insert of 2900 nt, comprising two translationally competent transcription units. Despite this increase in genetic material, the virus replicated to high titres in Vero cells. This recombinant virus expressed the RSV G and F proteins sufficiently to evoke a protective immune response in hamsters upon challenge with RSV or human PIV3 and to elicit RSV neutralizing and PIV3 haemagglutinin inhibition serum antibodies. In effect, a bivalent vaccine was produced that could protect vaccinees from RSV as well as PIV3. Such a vaccine would vastly reduce the respiratory disease burden, the associated hospitalization costs and, most importantly, decrease morbidity and mortality of infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly.

  20. The cellular protein MCM3AP is required for inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis by the IE86 protein of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Poole

    Full Text Available Like all DNA viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is known to result in profound effects on host cell cycle. Infection of fibroblasts with HCMV is known to induce an advance in cell cycle through the G(0-G(1 phase and then a subsequent arrest of cell cycle in early S-phase, presumably resulting in a cellular environment optimum for high levels of viral DNA replication whilst precluding replication of cellular DNA. Although the exact mechanisms used to arrest cell cycle by HCMV are unclear, they likely involve a number of viral gene products and evidence points to the ability of the virus to prevent licensing of cellular DNA synthesis. One viral protein known to profoundly alter cell cycle is the viral immediate early 86 (IE86 protein--an established function of which is to initially drive cells into early S phase but then inhibit cellular DNA synthesis. Here we show that, although IE86 interacts with the cellular licensing factor Cdt1, it does not inhibit licensing of cellular origins. Instead, IE86-mediated inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis requires mini-chromosome-maintenance 3 (MCM3 associated protein (MCM3AP, which can cause subsequent inhibition of initiation of cellular DNA synthesis in a licensing-independent manner.

  1. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  2. Aspirin-like molecules that inhibit human immunodeficiency virus 1 replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Cândida F.; Paridaen, Judith T. M. L.; Rutten, Karla; Huigen, Marleen C. D. G.; van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Middel, Jeena; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben; Schuurman, Rob; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Verhoef, Jan; Nottet, Hans S. L. M.

    2003-01-01

    Some anti-inflammatory molecules are also known to possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. We found that o-(acetoxyphenyl)hept-2-ynyl sulfide (APHS), a recently synthesized non-steroidal anti-inflammatory molecule can inhibit HIV-1 replication. The aim of this study was to clarify

  3. Trichoderma L-Lysine-α-Oxidase Producer Strain Culture Fluid Inhibits Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, I P; Shneider, Yu A; Karimova, E V

    2016-01-01

    A method for PCR diagnosis of impatiens necrotic spot virus is developed. Concentrated culture fluid with active L-lysine-α-oxidase (0.54 U/ml) from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fungus producer strain F-180 inhibits vitally hazardous impatiens necrotic spot phytovirus.

  4. Inhibition of Pim1 kinase, new therapeutic approach in virus-induced asthma exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Maaike; Bedke, Nicole; Smithers, Natalie P.; Loxham, Matthew; Howarth, Peter H.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Davies, Donna E.

    Therapeutic options to treat virus-induced asthma exacerbations are limited and urgently needed. Therefore, we tested Pim1 kinase as potential therapeutic target in human rhinovirus (HRV) infections. We hypothesised that inhibition of Pim1 kinase reduces HRV replication by augmenting the

  5. Silver nanoparticles inhibit vaccinia virus infection by preventing viral entry through a macropinocytosis-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefry, John C; Wooley, Dawn P

    2013-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been shown to inhibit viruses. However, very little is known about the mechanism of antiviral activity. This study tested the hypothesis that 25-nm silver nanoparticles inhibited Vaccinia virus replication by preventing viral entry. Plaque reduction, confocal microscopy, and beta-galactosidase reporter gene assays were used to examine viral attachment and entry in the presence and absence of silver nanoparticles. To explore the mechanism of inhibition, viral entry experiments were conducted with silver nanoparticles and small interfering RNAs designed to silence the gene coding for p21-activated kinase 1, a key mediator of macropinocytosis. The silver nanoparticles caused a 4- to 5-log reduction in viral titer at concentrations that were not toxic to cells. Virus was capable of adsorbing to cells but could not enter cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles. Virus particles that had adsorbed to cells in the presence of silver nanoparticles were found to be infectious upon removal from the cells, indicating lack of direct virucidal effect. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for viral entry in the presence of silver nanoparticles was 27.4+/-3.3 microg/ml. When macropinocytosis was blocked, this inhibition was significantly reduced. Thus, macropinocytosis was required for the full antiviral effect. For the first time, this study points to the novel result that a cellular process involved in viral entry is responsible for the antiviral effects of silver nanoparticles.

  6. Inhibition of dengue virus 3 in mammalian cell culture by synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the inhibition of Dengue virus 3 by synthetic siRNAs targeting the untranslated regions UTR and structural regions of DENV3 genome in Vero-81 cell line. Methods: Vero-81 cells transfected with synthetic siRNAs were challenged by DENV3. The effectiveness of siRNAs was confirmed by four ...

  7. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...

  8. Analysis of the Diluents Used for Rubella Virus Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition Tests1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, H. J.; Northrop, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    A new diluent (ADGP) for the rubella virus hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests is described. It was found that the HA and HI titers and the erythrocyte agglutination pattern were improved in ADGP compared to previously described diluents. The influence of the components of ADGP and of various test conditions on optimal HA and HI results were examined. PMID:5807157

  9. Prediction of virus-host protein-protein interactions mediated by short linear motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Andrés; Bucheli, Victor A; Moreno, Pedro A

    2017-03-09

    Short linear motifs in host organisms proteins can be mimicked by viruses to create protein-protein interactions that disable or control metabolic pathways. Given that viral linear motif instances of host motif regular expressions can be found by chance, it is necessary to develop filtering methods of functional linear motifs. We conduct a systematic comparison of linear motifs filtering methods to develop a computational approach for predicting motif-mediated protein-protein interactions between human and the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We implemented three filtering methods to obtain linear motif sets: 1) conserved in viral proteins (C), 2) located in disordered regions (D) and 3) rare or scarce in a set of randomized viral sequences (R). The sets C,D,R are united and intersected. The resulting sets are compared by the number of protein-protein interactions correctly inferred with them - with experimental validation. The comparison is done with HIV-1 sequences and interactions from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The number of correctly inferred interactions allows to rank the interactions by the sets used to deduce them: D∪R and C. The ordering of the sets is descending on the probability of capturing functional interactions. With respect to HIV-1, the sets C∪R, D∪R, C∪D∪R infer all known interactions between HIV1 and human proteins mediated by linear motifs. We found that the majority of conserved linear motifs in the virus are located in disordered regions. We have developed a method for predicting protein-protein interactions mediated by linear motifs between HIV-1 and human proteins. The method only use protein sequences as inputs. We can extend the software developed to any other eukaryotic virus and host in order to find and rank candidate interactions. In future works we will use it to explore possible viral attack mechanisms based on linear motif mimicry.

  10. Virus-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the guinea-pig is inhibited by levodropropizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerts, G; van der Linde, H J; Omini, C; Nijkamp, F P

    1993-08-01

    Intratracheal Parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3) virus inoculation of guinea pigs leads to a non-specific airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro which coincides with a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (90% increase, 4 days after inoculation). The activity of the bronchoalveolar cells, as measured by the chemiluminescence production of infected animals is significantly diminished (34.2%, 4 days after inoculation) after renewed stimulation with PI-3 virus in vitro as compared to the chemiluminescence production by bronchoalveolar cells obtained from control guinea pigs. Pretreatment of the guinea-pigs with the antitussive agent levodropropizine, administered intra-peritoneally twice a day for five successive days at a dose of 10 mg/kg, prevents the virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits the influx of broncho-alveolar cells. Levodropropizine at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not modulate these responses. Further, the decrease in chemiluminescence production of broncho-alveolar cells obtained from virus-infected animals after PI-3 virus stimulation in vitro was inhibited by levodropropizine (10 mg/kg). These data demonstrate the ability of levodropropizine to counteract the hyperresponsiveness phenomenon and the associated inflammatory event induced by PI-3 virus, an effect which may be due to its capacity to act on the peptidergic system or may be due to the anti-allergic/bronchoconstrictor property of this compound.

  11. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by targeting broad host cell pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Marois

    Full Text Available Antivirals that are currently used to treat influenza virus infections target components of the virus which can mutate rapidly. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of resistant strains to one or many antivirals in recent years. Here we compared the antiviral effects of lysosomotropic alkalinizing agents (LAAs and calcium modulators (CMs, which interfere with crucial events in the influenza virus replication cycle, against avian, swine, and human viruses of different subtypes in MDCK cells. We observed that treatment with LAAs, CMs, or a combination of both, significantly inhibited viral replication. Moreover, the drugs were effective even when they were administered 8 h after infection. Finally, analysis of the expression of viral acidic polymerase (PA revealed that both drugs classes interfered with early events in the viral replication cycle. This study demonstrates that targeting broad host cellular pathways can be an efficient strategy to inhibit influenza replication. Furthermore, it provides an interesting avenue for drug development where resistance by the virus might be reduced since the virus is not targeted directly.

  12. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Manicassamy, Balaji; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Morrison, Juliet; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Iovane, Giuseppe; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of “blue eye disease”, causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. The V protein, expressed by most paramyxoviruses, is a well-characterized IFN signaling antagonist. Until now, there were no reports on the role of the LPMV-V protein in inhibiting the IFN response. In this study we demonstrate that LPMV-V protein antagonizes type I but not type II IFN signaling by binding STAT2, a component of the type I IFN cascade. Our results indicate that the last 18 amino acids of LPMV-V protein are required for binding to STAT2 in human and swine cells. While LPMV-V protein does not affect the protein levels of STAT1 or STAT2, it does prevent the IFN-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 thereby inhibiting cellular responses to IFN α/β PMID:26546155

  13. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Manicassamy, Balaji; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Morrison, Juliet; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Iovane, Giuseppe; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-02-02

    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of "blue eye disease", causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. The V protein, expressed by most paramyxoviruses, is a well-characterized IFN signaling antagonist. Until now, there were no reports on the role of the LPMV-V protein in inhibiting the IFN response. In this study we demonstrate that LPMV-V protein antagonizes type I but not type II IFN signaling by binding STAT2, a component of the type I IFN cascade. Our results indicate that the last 18 amino acids of LPMV-V protein are required for binding to STAT2 in human and swine cells. While LPMV-V protein does not affect the protein levels of STAT1 or STAT2, it does prevent the IFN-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 thereby inhibiting cellular responses to IFN α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Delvecchio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  15. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P; Monteiro, Fábio L; Loiola, Erick C; Dias, André A; Silva, Fábio J M; Aliota, Matthew T; Caine, Elizabeth A; Osorio, Jorge E; Bellio, Maria; O'Connor, David H; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-11-29

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  16. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-09-09

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo.

  17. Stability of Norwalk virus capsid protein interfaces evaluated by in-silico nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Boyd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Norwalk virus causes severe gastroenteritis for which there is currently no specific anti-viral therapy. A stage of the infection process is uncoating of the protein capsid to expose the viral genome and allow for viral replication. A mechanical characterization of the Norwalk virus may provide important information relating to the mechanism of uncoating. The mechanical strength of the Norwalk virus has previously been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM nanoindentation experiments. Those experiments cannot resolve specific molecular interactions, and therefore we have employed a molecular modeling approach to gain insights into the potential uncoating mechanism of the Norwalk capsid. In this study, we perform simulated nanoindentation using a coarse-grained structure based model, which provides an estimate of the spring constant in good agreement with the experimentally determined value. We further analyze the fracture mechanisms and determine weak interfaces in the capsid structure which are potential sites to inhibit uncoating by stabilization of these weak interfaces. We conclude by identifying potential target sites at the junction of a weak protein-protein interface.

  18. Protein chainmail variants in dsDNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hong Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available First discovered in bacteriophage HK97, biological chainmail is a highly stable system formed by concatenated protein rings. Each subunit of the ring contains the HK97-like fold, which is characterized by its submarine-like shape with a 5-stranded β sheet in the axial (A domain, spine helix in the peripheral (P domain, and an extended (E loop. HK97 capsid consists of covalently-linked copies of just one HK97-like fold protein and represents the most effective strategy to form highly stable chainmail needed for dsDNA genome encapsidation. Recently, near-atomic resolution structures enabled by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM have revealed a range of other, more complex variants of this strategy for constructing dsDNA viruses. The first strategy, exemplified by P22-like phages, is the attachment of an insertional (I domain to the core 5-stranded β sheet of the HK97-like fold. The atomic models of the Bordetella phage BPP-1 showcases an alternative topology of the classic HK97 topology of the HK97-like fold, as well as the second strategy for constructing stable capsids, where an auxiliary jellyroll protein dimer serves to cement the non-covalent chainmail formed by capsid protein subunits. The third strategy, found in lambda-like phages, uses auxiliary protein trimers to stabilize the underlying non-covalent chainmail near the 3-fold axis. Herpesviruses represent highly complex viruses that use a combination of these strategies, resulting in four-level hierarchical organization including a non-covalent chainmail formed by the HK97-like fold domain found in the floor region. A thorough understanding of these structures should help unlock the enigma of the emergence and evolution of dsDNA viruses and inform bioengineering efforts based on these viruses.

  19. Modulation of apoptosis by V protein mumps virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Camacho Irma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Urabe AM9 vaccine strain of mumps virus contains two variants of V protein: VWT (of HN-A1081 viral population and VGly (of HN-G1081. The V protein is a promoting factor of viral replication by blocking the IFN antiviral pathway. Findings We studied the relationship between V protein variants and IFN-α2b-induced apoptosis. V proteins decrease activation of the extrinsic IFN-α2b-induced apoptotic pathway monitored by the caspase 8 activity, being the effect greater with the VWT protein. Both V proteins decrease the activity of caspase 9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a system without IFN, the VWT and VGly proteins expression promotes activation of caspases 3 and 7. However, when the cellular system was stimulated with IFN-α, this activity decreased partially. TUNEL assay shows that for treatment with IFN-α and ibuprofen of cervical adenocarcinoma cells there is nuclear DNA fragmentation but the V protein expression reduces this process. Conclusions The reduction in the levels of caspases and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that V protein, particularly VWT protein of Urabe AM9 vaccine strain, modulates apoptosis. In addition, the VWT protein shows a protective role for cell proliferation in the presence of antiproliferative signals.

  20. Interaction of mumps virus V protein variants with STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer: experimental and theoretical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Leyva Julio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mumps virus V protein has the ability to inhibit the interferon-mediated antiviral response by inducing degradation of STAT proteins. Two virus variants purified from Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine differ in their replication and transcription efficiency in cells primed with interferon. Virus susceptibility to IFN was associated with insertion of a non-coded glycine at position 156 in the V protein (VGly of one virus variant, whereas resistance to IFN was associated with preservation of wild-type phenotype in the V protein (VWT of the other variant. Results VWT and VGly variants of mumps virus were cloned and sequenced from Urabe AM9 vaccine strain. VGly differs from VWT protein because it possesses an amino acid change Gln103Pro (Pro103 and the Gly156 insertion. The effect of V protein variants on components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3, STAT1 and STAT2 proteins were experimentally tested in cervical carcinoma cell lines. Expression of VWT protein decreased STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas VGly had no inhibitory effect on either STAT1 or STAT2 phosphorylation. For theoretical analysis of the interaction between V proteins and STAT proteins, 3D structural models of VWT and VGly were predicted by comparing with simian virus 5 (SV5 V protein structure in complex with STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer. In silico analysis showed that VWT-STAT1-STAT2 complex occurs through the V protein Trp-motif (W174, W178, W189 and Glu95 residue close to the Arg409 and Lys415 of the nuclear localization signal (NLS of STAT2, leaving exposed STAT1 Lys residues (K85, K87, K296, K413, K525, K679, K685, which are susceptible to proteasome degradation. In contrast, the interaction between VGly and STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer occurs in a region far from the NLS of STAT2 without blocking of Lys residues in both STAT1 and STAT2. Conclusions Our results suggest that VWT protein of Urabe AM9 strain of mumps virus may be more efficient than VGly to

  1. Multiple cationic amphiphiles induce a Niemann-Pick C phenotype and inhibit Ebola virus entry and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Shoemaker

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is an enveloped RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Infection requires internalization from the cell surface and trafficking to a late endocytic compartment, where viral fusion occurs, providing a conduit for the viral genome to enter the cytoplasm and initiate replication. In a concurrent study, we identified clomiphene as a potent inhibitor of EBOV entry. Here, we screened eleven inhibitors that target the same biosynthetic pathway as clomiphene. From this screen we identified six compounds, including U18666A, that block EBOV infection (IC(50 1.6 to 8.0 µM at a late stage of entry. Intriguingly, all six are cationic amphiphiles that share additional chemical features. U18666A induces phenotypes, including cholesterol accumulation in endosomes, associated with defects in Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1, a late endosomal and lysosomal protein required for EBOV entry. We tested and found that all six EBOV entry inhibitors from our screen induced cholesterol accumulation. We further showed that higher concentrations of cationic amphiphiles are required to inhibit EBOV entry into cells that overexpress NPC1 than parental cells, supporting the contention that they inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent manner. A previously reported inhibitor, compound 3.47, inhibits EBOV entry by blocking binding of the EBOV glycoprotein to NPC1. None of the cationic amphiphiles tested had this effect. Hence, multiple cationic amphiphiles (including several FDA approved agents inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent fashion, but by a mechanism distinct from that of compound 3.47. Our findings suggest that there are minimally two ways of perturbing NPC1-dependent pathways that can block EBOV entry, increasing the attractiveness of NPC1 as an anti-filoviral therapeutic target.

  2. Endocytic Adaptor Protein Tollip Inhibits Canonical Wnt Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Toruń

    Full Text Available Many adaptor proteins involved in endocytic cargo transport exhibit additional functions in other cellular processes which may be either related to or independent from their trafficking roles. The endosomal adaptor protein Tollip is an example of such a multitasking regulator, as it participates in trafficking and endosomal sorting of receptors, but also in interleukin/Toll/NF-κB signaling, bacterial entry, autophagic clearance of protein aggregates and regulation of sumoylation. Here we describe another role of Tollip in intracellular signaling. By performing a targeted RNAi screen of soluble endocytic proteins for their additional functions in canonical Wnt signaling, we identified Tollip as a potential negative regulator of this pathway in human cells. Depletion of Tollip potentiates the activity of β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcriptional reporter, while its overproduction inhibits the reporter activity and expression of Wnt target genes. These effects are independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis, but require the ubiquitin-binding CUE domain of Tollip. In Wnt-stimulated cells, Tollip counteracts the activation of β-catenin and its nuclear accumulation, without affecting its total levels. Additionally, under conditions of ligand-independent signaling, Tollip inhibits the pathway after the stage of β-catenin stabilization, as observed in human cancer cell lines, characterized by constitutive β-catenin activity. Finally, the regulation of Wnt signaling by Tollip occurs also during early embryonic development of zebrafish. In summary, our data identify a novel function of Tollip in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway which is evolutionarily conserved between fish and humans. Tollip-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling may contribute not only to embryonic development, but also to carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, Tollip can potentially coordinate multiple cellular pathways of trafficking and signaling, possibly by exploiting its ability to

  3. The GB virus C (GBV-C NS3 serine protease inhibits HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T lymphocyte cell line without decreasing HIV receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L George

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Persistent infection with GBV-C (GB Virus C, a non-pathogenic virus related to hepatitis C virus (HCV, prolongs survival in HIV infection. Two GBV-C proteins, NS5A and E2, have been shown previously to inhibit HIV replication in vitro. We investigated whether the GBV-C NS3 serine protease affects HIV replication. RESULTS: GBV-C NS3 protease expressed in a human CD4+ T lymphocyte cell line significantly inhibited HIV replication. Addition of NS4A or NS4A/4B coding sequence to GBV-C NS3 increased the effect on HIV replication. Inhibition of HIV replication was dose-dependent and was not mediated by increased cell toxicity. Mutation of the NS3 catalytic serine to alanine resulted in loss of both HIV inhibition and protease activity. GBV-C NS3 expression did not measurably decrease CD4 or CXCR4 expression. CONCLUSION: GBV-C NS3 serine protease significantly inhibited HIV replication without decreasing HIV receptor expression. The requirement for an intact catalytic serine at the active site indicates that inhibition was mediated by proteolytic cleavage of an unidentified target(s.

  4. The GB virus C (GBV-C) NS3 serine protease inhibits HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T lymphocyte cell line without decreasing HIV receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sarah L; Varmaz, Dino; Tavis, John E; Chowdhury, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection with GBV-C (GB Virus C), a non-pathogenic virus related to hepatitis C virus (HCV), prolongs survival in HIV infection. Two GBV-C proteins, NS5A and E2, have been shown previously to inhibit HIV replication in vitro. We investigated whether the GBV-C NS3 serine protease affects HIV replication. GBV-C NS3 protease expressed in a human CD4+ T lymphocyte cell line significantly inhibited HIV replication. Addition of NS4A or NS4A/4B coding sequence to GBV-C NS3 increased the effect on HIV replication. Inhibition of HIV replication was dose-dependent and was not mediated by increased cell toxicity. Mutation of the NS3 catalytic serine to alanine resulted in loss of both HIV inhibition and protease activity. GBV-C NS3 expression did not measurably decrease CD4 or CXCR4 expression. GBV-C NS3 serine protease significantly inhibited HIV replication without decreasing HIV receptor expression. The requirement for an intact catalytic serine at the active site indicates that inhibition was mediated by proteolytic cleavage of an unidentified target(s).

  5. Illustrating and homology modeling the proteins of the Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean; Liebler, John; Neves, Bruno J; Lewis, Warren G; Coffee, Megan; Bienstock, Rachelle; Southan, Christopher; Andrade, Carolina H

    2016-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo. ZIKV therefore epitomizes a neglected disease. Several suggested steps have been proposed which could be taken to initiate ZIKV antiviral drug discovery using both high throughput screens as well as structure-based design based on homology models for the key proteins. We now describe preliminary homology models created for NS5, FtsJ, NS4B, NS4A, HELICc, DEXDc, peptidase S7, NS2B, NS2A, NS1, E stem, glycoprotein M, propeptide, capsid and glycoprotein E using SWISS-MODEL. Eleven out of 15 models pass our model quality criteria for their further use. While a ZIKV glycoprotein E homology model was initially described in the immature conformation as a trimer, we now describe the mature dimer conformer which allowed the construction of an illustration of the complete virion. By comparing illustrations of ZIKV based on this new homology model and the dengue virus crystal structure we propose potential differences that could be exploited for antiviral and vaccine design. The prediction of sites for glycosylation on this protein may also be useful in this regard. While we await a cryo-EM structure of ZIKV and eventual crystal structures of the individual proteins, these homology models provide the community with a starting point for structure-based design of drugs and vaccines as well as a for computational virtual screening.

  6. Inhibition of West Nile virus by calbindin-D28k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Siddharthan

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that West Nile virus (WNV employs Ca(2+ influx for its replication. Moreover, calcium buffer proteins, such as calbindin D28k (CB-D28k, may play an important role mitigating cellular destruction due to disease processes, and more specifically, in some neurological diseases. We addressed the hypothesis that CB-D28k inhibits WNV replication in cell culture and infected rodents. WNV envelope immunoreactivity (ir was not readily co-localized with CB-D28k ir in WNV-infected Vero 76 or motor neuron-like NSC34 cells that were either stably or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for CB-D28k gene. This was confirmed in cultured cells fixed on glass coverslips and by flow cytometry. Moreover, WNV infectious titers were reduced in CB-D28k-transfected cells. As in cell culture studies, WNV env ir was not co-localized with CB-D28k ir in the cortex of an infected WNV hamster, or in the hippocampus of an infected mouse. Motor neurons in the spinal cord typically do not express CB-D28k and are susceptible to WNV infection. Yet, CB-D28k was detected in the surviving motor neurons after the initial phase of WNV infection in hamsters. These data suggested that induction of CB-D28k elicit a neuroprotective response to WNV infection.

  7. A DNA vaccine expressing PB1 protein of influenza A virus protects mice against virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košík, Ivan; Krejnusová, Ingrid; Práznovská, Margaréta; Poláková, Katarína; Russ, Gustáv

    2012-05-01

    Although influenza DNA vaccine research has focused mainly on viral hemagglutinin and has led to promising results, other virion proteins have also shown some protective potential. In this work, we explored the potential of a DNA vaccine based on the PB1 protein to protect BALB/c mice against lethal influenza A virus infection. The DNA vaccine consisted of pTriEx4 plasmid expressing PB1. As a positive control, a pTriEx4 plasmid expressing influenza A virus HA was used. Two weeks after three subcutaneous doses of DNA vaccine, the mice were challenged intranasally with 1 LD50 of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus, and PB1- and HA-specific antibodies, survival rate, body weight change, viral mRNA load, infectious virus titer in the lungs, cytokines IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10, and granzyme-B were measured. The results showed that (i) the PB1-expressing DNA vaccine provided a fair protective immunity in the mouse model and (ii) viral structural proteins such as PB1 represent promising antigens for DNA vaccination against influenza A.

  8. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Garfias, Camila R; Shan, Chao; Luo, Huanle; Muruato, Antonio E; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Mays, Elizabeth; Xie, Xuping; Zou, Jing; Roundy, Christopher M; Wakamiya, Maki; Rossi, Shannan L; Wang, Tian; Weaver, Scott C; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-10-31

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E) protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural principles within the human-virus protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Eric A; Xia, Yu

    2011-06-28

    General properties of the antagonistic biomolecular interactions between viruses and their hosts (exogenous interactions) remain poorly understood, and may differ significantly from known principles governing the cooperative interactions within the host (endogenous interactions). Systems biology approaches have been applied to study the combined interaction networks of virus and human proteins, but such efforts have so far revealed only low-resolution patterns of host-virus interaction. Here, we layer curated and predicted 3D structural models of human-virus and human-human protein complexes on top of traditional interaction networks to reconstruct the human-virus structural interaction network. This approach reveals atomic resolution, mechanistic patterns of host-virus interaction, and facilitates systematic comparison with the host's endogenous interactions. We find that exogenous interfaces tend to overlap with and mimic endogenous interfaces, thereby competing with endogenous binding partners. The endogenous interfaces mimicked by viral proteins tend to participate in multiple endogenous interactions which are transient and regulatory in nature. While interface overlap in the endogenous network results largely from gene duplication followed by divergent evolution, viral proteins frequently achieve interface mimicry without any sequence or structural similarity to an endogenous binding partner. Finally, while endogenous interfaces tend to evolve more slowly than the rest of the protein surface, exogenous interfaces--including many sites of endogenous-exogenous overlap--tend to evolve faster, consistent with an evolutionary "arms race" between host and pathogen. These significant biophysical, functional, and evolutionary differences between host-pathogen and within-host protein-protein interactions highlight the distinct consequences of antagonism versus cooperation in biological networks.

  10. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted in vivo inhibition of specific protein-protein interactions using recombinant antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Zábrady

    Full Text Available With the growing availability of genomic sequence information, there is an increasing need for gene function analysis. Antibody-mediated "silencing" represents an intriguing alternative for the precise inhibition of a particular function of biomolecules. Here, we describe a method for selecting recombinant antibodies with a specific purpose in mind, which is to inhibit intrinsic protein-protein interactions in the cytosol of plant cells. Experimental procedures were designed for conveniently evaluating desired properties of recombinant antibodies in consecutive steps. Our selection method was successfully used to develop a recombinant antibody inhibiting the interaction of ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 3 with such of its upstream interaction partners as the receiver domain of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT HISTIDINE KINASE 1. The specific down-regulation of the cytokinin signaling pathway in vivo demonstrates the validity of our approach. This selection method can serve as a prototype for developing unique recombinant antibodies able to interfere with virtually any biomolecule in the living cell.

  12. Protein G, Protein A and Protein-A-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Agitation Induced Aggregation of IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling and preventing aggregation is critical to the development of safe and effective antibody drug products. The studies presented here test the hypothesis that Protein A and Protein G inhibit the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG. The hypothesis is motivated by the enhanced conformational stability of proteins upon ligand binding and the specific binding affinity of Protein A and Protein G to the Fc region of IgG. The aggregation of mixed human IgG from pooled human plasma was induced by agitation alone or in the presence of: (i) Protein A, (ii) Protein G or (iii) a library of 24 peptides derived from the IgG-binding domain of Protein A. Aggregation was assessed by UV spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Additional information on IgG-ligand interactions was obtained using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and competitive binding studies. The results demonstrate that Protein A provides near-complete inhibition of agitation-induced aggregation, while Protein G and two peptides from the peptide library show partial inhibition. The findings indicate that the IgG Protein A binding site is involved in the agitation-induced aggregation of IgG, and suggest a dominant role of colloidal interactions. PMID:22304418

  13. Hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain contributes to pre-fusion protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stacy; Nagy, Tamas; Moseley, Hunter; Fried, Michael; Dutch, Rebecca

    2017-04-07

    Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material, so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a metastable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements that control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function. Mutations in F protein transmembrane (TM) domains implicated the TM domain in the fusion process, but the structural and molecular details in fusion remain unclear. Previously, analytical ultracentrifugation was utilized to demonstrate that isolated TM domains of Hendra virus F protein associate in a monomer-trimer equilibrium (Smith, E. C., Smith, S. E., Carter, J. R., Webb, S. R., Gibson, K. M., Hellman, L. M., Fried, M. G., and Dutch, R. E. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 35726-35735). To determine factors driving this association, 140 paramyxovirus F protein TM domain sequences were analyzed. A heptad repeat of β-branched residues was found, and analysis of the Hendra virus F TM domain revealed a heptad repeat leucine-isoleucine zipper motif (LIZ). Replacement of the LIZ with alanine resulted in dramatically reduced TM-TM association. Mutation of the LIZ in the whole protein resulted in decreased protein stability, including pre-fusion conformation stability. Together, our data suggest that the heptad repeat LIZ contributed to TM-TM association and is important for F protein function and pre-fusion stability. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cytoplasmic Motifs in the Nipah Virus Fusion Protein Modulate Virus Particle Assembly and Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gunner P; Contreras, Erik M; Dabundo, Jeffrey; Henderson, Bryce A; Matz, Keesha M; Ortega, Victoria; Ramirez, Alfredo; Park, Arnold; Aguilar, Hector C

    2017-05-15

    Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, has a mortality rate in humans of approximately 75%. While several studies have begun our understanding of NiV particle formation, the mechanism of this process remains to be fully elucidated. For many paramyxoviruses, M proteins drive viral assembly and egress; however, some paramyxoviral glycoproteins have been reported as important or essential in budding. For NiV the matrix protein (M), the fusion glycoprotein (F) and, to a much lesser extent, the attachment glycoprotein (G) autonomously induce the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). However, functional interactions between these proteins during assembly and egress remain to be fully understood. Moreover, if the F-driven formation of VLPs occurs through interactions with host cell machinery, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of F is a likely interactive domain. Therefore, we analyzed NiV F CT deletion and alanine mutants and report that several but not all regions of the F CT are necessary for efficient VLP formation. Two of these regions contain YXXØ or dityrosine motifs previously shown to interact with cellular machinery involved in F endocytosis and transport. Importantly, our results showed that F-driven, M-driven, and M/F-driven viral particle formation enhanced the recruitment of G into VLPs. By identifying key motifs, specific residues, and functional viral protein interactions important for VLP formation, we improve our understanding of the viral assembly/egress process and point to potential interactions with host cell machinery.IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses can cause deadly infections of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. With recent discoveries of new henipa-like viruses, understanding the mechanisms by which these viruses reproduce is paramount. We have focused this study on identifying the functional interactions of three Nipah virus proteins during viral assembly and particularly on the role of one of these proteins, the fusion

  15. The Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread human herpes virus that immortalizes cells as part of its latent infection and is a causative agent in the development of several types of lymphomas and carcinomas. Replication and stable persistence of the EBV genomes in latent infection require the viral EBNA1 protein, which binds specific DNA sequences in the viral DNA. While the roles of EBNA1 were initially thought to be limited to effects on the viral genomes, more recently EBNA1 has been found to have multiple effects on cellular proteins and pathways that may also be important for viral persistence. In addition, a role for EBNA1 in lytic infection has been recently identified. The multiple roles of EBNA1 in EBV infection are the subject of this paper. PMID:24278697

  16. Retrograde transport pathways utilised by viruses and protein toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lynne M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A model has been presented for retrograde transport of certain toxins and viruses from the cell surface to the ER that suggests an obligatory interaction with a glycolipid receptor at the cell surface. Here we review studies on the ER trafficking cholera toxin, Shiga and Shiga-like toxins, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and ricin, and compare the retrograde routes followed by these protein toxins to those of the ER trafficking SV40 and polyoma viruses. We conclude that there is in fact no obligatory requirement for a glycolipid receptor, nor even with a protein receptor in a lipid-rich environment. Emerging data suggests instead that there is no common pathway utilised for retrograde transport by all of these pathogens, the choice of route being determined by the particular receptor utilised.

  17. The Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Frappier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a widespread human herpes virus that immortalizes cells as part of its latent infection and is a causative agent in the development of several types of lymphomas and carcinomas. Replication and stable persistence of the EBV genomes in latent infection require the viral EBNA1 protein, which binds specific DNA sequences in the viral DNA. While the roles of EBNA1 were initially thought to be limited to effects on the viral genomes, more recently EBNA1 has been found to have multiple effects on cellular proteins and pathways that may also be important for viral persistence. In addition, a role for EBNA1 in lytic infection has been recently identified. The multiple roles of EBNA1 in EBV infection are the subject of this paper.

  18. Overall linkage map of the nonstructural proteins of Aichi virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kumiko; Sasaki, Jun; Taniguchi, Koki

    2010-01-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), which is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, is a member of the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae. Picornavirus genome replication occurs in replication complexes that include viral nonstructural proteins, host proteins and viral RNA. In poliovirus, all nonstructural proteins are found in the replication complexes, suggesting the ability of the viral nonstructural proteins to interact with each other. In this study, we examined the interactions between the AiV nonstructural proteins using a mammalian two-hybrid system. The results showed that all of the tested proteins could interact with more than one protein. We observed homodimerization of five proteins, bidirectional heterodimerization of six protein pairs, and unidirectional heterodimerization of eighteen protein pairs. Among the interactions detected in this study, the 2A-2BC, 2A-2BC, 2A-2C, 2BC-3CD, 2BC-3C, 2C-3C, 2C-3CD and 3AB-3C interactions have not been observed in the previous two-hybrid studies with other picornaviruses. The strongest interaction was observed between 2A and 3CD. AiV 2A has already been shown to be involved in genome replication. Domain mapping of the 2A and 3CD interaction in mammalian two-hybrid analysis revealed that the C-terminal quarter of 2A is not required for the interaction with 3CD.

  19. Inhibition of CRISPR-Cas9 with Bacteriophage Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Benjamin J; Silvis, Melanie R; Hultquist, Judd F; Waters, Christopher S; McGregor, Michael J; Krogan, Nevan J; Bondy-Denomy, Joseph

    2017-01-12

    Bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems utilize sequence-specific RNA-guided nucleases to defend against bacteriophage infection. As a countermeasure, numerous phages are known that produce proteins to block the function of class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems. However, currently no proteins are known to inhibit the widely used class 2 CRISPR-Cas9 system. To find these inhibitors, we searched cas9-containing bacterial genomes for the co-existence of a CRISPR spacer and its target, a potential indicator for CRISPR inhibition. This analysis led to the discovery of four unique type II-A CRISPR-Cas9 inhibitor proteins encoded by Listeria monocytogenes prophages. More than half of L. monocytogenes strains with cas9 contain at least one prophage-encoded inhibitor, suggesting widespread CRISPR-Cas9 inactivation. Two of these inhibitors also blocked the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 when assayed in Escherichia coli and human cells. These natural Cas9-specific "anti-CRISPRs" present tools that can be used to regulate the genome engineering activities of CRISPR-Cas9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantoni, Agostina; Fortuna, Claudia; Remoli, Maria Elena; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Superti, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin. PMID:25643293

  1. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Toscana Virus Infection by Binding to Heparan Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Pietrantoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus is an emerging sandfly-borne bunyavirus in Mediterranean Europe responsible for neurological diseases in humans. It accounts for about 80% of paediatric meningitis cases during the summer. Despite the important impact of Toscana virus infection-associated disease on human health, currently approved vaccines or effective antiviral treatments are not available. In this research, we have analyzed the effect of bovine lactoferrin, a bi-globular iron-binding glycoprotein with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, on Toscana virus infection in vitro. Our results showed that lactoferrin was capable of inhibiting Toscana virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. Results obtained when lactoferrin was added to the cells during different phases of viral infection showed that lactoferrin was able to prevent viral replication when added during the viral adsorption step or during the entire cycle of virus infection, demonstrating that its action takes place in an early phase of viral infection. In particular, our results demonstrated that the anti-Toscana virus action of lactoferrin took place on virus attachment to the cell membrane, mainly through a competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors. These findings provide further insights on the antiviral activity of bovine lactoferrin.

  2. Interaction of rabies virus P-protein with STAT proteins is critical to lethal rabies disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, Linda; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Larrous, Florence; Kuusisto, Henna Veera; Sugiyama, Makoto; Blondel, Danielle; Bourhy, Hervé; Jans, David Andrew; Ito, Naoto; Moseley, Gregory William

    2014-06-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) causes rabies disease resulting in >55,000 human deaths/year. The multifunctional RABV P-protein has essential roles in genome replication, and forms interactions with cellular STAT proteins that are thought to underlie viral antagonism of interferon-dependent immunity. However, the molecular details of P-protein-STAT interaction, and its importance to disease are unresolved. Studies were performed using sequence/structure analysis, mutagenesis, immunoprecipitation, luciferase and qRT-PCR-based signaling assays, confocal microscopy and reverse genetics/in vivo infection. We identified a hydrophobic pocket of the P-protein C-terminal domain as critical to STAT-binding/antagonism. This interface was found to be functionally and spatially independent of the region responsible for N-protein interaction, which is critical to genome replication. Based on these findings, we generated the first mutant RABV lacking STAT-association. Growth of the virus in vitro was unimpaired, but it lacked STAT-antagonist function and was highly sensitive to interferon. Importantly, growth of the virus was strongly attenuated in brains of infected mice, producing no major neurological symptoms, compared with the invariably lethal wild-type virus. These data represent direct evidence that P-protein-STAT interaction is critical to rabies, and provide novel insights into the mechanism by which RABV coordinates distinct functions in interferon antagonism and replication.

  3. Hepatitis C virus core protein potentiates proangiogenic activity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Wang, Han-Yu; Li, Yong-Shi; Lin, Hang; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Huang, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2017-10-17

    Increased angiogenic activity has been demonstrated in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism was unclear. To study the role of HCV core protein, we used tube formation and Matrigel plug assays to assess the proangiogenic activity of an HCC cell line, HuH7, and 2 of its stable clones-HuH7-core-high and HuH7-core-low, with high and low HCV core protein expression, respectively. In both assays, HuH7-core-high and HuH7-core-low cells dose-dependently induced stronger angiogenesis than control cells. HuH7 cells with HCV core protein expression showed increased mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF inhibition by bevacizumab reduced the proangiogenic activity of HuH7-core-high cells. The promotor region of VEGF contains the binding site of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Compared with controls, HuH7-core-high cells had an increased AP-1 activity and nuclear localization of phospho-c-jun. AP-1 inhibition using either RNA knockdown or AP-1 inhibitors reduced the VEGF mRNA expression and the proangiogenic activity of HuH7-core-high cells. Among 131 tissue samples from HCC patients, HCV-related HCC revealed stronger VEGF expression than did hepatitis B virus-related HCC. In conclusion, increased VEGF expression through AP-1 activation is a crucial mechanism underlying the proangiogenic activity of the HCV core protein in HCC cells.

  4. Cellular unfolded protein response against viruses used in gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan eSen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are excellent vehicles for gene therapy due to their natural ability to infect and deliver the cargo to specific tissues with high efficiency. Although such vectors are usually ‘gutted’ and are replication defective, they are subjected to clearance by the host cells by immune recognition and destruction. Unfolded protein response (UPR is a naturally evolved cyto-protective signaling pathway which is triggered due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress caused by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in its lumen. The UPR signaling consists of three signaling pathways, namely PKR-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 6, and inositol-requiring protein-1. Once activated, UPR triggers the production of ER molecular chaperones and stress response proteins to help reduce the protein load within the ER. This occurs by degradation of the misfolded proteins and ensues in the arrest of protein translation machinery. If the burden of protein load in ER is beyond its processing capacity, UPR can activate pro-apoptotic pathways or autophagy leading to cell death. Viruses are naturally evolved in hijacking the host cellular translation machinery to generate a large amount of proteins. This phenomenon disrupts ER homeostasis and leads to ER stress. Alternatively, in the case of gutted vectors used in gene therapy, the excess load of recombinant vectors administered and encountered by the cell can trigger UPR. Thus, in the context of gene therapy, UPR becomes a major roadblock that can potentially trigger inflammatory responses against the vectors and reduce the efficiency of gene transfer.

  5. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Inhibition of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus RNA Synthesis by Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  7. Adenovirus-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation during the late phase of infection enhances viral protein levels and virus progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schümann, Michael; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The Raf/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling cascade enhances tumor cell proliferation in many cases. Here, we show that adenovirus type 5, a small DNA tumor virus used in experimental cancer therapy, strongly induces ERK phosphorylation...... during the late phase of infection. Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK phosphorylation reduced virus recovery by >100-fold. Blocking MEK/ERK signaling affected virus DNA replication and mRNA levels only weakly but strongly reduced the amount of viral proteins, independently of the kinases MNK1 and PKR...

  8. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether UL43 protein, which is highly conserved in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses, and a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein, is involved in virus entry and virus-induced cell fusion. Methods: Mutagenesis was accomplished by a markerless two-step Red recombination mutagenesis system ...

  9. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether UL43 protein, which is highly conserved in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses, and a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein, is involved in virus entry and virus-induced cell fusion. Methods: Mutagenesis was accomplished by a markerless two-step Red recombination mutagenesis.

  10. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) replication is transiently inhibited by Atlantic salmon type I interferon in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingerud, Tina; Holand, Jenni Kristin; Robertsen, Børre

    2013-11-06

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine orthomyxovirus, which causes multisystemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon that may result in large losses. Previous work has suggested that ISAV is able to resist the antiviral state induced in cells by type I interferon (IFN). These studies were, however, mainly based on cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays. Here we have investigated the antiviral activity of Atlantic salmon IFNa1, IFNb and IFNc against ISAV using quantitative PCR (qPCR) of segment 6, Western blot analysis of ISAV proteins and viral yield reduction assays, in addition to CPE reduction assays. Antiviral effects of IFNs were tested against the high virulent strain ISAV4 and the low virulent strain ISAV7 both at the optimum growth temperature 15°C and at 20°C. As expected, IFNa1 showed little protection against CPE development in cells after infection with both strains at 15°C. However, the qPCR and Western blot analysis clearly showed strong inhibition of replication of the virus strains by IFNa1 between 24 and 72h after infection. The inhibitory effect declined four to five days post-infection, which explains the low protection against CPE development 7-10 days later. At 20°C, IFNa1 showed strong protection against CPE development, probably due to slower virus growth. IFNc showed similar antiviral activity as IFNa1 against ISAV4 while IFNb showed lower activity. There were observed differences between ISAV4 and ISAV7 both with respect inhibition by IFNa1 and ability to induce the two IFN-inducible antiviral effector proteins, Mx and ISG15, which may be related to differences in virulence properties and/or adaption to growth in cell culture. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recombinant measles viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins induced virus-specific CTL responses in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-07-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of serious lower respiratory tract illnesses in infants. Natural infections with RSV provide limited protection against reinfection because of inefficient immunological responses that do not induce long-term memory. RSV natural infection has been shown to induce unbalanced immune response. The effective clearance of RSV is known to require the induction of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response, which involves the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In our previous study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/F and MVAIK/RSV/G were developed, which expressed the RSV fusion (F) protein or glycoprotein (G). These recombinant viruses elicited antibody responses against RSV in cotton rats, and no infectious virus was recovered, but small amounts of infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the lungs following RSV challenge. In the present study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/M2-1 and MVAIK/RSV/NP were developed, expressing RSV M2-1 or Nucleoprotein (NP), respectively. These viruses exhibited temperature-sensitivity (ts), which was derived from AIK-C, and expressed respective RSV antigens. The intramuscular inoculation of cotton rats with the recombinant measles virus led to the induction of CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells. No infectious virus was recovered from a lung homogenate following the challenge. A Histological examination of the lungs revealed a significant reduction in inflammatory reactions without alveolar damage. These results support the recombinant measles viruses being effective vaccine candidates against RSV that induce RSV-specific CTL responses with or without the development of an antibody response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel interactions of domain III from the envelope glycoprotein of dengue 2 virus with human plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Vivian; Ramos, Yassel; Yero, Alexis; Pupo, Dianne; Martín, Dayron; Toledo, Patricia; Fleitas, Noralvis; Gallien, Sebastien; Martín, Alejandro M; Márquez, Gabriel J; Pérez-Riverol, Yasset; Sarría, Mónica; Guirola, Osmany; González, Luis J; Domon, Bruno; Chinea, Glay

    2016-01-10

    Blood cells and plasma are important media for the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) spreading into an infected person. Thus, interactions with human plasma proteins are expected to be decisive in the course of the viral infection. Affinity purification followed by MS analysis (AP/MS) was used to isolate and identify plasma-derived proteins capable to interact with a recombinant protein comprising the domain III of the envelope protein of DENV2 (DIIIE2). The elution of the AP potently inhibits DENV2 infection. Twenty-nine proteins were identified using a label-free approach as specifically captured by DIIIE2. Of these, a direct interaction with C reactive protein, thrombin and Inter-alpha-inhibitor complexes was confirmed by ELISA. Results provide further evidence of a significant representation of proteins from complement and coagulation cascades on DENV2 interactome in human plasma and stand out the domain III of the viral envelope protein as participant on these interactions. A functional clustering analysis highlights the presence of three structural motifs among putative DIIIE2-binding proteins: hydroxylation and EGF-like calcium-binding- and Gla domains. Early cycles of dengue virus replication take place in human blood cells. Thus, the characterization of the interactome of dengue virus proteins in human plasma can lead to the identification of pivotal interactions for the infection that can eventually constitute the target for the development of methods to control dengue virus-caused disease. In this work we identified 29 proteins from human plasma that potentially interact with the envelope protein of dengue 2 virus either directly or through co-complex formation. C reactive protein, thrombin and Inter-alpha-inhibitor complexes were validated as interactors of the domain III of the envelope protein of dengue 2. Results highlight the presence of three structural motifs among putative DIIIE2-binding proteins: hydroxylation and EGF-like calcium

  13. The Adenovirus E4orf4 Protein Provides a Novel Mechanism for Inhibition of the DNA Damage Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brestovitsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a conglomerate of pathways designed to detect DNA damage and signal its presence to cell cycle checkpoints and to the repair machinery, allowing the cell to pause and mend the damage, or if the damage is too severe, to trigger apoptosis or senescence. Various DDR branches are regulated by kinases of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase family, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR. Replication intermediates and linear double-stranded genomes of DNA viruses are perceived by the cell as DNA damage and activate the DDR. If allowed to operate, the DDR will stimulate ligation of viral genomes and will inhibit virus replication. To prevent this outcome, many DNA viruses evolved ways to limit the DDR. As part of its attack on the DDR, adenovirus utilizes various viral proteins to cause degradation of DDR proteins and to sequester the MRN damage sensor outside virus replication centers. Here we show that adenovirus evolved yet another novel mechanism to inhibit the DDR. The E4orf4 protein, together with its cellular partner PP2A, reduces phosphorylation of ATM and ATR substrates in virus-infected cells and in cells treated with DNA damaging drugs, and causes accumulation of damaged DNA in the drug-treated cells. ATM and ATR are not mutually required for inhibition of their signaling pathways by E4orf4. ATM and ATR deficiency as well as E4orf4 expression enhance infection efficiency. Furthermore, E4orf4, previously reported to induce cancer-specific cell death when expressed alone, sensitizes cells to killing by sub-lethal concentrations of DNA damaging drugs, likely because it inhibits DNA damage repair. These findings provide one explanation for the cancer-specificity of E4orf4-induced cell death as many cancers have DDR deficiencies leading to increased reliance on the remaining intact DDR pathways and to enhanced susceptibility to DDR inhibitors such as E4orf4

  14. Genetic Inactivation of COPI Coatomer Separately Inhibits Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Entry and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdeinick-Kerr, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Viruses coopt cellular membrane transport to invade cells, establish intracellular sites of replication, and release progeny virions. Recent genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens revealed that genetically divergent viruses require biosynthetic membrane transport by the COPI coatomer complex for efficient replication. Here we found that disrupting COPI function by RNAi inhibited an early stage of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. To dissect which replication stage(s) was affected by coatomer inactivation, we used visual and biochemical assays to independently measure the efficiency of viral entry and gene expression in hamster (ldlF) cells depleted of the temperature-sensitive ε-COP subunit. We show that ε-COP depletion for 12 h caused a primary block to virus internalization and a secondary defect in viral gene expression. Using brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inhibitor of COPI function, we demonstrate that short-term (1-h) BFA treatments inhibit VSV gene expression, while only long-term (12-h) treatments block virus entry. We conclude that prolonged coatomer inactivation perturbs cellular endocytic transport and thereby indirectly impairs VSV entry. Our results offer an explanation of why COPI coatomer is frequently identified in screens for cellular factors that support cell invasion by microbial pathogens. PMID:22072764

  15. Two Small RNAs Encoded within the First 1.5 Kilobases of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Can Inhibit Productive Infection and Cooperate To Inhibit Apoptosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenwen; Sa e Silva, Mariana; Jaber, Tareq; Vitvitskaia, Olga; Li, Sumin; Henderson, Gail; Jones, Clinton

    2009-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is abundantly expressed in latently infected trigeminal ganglionic sensory neurons. Expression of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences is sufficient for the wild-type reactivation phenotype in small animal models of infection. The ability of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences to inhibit apoptosis is important for the latency-reactivation cycle. Several studies have also concluded that LAT inhibits productive infection. To date, a functional LAT protein has not been identified, suggesting that LAT is a regulatory RNA. Two small RNAs (sRNAs) were previously identified within the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences. In this study, we demonstrated that both LAT sRNAs were expressed in the trigeminal ganglia of mice latently infected with an HSV-1 strain that expresses LAT but not when mice were infected with a LAT null mutant. LAT sRNA1 and sRNA2 cooperated to inhibit cold shock-induced apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells. LAT sRNA1, but not LAT sRNA2, inhibited apoptosis less efficiently than both sRNAs. When rabbit skin cells were cotransfected with plasmids that express LAT sRNA1 and HSV-1 genomic DNA, the amount of infectious virus released was reduced approximately 3 logs. Although LAT sRNA2 was less effective at inhibiting virus production, it inhibited expression of infected cell protein 4 (ICP4). Neither LAT sRNA had an obvious effect on ICP0 expression. These studies suggested that expression of two LAT sRNAs plays a role in the latency-reactivation cycle by inhibiting apoptosis and productive infection. PMID:19587058

  16. Ekspresi Rekombinan Gen Protein Selubung Pepper vein yellows virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kurnia Apindiati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV isolate from Bali have been identified from pepper plants with chlorosis symptoms. Specific antiserum of PeVYV had not available yet commercially. One of the advance techniques in providing a source of abundant antigen for antiserum production is through molecular approach by overexpressed the coat protein gene in suitable bacterial expression system. PeVYV coat protein gene of ~650 bp in size was amplified using specific primers, then was cloned into pQE30 expression vector and was over expressed in E. coli strain M15 [pREP4]. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant coat protein gene of PeVYV was successfully expressed protein band with size of ~25 kDa at 6 hours after induction by 0.5 mM IPTG on 37 °C.

  17. EVM005: an ectromelia-encoded protein with dual roles in NF-κB inhibition and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas van Buuren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses contain large dsDNA genomes encoding numerous open reading frames that manipulate cellular signalling pathways and interfere with the host immune response. The NF-κB signalling cascade is an important mediator of innate immunity and inflammation, and is tightly regulated by ubiquitination at several key points. A critical step in NF-κB activation is the ubiquitination and degradation of the inhibitor of kappaB (IκBα, by the cellular SCFβ-TRCP ubiquitin ligase complex. We show here that upon stimulation with TNFα or IL-1β, Orthopoxvirus-infected cells displayed an accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, indicating that NF-κB activation was inhibited during poxvirus infection. Ectromelia virus is the causative agent of lethal mousepox, a natural disease that is fatal in mice. Previously, we identified a family of four ectromelia virus genes (EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165 that contain N-terminal ankyrin repeats and C-terminal F-box domains that interact with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. Since degradation of IκBα is catalyzed by the SCFβ-TRCP ubiquitin ligase, we investigated the role of the ectromelia virus ankyrin/F-box protein, EVM005, in the regulation of NF-κB. Expression of Flag-EVM005 inhibited both TNFα- and IL-1β-stimulated IκBα degradation and p65 nuclear translocation. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway by EVM005 was dependent on the F-box domain, and interaction with the SCF complex. Additionally, ectromelia virus devoid of EVM005 was shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, despite lacking the EVM005 open reading frame. Finally, ectromelia virus devoid of EVM005 was attenuated in both A/NCR and C57BL/6 mouse models, indicating that EVM005 is required for virulence and immune regulation in vivo.

  18. Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3'-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23.

  19. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B is involved in virus morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouklani, Hamed; Bull, Rowena A; Beyer, Claudia; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Gowans, Eric J; Drummer, Heidi E; Netter, Hans J; White, Peter A; Haqshenas, Gholamreza

    2012-05-01

    The p7 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viroporin that is dispensable for viral genome replication but plays a critical role in virus morphogenesis. In this study, we generated a JFH1-based intergenotypic chimeric genome that encoded a heterologous genotype 1b (GT1b) p7. The parental intergenotypic chimeric genome was nonviable in human hepatoma cells, and infectious chimeric virions were produced only when cells transfected with the chimeric genomes were passaged several times. Sequence analysis of the entire polyprotein-coding region of the recovered chimeric virus revealed one predominant amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), T23N, and one in NS5B, K151R. Forward genetic analysis demonstrated that each of these mutations per se restored the infectivity of the parental chimeric genome, suggesting that interactions between p7, NS2, and NS5B were required for virion assembly/maturation. p7 and NS5B colocalized in cellular compartments, and the NS5B mutation did not affect the colocalization pattern. The NS5B K151R mutation neither increased viral RNA replication in human hepatoma cells nor altered the polymerase activity of NS5B in an in vitro assay. In conclusion, this study suggests that HCV NS5B is involved in virus morphogenesis.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 5B Is Involved in Virus Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouklani, Hamed; Bull, Rowena A.; Beyer, Claudia; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Gowans, Eric J.; Drummer, Heidi E.; Netter, Hans J.; White, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The p7 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viroporin that is dispensable for viral genome replication but plays a critical role in virus morphogenesis. In this study, we generated a JFH1-based intergenotypic chimeric genome that encoded a heterologous genotype 1b (GT1b) p7. The parental intergenotypic chimeric genome was nonviable in human hepatoma cells, and infectious chimeric virions were produced only when cells transfected with the chimeric genomes were passaged several times. Sequence analysis of the entire polyprotein-coding region of the recovered chimeric virus revealed one predominant amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), T23N, and one in NS5B, K151R. Forward genetic analysis demonstrated that each of these mutations per se restored the infectivity of the parental chimeric genome, suggesting that interactions between p7, NS2, and NS5B were required for virion assembly/maturation. p7 and NS5B colocalized in cellular compartments, and the NS5B mutation did not affect the colocalization pattern. The NS5B K151R mutation neither increased viral RNA replication in human hepatoma cells nor altered the polymerase activity of NS5B in an in vitro assay. In conclusion, this study suggests that HCV NS5B is involved in virus morphogenesis. PMID:22345449

  1. Inhibition of MLC phosphorylation restricts replication of influenza virus--a mechanism of action for anti-influenza agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Haidari

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are a severe threat worldwide, causing large epidemics that kill thousands every year. Prevention of influenza infection is complicated by continuous viral antigenic changes. Newer anti-influenza agents include MEK/ERK and protein kinase C inhibitors; however, the downstream effectors of these pathways have not been determined. In this study, we identified a common mechanism for the inhibitory effects of a significant group of anti-influenza agents. Our studies showed that influenza infection activates a series of signaling pathways that converge to induce myosin light chain (MLC phosphorylation and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by blocking RhoA/Rho kinase, phospholipase C/protein kinase C, and HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways with the use of genetic or chemical manipulation leads to the inhibition of influenza proliferation. In contrast, the induction of MLC phosphorylation enhances influenza proliferation, as does activation of the HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. This effect is attenuated by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, in intracellular trafficking studies, we found that the nuclear export of influenza ribonucleoprotein depends on MLC phosphorylation. Our studies provide evidence that modulation of MLC phosphorylation is an underlying mechanism for the inhibitory effects of many anti-influenza compounds.

  2. Basic residues in the foamy virus Gag protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Daniel; Wiktorowicz, Tatiana; Zahn, Juliane; Bodem, Jochen; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Rethwilm, Axel

    2011-04-01

    Foamy virus (FV) capsid proteins have few lysines. Basic residues are almost exclusively represented by arginines indicating positive selective pressure. To analyze the possible functions of this peculiarity, we mutated an infectious molecular clone of the prototypic FV (PFV) to harbor lysines in the Gag protein at arginine-specifying positions and analyzed various aspects of the FV replication cycle. The majority of mutants replicated equally as well in permanent cell cultures as the original wild-type (wt) virus and were genetically stable in gag upon 10 cell-free passages. With respect to the features of late reverse transcription, nucleic acid content, and infectiousness of the virion DNA genome, the majority of mutants behaved like the wt. Several mutants of PFV were ubiquitinated in Gag but unable to generate virus-like particles (VLPs) or to undergo pseudotyping by a heterologous envelope. Using primary cells, however, a replicative disadvantage of the majority of mutants was disclosed. This disadvantage was enhanced upon interferon (IFN) treatment. We found no evidence that the lysine-bearing gag mutants showed more restriction than the wt virus by tetherin (CD317) or Trim5α. A single lysine in PFV Gag was found to be nonessential for transient replication in permanent cell culture if replaced by an arginine residue. Upon replication in primary cells, even without IFN treatment, this mutant was severely impaired, indicating the importance of specifying at least this lysine residue in PFV Gag. The paucity of lysines in FV Gag proteins may be a consequence of preventing proteasomal Gag degradation.

  3. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR. MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1 mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection.

  4. The BET Family of Proteins Targets Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Integration near Transcription Start Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Rijck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of retroviral replication is integration of the viral genome into host cell DNA. This characteristic makes retrovirus-based vectors attractive delivery vehicles for gene therapy. However, adverse events in gene therapeutic trials, caused by activation of proto-oncogenes due to murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived vector integration, hamper their application. Here, we show that bromodomain and extraterminal (BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 and MLV integrase specifically interact and colocalize within the nucleus of the cell. Inhibition of the BET proteins’ chromatin interaction via specific bromodomain inhibitors blocks MLV virus replication at the integration step. MLV integration site distribution parallels the chromatin binding profile of BET proteins, and expression of an artificial fusion protein of the BET integrase binding domain with the chromatin interaction domain of the lentiviral targeting factor LEDGF/p75 retargets MLV integration away from transcription start sites and into the body of actively transcribed genes, conforming to the HIV integration pattern. Together, these data validate BET proteins as MLV integration targeting factors.

  5. Genetic characteristic of protein membran of avian influenza viruses H5N1 subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2008 there were findings about the antigenic drift on AI virus due to vaccination and the AI H5N1 subtype viruses which was similar to H5N1 viruses in human. The findings indicated that the AI viruses continue and undergoing to mutate and try to adapt with their environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the mutation of recent AI viruses (2009 on the membran protein namely Hemagglutinin (HA, Neuraminidase (NA and Matrix 2 (M2. In this study RT-PCR – sequencing methods and genetic analysis for the protein membran of AI viruses were used. Result revealed that there were specific mutation belong to AI 2009 viruses on HA and NA protein such as AI virus mutation in 2008 which was isolated from backyard chicken. The mutations were non synonimous and not caused by immunological pressure. Furthermore, M2 analysis indicated that the viruses were resistant to amantadine.

  6. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R., E-mail: grw7@cornell.edu

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  7. A Review of Stapled Peptides and Small Molecules to Inhibit Protein-Protein Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidhya V

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of binding of two or more molecules to a protein surface is a common basis of inhibition of many biological activities. Smallmolecule inhibitors, antibodies, proteins, and peptidomimetics have been examined as ways to antagonize receptor activity. The peptide α-helix plays a crucial role in the function of many proteins. Hence, much effort has been invested in mimicking α-helices at the binding interface of two proteins to competitively inhibit their interactions. Peptide stapling involves choosing two amino acids on the same face of a native peptide sequence for substitution with non-native amino acids whose side chains can be "stapled" together. The focus of this review is to survey the prevalence in literature of stapled peptides and small-molecule antagonists of interactions of selected mammalian cancer targets, such as β-catenin, BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, eIF4E/G, estrogen receptor complexes, EZH2, Mdm2, Notch, p110α, and survivin. The increasing interest in protein targets currently considered to be "undruggable" with greater selectivity for existing targets, with the goal of overcoming the omnipresent problem of resistance, could be served well by utilizing information about protein-protein interactions to develop both small-molecule and stapled peptide inhibitors.

  8. Easily accessible polycyclic amines that inhibit the wild-type and amantadine-resistant mutants of the M2 channel of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Carrizo, Matias; Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Ma, Chunlong; Frigolé-Vivas, Marta; Torres, Eva; Naesens, Lieve; Llabrés, Salomé; Juárez-Jiménez, Jordi; Luque, Francisco J; DeGrado, William F; Lamb, Robert A; Pinto, Lawrence H; Vázquez, Santiago

    2014-07-10

    Amantadine inhibits the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus, yet most of the currently circulating strains of the virus carry mutations in the M2 protein that render the virus amantadine-resistant. While most of the research on novel amantadine analogues has revolved around the synthesis of novel adamantane derivatives, we have recently found that other polycyclic scaffolds effectively block the M2 proton channel, including amantadine-resistant mutant channels. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized a series of pyrrolidine derivatives designed as analogues of amantadine. Inhibition of the wild-type M2 channel and the A/M2-S31N, A/M2-V27A, and A/M2-L26F mutant forms of the channel were measured in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp assays. Most of the novel compounds inhibited the wild-type ion channel in the low micromolar range. Of note, two of the compounds inhibited the amantadine-resistant A/M2-V27A and A/M2-L26F mutant ion channels with submicromolar and low micromolar IC50, respectively. None of the compounds was found to inhibit the S31N mutant ion channel.

  9. Structure and inhibition of the SARS coronavirus envelope protein ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Pervushin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The envelope (E protein from coronaviruses is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Absence, or inactivation, of E protein results in attenuated viruses, due to alterations in either virion morphology or tropism. Apart from its morphogenetic properties, protein E has been reported to have membrane permeabilizing activity. Further, the drug hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not amiloride, inhibited in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication. We have previously shown for the coronavirus species responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV that the transmembrane domain of E protein (ETM forms pentameric alpha-helical bundles that are likely responsible for the observed channel activity. Herein, using solution NMR in dodecylphosphatidylcholine micelles and energy minimization, we have obtained a model of this channel which features regular alpha-helices that form a pentameric left-handed parallel bundle. The drug HMA was found to bind inside the lumen of the channel, at both the C-terminal and the N-terminal openings, and, in contrast to amiloride, induced additional chemical shifts in ETM. Full length SARS-CoV E displayed channel activity when transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 cells in a whole-cell patch clamp set-up. This activity was significantly reduced by hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not by amiloride. The channel structure presented herein provides a possible rationale for inhibition, and a platform for future structure-based drug design of this potential pharmacological target.

  10. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  11. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) plays a role in the replication of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongphaew, Wallaya; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Sasaki, Michihito; Carr, Michael; Hall, William W; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2017-01-15

    Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is classified as a member of the type II AAA + ATPase protein family. VCP functions in several cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion, vesicular trafficking and disassembly of stress granules. Moreover, VCP is considered to play a role in the replication of several viruses, albeit through different mechanisms. In the present study, we have investigated the role of VCP in West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Endogenous VCP expression was inhibited using either VCP inhibitors or by siRNA knockdown. It could be shown that the inhibition of endogenous VCP expression significantly inhibited WNV infection. The entry assay revealed that silencing of endogenous VCP caused a significant reduction in the expression levels of WNV-RNA compared to control siRNA-treated cells. This indicates that VCP may play a role in early steps either the binding or entry steps of the WNV life cycle. Using WNV virus like particles and WNV-DNA-based replicon, it could be demonstrated that perturbation of VCP expression decreased levels of newly synthesized WNV genomic RNA. These findings suggest that VCP is involved in early steps and during genome replication of the WNV life cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew, E-mail: apekosz@jhsph.edu

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  13. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  14. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  15. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6......GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...

  16. Complex assembly behavior during the encapsulation of green fluorescent protein analogs in virus derived protein capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  17. Leflunomide/teriflunomide inhibit Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- induced lymphoproliferative disease and lytic viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Andrea; Plowshay, Julie; Ma, Shidong; Nawandar, Dhananjay; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Romero-Masters, James C; Bristol, Jillian A; Li, Zhe; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-07-04

    EBV infection causes mononucleosis and is associated with specific subsets of B cell lymphomas. Immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which can be fatal. Leflunomide (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis) and its active metabolite teriflunomide (used to treat multiple sclerosis) inhibit de novo pyrimidine synthesis by targeting the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby decreasing T cell proliferation. Leflunomide also inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus and BK virus via both "on target" and "off target" mechanisms and is increasingly used to treat these viruses in organ transplant recipients. However, whether leflunomide/teriflunomide block EBV replication or inhibit EBV-mediated B cell transformation is currently unknown. We show that teriflunomide inhibits cellular proliferation, and promotes apoptosis, in EBV-transformed B cells in vitro at a clinically relevant dose. In addition, teriflunomide prevents the development of EBV-induced lymphomas in both a humanized mouse model and a xenograft model. Furthermore, teriflunomide inhibits lytic EBV infection in vitro both by preventing the initial steps of lytic viral reactivation, and by blocking lytic viral DNA replication. Leflunomide/teriflunomide might therefore be clinically useful for preventing EBV-induced LPD in patients who have high EBV loads yet require continued immunosuppression.

  18. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... inhibitor than the PNA targeting only the bulge. Importantly, the inhibition was highly sequence-specific since double-mismatched PNA had no effect on the RT reaction. Moreover, in PDH the PNA coupled to Arg(7) cationic delivery peptide decreased DHBV replication. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence...

  19. Self-assembly of model proteins into virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    We consider self-assembly of proteins into a virus capsid by the methods of molecular dynamics. The capsid corresponds either to SPMV or CCMV and is studied with and without the RNA molecule inside. The proteins are flexible and described by the structure-based coarse-grained model augmented by electrostatic interactions. Previous studies of the capsid self-assembly involved solid objects of a supramolecular scale, e.g. corresponding to capsomeres, with engineered couplings and stochastic movements. In our approach, a single capsid is dissociated by an application of a high temperature for a variable period and then the system is cooled down to allow for self-assembly. The restoration of the capsid proceeds to various extent, depending on the nature of the dissociated state, but is rarely complete because some proteins depart too far unless the process takes place in a confined space.

  20. Biliverdin inhibits hepatitis C virus nonstructural 3/4A protease activity: mechanism for the antiviral effects of heme oxygenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Wilson, Anne T; Luxon, Bruce A; Brown, Kyle E; Mathahs, M Meleah; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; McCaffrey, Anton P; Schmidt, Warren N

    2010-12-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Of the products of the reaction catalyzed by HO-1, iron has been shown to inhibit HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase, but little is known about the antiviral activity of biliverdin (BV). Herein, we report that BV inhibits viral replication and viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in replicons and cells harboring the infectious J6/JFH construct. Using the SensoLyte 620 HCV Protease Assay with a wide wavelength excitation/emission (591 nm/622 nm) fluorescence energy transfer peptide, we found that both recombinant and endogenous nonstructural 3/4A (NS3/4A) protease from replicon microsomes are potently inhibited by BV. Of the tetrapyrroles tested, BV was the strongest inhibitor of NS3/4A activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 9 μM, similar to that of the commercial inhibitor, AnaSpec (Fremont, CA) #25346 (IC(50) 5 μM). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated mixed competitive and noncompetitive inhibition of the protease by BV. In contrast, the effects of bilirubin (BR) on HCV replication and NS3/4A were much less potent. Because BV is rapidly converted to BR by biliverdin reductase (BVR) intracellularly, the effect of BVR knockdown on BV antiviral activity was assessed. After greater than 80% silencing of BVR, inhibition of viral replication by BV was enhanced. BV also increased the antiviral activity of α-interferon in replicons. BV is a potent inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, which likely contributes to the antiviral activity of HO-1. These findings suggest that BV or its derivatives may be useful in future drug therapies targeting the NS3/4A protease. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Biliverdin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Activity: Mechanism for the Antiviral Effects of Heme Oxygenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Wilson, Anne T.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Brown, Kyle E.; Mathahs, M. Meleah; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; McCaffrey, Anton P.; Schmidt, Warren N.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase -1 (HO-1) inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Of the products of the reaction catalyzed by HO-1 iron has been shown to inhibit HCV RNA polymerase, but little is known about the antiviral activity of biliverdin (BV). Herein, we report that BV inhibits viral replication and viral protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in replicons and cells harboring the infectious J6/JFH construct. Using the SensoLyte 620 HCV Protease Assay with a wide wavelength excitation/emission (591nm/622nm) fluorescence energy transfer peptide, we found that both recombinant and endogenous NS3/4A protease from replicon microsomes are potently inhibited by BV. Of the tetrapyrroles tested, BV was the strongest inhibitor of NS3/4A activity with an IC50 of 9 uM, similar to that of the commercial inhibitor, AnaSpec #25346 (IC50 5 uM). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated mixed competitive and non-competitive inhibition of the protease by BV. In contrast, the effects of bilirubin (BR) on HCV replication and NS3/4A were much less potent. Because BV is rapidly converted to BR by biliverdin reductase (BVR) intracellularly, the effect of BVR knockdown on BV antiviral activity was assessed. After >80% silencing of BVR, inhibition of viral replication by BV was enhanced. BV also increased the antiviral activity of α-interferon in replicons. Conclusion BV is a potent inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, which likely contributes to the antiviral activity of HO-1. These findings suggest that BV or its derivatives may be useful future drug therapies targeting the NS3/4A protease. PMID:21105106

  2. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50u

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52 derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html.

  3. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway of a vector insect is activated by virus capsid protein and promotes viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Wan; Li, Jing; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2017-01-01

    No evidence has shown whether insect-borne viruses manipulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of vector insects. Using a system comprising the plant virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) and its vector insect, the small brown planthopper, we have studied the response of the vector insect’s JNK pathway to plant virus infection. We found that RSV increased the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and decreased the level of G protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) in the insect vector. The virus capsid protein competitively bound GPS2 to release it from inhibiting the JNK activation machinery. We confirmed that JNK activation promoted RSV replication in the vector, whereas JNK inhibition caused a significant reduction in virus production and thus delayed the disease incidence of plants. These findings suggest that inhibition of insect vector JNK may be a useful strategy for controling the transmission of plant viruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26591.001 PMID:28716183

  4. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibition of Lassa Virus Infection through Aberrant GP1 Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Bergeron, Éric; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Albariño, César G; Flint, Mike; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-12-20

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatment. The interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC is involved in regulating cholesterol biosynthesis and has recently been identified as a potent antiviral targeting enveloped virus entry. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of CH25H in inhibiting LASV glycoprotein glycosylation and the production of infectious virus. Overexpression of CH25H or treatment with 25HC decreased LASV G1 glycoprotein N-glycan maturation and reduced the production of infectious LASV. Depletion of endogenous CH25H using small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the levels of fully glycosylated G1 and increased infectious LASV production. Finally, LASV particles produced from 25HC-treated cells were found to be less infectious, to incorporate aberrantly glycosylated GP1 species, and to be defective in binding alpha-dystroglycan, an attachment and entry receptor. Our findings identify a novel role for CH25H in controlling LASV propagation and indicate that manipulation of the expression of CH25H or the administration of 25HC may be a useful anti-LASV therapy. Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever in humans caused by Lassa virus (LASV). No vaccine for LASV is currently available. Treatment is limited to the administration of ribavirin, which is only effective when given early in the course of illness. Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is a recently identified interferon-stimulated gene (ISG); it encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), which inhibits several viruses. Here, we identify a novel antiviral mechanism of 25HC that is