Kyriakopoulos, A M; Tassios, P. T.; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Marinis, E; Tsaousidou, S; Legakis, N J
Forty human clinical Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains isolated in Greece were characterized to the species level by PCR with three sets of primers specific for one or both species. M. avium predominated in both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients, but the frequency of M. intracellulare isolation appeared to be higher in the latter.
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a suspect causative agent of Crohns disease in man, is an emerging disease of international proportions affecting all ruminants. Early stage detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection would accelerate progress in control ...
Ingen, J. van; Boeree, M.J.; Kosters, K.; Wieland, A.; Tortoli, E.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Soolingen, D. van
The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) consists of four recognized species, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium chimaera, and a variety of other strains that may be members of undescribed taxa. We report on two isolates of a scotochromogenic,
Amaro, A; Duarte, E; Amado, A; Ferronha, H; Botelho, A
To compare three methods for DNA extraction from Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The DNA was extracted from mycobacterial cultures using enzymatic extraction, combined bead beating and enzymatic extraction and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction. The yield and quality of DNA were compared by spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease analysis and PCR. The combined bead beating and enzymatic extraction method yielded more DNA. However, that method produced some sheared DNA, visible either by agarose gel electrophoresis or by restriction endonuclease analysis. All methods were appropriate for PCR amplification of a 123 bp fragment of IS6110 in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, and of a 1700 bp fragment of FR300 region in M. avium avium. Combined bead beating and enzymatic extraction method was the most efficient and easy method for extracting DNA from bacteria of the M. tuberculosis complex. The results reveal important differences among the DNA extraction methods for mycobacteria, which are relevant for the success of further downstream molecular analysis.
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy cattle in the Jimma zone of Ethiopia in 2011. A random sample of 29 herds was selected, and all mature cattle within these herds had a blood sample taken. Serum was tested in duplicate, ...
Wisselink, H.J.; Smits, C.B.; Oorburg, D.; Soolingen, D.; Overduin, P.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Buys-Bergen, H.; Engel, B.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Jelle, E.R.; Thole, J.E.R.
The aim of this study is the development and evaluation of a serodiagnostic assay for Mycobacterium avium (MA). After screening MA lipid fractions in an ELISA format, a polar lipid fraction was selected as antigen because of its superior recognition by serum antibodies in experimentally infected
Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, C.B. van; Oorburg, D.; Soolingen, D. van; Overduin, P.; Maneschijn-Bonsing, J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Buys-Bergen, H.; Engel, B.; Urlings, B.A.; Thole, J.E.
The aim of this study is the development and evaluation of a serodiagnostic assay for Mycobacterium avium (MA). After screening MA lipid fractions in an ELISA format, a polar lipid fraction was selected as antigen because of its superior recognition by serum antibodies in experimentally infected
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in AIDS is increasing in frequency, although it remains under-recognized due to unlocalized clinical manifestations and subtle initial presentation, if not the need for specialized laboratory diagnostic methods. Ultimately, MAC accounts for much of the “wasting syndrome” in the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus disease. Multidrug treatment of MAC in AIDS is problematic. That MAC is preventable has been demonstrated, and ho...
In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.
Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C
The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains ...
Barry, C.; Corbett, D.; Bakker, D.; Andersen, P.; McNair, J.; Strain, S.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.
Beggs, Marjorie L.; Stevanova, Rossina; Eisenach, Kathleen D.
Organisms in the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; M. avium, M. intracellulare, and “nonspecific or X” MAC) are emerging pathogens among individual organisms of which significant genetic variability is displayed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate various molecular methods for the rapid and definitive identification of MAC species. Isolates were obtained from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and HIV-negative patients with and without known predisposing...
Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces.
Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A; Dohoo, Ian R; Stryhn, Henrik; Keefe, Greg P; Haddad, Joao P
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of seropositivity for exposure to bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) on overall and reason-specific culling in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from, approximately, 30 randomly selected cows from 134 herds were tested for antibodies against BLV, MAP and NC using commercially available ELISA test kits, while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). For analyzing the time (in days) to culling of cows after the blood testing, a two-step approach was utilized, non-parametric (Kaplan-Meier survival graphs) visualization and then semi-parametric survival modelling (Cox proportional hazards model), while controlling for confounding variables and adjusting for within herd clustering. For all reasons of culling, MAP-seropositive cows had a 1.38 (1.05-1.81, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard of culling compared to MAP-seronegative cows. Seropositivity for the other pathogens was not associated with an increased risk of overall culling. Among cows that were culled because of either decreased reproductive efficiency or decreased milk production or mastitis, MAP-seropositive cows were associated with 1.55 (1.12-2.15, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard compared to MAP-seronegative cows. Among cows that were culled because of reproductive inefficiency, NC-seropositive cows had a 1.43 (1.15-1.79, 95% C.I.) times greater hazard than NC-seronegative cows. Among cows that were culled because of decreased milk production, cows in BVDV-seropositive herds had a 1.86 (1.28-2.70, 95% C.I.) times increased hazard compared to cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. BLV-seropositive cows did not have an increased risk of reason-specific culling as compared to BLV-seronegative cows. No significant interaction on culling among seropositivity for the pathogens was
Carter, George; Young, Lowell S.; Bermudez, Luiz E.
Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated infection in immunosuppressed individuals and lung infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. M. avium forms biofilm in the environment and possibly in human airways. Antibiotics with activity against the bacterium could inhibit biofilm formation. Clarithromycin inhibits biofilm formation but has no activity against established biofilm.
Mycobacterium avium (MA) is divided into four subspecies based primarily on host-range and consists of MA subsp. avium (birds), MA subsp. silvaticum (wood pigeons), MA subsp. paratuberculosis (broad, poorly-defined host range), and the recently described MA subsp. hominissuis (hu...
In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,
The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.
Mameli, G; Madeddu, G; Cossu, D; Galleri, G; Manetti, R; Babudieri, S; Mura, M Stella; Sechi, L A
Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism linking these pathologies is unclear. Different reports indicate the association of EBV, and recently Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with MS. For a better understanding of the role of these pathogens, the host response induced by selected antigenic peptides in subjects with a history of IM that significantly increases the risk of MS was investigated. Both humoral and cell-mediated response against peptides able to induce a specific immune activation in MS patients deriving from lytic and latent EBV antigens BOLF1(305-320), EBNA1(400-413), from MAP MAP_4027(18-32), MAP_0106c(121-132) and from human proteins IRF5(424-434) and MBP(85-98) in subjects with current and past IM were examined. EBNA1 and MAP_0106c peptides were able to induce a humoral immune response in subjects with a history of clinical IM in an independent manner. Moreover, these peptides were capable of inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α by CD14+ monocyte cells. Our results highlight that EBV and MAP may be involved independently in the same causal process leading to MS in subjects with a history of IM. © 2015 EAN.
MacGregor, Rob Roy; Dreyer, Kimberly; Herman, Steve; Hocknell, Peter K.; Nghiem, Lan; Tevere, Vincent J.; Williams, Amy L.
We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based qualitative test for the rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC) bacteremia in patients with AIDS disease. Eleven subjects with newly culture-proven MAC bacteremia had the following tests performed at biweekly intervals during the first 8 weeks of therapy: blood culture, Mycobacterium-specific PCR, and quantitative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral-load testing. Mycobacterium genus-specific biotinylated primers were used to amplify a sequence of approximately 582 nucleotides within the 16S rRNA genes of M. avium and M. intracellulare. Detection of the amplified product was performed with an oligonucleotide probe-coated microwell plate combined with an avidin-horseradish peroxidase–tetramethylbenzidine conjugate-substrate system. While not as sensitive as BACTEC culture, PCR detected 17 of 18 specimens which grew ≥40 organisms/ml (94.4% sensitivity) and 9 of 16 specimens which grew ≤40 organisms/ml (56.3% sensitivity). No clear change in HIV viremia occurred in response to successful treatment of patients’ MAC bacteremia. Use of the PCR test allowed detection of MAC bacteremia in 1 day, with a sensitivity similar to those of quantitative blood culture techniques, and it may prove useful for rapid screening of suspected cases. HIV viremia was unaffected by 8 weeks of MAC therapy. PMID:9854069
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.
Joseph M Yabes
Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. This case suggests DMAC infection in a patient without traditional epidemiological risk factors.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...
Ben Salah, Iskandar; Drancourt, Michel
Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.
A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...
Beggs, Marjorie L.; Stevanova, Rossina; Eisenach, Kathleen D.
Organisms in the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; M. avium, M. intracellulare, and “nonspecific or X” MAC) are emerging pathogens among individual organisms of which significant genetic variability is displayed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate various molecular methods for the rapid and definitive identification of MAC species. Isolates were obtained from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and HIV-negative patients with and without known predisposing conditions. The isolates were initially hybridized with nucleic acid probes complementary to the rRNA of the respective mycobacterial species (AccuProbe Culture Confirmation kits for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MAC species; Gen-Probe). Isolates were also examined by PCR and in some cases by Southern blot hybridization for the insertion element IS1245. Two other techniques included a PCR assay that amplifies the mig gene, a putative virulence factor for MAC, and hsp65 gene amplification and sequencing. This study led to the following observations. Eighty-five percent of the isolates from HIV-positive patients were M. avium and 86% of the isolates from HIV-negative patients were M. intracellulare. Fifteen of the M. avium isolates did not contain IS1245 and 7% of the M. intracellulare isolates were found to carry IS1245. All of the M. avium strains were mig positive, and all of the M. intracellulare strains were mig negative. PMID:10655336
Lewis, Amy Herndon; Falkinham, Joseph O
Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air) and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4-1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air) and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996) ). MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37°C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU) survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989) ). MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model). After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%), while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%). M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kriz, Petr; Kaevska, Marija; Bartejsova, Iva; Pavlik, Ivo
We report a case of a falcon breeding facility, where raptors (both diurnal and nocturnal) were raised in contact with domestic fowl (Gallus gallus f. domesticus) infected by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Fecal and environmental samples from 20 raptors and four common ravens (Corvus corax) were collected. Mycobacterium a. avium DNA was detected in feces of four raptors (bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus], eagle owl [Bubo bubo], barn owl [Tyto alba], and little owl [Athene noctua]) using triplex quantitative real-time PCR. As both the flock of domestic fowl and one of the infected raptors had the same origin (zoological collection), they might have had a common source of colonization/infection. However, the detection of M. a. avium in feces of three other raptors may point at transmission of the agent between the birds in the facility. Contact of raptors with domestic fowl infected by M. a. avium may pose a risk for transmission of the infection for them; however, raptors from the falcon breeding facility seemed to be relatively resistant to the infection.
Mariana Noelia Viale
Full Text Available The lprG-p55 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. P55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while LprG is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. The knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. In order to gain insight into the function of LprG in the Mycobacterium avium complex, in this study, we assayed the effect of the deletion of lprG gene in the D4ER strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The replacement of lprG gene with a hygromycin cassette caused a polar effect on the expression of p55. Also, a twofold decrease in ethidium bromide susceptibility was observed and the resistance to the antibiotics rifampicin, amikacin, linezolid, and rifabutin was impaired in the mutant strain. In addition, the mutation decreased the virulence of the bacteria in macrophages in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. These findings clearly indicate that functional LprG and P55 are necessary for the correct transport of toxic compounds and for the survival of MAA in vitro and in vivo.
Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.
Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264
Sinha, Raj; Tuckett, John; Hide, Geoff; Dildey, Petra; Karsandas, Alvin
Septic subacromial bursitis is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported cases in the literature. The most common causative organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report the case of a 61-year-old female with a septic subacromial bursitis where the causative organism was found to be Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). The diagnosis was only made following a biopsy, and we use this case to highlight the importance of recognising the need to consider a biopsy and aspiration in atypical situations.
Carter, George; Wu, Martin; Drummond, Daryl C; Bermudez, Luiz E
Mycobacterium avium is an environmental organism encountered in natural and urban water sources as well as soil. M. avium biofilm has recently been identified on sauna walls and in city water pipes and might have a role in the survival of virulent strains in the environment and in the host. To characterize the M. avium biofilm, an in vitro model was adapted wherein biofilm develops on a PVC surface. Biofilm was detected by staining with crystal violet and visualization by optical microscopy and quantified by A(570). M. avium strains MAC 101, MAC 100, MAC 104, MAC 109, MAC A5 and MAC 5501 (all isolated from the blood of AIDS patients) were used in the assays. Biofilm formation was dependent on the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or Zn(2+) ions in the water, with the maximal effect seen at a concentration of 1 micro M. The presence of 2 % glucose and peptone as sources of carbon increased the formation of biofilm, while this was partially inhibited by humic acid. Since sliding motility has been associated with the amount of glycopeptidolipid (GPL), TLC was used to determine the presence of GPL. The supernatant of a biofilm-forming culture induced formation of a stable biofilm and amikacin blocked the establishment of biofilm by M. avium strains at subinhibitory concentrations. Bacteria in the biofilm were more resistant to chlorine as well as to exposure to potassium monopersulfate and chloroheximide acetate than were planktonic bacteria. Identification of M. avium genes involved in biofilm formation and further studies of the effect of antimicrobials on the establishment of biofilm may identify approaches for inhibiting M. avium biofilm formation and colonization.
Askgaard, D. S.; Giese, Steen Bjørck; Thybo, S.
with pulmonary disease (n = 65) and those in patients with lymph node infection (n = 58). The results suggest a Scandinavian distribution of serovars with a predominance of serovar 6 and fail to demonstrate any selective protection against different serovars by Mycobacterium bovis ECG vaccination.......Danish isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex were serotyped by the use of seroagglutination. The most prevalent serovars among patients with AIDS (n = 89) were 4 and 6, while among non-AIDS patients the most prevalent serovars were 1, 6, and 4, with no major differences between those in patients...
Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.
Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239
Silvia Neri Godoy
Full Text Available The present study is a report on the presence of Mycobacterium avium in four birds of the psittaciform order kept as pets. Anatomopathological diagnosis showed lesions suggestive of the agent and presence of alcohol-acid resistant bacilli (AARB shown by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The identification of Mycobacterium avium was performed by means of PRA (PCR Restriction Analysis. DNA was directly extracted from tissue of the lesions and blocked in paraffin. The role of this agent in pet bird infection is discussed, as well as its zoonotic potential.Este estudo relata a presença de Mycobacterium avium em quatro aves da ordem Psitaciformes, mantidos como animais de estimação. O exame anatomopatológico revelou a presença de bacilos álcool ácido resistentes na coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen, e o diagnostico definitivo foi feito pelo método PRA (PCR Restriction Analysis a partir de tecidos emblocados em parafina. Este estudo visa alertar o possível potencial zoonótico deste agente em aves mantidas domiciliadas.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis was isolated from two out of seventy samples (2.86 % of pasteurized and ultra-pasteurized milk. The isolates were positives to IS900 PCR and showed a C17 RFLP pattern, the most prevalent in Argentina. The present study is the first report of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis culture from pasteurized milk in Argentina.
Murdoch David M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fast bacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.
Chiers, Koen; Deschaght, Pieter; De Baere, Thierry; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Kotlowski, Roman; De Clercq, Dominique; Ducatelle, Richard; Vaneechoutte, Mario
Routine cultivation methods are able to distinguish between isolates of the Mycobacterium avium and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. However, molecular tools are needed to further identify the several subspecies in the M. avium complex, especially for the subspecies avium and silvaticum. A rapid technique using HhaI restriction digestion of a 349 bp amplification product of the 85B antigen (α-antigen) gene was used for the identification of M. avium subsp. silvaticum in a three-year-old gelding presenting with caseous, necrotizing, granulomatous lesions. The result was confirmed by sequencing of the 85B antigen gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Ingen, Jakko; Wisselink, Henk J; van Solt-Smits, Conny B; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick
Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium predominates. Mycobacterial culture was undertaken on lymph nodes of 107 slaughter pigs from a single pig farm. A high number of pigs with mycobacterial lymphadenitis were identified by culture. A commercial line probe assay and 16S rDNA gene sequencing were used to assess the frequency of disease due to mycobacteria other than M. avium. Forty-five pigs had mandibular lymph node samples yielding mycobacteria in culture. The majority yielded M. avium (39; 87%) only. One yielded M. avium and Mycobacterium palustre, five yielded only NTM other than M. avium (2yielded Mycobacterium malmoense, 1Mycobacterium bohemicum, 1Mycobacterium heckeshornense and a possibly novel species related to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and 1 grew a possibly novel species related to M. palustre). Several NTM species other than M. avium were cultured from porcine lymph nodes. The species distribution shows interesting parallels with human NTM lymphadenitis. Molecular typing and environmental sampling studies are required to identify the sources of these infections. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marcelo Palma Sircili
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC species cannot be discriminated by the usual methods of biochemical identification of mycobacteria. This study showed that amplification by PCR of DT1 and DT6, two single copy sequences identified in the genome of M. avium serotype 2, the insertion sequence IS1245, found to be consistently present in M. avium strains and the heat-shock protein gene hsp65, followed by restriction polymorphism analysis, are rapid and accurate tests for the differentiation of the species M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.A identificação bioquímica de micobactérias não permite a discriminação das espécies do complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC. Este estudo mostrou que a amplificação por PCR de DT1 e DT6, duas sequências de cópia única identificadas no genoma de M. avium sorotipo 2, da sequência de inserção IS1245, encontrada consistentemente em cepas de M. avium e de um fragmento do gene da proteína de choque térmico hsp65, seguida da análise do polimorfismo de restrição, são testes rápidos e acurados para a diferenciação das espécies M. avium, M. intracellulare e M. scrofulaceum.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC causes mainly two types of disease. The first is disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The second is pulmonary disease in individuals without systemic immunosuppression, and the incidence of this type is increasing worldwide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis, a component of MAC, causes infection in pigs as well as in humans. Many aspects of the different modes of M. avium infection and its host specificity remain unclear. Here, we report the characteristics and complete sequence of a novel plasmid, designated pMAH135, derived from M. avium strain TH135 in an HIV-negative patient with pulmonary MAC disease. The pMAH135 plasmid consists of 194,711 nucleotides with an average G + C content of 66.5% and encodes 164 coding sequences (CDSs. This plasmid was unique in terms of its homology to other mycobacterial plasmids. Interestingly, it contains CDSs with sequence homology to mycobactin biosynthesis proteins and type VII secretion system-related proteins, which are involved in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. It also contains putative conserved domains of the multidrug efflux transporter. Screening of isolates from humans and pigs for genes located on pMAH135 revealed that the detection rate of these genes was higher in clinical isolates from pulmonary MAC disease patients than in those from HIV-positive patients, whereas the genes were almost entirely absent in isolates from pigs. Moreover, variable number tandem repeats typing analysis showed that isolates carrying pMAH135 genes are grouped in a specific cluster. Collectively, the pMAH135 plasmid contains genes associated with M. avium's pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The results of this study suggest that pMAH135 influence not only the pathological manifestations of MAC disease, but also the host specificity of MAC infection.
Mannosylated lipoarabinomannans from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis alters the inflammatory response by bovine macrophages and suppresses killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium organisms.
Full Text Available Analysis of the mechanisms through which pathogenic mycobacteria interfere with macrophage activation and phagosome maturation have shown that engagement of specific membrane receptors with bacterial ligands is the initiating event. Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM has been identified as one of the ligands that modulates macrophage function. We evaluated the effects of Man-LAM derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP on bovine macrophages. Man-LAM induced a rapid and prolonged expression of IL-10 message as well as transient expression of TNF-α. Preincubation with Man-LAM for up to 16 h did not suppress expression of IL-12 in response to interferon-γ. Evaluation of the effect of Man-LAM on phagosome acidification, phagosome maturation, and killing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA showed that preincubation of macrophages with Man-LAM before addition of MAA inhibited phagosome acidification, phagolysosome fusion, and reduced killing. Analysis of signaling pathways provided indirect evidence that inhibition of killing was associated with activation of the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway but not the pathway involved in regulation of expression of IL-10. These results support the hypothesis that MAP Man-LAM is one of the virulence factors facilitating survival of MAP in macrophages.
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with particular reference to routine antefmortem Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic tests. The IFN-γ released in response to stimulated blood was found to peak later in the Map-exposed group and was more sustained when compared to the Maa-exposed group. There was a very close correlation between the responses to the purified protein derivatives (PPD used for stimulation (PPDa, PPDb, and PPDj with PPDa and PPDj most closely correlated. On occasion, in the Map-infected cattle, PPDb-biased responses were seen compared to PPDa suggesting that some Map-infected cattle could be misclassified as M. bovis infected using this test with these reagents. This bias was not seen when PPDj was used. SICCT results were consistent with the respective infections and all calves would have been classed skin test negative.
Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease. We report the draft genome sequences of six M. avium subsp paratuberculosis isolates obtained from diverse hosts including bison, cattle and sheep. These sequences will deepen our understanding of host association ...
The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public drinkin...
The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Contaminant Candidate List 2 (CCL2) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public dr...
Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies tha...
The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...
Ingen, J. van; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, C.B. van; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van
Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium
Ingen, van J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, van C.B.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D.
Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) purified protein derivatives (PPDs) are immunologic reagents prepared from cultured filtrates of the type strain ATCC 19698. Traditional production consists of floating culture incubation at 37oC, organism inactivation by autoclaving, coarse filtrat...
Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi
We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....
Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprintin...
Cousins, D; Francis, B; Dawson, D
A multiplex PCR designed to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms from M. avium and M. intracellulare was used to test 105 isolates identified by DNA probe methods as M. avium, M. intracellulare, or M. avium complex type X. The multiple PCR correctly identified 33 of 34 isolates identified by commercial probe methods as M. avium and all 51 isolates identified as M. intracellulare. The 20 isolates identified as M. avium complex type X by probe were identified as Mycobacter...
Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Ahrens, Peter
By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria. The uniquen......By a suppression subtractive hybridization based method, nine novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. para tuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) fragments of between 318 and 596 bp have been identified and characterized. Database search revealed little or no similarity with other mycobacteria...
Li, Lingling; Katani, Robab; Schilling, Megan; Kapur, Vivek
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of severe chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants, termed Johne's disease, and can infect many other animal species, including humans. MAP has a long incubation period prior to manifestation of clinical signs including diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of production. MAP has a high prevalence in dairy herds and results in considerable adverse impacts on animal health and productivity throughout the world. Recent investigations have leveraged the characterization of the MAP genome for the development of powerful new molecular techniques for MAP strain differentiation. These approaches are providing key insights into the epidemiology and transmission of MAP on and between dairy herds. We summarize the state of the art for MAP diagnostics and strain differentiation and our current knowledge of mechanisms of within- and between-herd transmission of MAP, along with future needs for the development of rational MAP infection control programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
Widagdo Sri Nugroho
Full Text Available Seropositive and isolate suspected as Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was detected at dairy cows in West Java. This bacteria causes Johne’s disease (JD and potentially becomes a new emerging disease for Indonesian dairy cows. The aim of this study was to confirm the suspected local isolate as a MAP distinctively by PCR. Reculture of MAP reference isolate, suspected local isolate done by resuspending bacteria in PBS 0.5% and inoculating it in Herrold’s egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYM and than inoculating it in 37oC for 16 weeks. The cultures grew in various time, Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium was detected in 3rd week, MAP reference was detected in 7th week, and local isolate was detected in 14th week. The confirmation test was carried out by PCR with primer F57. The PCR F57 result showed that MAP suspected isolate was not a Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity.
Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John
ABSTRACT The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105°C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. IMPORTANCE M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula
Peterz, Mats; Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John
The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105 °C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula. In light of this
Waters, W R; Nonnecke, B J; Palmer, M V; Robbe-Austermann, S; Bannantine, J P; Stabel, J R; Whipple, D L; Payeur, J B; Estes, D M; Pitzer, J E; Minion, F C
Immunological diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle is often confounded by cross-reactive responses resulting from exposure to other mycobacterial species, especially Mycobacterium avium. Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are dominant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducing antigens of tuberculous mycobacteria, and they are absent from many environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria. Because M. avium exposure is the primary confounding factor in the diagnosis of M. bovis-infected animals, in vitro responses to a recombinant ESAT-6:CFP-10 (rESAT-6:CFP-10) fusion protein by blood leukocytes from cattle naturally exposed to M. avium or experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium or Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were compared to responses by M. bovis-infected cattle. Responses to heterogeneous mycobacterial antigens (i.e., purified protein derivatives [PPDs] and whole-cell sonicates [WCSs]) were also evaluated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IFN-gamma, and nitric oxide responses by M. bovis-infected cattle to rESAT-6:CFP-10 exceeded (P CFP-10 by blood leukocytes from M. bovis-infected calves exceeded (P CFP-10 proteins by M. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, it appears that use of the rESAT-6:CFP-10 fusion protein will be useful for the detection of tuberculous cattle in herds with pre-existing sensitization to M. avium and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Li, Z; Bai, G H; von Reyn, C. F.; Marino, P.; Brennan, M J; Gine, N; Morris, S. L.
Direct PCR detection of bacteria in clinical samples is often hindered by the presence of compounds that inhibit the PCR. To improve and accelerate the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex infections, an immunomagnetic PCR (IM-PCR) assay was developed. This IM-PCR procedure combines the separation of mycobacteria by antimycobacterial monoclonal antibody coupled to magnetic beads with an M. avium-M. intracellulare complex-specific PCR protocol based on 16S rRNA gene seque...
Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle
C. Thomas Dow
Full Text Available Background and Aim of the Work. Blau syndrome is an inherited granulomatous inflammatory disorder with clinical findings of uveitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. Although rare, Blau syndrome shares features with the more common diseases sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease. The clinical findings of Blau syndrome are indistinguishable from juvenile sarcoidosis; the mutations of Blau syndrome are on the same gene of chromosome 16 (CARD15 that confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The product of this gene is part of the innate immune system. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP is the putative cause of Crohn's disease and has been implicated as a causative agent of sarcoidosis. Methods. Archival tissues of individuals with Blau syndrome were tested for the presence of MAP. Results. DNA evidence of MAP was detected in all of the tissues. Conclusions. This article finds that MAP is present in Blau syndrome tissue and postulates that it has a causal role. The presence of MAP in Blau syndrome—an autosomal dominant, systemic inflammatory disease—connects genetic and environmental aspects of “autoimmune” disease.
Dow, C Thomas; Ellingson, Jay L E
Background and Aim of the Work. Blau syndrome is an inherited granulomatous inflammatory disorder with clinical findings of uveitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. Although rare, Blau syndrome shares features with the more common diseases sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease. The clinical findings of Blau syndrome are indistinguishable from juvenile sarcoidosis; the mutations of Blau syndrome are on the same gene of chromosome 16 (CARD15) that confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The product of this gene is part of the innate immune system. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the putative cause of Crohn's disease and has been implicated as a causative agent of sarcoidosis. Methods. Archival tissues of individuals with Blau syndrome were tested for the presence of MAP. Results. DNA evidence of MAP was detected in all of the tissues. Conclusions. This article finds that MAP is present in Blau syndrome tissue and postulates that it has a causal role. The presence of MAP in Blau syndrome-an autosomal dominant, systemic inflammatory disease-connects genetic and environmental aspects of "autoimmune" disease.
Abstract Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture are 2 common diagnostic tests for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in Johne’s disease, but they are not as sensitive as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, inhibitors can coextract with the target DNA and cause interference in PCR. Development of an immune capture assay followed by PCR amplification can alleviate this problem. In this study, we were able to induce an immune response in chickens using heat or formalin inactivated Map. The purified immunoglobulin (Ig)Y has a molecular weight of 160 kDa. The titers were at 1:6400 and 1:12 800 at weeks 5 to 6 and 8 to 9, respectively, as determined by the IDEXX modified ELISA kit for Johne’s disease. The IgY produced from inactivated bacterial cells had no effect on its ability to recognize live Map cells as illustrated by immunofluorescence assay and immune capture PCR results. PMID:15581226
Resposta imune específica de bovinos experimentalmente sensibilizados com inóculos inativados de Mycobacterium bovis e Mycobacterium avium Specific immune response of cattle to experimental sensibilization by inactivated Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium
Robson F.C. Almeida
Full Text Available O diagnóstico presuntivo da tuberculose bovina é baseado na análise da resposta imune celular a antígenos micobacterianos. Procedeu-se à simulação experimental de sensibilização por Mycobacterium bovis e Mycobacterium avium inativados em bovinos a fim de acompanhar a resposta imune a partir do teste cervical comparativo e da evolução da produção específica de interferon-gama, além de identificar a interferência de reações inespecíficas por M. avium nos resultados dos testes. Verificou-se que os animais desencadearam resposta de hipersensibilidade tardia contra os bacilos inativados, e que ambos os testes diagnósticos da tuberculose bovina foram eficientes na identificação dos animais sensibilizados com M. bovis e na discriminação das reações geradas pela inoculação dos bovinos com M. avium.The presumptive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis is based on analysis of the immune response to micobacterial antigens. This experimental simulation of sensibilization by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium in cattle aimed to verify the immune response by both the cervical comparative test and the evolution of the specific production of gamma-interferon, and also to identify interference of unspecified reactions by M. avium on the test results. The results support that the experimental animals started a response of delayed hypersensitivity to the inactivated bacilli, and that both diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis were efficient for the identification of animals sensitized with M. bovis and for discrimination of reactions generated by inoculation of cattle with M. avium.
Relationship between Presence of Cows with Milk Positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Specific Antibody by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dust in Cattle Barns
Eisenberg, S.W.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000380; Chuchaisangrat, R.; Nielen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123535298; Koets, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992
Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosispositive dairy farms studied the relationship
Pradhan, Abani K.; Mitchell, Rebecca M.; Kramer, Aagje J.; Zurakowski, Michael J.; Fyock, Terry L.; Whitlock, Robert H.; Smith, Julia M.; Hovingh, Ernest; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Schukken, Ynte H.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were passively shedding or truly infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also investigated whether it is possible that these M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected animals could have been infected as adults by contemporary high-shedding animals (supershedders). The M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were obtained from a longitudinal study of three dairy herds in the northeastern United States. Isolates were selected from fecal samples and tissues at slaughter from all animals that were culture positive at the same time that supershedders were present in the herds. Shedding levels (CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/g of feces) for the animals at each culture-positive occasion were determined. Using a multilocus short-sequence-repeat technique, we found 15 different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from a total of 142 isolates analyzed. Results indicated herd-specific infection patterns; there was a clonal infection in herd C, with 89% of isolates from animals sharing the same strain, whereas herds A and B showed several different strains infecting the animals at the same time. Tissues from 80% of cows with at least one positive fecal culture (other than supershedders) were culture positive, indicating a true M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. The results of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain typing and observed shedding levels showed that at least 50% of low shedders have the same strain as that of a contemporary supershedder. Results of this study suggest that in a dairy herd, more of the low-shedding cows are truly infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than are passively shedding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The sharing of strains between low shedders and the contemporary supershedders suggests that low shedders may have been infected by environmental exposure of M. avium
Muñoz Egea, Mari Carmen; Ji, Pan; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham Iii, Joseph O
Both Mycobacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens that are found on pipe surfaces in households. However, examination of data published in prior microbiological surveys indicates that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. tend not to coexist in the same household plumbing biofilms. That evidence led us to test the hypothesis that Methylobacterium spp. in biofilms could inhibit the adherence of Mycobacterium avium. Measurements of adherence of M. avium cells to stainless steel coupons using both culture and PCR-based methods showed that the presence of Methylobacterium spp. biofilms substantially reduced M. avium adherence and vice versa. That inhibition of M. avium adherence was not reduced by UV-irradiation, cyanide/azide exposure, or autoclaving of the Methylobacterium spp. biofilms. Further, there was no evidence of the production of anti-mycobacterial compounds by biofilm-grown Methylobacterium spp. cells. The results add to understanding of the role of microbial interactions in biofilms as a driving force in the proliferation or inhibition of opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing, and provide a potential new avenue by which M. avium exposures may be reduced for at-risk individuals.
Mari Carmen Muñoz Egea
Full Text Available Both Mycobacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens that are found on pipe surfaces in households. However, examination of data published in prior microbiological surveys indicates that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. tend not to coexist in the same household plumbing biofilms. That evidence led us to test the hypothesis that Methylobacterium spp. in biofilms could inhibit the adherence of Mycobacterium avium. Measurements of adherence of M. avium cells to stainless steel coupons using both culture and PCR-based methods showed that the presence of Methylobacterium spp. biofilms substantially reduced M. avium adherence and vice versa. That inhibition of M. avium adherence was not reduced by UV-irradiation, cyanide/azide exposure, or autoclaving of the Methylobacterium spp. biofilms. Further, there was no evidence of the production of anti-mycobacterial compounds by biofilm-grown Methylobacterium spp. cells. The results add to understanding of the role of microbial interactions in biofilms as a driving force in the proliferation or inhibition of opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing, and provide a potential new avenue by which M. avium exposures may be reduced for at-risk individuals.
Rowe Michael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.
Full Text Available Still in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy, late recognition of HIV disease or lack of sufficient immune recovery pose HIV-infected patients at risk to develop opportunistic infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, which are environmental organisms commonly retrieved in soil and superficial waters.Among these microorganisms, the most frequent is represented by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Health care professionals who face HIV-infected patients should suspect disseminated mycobacterial disease when a deep immunodeficiency is present, (a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL often associated with constitutional signs and symptoms, and non-specific laboratory abnormalities. Mycobacterial culture of peripheral blood is a reliable technique for diagnosing disseminated disease. Among drugs active against NTM, as well as some anti-tubercular compounds, the rifampin derivative rifabutin, and some novel fluoroquinolones, the availability of macrolides, has greatly contributed to improve both prophylaxis and treatment outcome of disseminated MAC infections. Although multiple questions remain about which regimens may be regarded as optimal, general recommendations can be expressed on the ground of existing evidences.Treatment should begin with associated clarithromycin (or azithromycin, plus ethambutol and rifabutin (with the rifabutin dose depending on other concomitant medications that might result in drug-drug interactions.A combined three-drug regimen is preferred for patients who cannot be prescribed an effective antiretroviral regimen immediately. Patients with a CD4+ lymphocyte count below 50 cells/μL, who do not have clinical evidence of active mycobacterial disease, should receive a primary prophylaxis with either clarithromycin or azithromycin, with or without rifabutin.
Dhople, Arvind M.
In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of HIV infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The AIDS patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. We proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis.
Bradner, L.; Robbe-Austerman, S.; Beitz, D. C.; Stabel, J. R.
A protocol was optimized for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from milk and colostrum, with parameters including chemical decontamination, antibiotics, and different culture media. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of MAP recovery from milk is highly dependent upon the culturing protocol, and such protocols should be optimized to ensure that low concentrations of MAP in milk can be detected.
Mon, M.L.; Vale, M.; Baschetti, G.; Alvarado Pinedo, F.; Gioffre, A.; Traveria, G.; Willemsen, P.; Bakker, D.; Romano, M.I.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide panel of antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to select candidates for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 54 recombinant proteins were spotted onto nitrocellulose membranes and exposed to sera from animals with
It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...
Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of the infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN- gamma, ELI...
Johne’s disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s), chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advan...
Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts...
Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease which may lead to reduced milk yield, lower animal welfare and death in cattle. The causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The economic consequences are particularly important incentives in the control and eradication...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric disease of ruminant animals. In the present study, blue native PAGE electrophoresis and 2D SDS-PAGE were used to separate MAP envelope protein complexes, followed by mass spectrometry (MS) ...
Johne’s disease is a contagious bacterial infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). A previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAA) in Holstein cattle identified QTL on BTA3 and BTA9 that were highly associated (P < 5 × 10-7) and on BTA1, BTA16, and BTA21 that...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...
Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...
Our understanding of the sources of Mycobacterium avium infection is partially based on genotypic matching of pathogen isolates from cases and environmental sources. These approaches assume that genotypic identity is rare in isolates from unlinked cases or sources. To test this, ...
Our understanding of the sources of Mycobacterium avium infection is partially based on genotypic matching of pathogen isolates from cases and environmental sources. These approaches assume that genotypic identity is rare in isolates from unlinked cases or sources. To test this a...
The continued global increase in the number of cases of Johne’s disease suggests that more information is needed to understand the mechanisms by which the causative agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is spread among livestock on the farm site. Livestock watering troughs are freq...
Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos
Foodborne diseases are a public health problem worldwide. The consumption of contaminated raw milk has been recognized as a major cause of transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. Other mycobacteria that may be present in raw milk and may cause diseases are those belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. In this study, molecular biology tools were applied to investigate raw milk contamination with Mycobacterium spp. in family dairy farms from Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Furthermore, different variables related to the source of the milk, herd characteristics, and management were evaluated for their effect on milk contamination. Five hundred and two samples were analyzed, of which 354 were from the Northwest region (102 farms with samples from 93 bulk tanks and 261 animals) and 148 from the South region of the state (22 farms with samples from 23 bulk tanks and 125 animals). Among them, 10 (1.99%) and 7 (1.39%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (9 confirmed as Mycobacterium bovis) and M. avium complexes, respectively. There was no difference in the frequencies of positive samples between the regions or the sample sources. Of the positive samples, 4 were collected from a bulk tank (1 positive for M. avium and 3 for M. tuberculosis). Moreover, 1 sample was positive concomitantly for M. tuberculosis and M. avium complexes. On risk analysis, no variable was associated with raw milk contamination by M. tuberculosis complex species. However, washing the udders of all animals and drying them with paper towels were weakly classified as risk factors for M. avium contamination. Positive samples were obtained from both animals and bulk tanks, which emphasizes the importance of tuberculosis control programs and provides evidence that milk monitoring can be used as a control practice. Moreover, the findings of this study reinforce the need for awareness of the problems of raw milk consumption among the general population.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is considered as a potential significant public health threat due to its possible association with Crohn’s disease in humans. This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of different salt concentrations on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis during ripening and storage of Iranian ultra-filtrate-white cheese (IUFWC. For this purpose, retentate was inoculated with 2 Log cfu/g of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Afterwards, model cheeses were prepared with 2%, 3% and 4% of salt. Quantity of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was estimated throughout the ripening and storage of IUFWC using F57-quantitative real time PCR (F57-qPCR and culture assay. Along with, the populations of lactic acid bacteria as well as physicochemical properties of cheese samples were determined. According to the results, at the early stage of storage period (1 to 30 days the number of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis was almost constant; however, it was decreased significantly (p
Prammananan, Therdsak; Phunpruch, Saranya; Tingtoy, Nipa; Srimuang, Somboon; Chaiprasert, Angkana
A total of 227 clinical Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from Thailand were differentiated into species and types by using PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65. The distribution of types showed the predominance of M. avium I (77%) in blood specimens, whereas M. intracellulare I was more commonly found in pulmonary specimens (44.2%). In addition, infections with M. avium were more likely to be found in younger adults (20 to 39 years old), while infections with M. intracellulare were mo...
Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tatsuno, Kinji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi
In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens. Among the patients analyzed (n = 368), 67.4% had M. avium infection and 32.6% had M. intracellulare infection. Stratified analysis revealed no significant differences between the ratio of the two pathogens based on gender, disease type, complication, past medical history, or smoking history. However, the percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection was significantly higher among those with underlying lung disease than among those without lung disease (p = 0.0217). The percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection rose significantly with age (p = 0.0296). This age-related change was more significant in women (p = 0.0018). When district-wise analysis was performed for Japan, the percentage of M. intracellulare infection was higher in the Chugoku/Shikoku and Kyushu districts whereas the percentage of M. avium infection was higher in the other districts. This survey revealed some differences in the clinical and epidemiologic features of M. avium and M. intracellulare infection. The significant predominance of M. avium infection among relatively young women is suggestive of an increase in the M. avium/M. intracellulare infection ratio among women in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Charavaryamath, Chandrashekhar; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Fries, Patrick; Gomis, Susantha; Doig, Kimberley; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Napper, Scott
A lack of appropriate disease models has limited our understanding of the pathogenesis of persistent enteric infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A model was developed for the controlled delivery of a defined dose of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to surgically isolated ileal segments in newborn calves. The stable intestinal segments enabled the characterization of host responses to persistent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections after a 9-month period, including an analysis of local mucosal immune responses relative to an adjacent uninfected intestinal compartment. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained localized at the initial site of intestinal infection and was not detected by PCR in the mesenteric lymph node. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T cell proliferative responses included both CD4 and γδ T cell receptor (γδTcR) T cell responses in the draining mesenteric lymph node. The levels of CD8+ and γδTcR+ T cells increased significantly (P paratuberculosis-specific tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon secretion by lamina propria leukocytes was also significantly (P paratuberculosis infection. In conclusion, surgically isolated ileal segments provided a model system for the establishment of a persistent and localized enteric M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and facilitated the analysis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific changes in mucosal leukocyte phenotype and function. The accumulation of DC subpopulations in the lamina propria suggests that further investigation of mucosal DCs may provide insight into host responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and improve vaccine strategies to prevent M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID:23221000
The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...
Drinking water is believed to be a major source of human exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) such as Mycobacterium avium. We monitored the prevalence of M. avium in a drinking water system during the addition of filtration treatment. Our goal was to determine if the pre...
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study...
Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.
Devallois, A; Picardeau, M.; Goh, K S; Sola, C.; Vincent, V; Rastogi, N.
International audience; Selective amplification of a 187-bp fragment within the DT6 sequence using the AV6 and AV7 primers for Mycobacterium avium and of a 666-bp fragment within the DT1 sequence of Mycobacterium intracellulare using the IN38 and IN41 primers was performed for 69 clinical isolates identified as M. avium complex by conventional methods. The results were compared in parallel with results with commercial M. avium and M. intracellulare probes. A positive response to either of the...
Cho, Ho-Seong; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Park, Nam-Yong
A 2-year-old captive female Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris) died after prolonged anorexia in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Necropsy revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical granuloma composed of caseous necrotic areas surrounded by lymphocytes with a few giant cells and foamy macrophages. Periodic acid-Schiff stain and Gomori methenamine silver stain did not reveal any fungal bodies. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain revealed few acid-fast organisms in the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen. A polymerase chain reaction assay of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen yielded a positive result for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. This is an unusual case of disseminated infection of a wild mammal with avian mycobacteriosis, and is believed to be most likely associated with the feeding of tigers with culled chickens infected with M. avium.
Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria...... before and after culture conversion was performed in case patients. Results: Out of 286 included subjects, six had clinical M. avium complex pulmonary disease at the time of sera sampling. These patients presented with higher antibody test values (P-value ... at ruling out pulmonary disease. Screening sera from patients with CF could guide clinicians to focus attention on patients at higher risk of M. avium complex pulmonary disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:34–40....
Pursner, M. [State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Haller, J.O. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Babies Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)
Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to review the imaging features of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in 16 pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Materials and methods. We reviewed the pertinent clinical records of 16 children diagnosed with MAC between January 1990 and June 1998. These 16 cases were blood- or biopsy-proven to have MAC infection. Their plain films, abdominal, and chest CT scans were then reviewed and the findings were analyzed with reference to the few reported cases of children with MAC. Results. Abdominal findings: all but one had retroperitoneal adenopathy, mesenteric adenopathy or both. Ten patients had hepatomegaly, while nine patients were found to have splenomegaly. Four patients had nonspecific thickened gallbladder wall, while intestinal wall thickening and thickened stomach folds were identified in six of ten patients. Necrotic, fluid-filled nodes were also found. Chest findings included mediastinal adenopathy, cystic/cavitary lesions and bronchiectasis. One patient developed a fistula between the mediastinal lymph nodes, esophagus, and bronchial tree. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with HIV who develop MAC infection may present with massive lymph-node enlargement. This can occur not only in mesenteric and retroperitoneal nodes but also in hilar and posterior mediastinal nodes as well. As in MTB infection, these nodes can break down with development of fistulous tracts to both esophagus and adjacent lung. The major differential diagnostic consideration besides MTB is lymphoma. (orig.)
A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex.
Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq
Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is influe......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...... within and between groups, and in some groups we found a bimodal distribution of MES. Dairy herds generally showed higher MES than non-dairy herds. Dairy herds in a control programme for paratuberculosis showed a MES similar to all other dairy herds from which animals >2.0 years were tested (both groups...
Full Text Available Tuberculosis, a List B disease of World Organization for Animal Health, caused by M. avium or M. genavense predominantly affects poultry and pet or captive birds. Clinical manifestations in birds include emaciation, depression and diarrhea along with marked atrophy of breast muscle. Unlike tuberculosis in animals and man, lesions in lungs are rare. Tubercular nodules can be seen in liver, spleen, intestine and bone marrow. Granulomatous lesion without calcification is a prominent feature. The disease is a rarity in organized poultry sector due to improved farm practices, but occurs in zoo aviaries. Molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene probes aid in rapid identification and characterization of mycobacteria subspecies, and overcome disadvantages of conventional methods which are slow, labour intensive and may at times fail to produce precise results. M. avium subsp. avium with genotype IS901+ and IS1245+ causes infections in animals and human beings too. The bacterium causes sensitivity in cattle to the tuberculin test. The paper discusses in brief the M. avium infection in birds, its importance in a zoonotic perspective, and outlines conventional and novel strategies for its diagnosis, prevention and eradication in domestic/pet birds and humans alike.
Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Elguezabal, Natalia; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium, and many other nontuberculous mycobacteria are worldwide distributed microorganisms of major medical and veterinary importance. Considering the growing epidemiologic significance of wildlife-livestock-human interrelation, developing rapid detection tools of high specificity and sensitivity is vital to assess their presence and accelerate the process of diagnosing mycobacteriosis. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel tetraplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium genus, M. avium subspecies, and M. tuberculosis complex in an internally monitored single assay. The method was evaluated using DNA from mycobacterial (n = 38) and nonmycobacterial (n = 28) strains, tissues spiked with different CFU amounts of three mycobacterial species (n = 57), archival clinical samples (n = 233), and strains isolated from various hosts (n = 147). The minimum detectable DNA amount per reaction was 50 fg for M. bovis BCG and M. kansasii and 5 fg for M. avium subsp. hominissuis. When spiked samples were analyzed, the method consistently detected as few as 100 to 1,000 mycobacterial CFU per gram. The sensitivity and specificity values for the panel of clinical samples were 97.5 and 100% using a verified culture-based method as the reference method. The assays performed on clinical isolates confirmed these results. This PCR was able to identify M. avium and M. tuberculosis complex in the same sample in one reaction. In conclusion, the tetraplex real-time PCR we designed represents a highly specific and sensitive tool for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in routine laboratory diagnosis with potential additional uses. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Crohn\\'s disease (CD) is a multifactorial syndrome with genetic and environmental contributions. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been frequently isolated from mucosal tissues of patients with CD but the cellular immune response to this bacterium has been poorly described. Our aim was to examine the influence of MAP on T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Bridger, P. S.; Bulun, H.; Fischer, M.; Akineden, Ö.; Seeger, T.; Barth, S.; Henrich, M.; Doll, K.; Bülte, M.; Menge, C.; Bauerfeind, R.
A desirable test to diagnose infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis facilitates identification of infected cattle prior to the state of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. This study aimed at adjusting a flow cytometry (FC)-based assay, using intact M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria as the antigen, for diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in calves. Serum samples were collected from experimentally infected (n = 12) and naturally exposed (n = 32) calves. Samples from five calves from positive dams were analyzed to determine the dynamics of maternal antibodies. Samples from adult cattle with defined infection status served as the standard (18 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedders, 22 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free). After preadsorption with Mycobacterium phlei, sera were incubated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium bacterial suspensions, respectively, followed by the separate detection of bovine IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM attached to the bacterial surface. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific sample/positive (S/P) ratios were compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) S/P ratios. In adult cattle, the FC assay for IgG1 had a sensitivity of 78% at a specificity of 100%. Maternally acquired antibodies could be detected in calves up to 121 days of life. While all but two sera taken at day 100 ± 10 postnatum from naturally exposed calves tested negative, elevated S/P ratios (IgG and IgG1) became detectable from 44 and 46 weeks postinoculation onwards in two calves infected experimentally. Even with the optimized FC assay, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibodies can only occasionally be detected in infected calves less than 12 months of age. The failure to detect such antibodies apparently reflects the distinct immunobiology of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections rather than methodological constraints. PMID:23885032
Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM, in combination with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA, was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05. Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production by at least 50 and 25%, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis.
Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B.; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec 12B medium and Middlebrook 7H10 agar, genomically characterized, and subcultured to Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), Herrold's egg yolk (HEY), modified Middlebrook 7H10, Middlebrook 7H11, and Watson-Reid (WR) agars, all with and without mycobactin J and some with sodium pyruvate. Fourteen genotypes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were represented as determined by BstEII IS900 and IS1311 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. There was no correlation between genotype and overall culturability, although most S strains tended to grow poorly on HEY agar. Pyruvate was inhibitory to some isolates. All strains grew on modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar but more slowly and less prolifically on LJ agar. Mycobactin J was required for growth on all media except 7H11 agar, but growth was improved by the addition of mycobactin J to 7H11 agar. WR agar supported the growth of few isolates. The differences in growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis that have historically been reported in diverse settings have been strongly influenced by the type of culture medium used. When an optimal culture medium, such as modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar, is used, very little difference between the growth phenotypes of diverse strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was observed. This optimal medium is recommended to remove bias in the isolation and cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. PMID:21430104
Lebrun, Léa; Weill, François-Xavier; Lafendi, Leila; Houriez, Florence; Casanova, François; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Ingrand, Didier; Lagrange, Philippe; Vincent, Véronique; Herrmann, Jean Louis
Using INNO-LiPA-MYCOBACTERIA (Lipav1; Innogenetics) and the AccuProbe (Gen-Probe Inc./bioMérieux) techniques, 35 Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAC/MAIS) complex strains were identified between January 2000 and December 2002. Thirty-four of 35 isolates were positive only for the MAIS complex probe by Lipav1 and were further analyzed by INNO-LiPA-MYCOBACTERIA version 2 (Lipav2), hsp65 PCR restriction pattern analysis (PRA), and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65, and 16S rRNA sequences. Lipav2 identified 14 of 34 strains at the species level, including 11 isolates positive for the newly specific MAC sequevar Mac-A probe (MIN-2 probe). Ten of these 11 isolates corresponded to sequevar Mac-A, which was recently defined as Mycobacterium chimerae sp. nov. Among the last 20 of the 34 MAIS isolates, 17 (by hsp65 PRA) and 18 (by hsp65 sequence) were characterized as M. avium. Ten of the 20 were identified as Mac-U sequevar. All these 20 isolates were identified as M. intracellulare by 16S rRNA sequence except one isolate identified as Mycobacterium paraffinicum by 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing. One isolate out of 35 isolates that was positive for M. avium by AccuProbe and that was Mycobacterium genus probe positive and MAIS probe negative by Lipav1 and Lipav2 might be considered a new species. In conclusion, the new INNO-LiPA-MYCOBACTERIA allowed the identification of 40% of the previously unidentified MAIS isolates at the species level. The results of the Lipav2 assay on the MAIS isolates confirm the great heterogeneity of this group and suggest the use of hsp65 or ITS sequencing for precise identification of such isolates. PMID:15956365
Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.
ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method
Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucia; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Stevenson, Karen; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas
Insertion sequence IS900 is used as a target for the identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Previous reports have revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms within IS900. This study, which analyzed the IS900 sequences of a panel of isolates representing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types I, II, and III, revealed conserved type-specific polymorphisms that could be utilized as a tool for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. PMID:19439536
Miranda, C; Matos, M; Pires, I; Correia-Neves, M; Ribeiro, P; Alvares, S; Vieira-Pinto, M; Coelho, A C
The aim of this study was to compare two diagnostic methods for the detection of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in lymph nodes with granulomatous lymphadenitis from slaughtered domestic pigs. Fifty affected lymph nodes were collected from 50 pigs and examined microscopically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microscopically, granulomatous lesions were observed in 92% of the samples, consisting mostly of central necrosis (78%) with dystrophic calcification (46%) and associated with inflammatory infiltration by epithelioid giant cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils (92%), eosinophils (60%) and Langhans-type cells (70%). In 64% of the lesions, a capsule of connective tissue was found. Acid-fast bacilli were observed in all cases. PCR detected DNA from Mycobacterium spp. in 82% (41/50) of the lymph nodes. MAC was confirmed in 58% (24/41) and M. avium avium/silvaticum subspecies in 39% (16/41). The results of this study suggest that combined histopathology and PCR of lymph nodes are useful in the diagnosis of granulomatous lymphadenitis in slaughtered pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boomershine, C S; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S
Catecholamine regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by IFNgamma-primed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium was investigated. Epinephrine treatment of IFNgamma-primed macrophages at the time of M. avium infection inhibited the anti-mycobacterial activity of the cells. The anti-mycobacterial activity of macrophages correlated with NO production. Using specific adrenergic receptor agonists, the abrogation of mycobacterial killing and decreased NO production by catecholamines was shown to be mediated via the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels mimicked the catecholamine-mediated inhibition of NO in both M. avium infected and LPS stimulated macrophages. Specific inhibitors of both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production. Beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation at the time of M. avium infection of IFNgamma-primed macrophages also inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA. These observations show that catecholamine hormones can affect the outcome of macrophage-pathogen interactions and suggest that one result of sympathetic nervous system activation is the suppression of the capacity of macrophages to produce anti-microbial effector molecules.
Pestel-Caron, Martine; Graff, Gabriel; Berthelot, Gilles; Pons, Jean-Louis; Lemeland, Jean-François
Genetic relationships among 46 isolates of Mycobacterium avium recovered from 37 patients in a 2,500-bed hospital from 1993 to 1998 were assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR amplification of genomic sequences located between the repetitive elements IS1245 and IS1311. Each technique enabled the identification of 27 to 32 different patterns among the 46 isolates, confirming that the genetic heterogeneity of M. avium strains is high in a given community. Furthermore, this retrospective analysis of sporadic isolates allowed us (i) to suggest the existence of two remanent strains in our region, (ii) to raise the question of the possibility of nosocomial acquisition of M. avium strains, and (iii) to document laboratory contamination. The methods applied in the present study were found to be useful for the typing of M. avium isolates. In general, both methods yielded similar results for both related and unrelated isolates. However, the isolates in five of the six PCR clusters were distributed among two to three PFGE patterns, suggesting that this PCR-based method may have limitations for the analysis of strains with low insertion sequence copy numbers or for resolution of extended epidemiologic relationships. PMID:10405383
Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4+ T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria. Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.
Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J
Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Maattanen, Pekka; Scruten, Erin; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip; Kusalik, Anthony
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis creates an intracellular environment that favors the establishment and maintenance of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors that initiate innate immune responses to microbial challenge and are also immunotherapeutic targets. For example, TLR9 contributes to host defense against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and its agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides [ODNs]) are under investigation for treatment of Johne's disease and other infections. Here we demonstrate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection changes the responsiveness of bovine monocytes to TLR9 stimulation. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis inhibits classical TLR9-mediated responses despite a 10-fold increase in TLR9 expression and maintained uptake of CpG ODNs. Other TLR9-mediated responses, such as oxidative burst, which occur through noncanonical signaling, remain functional. Kinome analysis verifies that classic TLR9 signaling is blocked by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and that signaling instead proceeds through a Pyk2-mediated mechanism. Pyk2-mediated signaling does not hinder infection, as CpG ODNs fail to promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. Indeed, Pyk2 signaling appears to be an important aspect of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, as Pyk2 inhibitors significantly reduce the number of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria. The actions of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis on TLR9 signaling may represent a strategy to generate a host environment which is better suited for infection, revealing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, C.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection may be detected by measuring antigen specific cell-mediated immune responses by the interferon-gamma (IFN-¿) assay. Available IFN-¿ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives.......85) which also had high specificity (0.92-1.00). Three latency proteins showed positive IFN-¿ tests that correlated highly with the case definition and one of these antigens (LATP-2) had no homologue sequence in the M. avium subsp. avium or M. bovis genome and could be a promising diagnostic antigen...
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
Early stage Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can be detected by measuring antigen specific cell mediated immune responses by the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay. Available IFN-γ assay use purified protein derivate of Johnin (PPDj) leading to low specificity. The objectives...... high specificity (0.92-1.00). Three latency proteins showed positive IFN-γ tests that correlated highly with the case definition and one of these antigens (LATP-2) had no homologue sequence in the M. avium subsp. avium or M. bovis genome and could be a promising diagnostic antigen. The combination...
Vázquez, Nancy; Rekka, Sofia; Gliozzi, Maria; Feng, Carl G.; Amarnath, Shoba; Orenstein, Jan M.; Wahl, Sharon M.
Background. Although opportunistic infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) have been less common since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, globally, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)–positive patients remain predisposed to these infections. Absence of a properly functioning acquired immune response allows MAC persistence within macrophages localized in lymph nodes coinfected with HIV and MAC. Although a deficiency in interferon γ appears to play a part in the ability of MAC to deflect the macrophage-associated antimicrobial attack, questions about this process remain. Our study examines the ability of MAC to regulate interleukin 17 (IL-17), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in host cell recruitment. Methods. Coinfected lymph nodes were examined for IL-17 by immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, macrophages exposed to mycobacteria were evaluated for transcription activities, proteins, and signaling pathways responsible for IL-17 expression. Infected macrophages were also analyzed for expression of interleukin 21 (IL-21) and negative regulators of immune responses. Results. Infection of macrophages triggered synthesis of IL-17, correlating with IL-17 expression by macrophages in coinfected lymph nodes. Infected macrophages exposed to exogenous IL-17 expressed CXCL10, which favors recruitment of new macrophages as targets for infection. Blockade of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways suppressed mycobacteria-induced IL-17 expression. MAC triggered expression of IL-21, IRF4, and STAT3 genes related to IL-17 regulation, as well as expression of the negative immunoregulators CD274(PD-L1) and suppressors of cytokine signaling. Conclusions. MAC-infected macrophages can provide an alternative source for IL-17 that favors accumulation of new targets for perpetuating bacterial and viral infection while suppressing host antimicrobial immune responses. PMID
Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome
Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. © 2015 The Author(s).
Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José
Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time. PMID:23275511
Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José; Lopez, Osvaldo Jorge
Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time.
Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.
Miyashita, Emiko; Yoshida, Hisao; Mori, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Miyamura, Takako; Ohta, Hideaki; Seki, Masafumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Hashii, Yoshiko; Ozono, Keiichi
Peritonitis remains an important complication of peritoneal dialysis and is mostly caused by aerobic enteric bacteria. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-associated peritonitis is an unusual but serious infection, requiring special culture techniques to avoid delay in diagnosis. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with aplastic anemia on ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who had Mycobacterium avium complex-associated peritonitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This case emphasizes that we should be constantly cautious about NTM infection in allo-HSCT recipients, especially when standard cultures are negative and the infection is refractory to empirical antibiotic therapy. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.
Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.
Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.
Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter
Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...... animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (... mucosa, but culture positive in milk, and two cows were negative in culture and PCR from both faeces and milk. In conclusion, the presence of M. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR, but cultivation of milk was more sensitive. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Chen, Z. H.; Butler, W R; Baumstark, B R; Ahearn, D G
Known DNA sequences coding for the 16S rRNAs of 14 slowly growing Mycobacterium species were analyzed. Three sets of primers were synthesized: MAV and MIN, for M. avium and M. intracellulare, respectively, and MYCOB, for the slowly growing mycobacteria. Whole-cell DNAs of 14 reference species were extracted and amplified by PCR with the MYCOB, MAV, and MIN primers. The MYCOB primer amplified a 0.9-kb segment from the DNAs of all 14 species. The MAV and MIN primers each amplified one highly sp...
Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP causes Johne’s disease, a chronic granulomatous intestinal condition which affects ruminants, including cattle, sheep, goats, and farmed deer. In more recent studies water and milk supplies have both been suggested as vehicles of MAP transmission between cattle and humans. Recently our group observed immune responses to MAP in an Italian patient with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome.The focus of our work was evaluate the hypothesis of a possible MAP infection in other members of the same family.
Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers
Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples...... of colostrum taken between 0 and 4days-in-milk (DIM), and to assess the probability of an animal testing positive for MAP specific IgG over this time-period. Non-specific reactions were found in 3/365 (0.8%) of samples. The odds of an animal testing positive on day of calving were 130 times higher than at 4...
Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Grønbæk, Betina Chemnitz; Brogaard, Louise
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. The aim of the study was to use high-throughput reverse transcriptase (RT) qPCR to describe intestinal gene expression patterns in response to different levels of Map infection with a larg...... panel of immunologically relevant genes. For the study we selected samples of 6 calves that were all experimentally infected with Map at two weeks of age and based on serology, histology and Map tissue load were classified as protected (n=2) or unprotected (n=2) after vaccination, or un...
Ghosh, Pallab; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants, a chronic enteric disease responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Global gene regulators, including sigma factors are important in regulating mycobacterial virulence. However, the biological significance of such regulators in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rremains elusive. To better decipher the role of sigma factors in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we targeted a key sigma factor gene, sigL, activated in mycobacterium-infected macrophages. We interrogated an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ΔsigL mutant against a selected list of stressors that mimic the host microenvironments. Our data showed that sigL was important in maintaining bacterial survival under such stress conditions. Survival levels further reflected the inability of the ΔsigL mutant to persist inside the macrophage microenvironments. Additionally, mouse infection studies suggested a substantial role for sigL in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence, as indicated by the significant attenuation of the ΔsigL-deficient mutant compared to the parental strain. More importantly, when the sigL mutant was tested for its vaccine potential, protective immunity was generated in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. Overall, our study highlights critical role of sigL in the pathogenesis and immunity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, a potential role that could be shared by similar proteins in other intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Ghosh, Pallab; Steinberg, Howard
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease in ruminants, a chronic enteric disease responsible for severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Global gene regulators, including sigma factors are important in regulating mycobacterial virulence. However, the biological significance of such regulators in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis rremains elusive. To better decipher the role of sigma factors in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we targeted a key sigma factor gene, sigL, activated in mycobacterium-infected macrophages. We interrogated an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ΔsigL mutant against a selected list of stressors that mimic the host microenvironments. Our data showed that sigL was important in maintaining bacterial survival under such stress conditions. Survival levels further reflected the inability of the ΔsigL mutant to persist inside the macrophage microenvironments. Additionally, mouse infection studies suggested a substantial role for sigL in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence, as indicated by the significant attenuation of the ΔsigL-deficient mutant compared to the parental strain. More importantly, when the sigL mutant was tested for its vaccine potential, protective immunity was generated in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. Overall, our study highlights critical role of sigL in the pathogenesis and immunity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, a potential role that could be shared by similar proteins in other intracellular pathogens. PMID:24799632
Freitas José de Arimatéa
Full Text Available Duas cepas micobacterianas, isoladas no parênquima pulmonar e linfonodo apical de búfalos abatidos para consumo, procedentes de criatórios localizados na Ilha de Marajó (PA e submetidas à identificação segundo ensaios recomendados para o gênero Mycobacterium, foram identificadas como pertencentes ao complexo Mycobacterium avium. Apresentaram-se considerações relativas à associação desses organismos com a Aids -- e o papel dos alimentos nessa associação --, discutindo-se o impacto que a condição de germes oportunistas das espécies desse complexo têm na pandemia do HIV, assim como o risco potencial representado pelas infecções produzidas nos animais.
Lefrancois, Louise H.; Bodier, Christelle C.; Cochard, Thierry; Canepa, Sylvie; Raze, Dominique; Lanotte, Philippe; Sevilla, Iker A.; Stevenson, Karen; Behr, Marcel A.; Locht, Camille
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis comprises two genotypically defined groups, known as the cattle (C) and sheep (S) groups. Recent studies have reported phenotypic differences between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis groups C and S, including growth rates, infectivity for macrophages, and iron metabolism. In this study, we investigated the genotypes and biological properties of the virulence factor heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) for both groups. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HBHA is a major adhesin involved in mycobacterium-host interactions and extrapulmonary dissemination of infection. To investigate HBHA in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, we studied hbhA polymorphisms by fragment analysis using the GeneMapper technology across a large collection of isolates genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-IS900) analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed the structure-function relationships of recombinant HBHA proteins of types C and S by heparin-Sepharose chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. In silico analysis revealed two forms of HBHA, corresponding to the prototype genomes for the C and S types of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This observation was confirmed using GeneMapper on 85 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, including 67 strains of type C and 18 strains of type S. We found that HBHAs from all type C strains contain a short C-terminal domain, while those of type S present a long C-terminal domain, similar to that produced by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The purification of recombinant HBHA from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis of both types by heparin-Sepharose chromatography highlighted a correlation between their affinities for heparin and the lengths of their C-terminal domains, which was confirmed by SPR analysis. Thus, types C and S of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may be
Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium Complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy Linfadenitis y absceso subcutáneo por Complejo Mycobacterium avium como manifestación de síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune luego de un segundo esquema de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad
Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is an atypical and unexpected reaction related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. IRIS includes an atypical response to an opportunistic pathogen (generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus and herpes varicella-zoster, in patients responding to HAART with a reduction of plasma viral load and evidence of immune restoration based on increase of CD4+ T-cell count. We reported a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune (SIRI es una reacción atípica e inesperada relacionada con el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El SIRI representa una respuesta inflamatoria frente a un patógeno oportunista (generalmente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Complejo Mycobacterium avium, citomegalovirus y herpes varicela-zóster en pacientes que responden a la TARGA con una marcada reducción de la carga viral en plasma y evidencia de una recuperación inmunológica expresada por el incremento de los niveles de linfocitos T CD4+. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida que desarrolló un absceso subcutáneo en muslo derecho y una adenitis supraclavicular izquierda como manifestación de SIRI por Complejo Mycobacterium avium luego del inicio de un segundo esquema de TARGA.
Bannantine, John P; Etienne, Gilles; Laval, Françoise; Stabel, Judith R; Lemassu, Anne; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayles, Darrell O; Ganneau, Christelle; Bonhomme, Frédéric; Branger, Maxime; Cochard, Thierry; Bay, Sylvie; Biet, Franck
Mycobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that includes many lipids; however, even within a single subspecies of Mycobacterium avium these lipids can differ. Total lipids from an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) ovine strain (S-type) contained no identifiable glycopeptidolipids or lipopentapeptide (L5P), yet both lipids are present in other M. avium subspecies. We determined the genetic and phenotypic basis for this difference using sequence analysis as well as biochemical and physico-chemical approaches. This strategy showed that a nonribosomal peptide synthase, encoded by mps1, contains three amino acid specifying modules in ovine strains, compared to five modules in bovine strains (C-type). Sequence analysis predicted these modules would produce the tripeptide Phe-N-Methyl-Val-Ala with a lipid moiety, termed lipotripeptide (L3P). Comprehensive physico-chemical analysis of Map S397 extracts confirmed the structural formula of the native L3P as D-Phe-N-Methyl-L-Val-L-Ala-OMe attached in N-ter to a 20-carbon fatty acid chain. These data demonstrate that S-type strains, which are more adapted in sheep, produce a unique lipid. There is a dose-dependent effect observed for L3P on upregulation of CD25+ CD8 T cells from infected cows, while L5P effects were static. In contrast, L5P demonstrated a significantly stronger induction of CD25+ B cells from infected animals compared to L3P. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carla D. Marassi
Full Text Available Swine are susceptible to different mycobacteria species, being Mycobacterium bovis an agent of tuberculosis, with most significant zoonotic risks, while M. avium determines a granulomatous lymphadenitis with low zoonotic risk. Currently performed intradermal tests present some important limitations, such as the lack of ability to detect anergic animals or to differentiate among mycobacterial species. In order to improve the TB diagnosis, serological assays have been developed, with encouraging results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a MPB70-ELISA in 82 piglets divided into four groups: sensitized by inactivated M. bovis, M. avium, inoculated with oil adjuvant, or with saline solution. The test was able to discriminate between an animal sensitized by M. bovis and animals of the three other groups, including M. avium-sensitized animals; for this reason, we suggest that MPB70-ELISA could be used as a complementary tool for discriminating the agent of the mycobacteriosis, and therefore to diagnose tuberculosis in a swine herd.
Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva
The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Bannantine, John P.; Whittington, Richard J.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such proteins are hypothesized to be expressed in vivo, are recognized by the host immune system, and may be of potential use in the diagnosis of JD. In this study, 50 recombinant maltose binding protein (MBP)-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins were evaluated using serum samples from sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 29 (58%) were found to be antigenic. Among 50 fusion proteins, 10 were evaluated in MBP fusion and factor Xa-cleaved forms. A total of 31 proteins (62%) were found to be antigenic in either MBP fusion or factor Xa-cleaved forms. Antigenicity after cleavage and removal of the MBP tag was marginally enhanced. PMID:24132604
Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that MAP expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such prot...
Smith, Rebecca L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Pradhan, A. K.; Whitlock, R. H.; Van Kessel, J. S.; Smith, J. M.; Wolfgang, D. R.; Schukken, Y. H.
Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test
Beaver, A.; Cazer, C. L.; Ruegg, P. L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Schukken, Y. H.
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism
While intense research is being conducted to develop faster and more reliable methods for diagnosis of Johne’s disease, there are still significant knowledge gaps concerning the molecular function of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. Therefore, we describe atomic resolution ...
Longitudinal infection data on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was collected on three dairy farms in Northeastern United States during approximately 10 years. Precise data on animal characteristics and animal location within farm were collected on these farms. Cows were followe...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and it has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. The generation of comprehensive random mutant banks by transposon mutagenesis is a fundamental wide genomic technology utilized...
The objective of this paper is to study shedding patterns of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While multiple single farm studies of MAP dynamics were reported, there is not large-scale meta-analysis of both natural and experimental infections. Large difference...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease, is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in ruminants. The lack of efficacious control measures demands a thorough understanding of MAP pathogenesis to develop new vaccines and diagnostic tests. The ge...
Souriau, Armel; Freret, Sandrine; Foret, Benjamin; Willemsen, Peter T.J.; Bakker, Douwe; Guilloteau, Laurence A.
Currently Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection is diagnosed through indirect tests based on the immune response induced by the infection. The antigens commonly used in IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) are purified protein derivative tuberculins (PPD). However, PPDs, lack both
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers
The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...
Johne’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which results in serious economic losses worldwide in farmed livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. To control this disease, an effective vaccine with minimal adverse effects is needed. In order to identify a live va...
The early immune response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle is characterized by a Th1-like immune response effective in controlling bacterial proliferation during the subclinical stage of infection. In young calves nearly 60% of circulating lymphocytes are gamma delta T ...
Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) results in a chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease are not fully under...
Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses to Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is complicated by the multifaceted disease progression, late-onset host reaction, and the lack of ex vivo infection models ...
Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remains controversial. One issue that has been raised is the lack of data showing a cellular immune response to MAP. Earlier studies have mostly focused on responses in peripheral blood which have several limit...
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...
Fiogbe, A A; Liistro, G; Hoton, D; Pieters, T
The incidence of atypical mycobacterial infection in Europe is estimated at one case per 100,000 persons/year. Despite the low incidence of Mycobacterium avium infection, it can result in a nodular lesion simulating lung cancer. We report a case of atypical mycobacteriosis, mimicking lung cancer, which led to a lobectomy. It was a right pulmonary upper lobe nodule found in a 63-year-old COPD patient, partially nephrectomized for renal carcinoma, and weekly treated by methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. FDG uptake was weakly positive on PET-CT (SUV=2.2) in the upper fissure. Bronchoscopy yielded no lesions and no bacteriological findings. Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma stage T1 (a) N0M0. An upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed epithelioid granuloma surrounded by giant cells suggestive of tuberculomas. The bronchial washing fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterium avium after 7 weeks. In pseudo-neoplastic forms of atypical mycobacteriosis, the presence of alveolar, inflammatory cytonuclear abnormalities can mimic an adenocarcinoma. Making the difference between the cytonuclears defects related to inflammation or neoplasia remains a daily challenge in histopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pseudogout is a crystal-induced arthropathy characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD crystals in synovial fluid, menisci, or articular cartilage. Although not very common, this entity can be seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI is a rare entity that can affect immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or those who are on immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe a 51-year-old female who presented with fever, right knee pain, swelling, warmth, and decreased range of motion for several days. The initial assessment was consistent with pseudogout, with negative bacterial and fungal cultures. However, due to high white blood cell (WBC count in the synovial fluid analysis, she was empirically started on intravenous (IV vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam and discharged on IV vancomycin and cefepime, while acid-fast bacilli (AFB culture was still in process. Seventeen days later, AFB culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI, and she was readmitted for relevant management. This case illustrates that septic arthritis due to MAI should be considered in the differential diagnosis of septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients.
Arastéh, K; Cordes, C; Futh, U; Grosse, G; Dietz, E; Staib, F
In the observation of various opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive persons, co-infection by Cryptococcus neoformans together with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare was found if there was a CD4 lymphocyte count as low as 3-20/microliters. In 1540 HIV-positive patients under treatment at a Berlin hospital (Auguste-Viktoria-Krankenhaus) during 1985-1994, all AIDS-relevant diseases were examined in a multivariate analysis as variables of influence on the manifestation of a systemic Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The analysis involved data on 36 cases of cryptococcosis and 202 cases with a typical clinical course in whom MAC had been detected at sterile body sites. As significant and independent factors of influence, the following were identified: C. neoformans infection, wasting syndrome, lower age, low CD4 lymphocyte count and preceding Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) prophylaxis. Cryptococcosis ranged first with an ods ratio of 2.75. The concomitant manifestation of cryptococcosis and systemic MAC infection in six patients is shown. Because both opportunists, C. neoformans and avian mycobacteria, may have their common habitat in droppings of defined species of pet birds, a common source of infection deserves further clinical and epidemiological attention.
Arastéh, K; Cordes, C; Futh, U; Grosse, G; Dietz, E; Staib, F
In the observation of various opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive persons, co-infection by Cryptococcus neoformans together with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare was found if there was a CD4 lymphocyte count as low as 3-20 microl. In 1540 HIV-positive patients under treatment at a Berlin hospital (Auguste-Viktoria-Krankenhaus) during 1985-1994, all AIDS-relevant diseases were examined in a multivariate analysis as variables of influence on the manifestation of a systemic Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The analysis involved data on 36 cases of cryptococcosis and 202 cases with a typical clinical course in whom MAC had been detected at sterile body sites. As significant and independent factors of influence, the following were identified: C. neoformans infection, wasting syndrome, lower age, low CD4 lymphocyte count and preceding Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) prophylaxis. Cryptococcosis ranged first with an odds ratio of 2.75. The concomitant manifestation of cryptococcosis and systemic MAC infection in six patients is shown. Because both opportunists, C. neoformans and avian mycobacteria, may have their common habitat in droppings of defined species of pet birds, a common source of infection deserves further clinical and epidemiological attention.
Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Kartalija, Marinka; Chmura, Kathryn; Kamali, Amanda; Honda, Jennifer R.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Crapo, James D.; Chang, Ling-Yi
Lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms is increasing. A greater understanding of the host immune response to MAC organisms will provide a foundation to develop novel therapies for these recalcitrant infections. IL-32 is a newly described pro-inflammatory cytokine that enhances host immunity against various microbial pathogens. Cytokines that induce IL-32 such as interferon-gamma, IL-18, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are of considerable importance to mycobacterial immunity. We performed immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis to quantify IL-32 expression in the lungs of 11 patients with MAC lung disease and 10 controls with normal lung tissues. After normalizing for basement membrane length, there was a profound increase in IL-32 expression in the airway epithelial cells of the MAC-infected lungs compared with controls. Following normalization for alveolar surface area, there was a trend toward increased IL-32 expression in type II alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages in the lungs of MAC patients. Human airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) infected with M. avium produced IL-32 by a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent mechanism. In both BEAS-2B cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages, exogenous IL-32γ significantly reduced the growth of intracellular M. avium. This finding was corroborated by an increase in the number of intracellular M. avium recovered from THP-1 monocytes silenced for endogenous IL-32 expression. The anti-mycobacterial effect of IL-32 may be due, in part, to increased apoptosis of infected cells. These findings indicate that IL-32 facilitates host defense against MAC organisms but may also contribute to the airway inflammation associated with MAC pulmonary disease. PMID:22033195
Bannantine John P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Antibody Response, Fecal Shedding, and Antibody Cross-Reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Cattle Herds Vaccinated against Johne's Disease
Hovingh, Ernest; Linscott, Rick; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John; Wolfgang, David; Griswold, David
Vaccination for Johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. The vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. Johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. Temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, were measured in 2 dairy cattle herds using Johne's disease vaccine (Mycopar) over a period of 7 years. Vaccination against Johne's disease resulted in positive serum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody responses in both herds, and the responses persisted in vaccinated cattle up to 7 years of age. Some vaccinated animals (29.4% in herd A and 36.2% in herd B) showed no serological reactivity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses were also detected in milk from Johne's disease-vaccinated animals, but fewer animals (39.3% in herd A and 49.4% in herd B) had positive results with milk than with serum samples. With vaccination against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal shedding in both dairy herds was reduced significantly (P < 0.001). In addition, when selected Johne's disease-vaccinated and -infected animals were investigated for serological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis, no cross-reactivity was observed. PMID:24623626
Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Mizorogi, Seiko; Nagata, Reiko; Kawaji, Satoko; Tanaka, Shogo; Kagawa, Yumiko; Murata, Shiro; Mori, Yasuyuki; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) is a chronic enteritis in cattle that is caused by intracellular infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This infection is characterized by the functional exhaustion of T-cell responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens during late subclinical and clinical stages, presumably facilitating the persistence of this bacterium and the formation of clinical lesions. However, the mechanisms underlying T-cell exhaustion in Johne's disease are poorly understood. Thus, we performed expression and functional analyses of the immunoinhibitory molecules programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3)/major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle during the late subclinical stage. Flow cytometric analyses revealed the upregulation of PD-1 and LAG-3 in T cells in infected animals, which suffered progressive suppression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen. In addition, PD-L1 and MHC-II were expressed on macrophages from infected animals, consistent with PD-1 and LAG-3 pathways contributing to the suppression of IFN-γ responses during the subclinical stages of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Furthermore, dual blockade of PD-L1 and LAG-3 enhanced M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific IFN-γ responses in blood from infected animals, and in vitro LAG-3 blockade enhanced IFN-γ production from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T-cell exhaustion is in part mediated by PD-1/PD-L1 and LAG-3/MHC-II interactions and that LAG-3 is a molecular target for the control of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific T-cell responses. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID
Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P
ESAT-6 (for 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target) is a secreted antigen found almost exclusively in organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We compared in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells to this antigen in patients with pulmonary...... disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...
Rianne J.C van der Zanden
Full Text Available A symptomatic patient had repeatedly positive cultures of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis after exposure to a hot tub contaminated with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. The pulmonary and tub water isolates were indistinguishable by IS1245 RFLP as well as rep-PCR typing. Discontinued use of the hot tub resulted in culture conversion.
Wynne James W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective diagnosis of Johne's disease (JD, particularly at the stage of early subclinical infection, remains one of the greatest challenges for the control of JD worldwide. The IFN-γ test of cell mediated immunity is currently one of the most suitable diagnostics for subclinical infections, however a major limitation of this test is the lack of a standardised purified protein derivative (PPD antigen (also referred to as Johnin PPD or PPDj. While attempting to replace PPDj with more specific individual antigens is an attractive proposition, bacterial culture derived PPDj remains the most effective antigen preparation for the diagnosis of subclinical JD. It may be possible to increase the reproducibility and specificity of PPDj preparations by further characterising and standardising the PPDj production. Results Using a standardised protocol, five in-house preparations of PPDj were prepared from cultures of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Compared to PPDs obtained from other institutes/laboratories, these preparations appeared to perform similarly well in the IFN-γ test. Although the broad proteomic composition of all PPDj preparations was remarkably similar, the absolute abundance of individual proteins varied markedly between preparations. All PPDj preparations contained common immunogenic proteins which were also observed in PPD preparations from Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (PPDa and Mycobacterium bovis (PPDb. Temporal difference in protein secretion of in vitro cultured MAP was observed between 20 and 34 weeks suggesting that the age of MAP culture used for PPDj preparations may markedly influence PPDj composition. Conclusions This study describes a protocol for the production of PPDj and its subsequent proteomic characterisation. The broad proteomic composition of different preparations of PPDj was, for the most part, highly similar. Compositional differences between PPDj preparations were found
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map is the aetiological agent of Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis and is included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Map strains are of two major types often referred to as ‘Sheep’ or ‘S-type’ and ‘Cattle’ or ‘C-type’. With the advent of more discriminatory typing techniques it has been possible to further classify the S-type strains into two groups referred to as Type I and Type III. This study was undertaken to genotype a large panel of S-type small ruminant isolates from different hosts and geographical origins and to compare them with a large panel of well documented C-type isolates to assess the genetic diversity of these strain types. Methods used included Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable-Number Tandem Repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR, analysis of Large Sequence Polymorphisms by PCR (LSP analysis, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis of gyr genes, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis coupled with hybridization to IS900 (IS900-RFLP analysis. Results The presence of LSPA4 and absence of LSPA20 was confirmed in all 24 Map S-type strains analysed. SNPs within the gyr genes divided the S-type strains into types I and III. Twenty four PFGE multiplex profiles and eleven different IS900-RFLP profiles were identified among the S-type isolates, some of them not previously published. Both PFGE and IS900-RFLP segregated the S-type strains into types I and III and the results concurred with those of the gyr SNP analysis. Nine MIRU-VNTR genotypes were identified in these isolates. MIRU-VNTR analysis differentiated Map strains from other members of Mycobacterium avium Complex, and Map S-type from C-type but not type I from III. Pigmented Map isolates were found of type I or III. Conclusion This is the largest panel of S-type strains investigated to date. The S-type strains
Marinho, Fábio A V; de Paula, Rafaella R; Mendes, Aline C; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Gomes, Marco T R; Carvalho, Natália B; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Caliari, Marcelo V; Oliveira, Sergio C
Mycobacterium avium has been reported to signal through both Toll-like receptor (TLR2) and TLR9. To investigate the role of TLR6 in innate immune responses to M. avium, TLR6, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR2/6 KO mice were infected with this pathogen. Bacterial burdens were higher in the lungs and livers of infected TLR6, TLR2, TLR2/6, and MyD88 KO mice compared with those in C57BL/6 mice, which indicates that TLR6 is required for the efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR6 KO spleen cells presented with normal M. avium induced IFN-γ responses as measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. In contrast, the production of IFN-γ in lung tissue was diminished in all studied KO mice. Furthermore, only MyD88 deficiency reduced granuloma areas in mouse livers. Moreover, we determined that TLR6 plays an important role in controlling bacterial growth within macrophages and in the production of TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-6 by M. avium infected DCs. Finally, the lack of TLR6 reduced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in DCs. In summary, TLR6 is required for full resistance to M. avium and for the activation of DCs to produce proinflammatory cytokines. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Widagdo Sri Nugroho1,2
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP becomes a public health concern in developed countries which is usually associated to Crohn’s disease (CD in human. The disease shows similarities in clinical signs and pathology characteristic with John’s disease (JD in ruminants which is infected by MAP. Researchers in Europe, USA, and Australia detected MAP in their dairy products and showed the relationship among MAP, CD, and JD. Meanwhile Indonesia imported milk and milk products from those countries to cover the national demand. This situation keeps MAP as potential-problem in national dairy herd and human health in the future. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in the formla milk for todler. Fifty samples from five established milk producers were taken on August 2006 at the supermarket in Bogor. Two seperate diagnostic methods were used parallel in this study i.e.: polymerase chain reaction method (PCR with insertion sequence F 57 as the primer and the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT. Neither MAP grew in MGIT after 20 weeks of incubation period but 5 samples were found positive by nested PCR. Although there was no evidence weather MAP grew from the samples in this study, the comprehensive and sustainable studies on MAP should be carried out with more extensive and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP in Indonesia.
De Buck, Jeroen; Elkin, Brett; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank; Orsel, Karin
Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. PMID:23686265
Adhikari, Shraddha; Caro Tohme, Tanya; Whiley, Harriet
This technical research communication describes the first study to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in Australian pasteurised milk. MAC is the most common NTM responsible for human illnesses and includes M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAC is a causative agent of lymphadenitis in children, with contaminated food and water considered as a likely source. As such the presence of MAC in milk would have public health significance. MAP has been linked to Crohn's disease and is also the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. Previous studies have detected MAP in pasteurised milk from Brazil, India, Czech Republic, USA, Argentina, UK, Iran, Ireland and the United Kingdom. This study investigated a total of 180 commercially available Australian pasteurised milk samples which were tested for MAC DNA in triplicate using PCR. All samples were negative for MAC DNA. An additional 14 milk samples were tested, incubated for 3 weeks at 37 °C to potentially increase the concentration of any viable MAC that may be present and then retested. All samples were again negative for MAC DNA. This could be due to concentrations below the limit of detection, limited sample size or could be reflective of the Australian biosecurity control protocols and surveillance of Johne's disease in ruminant animals.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection is highly spread in the ruminant herds of Sardinia, in the Western Mediterranean. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of MAP infection in association with Multiple Sclerosis (MS using clinical specimen from patients and controls. We analyzed samples for the presence of MAP specific DNA and to demonstrate humoral response to a MAP protein (MAP2694, a predicted homologue of the T-cell receptor gamma-chain/complement component 1 of the host. We found presence of MAP DNA in 42% of the MS patients and an extremely significant humoral immune response revealed by the MS patients against the MAP protein. In our opinion, this is the first report that significantly associates MAP infection with MS. Further studies will be required to confirm if MAP could be one of the triggers of MS, according to the molecular mimicry theory, in susceptible (and genetically at risk individuals.
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Tollefsen, S.; Olsen, I.
Paratuberculosis in ruminants is caused by an infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and is a chronic disease characterized by granulomatous enteritis. Available vaccines against paratuberculosis consist of variations of whole bacteria with adjuvant showing various...... efficacies. The main problem with available vaccines is their interference with surveillance and diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. Our ultimate aim is to develop a subunit vaccine consisting of selected MAP peptides, which allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Here...... full blood IFN-γ release assay and ELISPOT measuring IFN-γ release of PBMCs. A number of peptides resulted in high T cell proliferative responses in T-cell lines and some peptides induced IFN-γ production measured by ELISPOT. This indicates that some of the peptides in the panel contain T cell epitopes...
J. Todd Kuenstner
Full Text Available On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees.
Kuenstner, J Todd; Naser, Saleh; Chamberlin, William; Borody, Thomas; Graham, David Y; McNees, Adrienne; Hermon-Taylor, John; Hermon-Taylor, Amy; Dow, C Thomas; Thayer, Walter; Biesecker, James; Collins, Michael T; Sechi, Leonardo A; Singh, Shoor Vir; Zhang, Peilin; Shafran, Ira; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; Rothstein, Robert; Oken, Harry; Schimpff, Stephen; Bach, Horacio; Bull, Tim; Grant, Irene; Ellingson, Jay; Dahmen, Heinrich; Lipton, Judith; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan; Singh, Manju; Agarwal, Prabhat; Kumar, Ashok; Misri, Jyoti; Sohal, Jagdip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Hemati, Zahra; Davis, William; Hier, Michael; Aitken, John; Pierce, Ellen; Parrish, Nicole; Goldberg, Neil; Kali, Maher; Bendre, Sachin; Agrawal, Gaurav; Baldassano, Robert; Linn, Preston; Sweeney, Raymond W; Fecteau, Marie; Hofstaedter, Casey; Potula, Raghava; Timofeeva, Olga; Geier, Steven; John, Kuruvilla; Zayanni, Najah; Malaty, Hoda M; Kahlenborn, Christopher; Kravitz, Amanda; Bulfon, Adriano; Daskalopoulos, George; Mitchell, Hazel; Neilan, Brett; Timms, Verlaine; Cossu, Davide; Mameli, Giuseppe; Angermeier, Paul; Jelic, Tomislav; Goethe, Ralph; Juste, Ramon A; Kuenstner, Lauren
On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees.
The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.
In this study, DNA extraction was performed on 100 stool samples from Johne's disease infected cattle. Then using specific primers of gene IS900, Nested PCR reactions was carried out and from the positive samples isolated, 14 cases were randomly selected and sent to Macro gene Company in Korea for sequencing. In this study, 28 samples from a total of 100 stool samples were positive for MAP. After sequencing, more than 99% of the positive samples were similar with sequences in gene bank. The Results showed that Nested PCR technique can be a valuable test for detection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in animals. The sequencing results indicated that strains KJ629114 and AE016958 had the highest similarity and CP000325 had the highest difference in GyrA gene. In regard to GyrB gene, the highest similarity belongs to strains AE016985, CP005928 and CP009614 and the highest difference was related to GU143884.
Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter
-negative on intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism.......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture...
Eugene M. Tan
Full Text Available Case: A 73-year-old immunocompromised male presented with recurrent left elbow swelling due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC olecranon bursitis. 3 years after completing MAC treatment, he underwent right total knee arthroplasty (TKA. 1 year later, he developed TKA pain and swelling and was diagnosed with MAC prosthetic joint infection (PJI. He underwent TKA resection, reimplantation, and 12 months of anti-MAC therapy. This patient is the seventh case report of MAC olecranon bursitis and the third case report of MAC PJI. He is the only report of both MAC olecranon bursitis and PJI occurring in the same patient. Informed consent: This patient was informed and agreed to the publication of this material.
Kaevska, Marija; Lvoncik, S; Lamka, J; Pavlik, I; Slana, I
The aims of this study were to describe spatial contamination of the environment on a mouflon pasture, as well as to assess the contamination of grass and roots after surface contamination and in depth contamination with feces and buried tissues from animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis). Samples of soil, roots, and aerial parts of plants were collected from different locations inside the mouflon pasture, and one control sample site was chosen outside the area where the animals are living. M. a. paratuberculosis DNA was present in all the examined sites and was more often detected in roots than in soil. DNA was detected at up to 80 cm of depth and was spatially more widespread than the initial hypothesis of M. a. paratuberculosis leaching vertically into deeper layers of soil. This study broadens our knowledge of the spread and persistence of M. a. paratuberculosis in an environment with highly infected animals.
Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola
of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA......Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...
Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.
Kuenstner, J. Todd; Naser, Saleh; Chamberlin, William; Borody, Thomas; Graham, David Y.; McNees, Adrienne; Hermon-Taylor, John; Hermon-Taylor, Amy; Dow, C. Thomas; Thayer, Walter; Biesecker, James; Collins, Michael T.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Singh, Shoor Vir; Zhang, Peilin; Shafran, Ira; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; Rothstein, Robert; Oken, Harry; Schimpff, Stephen; Bach, Horacio; Bull, Tim; Grant, Irene; Ellingson, Jay; Dahmen, Heinrich; Lipton, Judith; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan; Singh, Manju; Agarwal, Prabhat; Kumar, Ashok; Misri, Jyoti; Sohal, Jagdip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Hemati, Zahra; Davis, William; Hier, Michael; Aitken, John; Pierce, Ellen; Parrish, Nicole; Goldberg, Neil; Kali, Maher; Bendre, Sachin; Agrawal, Gaurav; Baldassano, Robert; Linn, Preston; Sweeney, Raymond W.; Fecteau, Marie; Hofstaedter, Casey; Potula, Raghava; Timofeeva, Olga; Geier, Steven; John, Kuruvilla; Zayanni, Najah; Malaty, Hoda M.; Kahlenborn, Christopher; Kravitz, Amanda; Bulfon, Adriano; Daskalopoulos, George; Mitchell, Hazel; Neilan, Brett; Timms, Verlaine; Cossu, Davide; Mameli, Giuseppe; Angermeier, Paul; Jelic, Tomislav; Goethe, Ralph; Juste, Ramon A.; Kuenstner, Lauren
On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees. PMID:29021977
Gereon Schulze Althoff
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium (MA is a potential food safety hazard in pigs. Blood samples of slaughtered pigs in the Netherlands and Germany were tested for the presence of MA antibodies to estimate the serological prevalence in the tested population. In the Dutch and German population 1.0% and 1.7% samples were positive, and 0.5% and 17.4% of the herds were at risk for having a MA infection respectively. The validity of the applied MA-ELISA was evaluated under field conditions. The specificity of the MA-ELISA was high (>98.4%. The average herd sensitivity was 18%. In the affected herds on average 50% of the animals were tested bacteriological positive for MA. It can be concluded that serological screening for the presence of MA antibodies is capable of identifying pig populations that are at risk for a MA infection.
Hiller, Anne; Oorburg, Derk; Wisselink, Henk J.; van Solt-Smits, Conny B.; Urlings, Bert; Klein, Günter; Althoff, Gereon Schulze; Heres, Lourens
Mycobacterium avium (MA) is a potential food safety hazard in pigs. Blood samples of slaughtered pigs in the Netherlands and Germany were tested for the presence of MA antibodies to estimate the serological prevalence in the tested population. In the Dutch and German population 1.0% and 1.7% samples were positive, and 0.5% and 17.4% of the herds were at risk for having a MA infection respectively. The validity of the applied MA-ELISA was evaluated under field conditions. The specificity of the MA-ELISA was high (>98.4%). The average herd sensitivity was 18%. In the affected herds on average 50% of the animals were tested bacteriological positive for MA. It can be concluded that serological screening for the presence of MA antibodies is capable of identifying pig populations that are at risk for a MA infection. PMID:23999550
Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; Gould, Katherine A.; Linedale, Richard; Stevenson, Karen; Alvarez, Julio; Dominguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucia; Hinds, Jason; Bull, Tim J.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an important animal pathogen widely disseminated in the environment that has also been associated with Crohn's disease in humans. Three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomotypes are recognized, but genomic differences have not been fully described. To further investigate these potential differences, a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray (designated the MAPAC array), based on the combined genomes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (strain K-10) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (strain 104), was designed and validated. By use of a test panel of defined M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, the MAPAC array was able to identify a set of large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) diagnostic for each of the three major M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis types. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains contained a smaller genomic complement than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type I and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type III genomotypes, which included a set of genomic regions also found in M. avium subsp. hominissuis 104. Specific PCRs for genes within LSPs that differentiated M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis types were devised and shown to accurately screen a panel (n = 78) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Analysis of insertion/deletion region INDEL12 showed deletion events causing a reduction in the complement of mycobacterial cell entry genes in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II strains and significantly altering the coding of a major immunologic protein (MPT64) associated with persistence and granuloma formation. Analysis of MAPAC data also identified signal variations in several genomic regions, termed variable genomic islands (vGIs), suggestive of transient duplication/deletion events. vGIs contained significantly low GC% and were immediately flanked by insertion sequences, integrases, or short inverted repeat sequences. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that variation in vGI signals
Sasha J Rose
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with biofilm-related infections of the respiratory tract and is difficult to treat. In recent years, extracellular DNA (eDNA has been found to be a major component of bacterial biofilms, including many pathogens involved in biofilm-associated infections. To date, eDNA has not been described as a component of mycobacterial biofilms. In this study, we identified and characterized eDNA in a high biofilm-producing strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH. In addition, we surveyed for presence of eDNA in various MAH strains and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. Biofilms of MAH A5 (high biofilm-producing strain and MAH 104 (reference strain were established at 22°C and 37°C on abiotic surfaces. Acellular biofilm matrix and supernatant from MAH A5 7 day-old biofilms both possess abundant eDNA, however very little eDNA was found in MAH 104 biofilms. A survey of MAH clinical isolates and other clinically relevant nontuberculous mycobacterial species revealed many species and strains that also produce eDNA. RAPD analysis demonstrated that eDNA resembles genomic DNA. Treatment with DNase I reduced the biomass of MAH A5 biofilms when added upon biofilm formation or to an already established biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and on top of human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of an established biofilm with DNase 1 and either moxifloxacin or clarithromycin significantly increased the susceptibility of the bacteria within the biofilm to these clinically used antimicrobials. Collectively, our results describe an additional matrix component of mycobacterial biofilms and a potential new target to help treat biofilm-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.
Wong, E A; Shin, G-A
There has been a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water due to its ubiquitous presence in natural waters and remarkable resistance to both chemical and physical disinfectants in drinking water treatment processes. However, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Therefore, we determined the removal of MAH by alum coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes in optimized drinking water treatment conditions using standard jar test equipment. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study show that removal of MAH by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes was only moderate (approx. 0.65 log10) under low turbidity treatment conditions and the removal of MAH was actually lower than that of Escherichia coli (reference bacterium) in all the waters tested. Overall, the results of this study suggested that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for removing MAH, and more efforts to find an effective control measures against MAH should be made to reduce the risk of MAH infection from drinking water. Despite a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water and its remarkable resistance to water disinfectants, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study suggest that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for MAH removal. As these processes have been the last remaining conventional drinking water treatment processes that might be effective against MAH, more efforts should be urgently made to find an effective control measures against this important waterborne pathogen. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Bolton, M W; Pillars, R B; Kaneene, J B; Mauer, W A; Grooms, D L
An observational prospective study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in naturally exposed dairy heifers. The study population consisted of heifers from 8 dairy herds in Michigan participating in a MAP control demonstration project. Ten heifers from 4 age groups (0 to 3, 4 to 6, 7 to 14, and 15 to 24 mo) were selected from each herd every 4 mo for 28 mo and tested for the presence of MAP by fecal culture (FC). Heifers from dams testing positive for MAP by serum ELISA or FC were preferentially selected, with the remainder of the age cohort filled with randomly selected heifers. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of data within herds and repeated measures across heifers was used to evaluate the relationship between MAP FC status of heifers and herd risk factors. In total, 1,842 fecal samples were collected from 1,202 heifers. Thirty-six (2%) fecal samples, representing 27 individual heifers, cultured positive for MAP. Heifers shedding MAP were more likely to occur in herds with adult-cow MAP ELISA prevalence >10% (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-11.1) and herds milking >300 cows (odds ratio = 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.4-13.4). Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis can be cultured from the feces of naturally infected dairy heifers. The future performance of these MAP FC-positive heifers is unknown and needs to be explored. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available JohneÃ¢Â€Â™s disease (JD is one of the most costly bacterial diseases in cattle. In the U.S., economic losses from the disease have been estimated to exceed $1,500,000,000 per year, mainly from the effects of reduced milk production. Current diagnostic tests for JD are laboratory based and many of those tests require specialized equipment and training. Development of rapid and inexpensive diagnostic assays, which are adapted for point-ofcare applications, would aid in the control of JD. In this study, a polyaniline (Pani-based conductometric biosensor, in an immunomigration format, was fabricated for the detection of serum antibody (IgG against the causal organism of JD, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Immobilized Mycobacterium avium purified proteins in the capture membrane were used to detect MAP IgG, previously bound with Pani/anti-bovine IgG* conjugate in the conjugate membrane. After detection, the Pani in the sandwiched captured complex bridges an electrical circuit between the silver electrodes, flanking the capture membrane. The electrical conductance, caused by Pani, was measured as drop in electrical resistance. Testing of the biosensor with known JD positive and negative serum samples demonstrated a significant difference in the mean resistance observed between the groups. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a conductometric biosensor could detect MAP IgG in 2 minutes. The biosensorÃ¢Â€Â™s speed of detection and the equipment involved would, among other things, support its application towards the various point-ofcare opportunities aimed at JD management and control.
Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEWEN, S A
This systematic review-meta-analysis appraises and summarizes all the available research (128 papers) on the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. The latter has been debated for a century due to pathogenic and clinical similarities between Johne's disease in ruminants and Crohn's disease (108 studies) in humans and recently for involvement in other human diseases; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2), sarcoidosis (3), diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) (7) and type 2 (3), multiple sclerosis (5) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2). Meta-analytical results indicated a significant positive association, consistently across different laboratory methods for Crohn's disease [odds ratio (OR) range 4·26-8·44], T1DM (OR range 2·91-9·95) and multiple sclerosis (OR range 6·5-7·99). The latter two and the thyroiditis hypothesis require further investigation to confirm the association. Meta-regression of Crohn's disease studies using DNA detection methods indicated that choice of primers and sampling frame (e.g. general population vs. hospital-based sample) explained a significant proportion of heterogeneity. Other epidemiological studies demonstrated a lack of association between high-risk occupations and development of Crohn's disease. Due to knowledge gaps in understanding the role of M. paratuberculosis in the development or progression of human disease, the evidence at present is not strong enough to inform the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis exposure.
Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N
The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Mortensen, Hanne; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Berg, Peer
The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic variation and the heritability of the ability to establish an immune response by producing antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Antibody levels were determined using an ELISA and measuring optical density (OD) values from...... milk samples of 11,535 cows from 99 herds. The pedigree of the 11,535 cows and information about days in milk, parity, milk yield, and others were obtained from the Danish Cattle database. The statistical analyses were made using a bivariate mixed animal model. The bivariate model with daily milk yield...... and OD as dependent variables showed a significant heritability of the ability to produce Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies of 0.102 (genetic variance = 0.054) and a nonsignificant genetic correlation of −0.037 between daily milk yield and OD. When a sire model was used...
Lein, A D; von Reyn, C F; Ravn, P
disease due to either Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis with those in healthy, skin test-negative, control subjects. Significant IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 were detected in 16 (59%) of 27 M. tuberculosis pulmonary disease patients, 0 (0%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 0...... (0%) of 8 controls. Significant IFN-gamma responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative were detected in 23 (85%) of 27 M. tuberculosis disease patients, 2 (25%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 5 (63%) of 8 healthy controls. M. avium sensitin was recognized in 24 (89%) of 27 M. tuberculosis...... disease patients, 4 (50%) of 8 MAC disease patients, and 1 (13%) of 8 controls. IFN-gamma responses to ESAT-6 are specific for disease due to M. tuberculosis and are not observed in patients with MAC disease or in healthy controls....
K Parvandar Asadollahi
In conclusion: It is suggested that more DNA fingerprinting tests for non-tuberculous Mycobacteria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, be conducted to find the source of their infections.
Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is reportedly associated with preceding nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (NTMIs. Here, we report on a systemic Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a patient on corticoid therapy for Sweet's syndrome. Literature searches show that 69.1% of patients with Sweet's syndrome and NTMIs developed this syndrome later than NTMIs and 89.3% of them developed during the clinical course of a rapidly growing mycobacterial infection. The residual cases were associated with slow-growing mycobacteria (14.3%, but only three cases of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infections before the onset of Sweet's syndrome have been reported, and all of them were caused by disseminated MAC disease. One of these cases developed during corticoid therapy for Sweet's syndrome, while another case had underlying diabetes mellitus. Hence, the occurrence of systemic MAC disease may be an inevitable consequence of long-term steroid use and underlying diseases. Literature searches also show that cervical lymphadenitis was a predominant symptom in NTMIs (90.5%. The present case did not have cervical lymphadenitis although the previously reported MAC cases did experience it. Therefore, lymphadenitis from NTMIs may be related to the pathogenesis of Sweet's syndrome. Hence, should a patient have systemic infection without lymphadenitis, it will be more difficult to clinically confirm that MAC disease is a predisposing factor for Sweet's syndrome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp hominissuis (previously Mycobacterium avium subsp avium is an environmental organism associated with opportunistic infections in humans. Mycobacterium hominissuis infects and replicates within mononuclear phagocytes. Previous study characterized an attenuated mutant in which the PPE gene (MAV_2928 homologous to Rv1787 was inactivated. This mutant, in contrast to the wild-type bacterium, was shown both to have impaired the ability to replicate within macrophages and to have prevented phagosome/lysosome fusion. Results MAV_2928 gene is primarily upregulated upon phagocytosis. The transcriptional profile of macrophages infected with the wild-type bacterium and the mutant were examined using DNA microarray, which showed that the two bacteria interact uniquely with mononuclear phagocytes. Based on the results, it was hypothesized that the phagosome environment and vacuole membrane of the wild-type bacterium might differ from the mutant. Wild-type bacterium phagosomes expressed a number of proteins different from those infected with the mutant. Proteins on the phagosomes were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. The environment in the phagosome of macrophages infected with the mutant differed from the environment of vacuoles with M. hominissuis wild-type in the concentration of zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium. Conclusion The results suggest that the MAV_2928 gene/operon might participate in the establishment of bacterial intracellular environment in macrophages.
Widagdo Sri Nugroho
Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: presencia en los alimentos y su relación con la enfermedad de Crohn Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in food and its relationship with Crohn's disease
Full Text Available La paratuberculosis o enfermedad de Johne es una enteritis crónica producida por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, que afecta a bovinos y a otras especies. En la Argentina se ha caracterizado en rodeos bovinos y de ciervos, con aislamientos tipificados en distintos patrones genéticos. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ha sido vinculado en humanos con una inflamación crónica del intestino, denominada enfermedad de Crohn. Existen evidencias clínicas y experimentales que relacionan a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis con la enfermedad en el humano, mediante su detección por PCR y por cultivo a partir de biopsias de órganos, de leche materna y de sangre de pacientes afectados. La leche y sus subproductos serían posibles fuentes de infección y se ha sugerido que M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis resistiría las condiciones de pasteurización. Diversos trabajos de investigación demostraron que esta micobacteria podría estar presente en leches comercializadas en diversos países, como Reino Unido, Estados Unidos, República Checa, y también en la Argentina. La presencia de M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis en productos lácteos y agua de consumo ha sido relacionada con la resistencia del microorganismo tanto a los procesos de elaboración como a los factores climáticos adversos, lo que enfatiza el rol de los alimentos y del agua como vías de transmisión al humano. Las investigaciones en curso podrían ratificar el riesgo y las implicancias de la exposición del humano a M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis a través de los alimentos y del agua contaminados, para determinar la importancia de la paratuberculosis como enfermedad zoonótica.Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of the cattle and other small ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In Argentina, the strains were characterized in beef and dairy cattle and deer in different genetic patterns by molecular tools. M. avium
Kumanan, Vijayarani; Nugen, Sam R; Baeumner, Antje J; Chang, Yung-Fu
A simple, membrane-strip-based lateral-flow (LF) biosensor assay and a high-throughput microtiter plate assay have been combined with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of a small number (ten) of viable Mycobacterium (M.) avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells in fecal samples. The assays are based on the identification of the RNA of the IS900 element of MAP. For the assay, RNA was extracted from fecal samples spiked with a known quantity of (10(1) to 10(6)) MAP cells and amplified using RT-PCR and identified by the LF biosensor and the microtiter plate assay. While the LF biosensor assay requires only 30 min of assay time, the overall process took 10 h for the detection of 10 viable cells. The assays are based on an oligonucleotide sandwich hybridization assay format and use either a membrane flow through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence or a microtiter plate well. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye, sulforhodamine B. The dye in the liposomes provides a signal that can be read visually, quantified with a hand-held reflectometer, or with a fluorescence reader. Specificity analysis of the assays revealed no cross reactivity with other mycobacteria, such as M. avium complex, M. ulcerans, M. marium, M. kansasii, M. abscessus, M. asiaticum, M. phlei, M. fortutitum, M. scrofalaceum, M. intracellular, M. smegmatis, and M. bovis. The overall assay for the detection of live MAP organisms is comparatively less expensive and quick, especially in comparison to standard MAP detection using a culture method requiring 6-8 weeks of incubation time, and is significantly less expensive than real-time PCR.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a member of the M avium complex (MAC. It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species, including primates. The disease ranges from pluribacillary to paucimicrobial, with chronic granulomatous inflammation like leprosy in humans. MAP infection can persist for years without causing clinical disease. The herd prevalence of MAP infection in Western Europe and North America is reported in the range 21% to 54%. These subclinically infected animals shed MAP in their milk and onto pastures. MAP is more robust than tuberculosis, and the risk that is conveyed to human populations in retail milk and in domestic water supplies is high. MAP is harboured in the ileocolonic mucosa of a proportion of normal people and can be detected in a high proportion of full thickness samples of inflamed Crohn’s disease gut by improved culture systems and IS900 polymerase chain reaction if the correct methods are used. MAP in Crohn’s disease is present in a protease-resistant nonbacillary form, can evade immune recognition and probably causes an immune dysregulation. As with other MAC, MAP is resistant to most standard antituberculous drugs. Treatment of Crohn’s disease with combinations of drugs more active against MAC such as rifabutin and clarithromycin can bring about a profound improvement and, in a few cases, apparent disease eradication. New drugs as well as effective MAP vaccines for animals and humans are needed. The problems caused by MAP constitute a public health issue of tragic proportions for which a range of remedial measures are urgently needed.
Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Freeman, Robert J.; Lewis, Kaeryn N.; Livingston-Rosanoff, Devon; Shah, Ketan S.; Milan, Sparrow Joy; Goldberg, Stefan V.
Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) is useful for generating DNA fingerprints of diverse bacterial and fungal species. Rep-PCR amplicon fingerprints represent genomic segments lying between repetitive sequences. A commercial system that electrophoretically separates rep-PCR amplicons on microfluidic chips, and provides computer-generated readouts of results has been adapted for use with Mycobacterium species. The ability of this system to type M. tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC) isolates was evaluated. M. tuberculosis strains (n = 56) were typed by spoligotyping with rep-PCR as a high-resolution adjunct. Results were compared with those generated by a standard approach of spoligotyping with IS6110-targeted restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) as the high-resolution adjunct. The sample included 11 epidemiologically and genotypically linked outbreak isolates and a population-based sample of 45 isolates from recent immigrants to Seattle, Wash., from the African Horn countries of Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. Twenty isolates exhibited unique spoligotypes and were not analyzed further. Of the 36 outbreak and African Horn isolates with nonunique spoligotypes, 23 fell into four clusters identified by IS6110-RFLP and rep-PCR, with 97% concordance observed between the two methods. Both approaches revealed extensive strain heterogeneity within the African Horn sample, consistent with a predominant pattern of reactivation of latent infections in this immigrant population. Rep-PCR exhibited 89% concordance with IS1245-RFLP typing of 28 M. avium subspecies avium strains. For M. tuberculosis as well as M. avium subspecies avium, the discriminative power of rep-PCR equaled or exceeded that of RFLP. Rep-PCR also generated DNA fingerprints from M. intracellulare (n = 8) and MACx (n = 2) strains. It shows promise as a fast, unified method for high-throughput genotypic fingerprinting of multiple Mycobacterium species. PMID:15184453
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle
Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi
Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection. PMID:14638822
Altic, Leslie C.; Rowe, Michael T.; Grant, Irene R.
UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log10 reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log10 reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log10 lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077). PMID:17435001
Altic, Leslie C; Rowe, Michael T; Grant, Irene R
UV light inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Middlebrook 7H9 broth and whole and semiskim milk was investigated using a laboratory-scale UV machine that incorporated static mixers within UV-penetrable pipes. UV treatment proved to be less effective in killing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis suspended in milk (0.5- to 1.0-log(10) reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml) than that suspended in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (2.5- to 3.3-log(10) reduction per 1,000 mJ/ml). The FASTPlaqueTB phage assay provided more rapid enumeration of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (within 24 h) than culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (6 to 8 weeks). Despite the fact that plaque counts were consistently 1 to 2 log(10) lower than colony counts throughout the study, UV inactivation rates for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis derived using the phage assay and culture results were not significantly different (P = 0.077).
Ikegame, Satoshi; Sakoda, Yoritake; Fujino, Nao; Taguchi, Kazuhito; Kawasaki, Masayuki; Kajiki, Akira
A retrospective observational study was performed to determine the sensitivity and limitation of PCR test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex. We obtained clinical specimens collected from the respiratory tract, cultured M. tuberculosis or M. avium complex, and performed PCR analysis. A total of 299 samples (M. tuberculosis, 177; M. avium, 35; M. intracellulare, 87) were analyzed by COBAS TaqMan PCR from April 2007 to March 2011. The PCR positivity rates were 50–55%, 70–100%, 88–98%, and 100% in smear-negative, smear 1+, 2+, and 3+ groups, respectively. The PCR positivity of tuberculosis in smear 1+ was 80.6%, which was statistically significantly (P avium, 21; M. intracellulare, 43), which were analyzed by COBAS Amplicor PCR. The PCR positivity rates obtained using COBAS TaqMan PCR and COBAS Amplicor PCR were not significantly different. The sensitivity of PCR test for mycobacteria is not sufficient in case of smear 1+. Careful consideration must be given to the interpretation of negative PCR test results in smear 1+, because smear-positive tuberculosis is the criterion for isolation. PMID:23029612
Full Text Available A retrospective observational study was performed to determine the sensitivity and limitation of PCR test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex. We obtained clinical specimens collected from the respiratory tract, cultured M. tuberculosis or M. avium complex, and performed PCR analysis. A total of 299 samples (M. tuberculosis, 177; M. avium, 35; M. intracellulare, 87 were analyzed by COBAS TaqMan PCR from April 2007 to March 2011. The PCR positivity rates were 50–55%, 70–100%, 88–98%, and 100% in smear-negative, smear 1+, 2+, and 3+ groups, respectively. The PCR positivity of tuberculosis in smear 1+ was 80.6%, which was statistically significantly (P<0.001 lower than that of smear 2+ (97.3%. From January 2005 to March 2007, we collected an additional 138 samples (M. tuberculosis, 74; M. avium, 21; M. intracellulare, 43, which were analyzed by COBAS Amplicor PCR. The PCR positivity rates obtained using COBAS TaqMan PCR and COBAS Amplicor PCR were not significantly different. The sensitivity of PCR test for mycobacteria is not sufficient in case of smear 1+. Careful consideration must be given to the interpretation of negative PCR test results in smear 1+, because smear-positive tuberculosis is the criterion for isolation.
Weigoldt, Mathias; Meens, Jochen; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Pich, Andreas; Gerlach, Gerald F; Goethe, Ralph
Knowledge on the proteome level about the adaptation of pathogenic mycobacteria to the environment in their natural hosts is limited. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic and incurable granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and has been suggested to be a putative aetiological agent of Crohn's disease in humans. Using a comprehensive LC-MS-MS and 2D difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) approach, we compared the protein profiles of clinical strains of MAP prepared from the gastrointestinal tract of diseased cows with the protein profiles of the same strains after they were grown in vitro. LC-MS-MS analyses revealed that the principal enzymes for the central carbon metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway, were present under both conditions. Moreover, a broad spectrum of enzymes for β-oxidation of lipids, nine of which have been shown to be necessary for mycobacterial growth on cholesterol, were detected in vivo and in vitro. Using 2D-DIGE we found increased levels of several key enzymes that indicated adaptation of MAP to the host. Among these, FadE5, FadE25 and AdhB indicated that cholesterol is used as a carbon source in the bovine intestinal mucosa; the respiratory enzymes AtpA, NuoG and SdhA suggested increased respiration during infection. Furthermore higher levels of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes Gnd2, Zwf and Tal as well as of KatG, SodA and GroEL indicated a vigorous stress response of MAP in vivo. In conclusion, our results provide novel insights into the metabolic adaptation of a pathogenic mycobacterium in its natural host.
Ovrutsky, Alida R; Chan, Edward D; Kartalija, Marinka; Bai, Xiyuan; Jackson, Mary; Gibbs, Sara; Falkinham, Joseph O; Iseman, Michael D; Reynolds, Paul R; McDonnell, Gerald; Thomas, Vincent
The incidence of lung and other diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing. NTM sources include potable water, especially in households where NTM populate pipes, taps, and showerheads. NTM share habitats with free-living amoebae (FLA) and can grow in FLA as parasites or as endosymbionts. FLA containing NTM may form cysts that protect mycobacteria from disinfectants and antibiotics. We first assessed the presence of FLA and NTM in water and biofilm samples collected from a hospital, confirming the high prevalence of NTM and FLA in potable water systems, particularly in biofilms. Acanthamoeba spp. (genotype T4) were mainly recovered (8/17), followed by Hartmannella vermiformis (7/17) as well as one isolate closely related to the genus Flamella and one isolate only distantly related to previously described species. Concerning mycobacteria, Mycobacterium gordonae was the most frequently found isolate (9/17), followed by Mycobacterium peregrinum (4/17), Mycobacterium chelonae (2/17), Mycobacterium mucogenicum (1/17), and Mycobacterium avium (1/17). The propensity of Mycobacterium avium hospital isolate H87 and M. avium collection strain 104 to survive and replicate within various FLA was also evaluated, demonstrating survival of both strains in all amoebal species tested but high replication rates only in Acanthamoeba lenticulata. As A. lenticulata was frequently recovered from environmental samples, including drinking water samples, these results could have important consequences for the ecology of M. avium in drinking water networks and the epidemiology of disease due to this species.
Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and
Maria Luisa Manca Bitti
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiological agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants. Recent studies have linked MAP to type 1 diabetes (T1D in the Sardinian population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MAP infection in a T1D cohort from continental Italy compared with healthy control subjects. 247 T1D subjects and 110 healthy controls were tested for the presence of MAP. MAP DNA was detected using IS900-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies towards a MAP antigen, heparin binding hemoagglutinin (HBHA, was detected by ELISA. We demonstrated a higher MAP DNA prevalence in plasma samples from T1D patients and a stronger immune response towards MAP HBHA, compared with healthy control subjects. Moreover, in the recent onset patients, we observed an association between anti-MAP antibodies and HLA DQ2 (DQA1 0201/DQB1 0202. These findings taken together support the hypothesis of MAP as an environmental risk factor for the development of T1D in genetically predisposed subjects, probably involving a mechanism of molecular mimicry between MAP antigens and pancreatic islet β-cells.
Full Text Available The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure.In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%.The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP.
Shoor Vir Singh
Full Text Available Examination of samples of stool from a 61 year old male patient, presenting with the clinical symptoms of Crohn’s disease (CD, revealed massive shedding of acid fast bacilli with the morphology of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle. MAP was cultured from the stool. Biotyping of the bacterium isolated from cultures of stool demonstrated it was the Indian Bison biotype of MAP, the dominant biotype infecting livestock and humans in India. Based on this finding and because the patient was unresponsive to standard therapy used in India to treat patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, the patient was placed on a regimen of multi-antibiotic therapy, currently used to treat tuberculosis and CD. After one year of treatment, the patient’s health was restored, concurrent with cessation of shedding of MAP in his stool. This patient is the first case shown to shed MAP from the stool who was cured of infection with antibiotics and who was concurrently cured of clinical signs of CD.
Magombedze, Gesham; Shiri, Tinevimbo; Eda, Shigetoshi; Stabel, Judy R.
Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN-γ, ELISA-antibody and fecal shedding experimental sensitivity scores for MAP infection detection and disease progression. We used both statistical methods and dynamic mathematical models to (i) evaluate the empirical assays (ii) infer and explain biological mechanisms that affect the time evolution of the biomarkers, and (iii) predict disease stages of 57 animals that were naturally infected with MAP. This analysis confirms that the fecal test is the best marker for disease progression and illustrates that Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/ELISA antibodies) assays are important for infection detection, but cannot reliably predict persistent infections. Our results show that the theoretical simulated macrophage-based assay is a potential good diagnostic marker for MAP persistent infections and predictor of disease specific stages. We therefore recommend specifically designed experiments to test the use of a based assay in the diagnosis of MAP infections.
Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Pisanu, S; Cubeddu, T; Uzzau, S; Rocca, S; Addis, M F
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). To identify the processes activated in the sheep intestine during natural MAP infection, and to provide a panel of differential host and pathogen proteins with diagnostic and prognostic potential, a differential shotgun proteomics workflow, including mass spectrometry, label-free quantisation and pathway analysis, was applied to ileal tissues of ewes with and without JD. Out of 2889 total proteins identified, 384 were differentially expressed and 341 were expressed at a higher level in JD. On the basis of Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis, these proteins were involved in numerous relevant biological networks and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including inhibition of phagosome acidification (such as V-ATPase), bacterial invasion, leucocyte recruitment and activation, and antimicrobial activity (such as haptoglobin, lactoferrin, cathelicidins, calgranulins and interleukins). A total of 28 MAP proteins were identified, including bacterioferritin, β-lactamase and heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA), a mycobacterial adhesin crucial for dissemination of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria
The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patients and from 11 individuals who did not have a clinicopathological diagnosis of CD (non-CD controls) attending for ileocolonoscopy. All samples were processed by staining techniques, culture on both solid and liquid media, and Insertion Sequence 900/F57 real-time PCR. The MAP frequency in CD-patients was found in a significantly greater proportion than in non-CD subjects; the most positive samples were biopsies from CD-patients tested by real-time PCR. MAP detection in biopsies, and in the other samples, by applying multiple and validated laboratory diagnostic tests, could be a marker of active infection, supporting MAP involvement in CD.
Rathnaiah, Govardhan; Lamont, Elise A; Harris, N Beth; Fenton, Robert J; Zinniel, Denise K; Liu, Xiaofei; Sotos, Josh; Feng, Zhengyu; Livneh-Kol, Ayala; Shpigel, Nahum Y; Czuprynski, Charles J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Barletta, Raúl G
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's Disease in ruminants. This enteritis has significant economic impact and worldwide distribution. Vaccination is one of the most cost effective infectious disease control measures. Unfortunately, current vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding, but are of limited efficacy and do not provide long-term protective immunity. Several strategies have been followed to mine the MAP genome for virulence determinants that could be applied to vaccine and diagnostic assay development. In this study, a comprehensive mutant bank of 13,536 MAP K-10 Tn5367 mutants (P > 95%) was constructed and screened in vitro for phenotypes related to virulence. This strategy was designated to maximize identification of genes important to MAP pathogenesis without relying on studies of other mycobacterial species that may not translate into similar effects in MAP. This bank was screened for mutants with colony morphology alterations, susceptibility to D-cycloserine, impairment in siderophore production or secretion, reduced cell association, and decreased biofilm and clump formation. Mutants with interesting phenotypes were analyzed by PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequencing to determine transposon insertion sites. These insertion sites mapped upstream from the MAP1152-MAP1156 cluster, internal to either the Mod operon gene MAP1566 or within the coding sequence of lsr2, and several intergenic regions. Growth curves in broth cultures, invasion assays and kinetics of survival and replication in primary bovine macrophages were also determined. The ability of vectors carrying Tn5370 to generate stable MAP mutants was also investigated.
Ana C Coelho
Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map seroprevalence in sheep in the North of Portugal. The effects on seroprevalence of several variables such as individual characteristics, management practices, farm characteristics, animal health, and available veterinary services were evaluated. This information was then used in a multivariable logistic regression model in order to identify risk factors for Map seropositivity. Univariable analysis was used to screen the variables used in the logistic regression model. Variables that showed p values of <0.15 were retained for the multivariable analysis. Fifteen variables were associated with paratuberculosis in univariable analysis. The multivariable logistic regression model identified a number of variables as risk factors for seropositivity like sheep pure local and/or a cross of a local breed (OR=2.02, herd size with 31-60 head (OR=2.14, culling during the Spring-Summer season (OR=1.69 and the use of an anti-parasitic treatment such as Ivermectin as the only anti-parasitic medication (OR=5.60. Potential risk factors identified in this study support current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis.
Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de; Santos, André de Souza; Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz de; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Erika Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes; Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro
The aim of this study was to detect the IS900 region of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine milk samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and conventional PCR, and to study the agreement between these tests. A total of 121 bovine milk samples were collected from herds considered positive for MAP, from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. MAP DNA was detected in 20 samples (16.5%) using conventional PCR and in 34 samples (28.1%) using qPCR. MAP DNA was detected in all of the 6 animal farms studied. Moderate agreement was found between qPCR and conventional PCR results, where the sensitivity and specificity of conventional PCR in relation to qPCR were 50% and 96.6%, respectively. Thus, the IS900 region of MAP was found in bovine milk samples from the State of Pernambuco. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MAP DNA found in bovine milk in Northeast Brazil. We also demonstrated the qPCR technique is more sensitive than conventional PCR with respect to detection of MAP in milk samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Settles, Erik W; Kink, John A; Talaat, Adel
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Johne's disease has a severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. In an effort to combat this disease, we screened several transposon mutants that were attenuated in the murine model of paratuberculosis for the potential use as live attenuated vaccines. Using the murine model, two vaccine candidates (pgs1360, pgs3965 with mutations of fabG2_2 and umaA1, respectively) were at or below the limit of detection for tissue colonization suggesting their low level persistence and hence safety. Prior to challenge, both candidates induced a M. paratuberculosis-specific IFN-γ, an indication of eliciting cell-mediated immunity. Following challenge with a virulent strain of M. paratuberculosis, the two vaccine candidates significantly reduced bacterial colonization in organs with reduced histological scores compared to control animals. In addition, one of the vaccine candidates (pgs3965) also induced IL-17a, a cytokine associated with protective immunity in mycobacterial infection. Our analysis suggested that the pgs3965 vaccine candidate is a potential live-attenuated vaccine that could be tested further in ruminant models of paratuberculosis. The analysis also validated our screening strategy to identify effective vaccine candidates against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Timms, Verlaine J; Daskalopoulos, George; Mitchell, Hazel M; Neilan, Brett A
The association of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) with Crohn's disease is a controversial issue. M. paratuberculosis is detected by amplifying the IS900 gene, as microbial culture is unreliable from humans. We determined the presence of M. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 22), ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 20), aphthous ulcers (n = 21) and controls (n = 42) using PCR assays validated on bovine tissue. Culture from human tissue was also performed. M. paratuberculosis prevalence in the CD and UC groups was compared to the prevalence in age and sex matched non-inflammatory bowel disease controls. Patients and controls were determined to be M. paratuberculosis positive if all three PCR assays were positive. A significant association was found between M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease (p = 0.02) that was not related to age, gender, place of birth, smoking or alcohol intake. No significant association was detected between M. paratuberculosis and UC or aphthous ulcers; however, one M. paratuberculosis isolate was successfully cultured from a patient with UC. We report the resistance of this isolate to ethambutol, rifampin, clofazamine and streptomycin. Interestingly this isolate could not only survive but could grow slowly at 5°C. We demonstrate a significant association between M. paratuberculosis and CD using multiple pre-validated PCR assays and that M. paratuberculosis can be isolated from patients with UC.
Amin, Adel S; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Darwish, Samah F; Ghosh, Pallab; AbdEl-Fatah, Eman M; Behour, Tahani S; Talaat, Adel M
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle, with potential involvement in cases of Crohn's disease in humans. Johne's disease is found worldwide and is economically important for both beef and dairy industries. In an effort to characterize this important infection in Egypt, we analysed the ecological and genomic features of recent isolates of M. paratuberculosis. In this report, we examined 26 Holstein dairy herds distributed throughout Egypt, from 2010 to 2013. Using PCR analysis of faecal samples, we estimated a mean herd-level prevalence of 65.4 %, with animal-level infection that reached a mean of 13.6 % among animals suffering from diarrhoea. Whole genome sequencing of field isolates identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms among field isolates relative to the standard M. paratuberculosis K10 genome. Interestingly, the virulence of M. paratuberculosis isolates from Egypt revealed diverse virulence phenotypes in the murine model of paratuberculosis, with significant differences in tissue colonization, particularly during the chronic stage of infection. Overall, our analysis confirmed that Johne's disease is a newly identified problem in Egypt and indicated that M. paratuberculosis has potentially diverse genotypes that impact its virulence. Further ecological mapping and genomic analysis of M. paratuberculosis will enhance our understanding of the transmission and evolutionary dynamics of this pathogen under natural field conditions. © 2015 The Authors.
Sonawane, Ganesh G; Narnaware, Shirish D; Tripathi, Bhupendra N
Paratuberculosis is an economically important, chronic, and incurable disease in ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Understanding the genetic variability of MAP strains is important in diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and the formation of strategies for prevention and control of the disease. In the present study, a total of 61 MAP isolates obtained from different parts and species of India were typed using IS1311 polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) to analyze the genetic difference(s), if any, between them and the host adaptation. Based on PCR-REA results, bison B type was detected in 54 (87%) MAP isolates obtained from cattle, sheep, and goats. Of these, 19 were from sheep of the Rajasthan (n=17) and Bareilly (n=2), North India regions, 28 were from cattle of Chennai, South India (n=3), Bareilly, North India (n=3), and Nagpur, West India (n=22), and seven goat isolates from Bareilly, North India region. The 'C' type strain was detected in only seven cattle isolates obtained from the Bareilly region. The study revealed that in India, bison B-type MAP strains were prevalent in most of the ruminant species. These results have important epidemiological implications with regard to control and prevention of paratuberculosis in India. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liverani, Elisa; Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Dal Monte, Paola; Belluzzi, Andrea
The origin of inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. Attempts have been made to isolate a microorganism that could explain the onset of inflammation, but no pathological agent has ever been identified. Johne's disease is a granulomatous chronic enteritis of cattle and sheep caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and shows some analogies with Crohn's disease (CD). Several studies have tried to clarify if MAP has a role in the etiology of CD. The present article provides an overview of the evidence in favor and against the "MAP-hypothesis", analyzing the methods commonly adopted to detect MAP and the role of antimycobacterial therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Studies were identified through the electronic database, MEDLINE, and were selected based on their relevance to the objective of the review. The presence of MAP was investigated using multiple diagnostic methods for MAP detection and in different tissue samples from patients affected by CD or ulcerative colitis and in healthy controls. On the basis of their studies, several authors support a close relationship between MAP and CD. Although increasing evidence of MAP detection in CD patients is unquestionable, a clear etiological link still needs to be proven.
Eran A. Raizman
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map, the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30 cm long each of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control and Map high shedder cows (treatment were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application.
Begg, D J; Purdie, A C; de Silva, K; Dhand, N K; Plain, K M; Whittington, R J
Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) does not always lead to Johne's disease. Understanding differences in disease susceptibility of individual animals is a key aspect to controlling mycobacterial diseases. This study was designed to examine the susceptibility or resistance of various breeds of sheep to MAP infection. Merino, Suffolk first cross Merino, Border Leicester, and Poll Dorset sheep were orally inoculated with MAP and monitored for 14 months. Clinical disease occurred more frequently in the Merino (42%) and Suffolk first cross Merino (36%) compared to the Border Leicester (12%) and Poll Dorset (11%) breeds. Infection risk, as determined by culture of gut and associated lymphoid tissues, ranged from 75% for the Suffolk first cross Merino to 47% for the Poll Dorset sheep. Significant differences were identified in the site in the intestines of the most severe histopathological lesions and the immune responses to infection between the breeds. However, there was no difference in faecal MAP shedding by clinical cases between breeds. All breeds tested were susceptible to MAP infection, as determined by infection and clinical disease development, although there were differences in the proportions of diseased animals between the breeds. Poll Dorset and Border Leicester sheep were more resilient to MAP infection but there was evidence that more animals could have developed disease if given more time. These findings provide evidence of potential differential disease susceptibility between breeds, further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and risks of disease spread, and may have an influence on control programs for paratuberculosis.
Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W
Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a contagious intestinal infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In cattle, young calves are at the highest risk for acquiring the infection which occurs mainly through ingestion of MAP from contaminated milk, colostrum and feces or environmental contacts. Data consisted of birth dates and ELISA results of 8000 mature cows from 24 Jersey herds from throughout the US and 4 Wisconsin Holstein herds. Some herds also had complete fecal culture (FC) results. The first infection (case) definition (CD1) relied on only ELISA results. A second case definition (CD2) was used in which results of both ELISA and FC tests were considered: animals testing positive to either test were considered "test-positives" and cows testing negative to ELISA or to both ELISA and FC were regarded as "test-negatives". Objective one was to assess seasonality in birth of MAP-infected animals. The effects of age, breed, herd and season of birth (expressed as the sine and cosine functions of birth days within year) were examined using logistic regression. Age was significantly associated with the MAP infection status of dairy cows for both CDs (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.09, 1.14; Pparatuberculosis case-control genome wide association studies, candidate gene studies or in on-farm disease intervention trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holbert, Sébastien; Branger, Maxime; Souriau, Armel; Lamoureux, Bérénice; Ganneau, Christelle; Richard, Gaëlle; Cochard, Thierry; Tholoniat, Christophe; Bay, Sylvie; Winter, Nathalie; Moyen, Jean Louis; Biet, Franck
After Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response indicative of early Th1 activation may be detected using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Currently, the purified protein derivatives (PPDs), i.e., the total extract of mycobacteria antigens are used to recall CMI responses against Map. This study aimed to assess the ability of the chemically synthesized Map specific cell wall lipopentapeptide L5P to induce CMI response in cows infected by Map compared to PPD. L5P and PPD elicited an IFN-γ response in 12 and 35 animals from two Map infected herds respectively, but IFN-γ was not detected in the 13 cows recruited from a non-infected herd. Levels of IFN-γ detected were higher with PPD than with L5P. There was no correlation between the IFN-γ response and the humoral response to Map or faecal culture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Fyock, Terry L; McAdams, Susan C; Boston, Raymond C; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W
To evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of various field isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) to gallium nitrate. 10 isolates of MAP, including 4 isolated from cattle, 2 isolated from bison, 1 isolated from an alpaca, and 3 isolated from humans. The in vitro susceptibility to gallium nitrate was tested by use of broth culture with detection of MAP growth by means of a nonradiometric automated detection method. For each MAP isolate, a series of 7 dilutions of gallium nitrate (concentrations ranging from 200 to 1,000 μM) were tested. Gallium nitrate was considered to have caused 90% and 99% inhibition of the MAP growth when the time to detection for culture of the MAP stock solution and a specific concentration of gallium nitrate was delayed and was similar to that obtained for culture of the MAP stock solution (without the addition of gallium nitrate) diluted 1:10 and 1:100, respectively. Gallium nitrate inhibited MAP growth in all 10 isolates. The susceptibility to gallium nitrate was variable among isolates, and all isolates of MAP were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the concentration that resulted in 90% inhibition ranged from Gallium nitrate had activity against all 10 isolates of MAP tested in vitro and could potentially be used as a prophylactic agent to aid in the control of MAP infections during the neonatal period.
Podder, Milka P.; Banfield, Susan E.; Keefe, Greg P.; Whitney, Hugh G.; Tahlan, Kapil
Short Sequence Repeat (SSR) typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) isolates is one of the most commonly used method for genotyping this pathogen. Currently used techniques have challenges in analyzing mononucleotide repeats >15 bp, which include some of the Map SSRs. Fragment analysis is a relatively simple technique, which can accurately measure the size of DNA fragments and can be used to calculate the repeat length of the target SSR loci. In the present study, fragment analysis was used to analyze 4 Map SSR loci known to provide sufficient discriminatory power to determine the relationship between Map isolates. Eighty-five Map isolates from 18 animals from the island of Newfoundland were successfully genotyped using fragment analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Map SSR diversity from Newfoundland dairy farms. Previously unreported Map SSR-types or combinations were also identified during the course of the described work. In addition, multiple Map SSR-types were isolated from a single animal in many cases, which is not a common finding. PMID:25927612
Flórido, Manuela; Pearl, John E; Solache, Alejandra; Borges, Margarida; Haynes, Laura; Cooper, Andrea M; Appelberg, Rui
Infection by virulent Mycobacterium avium caused progressive severe lymphopenia in C57BL/6 mice due to increased apoptosis rates. T-cell depletion did not occur in gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-deficient mice which showed increased T-cell numbers and proliferation; in contrast, deficiency in nitric oxide synthase 2 did not prevent T-cell loss. Although T-cell loss was IFN-gamma dependent, expression of the IFN-gamma receptor on T cells was not required for depletion. Similarly, while T-cell loss was optimal if the T cells expressed IFN-gamma, CD8(+) T-cell depletion could occur in the absence of T-cell-derived IFN-gamma. Depletion did not require that the T cells be specific for mycobacterial antigen and was not affected by deficiencies in the tumor necrosis factor receptors p55 or p75, the Fas receptor (CD95), or the respiratory burst enzymes or by forced expression of bcl-2 in hematopoietic cells.
Ganareal, Thenor Aristotile Charles S; Balbin, Michelle M; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N
Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is considered to be the most stable metal nanoparticle having the ability to be functionalized with biomolecules. Recently, AuNP-based DNA detection methods captured the interest of researchers worldwide. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic gastroenteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), was found to have negative effect in the livestock industry. In this study, AuNP-based probes were evaluated for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. AuNP-based probe was produced by functionalization of AuNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotide and was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. DNA detection was done by hybridization of 10 μL of DNA with 5 μL of probe at 63 °C for 10 min and addition of 3 μL salt solution. The method was specific to MAP with detection limit of 103 ng. UV-Vis and SEM showed dispersion and aggregation of the AuNPs for the positive and negative results, respectively, with no observed particle growth. This study therefore reports an AuNP-based probes which can be used for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.
Widagdo S. Nugroho
Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD that becomes a public health concern in developed countries shows similarities in clinical signs and pathological features with Johne’s disease (JD in ruminants infected by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Few researches conducted in Europe, the USA, and Australia showed relationships between MAP, CD, JD and dairy products. Indonesians consume milk and diary products from domestic and imported source. Adji in 2004 found some domestic dairy cows that were seropositive for MAP, and this could be a serious problem in dairy farm animals and human health in the future. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in the growing up formula milk. Fifty samples from five established factories were taken from supermarkets in Bogor. Polymerase chain reaction method (PCR with insertion sequence (IS 900 as primer and culture in Herrold’s egg yolk media with mycobactin J (HEYM J as a gold standard were used in this study. Neither MAP grew up in HEYM J medium after 20 weeks of culture period nor positive samples by PCR IS 900 were found. Although there were no positive samples found in this study, further extensive and comprehensive studies on MAP should be done with more and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 183-7Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dairy cow, growing up formula milk
Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic disease of the intestines in dairy cows and a wide range of other animals, including nonhuman primates, called Johne's ("Yo-knee's") disease. MAP has been consistently identified by a variety of techniques in humans with Crohn's disease. The research investigating the presence of MAP in patients with Crohn's disease has often identified MAP in the "negative" ulcerative colitis controls as well, suggesting that ulcerative colitis is also caused by MAP. Like other infectious diseases, dose, route of infection, age, sex and genes influence whether an individual infected with MAP develops ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The apparently opposite role of smoking, increasing the risk of Crohn's disease while decreasing the risk of ulcerative colitis, is explained by a more careful review of the literature that reveals smoking causes an increase in both diseases but switches the phenotype from ulcerative colitis to Crohn's disease. MAP as the sole etiologic agent of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease explains their common epidemiology, geographic distribution and familial and sporadic clusters, providing a unified hypothesis for the prevention and cure of the no longer "idiopathic" inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:21167058
Frau, J; Cossu, D; Coghe, G; Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Melis, M; Paccagnini, D; Sardu, C; Murru, M R; Tranquilli, S; Marrosu, M G; Sechi, L A; Cocco, E
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an infectious factor recently found in association with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Sardinia. The objectives of this study were to confirm this association and evaluate its role in clinical features. A total of 436 patients and 264 healthy controls (HCs) were included. We examined the blood of each individual for MAPDNA and MAP2694 antibodies using IS900-specific PCR and ELISA, respectively. Differences in MAP presence between the MS group and HCs were evaluated. In MS patients, we considered: gender, age, age at onset, duration of disease, course, EDSS, therapy, relapse/steroids at study time, and oligoclonal bands (OBs). MAPDNA and MAP2694 antibodies were detected in 68 MS and six HCs (p = 1.14 × 10(-11)), and 123 MS and 10 HCs (p = 2.59 × 10(-23)), respectively. OBs were found with reduced frequency in MAP-positive patients (OR = 0.52; p = 0.02). MAP2694 antibodies were detected more in patients receiving MS treatments (OR = 2.26; p = 0.01), and MAPDNA in subjects on steroids (OR = 2.65; p = 0.02). Our study confirmed the association of MAP and MS in Sardinia. The low OB frequency in MAP patients suggests a peripheral role as a trigger in autoimmunity. MAP positivity might be influenced by steroids and MS therapy. Studies in other populations are needed to confirm the role of MAP in MS.
Bermudez, Luiz E; Motamedi, Nima; Chee, Christopher; Baimukanova, Gyulnar; Kolonoski, Peter; Inderlied, Clark; Aralar, Priscilla; Wang, Guoqiang; Phan, Ly Tam; Young, Lowell S
Infection caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common in patients with immunosuppression, such as AIDS, and deficiencies of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, as well as patients with chronic lung diseases. Treatment of MAC disease is limited since few drugs show in vivo activity. We tested a new bridged bicyclic macrolide, EDP-420, against MAC in vitro and in beige mice. EDP-420 was inhibitory in vitro at a concentration ranging from 2 to 8 microg/ml (MIC(50) of 4 microg/ml and MIC(90) of 8 microg/ml). In macrophages, EDP-420 was inhibitory at 0.5 microg/ml, suggesting that the drug concentrates intracellularly. Mice infected with macrolide-susceptible MAC strain 101 were given 100 mg of EDP-420/kg of body weight daily for 4 weeks and showed a significant reduction in the number of bacteria in both liver and spleen which was greater than the reduction observed with clarithromycin treatment at the same dose (P EDP-420 treatment. A combination of EDP-420 with mefloquine was shown to be indifferent; mefloquine alone was active against macrolide-resistant MAC. The frequency of resistance to EDP-420 in MAC 101 was 10(-9), which is significantly less than the emergence of resistance to clarithromycin, approximately 10(-7) (P EDP-420 in the treatment of MAC disease is warranted.
Hussain, Tariq; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Zhao, Deming; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Zhou, Xiangmei
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne's disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne's disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by disrupting its early antibacterial activity. MAP triggers several signaling pathways after attachment to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytic cells. MAP adopts a survival strategy to escape the host defence mechanisms via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The signaling mechanism initiated through toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) activates MAPK-p38 results in up-regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and subsequent repression of inflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory response of IL-10 is mediated through membrane-bound IL-10 receptors, leading to trans-phosphorylation and activation of Janus Kinase (JAK) family receptor-associated tyrosine kinases (TyKs), that promotes the activation of latent transcription factors, signal transducer and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). IL-10 is an important inhibitory cytokine playing its role in blocking phagosome maturation and apoptosis. In the current review, we describe the importance of IL-10 in early phases of the MAP infection and regulatory mechanisms of the IL-10 dependent pathways in paratuberculosis. We also highlight the strategies to target IL-10, MAPK and STAT3 in other infections caused by intracellular pathogens.
Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Su, Chih-Cheng; Hsieh, Shang-Chen; Lu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Jia, Ju-Hsin; Wu, Ting-Shu; Han, Chau-Chung; Tsai, Wen-Cherng; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lai, Hsin-Chih
Rapid and accurate discrimination of Mycobacterium avium from other mycobacteria is essential for appropriate therapeutic management and timely intervention for infection control. However, routine clinical identification methods for M. avium are both time consuming and labor intensive. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify specific cellular protein pattern for rapid identification of M. avium isolates. A total of 40 clinically relevant Mycobacterium strains comprising 13 distinct species were enrolled for the MALDI-TOF MS identification. A 10-minute extraction-free examination procedure was set up to obtain mass spectral fingerprints from whole bacterial cells. The characteristic mass spectral peak patterns in the m/z (mass/charge ratio) range of 5-20 kDa can be obtained within 10 minutes. The species-specific mass spectra for M. avium is identified and can be differentiated from as Mycobacterium strains. This technique shortens and simplifies the identification procedure of MALDI-TOF MS and may further extend the mycobacterial MALDI-TOF MS database. Simplicity and rapidity of identification procedures make MALDI-TOF MS an attractive platform in routine identification of mycobacteria. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for rapid discrimination of M. avium from other Mycobacterium species, and shows its potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Plain, Karren M.; de Silva, Kumudika; Earl, John; Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.
Virulent mycobacterial infections progress slowly, with a latent period that leads to clinical disease in a proportion of cases. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that causes paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that regulates tryptophan metabolism, was originally reported to have a role in intracellular pathogen killing and has since been shown to have an important immunoregulatory role in chronic immune diseases. Here we demonstrate an association between increased IDO levels and progression to clinical mycobacterial disease in a natural host, characterizing gene expression, protein localization, and functional effects. IDO mRNA levels were significantly increased in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytic cells. Levels of both IDO gene and protein expression were significantly upregulated within the affected tissues of sheep with JD, particularly at the site of primary infection, the ileum, of animals with severe multibacillary disease. Lesion severity was correlated with the level of IDO gene expression. IDO gene expression was also increased in the peripheral blood cells of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed sheep and cattle. IDO breaks down tryptophan, and systemic increases were functional, as shown by decreased plasma tryptophan levels, which correlated with the onset of clinical signs, a stage well known to be associated with Th1 immunosuppression. IDO may be involved in downregulating immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other virulent mycobacteria, which may be an example of the pathogen harnessing host immunoregulatory pathways to aid survival. These findings raise new questions about the host-mycobacterium interactions in the progression from latent to clinical disease. PMID:21730087
Bode, John F; Thoen, Charles O
This investigation was designed to determine the effects of low-dose electron beam irradiation on the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples collected at necropsy from clinically affected cows. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the ileum and ileocecal valve of one cow and from the ileum of another cow irradiated at 4.0 kGy, but was not isolated from the ileum, ileocecal valve, or mesenteric lymph node of 11 other cows irradiated at 4 kGy. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won Jung [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Soo [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410-100690/µL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion.
Gurung, Ratna B.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.
Johne's disease in ruminants is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Diagnosis of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is difficult, especially in the early stages. To date, ideal antigen candidates are not available for efficient immunization or immunodiagnosis. This study reports the in silico selection and subsequent analysis of epitopes of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins that were found to be upregulated under stress conditions as a means to identify immunogenic candidate proteins. Previous studies have reported differential regulation of proteins when M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is exposed to stressors which induce a response similar to dormancy. Dormancy may be involved in evading host defense mechanisms, and the host may also mount an immune response against these proteins. Twenty-five M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins that were previously identified as being upregulated under in vitro stress conditions were analyzed for B and T cell epitopes by use of the prediction tools at the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource. Major histocompatibility complex class I T cell epitopes were predicted using an artificial neural network method, and class II T cell epitopes were predicted using the consensus method. Conformational B cell epitopes were predicted from the relevant three-dimensional structure template for each protein. Based on the greatest number of predicted epitopes, eight proteins (MAP2698c [encoded by desA2], MAP2312c [encoded by fadE19], MAP3651c [encoded by fadE3_2], MAP2872c [encoded by fabG5_2], MAP3523c [encoded by oxcA], MAP0187c [encoded by sodA], and the hypothetical proteins MAP3567 and MAP1168c) were identified as potential candidates for study of antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses within infected hosts. PMID:22496492
Lamont, Elise A.; O'Grady, Scott M.; Davis, William C.; Eckstein, Torsten
Pathogen processing by the intestinal epithelium involves a dynamic innate immune response initiated by pathogen-epithelial cell cross talk. Interactions between epithelium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis have not been intensively studied, and it is currently unknown how the bacterium-epithelial cell cross talk contributes to the course of infection. We hypothesized that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis harnesses host responses to recruit macrophages to the site of infection to ensure its survival and dissemination. We investigated macrophage recruitment in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using a MAC-T bovine macrophage coculture system. We show that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection led to phagosome acidification within bovine epithelial (MAC-T) cells as early as 10 min, which resulted in upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at transcript and protein levels. Within 10 min of infection, macrophages were recruited to the apical side of MAC-T cells. Inhibition of phagosome acidification or IL-1β abrogated this response, while MCP-1/CCL-2 blocking had no effect. IL-1β processing was dependent upon Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular medium and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, as determined by EGTA and BAPTA-AM [1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)] treatments. Thus, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is an opportunist that takes advantage of extracellular Ca2+-dependent phagosome acidification and IL-1β processing in order to efficiently transverse the epithelium and enter its niche—the macrophage. PMID:22778093
Imirzalioglu, Can; Dahmen, Heinrich; Hain, Torsten; Billion, Andre; Kuenne, Carsten; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domann, Eugen
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle and may be associated with Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. It is the slowest growing of the cultivable mycobacteria, and culture from clinical, veterinary, food, or environmental specimens can take 4 months or even longer. Currently, the insertion element IS900 is used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA. However, closely related IS900 elements are also present in other mycobacteria, thus limiting its specificity as a target. Here we describe the use of novel primer sets derived from the sequences of two highly specific single copy genes, MAP2765c and MAP0865, for the quantitative detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within 6 h by using real-time PCR. Specificity of the target was established using 40 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates, 67 different bacterial species, and two intestinal parasites. Using the probes and methods described, we detected 27 (2.09%) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive stool specimens from 1,293 individual stool samples by the use of either IS900 or probes deriving from the MAP2765c and MAP0865 genes described here. In general, bacterial load due to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was uniformly low in these samples and we estimated 500 to 5,000 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacteria per gram of stool in assay-positive samples. Thus, the methods described here are useful for rapid and specific detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in clinical samples. PMID:21430100
Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.
The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Okura, Hisako
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic infection in cattle. MAP infected cattle with humoral immune (HI) reactions with IgG antibodies are usually those where latency of infection has ceased and their infection is progressing towards reduced milk yield, weight loss...... and significant bacterial excretion in feces. The proportion of detectable infections among all infected animals that will develop disease is often referred to as ‘the tip of the iceberg’. The purpose of this study was to estimate this proportion. Test-records from 18,972 Danish dairy cows with MAP specific Ig...
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of allergies is steadily increasing worldwide; however, the pathogenesis is still unclear. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP may contribute to allergy development. This organism can be present in dairy foods, it can elicit an immunomodulatory switch from a Th1 to a Th2 response, and it has been speculated that it is linked to several human autoimmune diseases. To determine the contribution, sera from 99 individuals with various atopic disorders and 45 healthy nonallergic controls were assessed for total IgE levels and successively for MAP-specific IgE by ELISA. Results. The mean total serum IgE level in allergic patients was 256±235 IU/mL, and in the healthy controls it was 62±44 IU/mL (AUC = 0.88; p<0.0001. Among the patient groups, 50 of the 99 subjects had increased IgE total level ≥ 150 IU/mL, while 49 subjects had IgE ≤ 150 IU/mL (mean level: 407±256 IU/mL versus 106±16 IU/mL; p<0.0001. Additionally, 6 out of 50 subjects (12% with IgE ≥ 150 IU/mL and none (0% with IgE ≤ 150 IU/mL were positive for specific MAP IgE (AUC = 0.63; p=0.03. Conclusion. The present study revealed that MAP has the ability to induce specific IgE and might contribute to the induction of allergic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals.
Cleland, P C; Lehmann, D R; Phillips, P H; Cousins, D V; Reddacliff, L A; Whittington, R J
The aim of this study was to determine whether Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) infection was present in macropods grazing with infected sheep on Kangaroo Island in 2001-2002, and to assess the likely role of such infection in the epidemiology of ovine paratuberculosis. Ileum and associated lymphatics from 482 macropods were examined using radiometric culture followed by PCR for IS900 and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) for species identification, and isolates were strain typed using PCR for IS1311 and REA. Ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes from animals with positive tissue cultures or gross lesions suggestive of paratuberculosis were examined histologically. Faeces from a total of 840 animals were cultured in pools of 20, and individual faecal cultures were done from tissue culture positive animals, from those with microscopic lesions, and from selected animals with gross lesions. Eight animals (1.7%) yielded positive tissue cultures, and all isolates were the sheep (S) strain. Two animals that were tissue culture positive also had histopathological evidence of paratuberculosis. Twelve culture negative animals had microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacterial infection, and M. genavense was identified by PCR from a paraffin block from one of these animals. All faecal cultures were negative. These results indicate that a small proportion of macropods can become infected with M. a. paratuberculosis when grazing with infected sheep. However, excretion of large numbers of viable organisms is rare in macropods, and it is unlikely that macropods provide a wildlife reservoir of infection that would seriously compromise control efforts for paratuberculosis in sheep. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD, or paratuberculosis in ruminants has been suspected to be implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD in humans with chronic inflammatory intestinal changes. As the hypothesis is now fast being recognized that MAP could possibly be the etiological agent of CD which is found to be excreted in milk of dairy animals subclinically or terminally ill with JD. Aim: The present study was aimed to detect MAP in milk by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting IS900 and to describe the excretion pattern of MAP in milk from asymptomatic lactating cows and does with relevance to the public health significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 milk samples were collected randomly from lactating animals which include cows (45 and does (32. All the 77 milk samples were processed to identify the presence of MAP by employing the direct IS900 PCR as per the standard protocol. Results: Out of 77 milk samples from asymptomatic lactating animals, 12 (15.58% were showed positivity for IS900 PCR in which 5 (11.11% were from lactating cows and 7 (21.87% were from lactating does. Conclusion: In our study, 15.58% of milk samples showed IS900 positivity which indicates the presence of subclinical MAP infection in lactating animals. Hence, there is a possibility for excretion of MAP through milk which can be a potential threat for CD in humans by raw milk consumption. Therefore, the prevention of MAP in the food chain need to be assured by sourcing raw products from animal herds free of MAP infection.
Colleen A Fisher
Full Text Available Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50 between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne’s disease, an enteric granulomatous disease. Recently, MAP has been associated with different autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D and multiple sclerosis. Transthyretin (TTR is a plasma transport protein for thyroid hormone and forms a complex with retinol-binding protein. Reduced TTR plasma levels in MAP infected ovines have been reported. TTR exerts also a functional role in the pancreas promoting insulin release and protecting β-cells from death. Our objective was to identify a protein that could be used as a diagnostic marker of T1D for determining disease progression and monitoring at-risk patients. We postulate that serological TTR levels would be reduced in T1D MAP exposed patients. Our hypothesis is based on the observation of cases of T1D patients with decreased TTR levels beside the reduced TTR plasma levels in ovines with Johne’s disease. We quantified the plasma protein levels of TTR in 50 people with T1D and 51 age-matched healthy controls (HCs by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Findings Our pilot study showed that plasma TTR levels were not significantly lower/higher in T1D Sardinian cases compared to the HCs. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that plasma TTR may not be a good candidate biomarker for T1D diagnosis and further studies to elucidate the possible link are needed.
Stabel Judith R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratories have previously reported on the experimental infection of cattle with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis using an intratonsillar infection model. In addition, we have recently developed a partial protein array representing 92 M. paratuberculosis coding sequences. These combined tools have enabled a unique look at the temporal analysis of M. paratuberculosis antigens within the native host. The primary objective of this study was to identify M. paratuberculosis antigens detected by cattle early during infection. A secondary objective was to evaluate the humoral immune response in cattle during the initial year of infection. Results Sera from two experimentally infected cattle, taken pre-inoculation and at day 70, 194 and 321 post infection, identified dynamic antibody reactivity among antigens with some showing an increased response over time and others showing declining levels of reactivity over the same time period. A M. paratuberculosis specific protein, encoded by MAP0862, was strongly detected initially, but the antibody response became weaker with time. The most reactive protein was a putative surface antigen encoded by MAP1087. A second protein, MAP1204, implicated in virulence, was also strongly detected by day 70 in both cattle. Subsequent experiments showed that these two proteins were detected with sera from 5 of 9 naturally infected cattle in the subclinical stage of Johne's disease. Conclusion Collectively these results demonstrate that M. paratuberculosis proteins are detected by sera from experimentally infected cattle as early as 70 days after exposure. These data further suggest at least two antigens may be useful in the early diagnosis of M. paratuberculosis infections. Finally, the construction and use of a protein array in this pilot study has led to a novel approach for discovery of M. paratuberculosis antigens.
Full Text Available Johne's Disease (JD, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, results in significant economic loss to livestock production. The early detection of MAP infection in animals with extant serological assays has remained challenging due to the low sensitivity of commercially available ELISA tests, a fact that has hampered the development of effective JD control programs. Our recent protein microarray-based studies identified several promising candidate antigens that are immunogenic during different stages of MAP infection. To evaluate these antigens for use in diagnostic assays and reliably identify animals with MAP infection, a multiplex (Luminex® assay was developed using color-coded flourescent beads coupled to 6 MAP recombinant proteins and applied to screen 180 serum and 90 milk samples from cows at different stages of MAP infection including negative (NL, fecal test positive/ELISA negative (F+E-, and fecal positive/ELISA positive (F+E+. The results show that while serum antibody reactivities to each of the 6 antigens were highest in F+E+ group, antibody reactivity to three of the six antigens were identified in the F+E- group, suggesting that these three antigens are expressed and provoke antibody responses during the early infection stages with MAP. Further, antibodies against all six antigens were elevated in milk samples from both the F+E- and F+E+ groups in comparison to the NL group (p<0.01. Taken together, the results of our investigation suggest that multiplex bead-based assays are able to reliably identify MAP infection, even during early stages when antibody responses in animals are undetectable with widely used commercial ELISA tests.
Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Labrecque, Olivia; Paré, Julie; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles
Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the definitive antemortem test method for paratuberculosis. Microbial overgrowth is a challenge for MAP culture, as it complicates, delays, and increases the cost of the process. Additionally, herd status determination is impeded when noninterpretable (NI) results are obtained. The performance of PCR is comparable to fecal culture, thus it may be a complementary detection tool to classify NI samples. Our study aimed to determine if MAP DNA can be identified by PCR performed on NI environmental samples and to evaluate the performance of PCR before and after the culture of these samples in liquid media. A total of 154 environmental samples (62 NI, 62 negative, and 30 positive) were analyzed by PCR before being incubated in an automated system. Growth was confirmed by acid-fast bacilli stain and then the same PCR method was again applied on incubated samples, regardless of culture and stain results. Change in MAP DNA after incubation was assessed by converting the PCR quantification cycle (Cq) values into fold change using the 2-ΔCq method (ΔCq = Cq after culture - Cq before culture). A total of 1.6% (standard error [SE] = 1.6) of the NI environmental samples had detectable MAP DNA. The PCR had a significantly better performance when applied after culture than before culture (p = 0.004). After culture, a 66-fold change (SE = 17.1) in MAP DNA was observed on average. Performing a PCR on NI samples improves MAP culturing. The PCR method used in our study is a reliable and consistent method to classify NI environmental samples. © 2016 The Author(s).
Jeroen De Buck
Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics
Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective
Li, Lingling; Wagner, Bettina; Freer, Heather; Schilling, Megan; Bannantine, John P; Campo, Joseph J; Katani, Robab; Grohn, Yrjo T; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Kapur, Vivek
Johne's Disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), results in significant economic loss to livestock production. The early detection of MAP infection in animals with extant serological assays has remained challenging due to the low sensitivity of commercially available ELISA tests, a fact that has hampered the development of effective JD control programs. Our recent protein microarray-based studies identified several promising candidate antigens that are immunogenic during different stages of MAP infection. To evaluate these antigens for use in diagnostic assays and reliably identify animals with MAP infection, a multiplex (Luminex®) assay was developed using color-coded flourescent beads coupled to 6 MAP recombinant proteins and applied to screen 180 serum and 90 milk samples from cows at different stages of MAP infection including negative (NL), fecal test positive/ELISA negative (F+E-), and fecal positive/ELISA positive (F+E+). The results show that while serum antibody reactivities to each of the 6 antigens were highest in F+E+ group, antibody reactivity to three of the six antigens were identified in the F+E- group, suggesting that these three antigens are expressed and provoke antibody responses during the early infection stages with MAP. Further, antibodies against all six antigens were elevated in milk samples from both the F+E- and F+E+ groups in comparison to the NL group (p<0.01). Taken together, the results of our investigation suggest that multiplex bead-based assays are able to reliably identify MAP infection, even during early stages when antibody responses in animals are undetectable with widely used commercial ELISA tests.
James W Wynne
Full Text Available A comparative genomics approach was utilised to compare the genomes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolated from early onset paediatric Crohn's disease (CD patients as well as Johne's diseased animals. Draft genome sequences were produced for MAP isolates derived from four CD patients, one ulcerative colitis (UC patient, and two non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD control individuals using Illumina sequencing, complemented by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH. MAP isolates derived from two bovine and one ovine host were also subjected to whole genome sequencing and CGH. All seven human derived MAP isolates were highly genetically similar and clustered together with one bovine type isolate following phylogenetic analysis. Three other sequenced isolates (including the reference bovine derived isolate K10 were genetically distinct. The human isolates contained two large tandem duplications, the organisations of which were confirmed by PCR. Designated vGI-17 and vGI-18 these duplications spanned 63 and 109 open reading frames, respectively. PCR screening of over 30 additional MAP isolates (3 human derived, 27 animal derived and one environmental isolate confirmed that vGI-17 and vGI-18 are common across many isolates. Quantitative real-time PCR of vGI-17 demonstrated that the proportion of cells containing the vGI-17 duplication varied between 0.01 to 15% amongst isolates with human isolates containing a higher proportion of vGI-17 compared to most animal isolates. These findings suggest these duplications are transient genomic rearrangements. We hypothesise that the over-representation of vGI-17 in human derived MAP strains may enhance their ability to infect or persist within a human host by increasing genome redundancy and conferring crude regulation of protein expression across biologically important regions.
Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand
The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of Johne’s Disease in ruminants. This enteritis has significant economic impact and worldwide distribution. Vaccination is one of the most cost effective infectious disease control measures. Unfortunately, current vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding, but are of limited efficacy and do not provide long-term protective immunity. Several strategies have been followed to mine the MAP genome for virulence determinants that could be applied to vaccine and diagnostic assay development. In this study, a comprehensive mutant bank of 13,536 MAP K-10 Tn5367 mutants (P > 95% was constructed and screened in vitro for phenotypes related to virulence. This strategy was designated to maximize identification of genes important to MAP pathogenesis without relying on studies of other mycobacterial species that may not translate into similar effects in MAP. This bank was screened for mutants with colony morphology alterations, susceptibility to D-cycloserine, impairment in siderophore production or secretion, reduced cell association, and decreased biofilm and clump formation. Mutants with interesting phenotypes were analyzed by PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequencing to determine transposon insertion sites. These insertion sites mapped upstream from the MAP1152-MAP1156 cluster, internal to either the Mod operon gene MAP1566 or within the coding sequence of lsr2, and several intergenic regions. Growth curves in broth cultures, invasion assays and kinetics of survival and replication in primary bovine macrophages were also determined. The ability of vectors carrying Tn5370 to generate stable MAP mutants was also investigated.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Johne’s disease is the chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, and a major health hazard worldwide. In recent years, researchers have focused on mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP antigens in diagnostic tests. Identification of antibodies against MAP antigens is, therefore, effective for the diagnosis or preparation of vaccine. The aim of this study was to prepare and purify polyclonal antibodies against MAP antigens. Materials and Methods: A New Zealand white rabbit was immunized at a certain time period with MAP antigens and Freund’s adjuvant. After the immunization of the animal, the rabbit was bled to obtain enriched serum. Immunoglobulins were obtained via sedimentation with ammonium sulfate 35% and then IgG was purified by ion exchange (DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Serologic test was used to evaluate the interaction of antigens and antibodies. Results: Ion exchange chromatography of IgG showed one peak, and SDS_PAGE of IgG showed a single band. Serologic test was applied and clear precipitation lines were appeared up to 1:16 dilution, which indicated the high quality of the product. Conclusion: In this study, the humoral immune response was induced well by immunization with MAP antigens in a New Zealand white rabbit and polyclonal antibodies were produced in high titers. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively inexpensive and easy to produce in large quantities and can connect to the more connective sites, resulting in better sensitivity. Identification of polyclonal antibodies via immunological tests can play a significant role in studying MAP disorders.
Søren Saxmose Nielsen
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP causes a chronic infection in cattle. MAP infected cattle with humoral immune (HI reactions with IgG antibodies are usually those where latency of infection has ceased and their infection is progressing towards reduced milk yield, weight loss and significant bacterial excretion in feces. The proportion of detectable infections among all infected animals that will develop disease is often referred to as 'the tip of the iceberg'. The purpose of this study was to estimate this proportion. Test-records from 18,972 Danish dairy cows with MAP specific IgG antibodies on their final test-record were used to estimate age-specific sensitivities (Se. These cows were the infected ones considered to develop disease in a population with a representative age-distribution and were defined as cases. The specificity (Sp of the test was estimated based on test-results from 166,905 cows, which had no MAP IgG antibodies in their final four test-records. The Sp, age-specific Se and maximum Se were used to estimate the probability of having HI at a given age resulting in the proportion of infected cows with HI at a given age. For cows 2 years of age, the proportion of detectable cases was 0.33, while it was 0.94 for cows 5 years of age. Thus, there was a significant shift in the tip of the iceberg with aging. This study provided a model for estimating the proportion of latent chronic infections that would progress to disease, and the results can be used to model infection dynamics.
Schwarz, D G G; Lima, M C; Barros, M; Valente, F L; Scatamburlo, T M; Rosado, N; Oliveira, C T S A M; Oliveira, L L; Moreira, M A S
Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. Because no clinical signs were observed over 1 yr of monitoring, we hypothesized that these MAP-positive goats could be passive shedders. Thus, in the present study, 4 positive goats (4/13) from the previous study were purchased and feces and milk samples were collected for evaluation (twice, with an interval of 3 mo between tests) by culture of MAP, IS900 PCR, or both. All analyses were negative for MAP. At the last time point, blood samples were collected for ELISA, the animals were killed, and tissues collected for tissue culture and histopathology. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions related to paratuberculosis were observed. Similarly, no histological changes were observed and MAP in samples stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was not detected. These animals were characterized as potential passive shedders with upward contamination of the teat canal by MAP. This is the first report of the passive shedding phenomenon in goats in Brazil and it highlights the importance of identifying these animals for control programs and to ensure the quality of dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AbstractThe ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophage and MAC-T cells and coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc2 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increase bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5 conditions. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted.
Hammer, Philipp; Walte, Hans-Georg C; Matzen, Sönke; Hensel, Jann; Kiesner, Christian
The role of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease in humans has been debated for many years. Milk and milk products have been suggested as possible vectors for transmission since the beginning of this debate, whereas recent publications show that slaughtered cattle and their carcasses, meat, and organs can also serve as reservoirs for MAP transmission. The objective of this study was to generate heat-inactivation data for MAP during the cooking of hamburger patties. Hamburger patties of lean ground beef weighing 70 and 50 g were cooked for 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 min, which were sterilized by irradiation and spiked with three different MAP strains at levels between 10² and 10⁶ CFU/ml. Single-sided cooking with one flip was applied, and the temperatures within the patties were recorded by seven thermocouples. Counting of the surviving bacteria was performed by direct plating onto Herrold's egg yolk medium and a three-vial most-probable-number method by using modified Dubos medium. There was considerable variability in temperature throughout the patties during frying. In addition, the log reduction in MAP numbers showed strong variations. In patties weighing 70 g, considerable bacterial reduction of 4 log or larger could only be achieved after 6 min of cooking. For all other cooking times, the bacterial reduction was less than 2 log. Patties weighing 50 g showed a 5-log or larger reduction after cooking times of 5 and 6 min. To determine the inactivation kinetics, a log-linear regression model was used, showing a constant decrease of MAP numbers over cooking time.
Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD is a chronic, intestinal infection of cattle, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. It results in granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal lining, leading to malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Crohn's disease (CD, a chronic, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease of humans, has many clinical and pathologic similarities to JD. Dysbiosis of the enteric microbiota has been demonstrated in CD patients. It is speculated that this dysbiosis may contribute to the intestinal inflammation observed in those patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity patterns of fecal bacterial populations in cattle infected with MAP, compared to those of uninfected control cattle, using phylogenomic analysis. Fecal samples were selected to include samples from 20 MAP-positive cows; 25 MAP-negative herdmates; and 25 MAP-negative cows from a MAP-free herd. The genomic DNA was extracted; PCR amplified sequenced on a 454 Roche platform, and analyzed using QIIME. Approximately 199,077 reads were analyzed from 70 bacterial communities (average of 2,843 reads/sample. The composition of bacterial communities differed between the 3 treatment groups (P < 0.001; Permanova test. Taxonomic assignment of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified 17 bacterial phyla across all samples. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes constituted more than 95% of the bacterial population in the negative and exposed groups. In the positive group, lineages of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria increased and those of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased (P < 0.001. Actinobacteria was highly abundant (30% of the total bacteria in the positive group compared to exposed and negative groups (0.1-0.2%. Notably, the genus Arthrobacter was found to predominate Actinobacteria in the positive group. This study indicates that MAP-infected cattle have a different composition of their fecal microbiota than MAP-negative cattle.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP causes chronic enteritis in a wide range of animal species. In cattle, MAP causes a chronic disease called Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, that is not treatable and the efficacy of vaccine control is controversial. The clinical phase of the disease is characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, drop in milk production and eventually death. Susceptibility to MAP infection is heritable with heritability estimates ranging from 0.06 to 0.10. There have been several studies over the last few years that have identified genetic loci putatively associated with MAP susceptibility, however, with the availability of genome-wide high density SNP maker panels it is now possible to carry out association studies that have higher precision. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of the current study was to localize genes having an impact on Johne's disease susceptibility using the latest bovine genome information and a high density SNP panel (Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to perform a case/control, genome-wide association analysis. Samples from MAP case and negative controls were selected from field samples collected in 2007 and 2008 in the province of Lombardy, Italy. Cases were defined as animals serologically positive for MAP by ELISA. In total 966 samples were genotyped: 483 MAP ELISA positive and 483 ELISA negative. Samples were selected randomly among those collected from 119 farms which had at least one positive animal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: THE ANALYSIS OF THE GENOTYPE DATA IDENTIFIED SEVERAL CHROMOSOMAL REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE STATUS: a region on chromosome 12 with high significance (P<5x10(-6, while regions on chromosome 9, 11, and 12 had moderate significance (P<5x10(-5. These results provide evidence for genetic loci involved in the humoral response to MAP. Knowledge of genetic variations related to susceptibility will facilitate the incorporation of this information
Randy J Hempel
Full Text Available Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s, chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Presence of serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP in Crohn's Disease (CD as a disease characteristic remains controversial. In the present work, we assessed antibody reactivity of serum and intestinal fluid against four distinct MAP-antigens, including the recently identified MAP-specific lipopentapeptide (L5P. METHODS: Immunoglobulin concentrations and specificity against 3 non MAP-specific antigens: glycosyl-transferase-d (GSD, purified protein derivative from MAP (Johnin-PPD, heparin binding haemagglutinin (MAP-HBHA and one MAP-specific antigen: synthetic L5P were determined by ELISA in gut lavage fluids from adult controls or patients with CD, and in sera of children or adult controls or patients with CD, ulcerative colitis or celiac disease. RESULTS: Total IgA and IgG concentrations were increased in sera of children with CD but were decreased in sera of adults with CD, thereof specificity against MAP antigens was assessed by normalizing immunoglobulin concentrations between samples. In CD patients, IgG reactivity was increased against the four MAP antigens, including L5P in gut lavage fluids but it was only increased against L5P in sera. By contrast, anti-L5P IgG were not increased in patients with ulcerative colitis or celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in anti-L5P IgG is observed in sera of children and adults with CD but not in patients with other intestinal inflammatory diseases. Anti-L5P antibodies may serve as serological marker for CD.
Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to
Bayoumi, A M; Redelmeier, D A
Practice guidelines recommending Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis for patients with HIV disease were based on clinical trials in which individuals did not receive protease inhibitors. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of strategies for MAC prophylaxis in patients whose treatment regimen includes protease inhibitors. Decision analysis with Markov modelling of the natural history of advanced HIV disease. Five strategies were evaluated: no prophylaxis, azithromycin, rifabutin, clarithromycin and a combination of azithromycin plus rifabutin. Survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted survival, health care costs and marginal cost-effectiveness ratios. Compared with no prophylaxis, rifabutin increased life expectancy from 78 to 80 months, increased quality-adjusted life expectancy from 50 to 52 quality-adjusted months and increased health care costs from $233000 to $239800. Ignoring time discounting and quality of life, the cost-effectiveness of rifabutin relative to no prophylaxis was $44300 per life year. Adjusting for time discounting and quality of life, the cost-effectiveness of rifabutin relative to no prophylaxis was $41500 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). In comparison with rifabutin, azithromycin was associated with increased survival, increased costs and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $54300 per QALY. In sensitivity analyses, prophylaxis remained economically attractive unless the lifetime chance of being diagnosed with MAC was less than 20%, the rate of CD4 count decline was less than 10 x 10(6) cells/l per year, or the CD4 count was greater than 50 x 10(6) cells/l. MAC prophylaxis increases quality-adjusted survival at a reasonable cost, even in patients using protease inhibitors. When not contraindicated, starting azithromycin or rifabutin when the patient's CD4 count is between 50 and 75 x 10(6) cells/l is the most cost-effective strategy. The main determinants of cost-effectiveness are CD4 count, viral load, place of
Full Text Available Since the early 1980s, several investigations have focused on developing a vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle and sheep. These studies used whole-cell inactivated vaccines that have proven useful in limiting disease progression, but have not prevented infection. In contrast, modified live vaccines that invoke a Th1 type immune response, may improve protection against infection. Spurred by recent advances in the ability to create defined knockouts in MAP, several independent laboratories have developed modified live vaccine candidates by transpositional mutation of virulence and metabolic genes in MAP. In order to accelerate the process of identification and comparative evaluation of the most promising modified live MAP vaccine candidates, members of a multi-institutional USDA-funded research consortium, the Johne’s disease integrated program (JDIP, met to establish a standardized testing platform using agreed upon protocols. A total of 22 candidates vaccine strains developed in five independent laboratories in the United States and New Zealand voluntarily entered into a double blind stage gated trial pipeline. In Phase I, the survival characteristics of each candidate were determined in bovine macrophages. Attenuated strains moved to Phase II, where tissue colonization of C57/BL6 mice were evaluated in a challenge model. In Phase III, five promising candidates from Phase I and II were evaluated for their ability to reduce fecal shedding, tissue colonization and pathology in a baby goat challenge model. Formation of a multi-institutional consortium for vaccine strain evaluation has revealed insights for the implementation of vaccine trials for Johne’s disease and other animal pathogens. We conclude by suggesting the best way forward based on this 3-phase trial experience and challenge the rationale for use of a macrophage-to-mouse-to native host pipeline for
Thomsen, Vibeke Thulstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Thakur, Aneesh
to characterize the long-term effect of whole-cell based vaccination against MAP on the immune response. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether immunodiagnosis of MAP and Mycobacterium bovis infections is affected by MAP vaccination.Two studies were performed: (1) A retrospective longitudinal study......Vaccination of cattle against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) provides partial protection by delayed shedding of MAP and reduced numbers of clinically affected animals. The duration of vaccine induced immune response is not known. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... of vaccination on the cell-mediated immune response and to evaluate a possible interference with the diagnosis of M. bovis infections.The results showed that 37% of samples from vaccinated animals and 5% of samples from non-vaccinated animals, respectively, were test positive in the milk antibody ELISA...
Kirk, O; Gatell, J M; Mocroft, A
the introduction of HAART, using data from the EuroSIDA study, a European, multicenter observational cohort of more than 7,000 patients. Overall incidences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) were 0.8 and 1.4 cases/100 person-years of follow-up (PYF), decreasing from 1.8 (TB......) and 3.5 cases/100 PYF (MAC) before September 1995 to 0.3 and 0.2 cases/100 PYF after March 1997. After adjustment for changes in CD4 cell count and use of antiretroviral treatment in Cox proportional hazards models, the risk of MAC decreased with increasing calendar time (hazard ratio per calendar year...
Full Text Available The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the treatment of HIV infection has been associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of most opportunistic infections. From April 2001 to February 2002, 80 blood samples from patients who were suspected to have disseminated mycobacterial infection, presenting fever and (preferably a CD4 T cell count < 100.0 cell/mL were investigated. Twelve (15% of the 80 blood cultures were positive for mycobacteria, with Mycobacterium avium being identified in 7 (8.8% samples and M. tuberculosis in 5 (6.2%. The TCD4+ count at the time of M. avium bacteremia ranged from 7cells/µL (average of 48.5 cell/µL, while in M. tuberculosis bacteremia it ranged from 50.0 cells/µL (average of 80.0 cell/µL. The prevalence of M. avium bacteremia in our study follows the expected decline in opportunistic infections observed after the introduction of HAART; however, mycobacteremia by M. tuberculosis still indicates a high prevalence of tuberculosis infection in AIDS patients.
Total lipids from an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) ovine strain (S-type) contained no identifiable glycopeptidolipids or lipopentapeptide, yet both lipids are present in other M. avium subspecies. We determined the genetic and phenotypic basis for this difference using sequence analysis and...
Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Stockmarr, Anders
Neonates and juvenile ruminants are very susceptible to paratuberculosis infection. This is likely due to a high degree of exposure from their dams and an immature immune system. To test the influence of age on vaccine-induced responses, a cocktail of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratu...
A role for gamma delta T cells in protection against mycobacterial infections including Johne’s disease (JD) has been suggested. In neonatal calves where the risk to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is high, the majority of circulating CD3+ lymphocytes are gamma delta...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and co...
In summer 2007, a randomized controlled clinical trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. ...
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne’s disease, allowing transmission of MAP among animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk. Parameters investigated included che...
O'Brien, R.; Mackintosh, C.G.; Bakker, D.; Kopecna, M.; Pavlik, I.; Griffin, J.F.T.
Johne's disease (JD) infection, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, represents a major disease problem in farmed ruminants. Although JD has been well characterized in cattle and sheep, little is known of the infection dynamics or immunological response in deer. In this study,
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Johne’s disease in cattle and other animals. Infection follows ingestion of the bacteria primarily through the fecal oral route and results in the colonization of the intestine and a granulomatous en...
Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.
In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476
Theonys Diógenes Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.
Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro
The revised 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America statement recommend clarithromycin-based combination therapy for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and stipulates approximately 1 year of continuous treatment after bacilli negative conversion. However, supporting data are insufficient. Our objective was to obtain data on the clinical outcome of clarithromycin-based daily regimens by conducting a nationwide retrospective post-marketing study of M. avium complex lung disease. In accordance with the Japanese guidelines, patients were enrolled in this survey according to their chest radiographic findings and microbiologic test results. They were treated with a multidrug regimen including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol (clarithromycin-based regimen) until bacilli negative conversion, and the treatment was continued for approximately 1 year after the initial conversion. Data were collected before administration, at the time of bacilli negative conversion, at the end of treatment, and at 6 months after the end of treatment. Of the 466 subjects enrolled in the study, 271 patients who received clarithromycin at 800 mg/day underwent evaluation for M. avium complex disease. The final bacilli negative conversion rate in those patients was 94.7%. The bacteriological relapse rate was 5.0% (5/100 patients). Bacteriological relapse was noted in patients treated for less than 15 months after conversion. No life-threatening or serious adverse drug reactions were observed. This study demonstrated that a clarithromycin-based daily regimen can yield a high bacteriological conversion rate in M. avium complex disease. After conversion, treatment for less than 15 months might be insufficient to prevent bacteriological relapse. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moravkova, M.; Babak, V.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.
The aim of this study was to monitor the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples taken from a Holstein farm with a long history of clinical paratuberculosis. A herd of 606 head was eradicated, and mechanical cleaning and disinfection with chloramine B with ammonium (4%) was carried out on the farm; in the surrounding areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were collected before and over a period of 24 months after destocking. Only one sample out of 48 (2%) examined on the farm (originating from a waste pit and collected before destocking) was positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultivation on solid medium (Herrold's egg yolk medium). The results using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that a total of 81% of environmental samples with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 3.09 × 103 were positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis before destocking compared to 43% with an average mean M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cell number of 5.86 × 102 after 24 months. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive samples were detected in the cattle barn as well as in the calf barn and surrounding areas. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from different matrices: floor and instrument scrapings, sediment, or scraping from watering troughs, waste pits, and cobwebs. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was also detected in soil and plants collected on the field midden and the field 24 months after destocking. Although the proportion of positive samples decreased from 64% to 23% over time, the numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were comparable. PMID:22773642
Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate
Mortier, Rienske A R; Barkema, Herman W; De Buck, Jeroen
The primary objectives of paratuberculosis control programs are reducing exposure of calves to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), reducing herd infection pressure and regular testing of cattle >36 months of age. Although control programs based on these principles have reduced prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds, they have generally not eliminated the infection. Recent infection trial(s) have yielded new knowledge regarding diagnostic testing and age- and dose-dependent susceptibility to MAP infection. Calves up to 1 year of age are still susceptible to MAP infection; therefore, control programs should refrain from referring to specific ages with respect to susceptibility and prevention of new infections. Notwithstanding, lesions were more severe when calves were inoculated at 2 weeks versus 1 year of age. Furthermore, a high inoculation dose resulted in more pronounced lesions than a low inoculation dose, especially in young calves. Consequently, keeping infection pressure low should decrease the incidence of new MAP infections and severity of JD in cattle that do acquire the infection. It was also evident that early diagnosis of MAP infection was possible and could improve efficacy of control programs. Although its use will still need to be validated in the field, a combination of antibody ELISA and fecal culture in young stock, in addition to testing cattle >36 months of age when screening a herd for paratuberculosis, was expected to improve detection of dairy cattle infected with MAP. Although calves were inoculated using a standardized method in a controlled environment, there were substantial differences among calves with regards to immune response, shedding and pathology. Therefore, we inferred there were genetic differences in susceptibility. Important insights were derived from experimental infection trials. Therefore, it was expected that these could improve paratuberculosis control programs by reducing severity and incidence of
Fechner, K; Schäfer, J; Wiegel, C; Ludwig, J; Münster, P; Sharifi, A R; Wemheuer, W; Czerny, C-P
Although it has been known for years that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is detectable in the reproductive organs and semen of infected bulls, only few studies have been conducted on this topic worldwide. This study surveyed the MAP status of a bull, naturally infected due to close contact with its subclinically infected parents over a period of 4 years. From the age of 7 weeks to necropsy, faecal, blood and, after sexual maturity, semen samples were drawn repeatedly. Already at the first sampling day, MAP-DNA was detected in faeces by semi-nested PCR. True infection was confirmed by the detection of MAP-DNA in blood at the age of 40 weeks. In total, MAP-DNA was present in 25% faecal (34/139), 16% blood (23/140) and 5% semen (4/89) samples, including MAP-free intervals of up to 9 weeks. MAP genome equivalents (MAP-GE) of up to 6.3 × 106 /g faeces and 1.8 × 105 /ml blood were determined. Cultivation of MAP occurred only in three of 137 faecal and two of 109 blood, but never in semen samples. Over the whole period, the bull was a serological negative MAP shedder. During necropsy, 42 tissue samples were collected. Neither macroscopic nor histological lesions characteristic of a MAP infection were observed. Cultivation of MAP in tissue sections failed. However, MAP-DNA was spread widely in the host, including in tissues of the lymphatic system (7/15), digestive tract (5/14) and the urogenital tract (5/9) with concentrations of up to 3.9 × 106 MAP-GE/g tissue. The study highlighted the detection of MAP in male reproductive organs and semen. It supports the hypothesis that bulls may probably transmit MAP, at least under natural mating conditions. In artificial insemination, this might not be relevant, due to antibiotics included currently in semen extenders. However, the survivability of MAP in this microenvironment should be investigated in detail. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A
Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by
Carvalho, Natália B; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Durães, Fernanda V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Flórido, Manuela; Prata, Luana O; Caliari, Marcelo V; Appelberg, Rui; Oliveira, Sérgio C
To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium. Bacterial burdens were higher in the spleens, livers, and lungs of infected TLR9 KO mice than in those of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that TLR9 is required for efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR9 KO or TLR2 KO spleen cells displayed normal M. avium-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. This finding was confirmed by determining the number of splenic CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ by flow cytometry. Furthermore, TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR9, played a major role in interleukin-12 and TNF-α production by M. avium-infected macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also found that major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on DCs is regulated by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling but not by TLR9. Finally, lack of TLR9, TLR2, or MyD88 reduced the numbers of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes in M. avium-induced granulomas but only MyD88 deficiency affected the number of liver granulomas. In summary, our data demonstrated that the involvement of TLR9 in the control of M. avium infection is not related to the induction of Th1 responses.
Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Balian, Simone Carvalho; Mores, Nelson; Ferreira-Neto, José Soares
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is composed of environmental mycobacteria found widely in soil, water, and aerosols that can cause disease in animals and humans, especially disseminated infections in AIDS patients. MAC consists of two closely related species, M. avium and M. intracellulare, and may also include other, less-defined groups. The precise differentiation of MAC species is a fundamental step in epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of possible reservoirs for MAC infection in humans and animals. In this study, which included 111 pig and 26 clinical MAC isolates, two novel allelic M. avium PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) variants were identified, differing from the M. avium PRA prototype in the HaeIII digestion pattern. Mutations in HaeIII sites were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Identification of these isolates as M. avium was confirmed by PCR with DT1-DT6 and IS1245 primers, nucleic acid hybridization with the AccuProbe system, 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and biochemical tests. The characterization of M. avium PRA variants can be useful in the elucidation of factors involved in mycobacterial virulence and routes of infection and also has diagnostic significance, since they can be misidentified as M. simiae II and M. kansasii I if the PRA method is used in the clinical laboratory for identification of mycobacteria. PMID:10405407
Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis faecal culture protocols and media Avaliação de protocolos de cultivo fecal e meios para a cultura de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an important enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. The disease is officially considered exotic in Brazil, but recent serological surveys and the isolation of the agent suggest it may occur in our herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different formulations of Herrold's egg yolk agar with mycobactin J (HEYM and four faecal culture protocols considering their ability for Map growth as well as cost and ease of application. Three formulations of HEYM were inoculated with two suspensions of Map. Spiked faeces and naturally contaminated faecal samples were treated by the four faecal culture protocols. Centrifugation protocol and HEYM recommended by OIE showed the best results on the recovery of Map.A paratuberculose é uma importante enterite de ruminantes causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. A enfermidade é oficialmente considerada exótica no Brasil, mas inquéritos sorológicos recentes e o isolamento do agente etiológico sugerem que ela pode estar presente em nossos rebanhos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar três diferentes fórmulas do Ágar gema de ovo de Herrold suplementado com micobactina J (HEYM e quatro protocolos de cultura fecal quanto ao crescimento de Map, bem como custo e facilidade de implementação. Três fórmulas de HEYM foram inoculadas com duas suspensões de Map. Fezes contaminadas artificialmente e naturalmente com Map foram tratadas pelos quatro protocolos de cultura fecal. O protocolo da centrifugação e a fórmula de HEYM recomendada pela OIE demonstraram os melhores resultados quanto à recuperação de Map.
Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Bell, Kelli; Doig, Kimberley; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip J.; Kusalik, Anthony
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and may have implications for human health. Establishment of chronic infection by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis depends on its subversion of host immune responses. This includes blocking the ability of infected macrophages to be activated by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) for clearance of this intracellular pathogen. To define the mechanism by which M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis subverts this critical host cell function, patterns of signal transduction to IFN-γ stimulation of uninfected and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes were determined through bovine-specific peptide arrays for kinome analysis. Pathway analysis of the kinome data indicated activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, a hallmark of IFN-γ signaling, in uninfected monocytes. In contrast, IFN-γ stimulation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes failed to induce patterns of peptide phosphorylation consistent with JAK-STAT activation. The inability of IFN-γ to induce differential phosphorylation of peptides corresponding to early JAK-STAT intermediates in infected monocytes indicates that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis blocks responsiveness at, or near, the IFN-γ receptor. Consistent with this hypothesis, increased expression of negative regulators of the IFN-γ receptors SOCS1 and SOCS3 as well as decreased expression of IFN-γ receptor chains 1 and 2 is observed in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected monocytes. These patterns of expression are functionally consistent with the kinome data and offer a mechanistic explanation for this critical M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis behavior. Understanding this mechanism may contribute to the rational design of more effective vaccines and/or therapeutics for Johne's disease. PMID:22689821
Ghosh, Pallab; Wu, Chia-wei
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, an enteric infection in cattle and other ruminants, greatly afflicting the dairy industry worldwide. Once inside the cell, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is known to survive harsh microenvironments, especially those inside activated macrophages. To improve our understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis pathogenesis, we examined phagosome maturation associated with transcriptional responses of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis during macrophage infection. Monitoring cellular markers, only live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis bacilli were able to prevent phagosome maturation and reduce its acidification. On the transcriptional level, over 300 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genes were significantly and differentially regulated in both naive and IFN-γ-activated macrophages. These genes include the sigma factor H (sigH) that was shown to be important for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival inside gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated bovine macrophages. Interestingly, an sigH-knockout mutant showed increased sensitivity to a sustained level of thiol-specific oxidative stress. Large-scale RNA sequence analysis revealed that a large number of genes belong to the sigH regulon, especially following diamide stress. Genes involved in oxidative stress and virulence were among the induced genes in the sigH regulon with a putative consensus sequence for SigH binding that was recognized in a subset of these genes (n = 30), suggesting direct regulation by SigH. Finally, mice infections showed a significant attenuation of the ΔsigH mutant compared to its parental strain, suggesting a role for sigH in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis virulence. Such analysis could identify potential targets for further testing as vaccine candidates against Johne's disease. PMID:23569115
Prieto, José M; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Abendaño, Naiara; Fitzgerald, Liam E; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the diagnostic test most commonly used in efforts to control paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants. However, commercial ELISAs have not been validated for detecting antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animals. In this study, we compared the sensitivities and specificities of five ELISAs using individual serum samples collected from 41 fallow deer with or without histopathological lesions consistent with paratuberculosis. Two target antigenic preparations were selected, an ethanol-treated protoplasmic preparation obtained from a fallow deer M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate (ELISAs A and B) and a paratuberculosis protoplasmic antigen (PPA3) (ELISAs C and D). Fallow deer antibodies bound to the immobilized antigens were detected by using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fallow deer IgG antibody (ELISAs A and C) or HRP-conjugated protein G (ELISAs B and D). A commercially available assay, ELISA-E, which was designed to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in cattle, sheep, and goats, was also tested. Although ELISAs A, C, and E had the same sensitivity (72%), ELISAs A and C were more specific (100%) for detecting fallow deer with lesions consistent with paratuberculosis at necropsy than was the ELISA-E (87.5%). In addition, the ELISA-A was particularly sensitive for detecting fallow deer in the latent stages of infection (62.5%). The antibody responses detected with the ELISA-A correlated with both the severity of enteric lesions and the presence of acid-fast bacteria in gut tissue samples. In summary, our study shows that the ELISA-A can be a cost-effective diagnostic tool for preventing the spread of paratuberculosis among fallow deer populations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Eisenberg, T; Volmer, R; Eskens, U; Moser, I; Nesseler, A; Sauerwald, C; Seeger, H; Klewer-Fromentin, K; Möbius, P
In a breeding and fattening pig farm an increasing number of cases of abortion and generalized mycobacteriosis at slaughter occurred. Pathological findings compatible with mycobacteriosis, acid-fast organisms in tissues, and isolation of mycobacteria from tissue samples including fetuses, lungs and reproductive organs from sows, genital swabs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and from a sperm sample revealed the cause of the disease. Bacterial cultures were identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis using IS901-/IS1245-specific PCR. Genotyping of selected isolates from animals as well as from their environment by MIRU-VNTR analysis showed that the herd was infected with one single outbreak strain. The same genotype was also isolated from pigs of two other farms which showed comparable symptoms and were in direct contact with the index farm as well as from their environment. Immunological host responses detected by tuberculin skin test and ELISA gave positive results at herd level only. Despite the detection of other potential pathogens mycobacteria were regarded as the causative agent of the reproductive disorders. To our knowledge this is the first report of an epidemic mycobacterial infection in a pig holding associated with reproductive disorders, which could be attributed to one single virulent strain, and the first report of detection of M. avium subsp. hominissuis in pig sperm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nazareth, Nair; Magro, Fernando; Appelberg, Rui; Silva, Jani; Gracio, Daniela; Coelho, Rosa; Cabral, José Miguel; Abreu, Candida; Macedo, Guilherme; Bull, Tim J; Sarmento, Amélia
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has long been implicated as a triggering agent in Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we investigated the growth/persistence of both M. avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) and MAP, in macrophages from healthy controls (HC), CD and ulcerative colitis patients. For viability assessment, both CFU counts and a pre16SrRNA RNA/DNA ratio assay (for MAP) were used. Phagolysosome fusion was evaluated by immunofluorescence, through analysis of LAMP-1 colocalization with MAP. IBD macrophages were more permissive to MAP survival than HC macrophages (a finding not evident with MAH), but did not support MAP active growth. The lower MAP CFU counts in macrophage cultures associated with Infliximab treatment were not due to increased killing, but possibly to elevation in the proportion of intracellular dormant non-culturable MAP forms, as MAP showed higher viability in those macrophages. Increased MAP viability was not related to lack of phagolysosome maturation. The predominant induction of MAP dormant forms by Infliximab treatment may explain the lack of MAP reactivation during anti-TNF therapy of CD but does not exclude the possibility of MAP recrudescence after termination of therapy.
Dimitrova, Dimana; Ong, Peck Y; O'Gorman, Maurice R G; Church, Joseph A
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) deficiency represents a rare form of severe immunodeficiency associated with increased susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens and commonly leads to failure to thrive and early death. This autosomal recessive disorder is caused by mutations in MHCII transcription regulator genes, resulting in impaired expression of MHCII, and it is usually seen in consanguineous populations. Our patient presented at age 15 months with a history of developmental delay, multiple respiratory infections and skin abscesses, and recently, at 5 years of age, he was found to have disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. His mother is Mexican-American, and his father is Persian. Laboratory investigations showed hypogammaglobulinemia, modest T-lymphopenia, borderline mitogen responses, absent tetanus toxoid and candida antigen lymphoproliferative assays, and absent tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b antibody levels. Flow cytometry demonstrated absent HLA-DR antigen on monocytes and B-cells, and a diagnosis of MHCII deficiency was made. Genetic analysis yielded a homozygous pathogenic class II transactivator (CIITA) mutation. The same mutation was found in both parents. Coincidently, an Xq28 microduplication was identified and likely was the cause of the patient's developmental delay. This patient demonstrated some of the typical features of MHCII deficiency with the addition of several unique findings: disseminated M. avium complex, homozygosity in a CIITA mutation despite remarkably diverse parental ethnicity, and coincident Xq28 microdeletion with mild intellectual disability.
Al-Sulami, A A; Al-Taee, A M R; Wida'a, Q H
This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria in drinking-water in Basra governorate, Iraq and their susceptibility to several antibiotics and the effect of 0.5 mg/L of chlorine on their survival. A total of 404 samples of drinking-water were collected from 33 different districts of the governorate from November 2006 to August 2007. Filtered samples were incubated for 7 days or less in a monophasic-biphasic culture setup of tuberculosis broth and Lowenstein-Jensen agar. The 252 isolates were identified as M. avium complex (21), M. marinum (15), M. kansasii (30), M. simiae (20), M. szulgai (19), M. xenopi (16), M. malmoense (11), M. fortuitum (37), M. chelonae (50) and M. abscessus (33). Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility as well as their ability to tolerate chlorine at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The presence of these pathogenic bacteria in drinking-water renders the water unfit for human consumption.
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis progresses more quickly in young red deer than in sheep or cattle. This study describes the clinical, immunological and pathological changes over a 50-week period in fourteen 4-month-old red deer that received heavy oral challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. At 4 and 12 weeks post challenge they were anaesthetized and a section of jejunal lymph node was surgically removed for culture, histopathology, and genetic studies. All 14 deer became infected, none were clinically affected, and they had varying degrees of subclinical disease when killed at week 50. Week 4 biopsies showed no paratuberculosis lesions, but MAP was cultured from all animals. At weeks 12 and 50 histopathological lesions ranged from mild to severe with corresponding low-to-high antibody titres, which peaked at 12–24 weeks. IFN-γ responses peaked at 8–15 weeks and were higher in mildly affected animals than in those with severe lesions.
Arrazuria, Rakel; Molina, Elena; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia
Rabbits are susceptible to infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in both wildlife and experimental conditions. Under the hypotheses that nutrient balance might influence the establishment of infection, we designed an experiment where MAP intestinal colonization was assessed under three dietary regimens: high fiber, high protein, and regular diet in New Zealand white rabbits submitted to oral challenge with MAP. Lowest weight gain (F=5.17, p=0.024), higher tissue culture positivity rates (X(2)=7.43, p=0.024) and especially extended MAP-compatible lesions (F=5.78, p=0.017) were detected in the regular diet. Taken altogether, results indicate that paratuberculosis infection was achieved affecting mostly regular diet animals and showing that dietary changes may modulate the course of the infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Aceto, Helen W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Sweeney, Raymond W
Johne's disease (JD) is an enteric infection of cattle and other ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study compared the antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) against two field MAP isolates by use of broth culture. The concentrations that resulted in 99% growth inhibition of isolates 1 and 2 were, respectively, 636 µM and 183 µM for GaN, and 251 µM and 142 µM for GaM. For both isolates, time to detection was significantly higher for GaM than GaN. These results suggest that GaM is more efficient than GaN in inhibiting MAP growth in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Ahlstrom, Christina; Mutharia, Lucy; De Buck, Jeroen; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula
The main objective of this study was to identify the circulating strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in fecal isolates obtained from dairy goat (N = 29 farms) and dairy sheep (N = 21 farms) populations in Ontario, Canada. Further subtyping was performed to determine if there was adequate diversity between strains that could be used to establish Map transmission patterns. Type C was the dominant strain of Map isolates (95.2%) identified in dairy goats (n = 21). Sub-typing of the Type C strains, based on variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units, identified 3 VNTR types: INMV 1 (n = 10), INMV 2 (n = 10), and a type not previously identified (n = 1). Only 2 sheep isolates could be identified; both were Type S, sub-type III. Current typing methods demonstrate little Map diversity in the dairy goat population and are therefore of limited use to investigate infection patterns.
Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan
Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or
Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan
Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or
Full Text Available Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not
Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains
Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira
Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.
Kulski, J. K.; Khinsoe, C; Pryce, T; Christiansen, K
The presence of mycobacteria in blood culture fluids (BACTEC) of AIDS patients with positive growth indices (GIs, > 20 U) was investigated by using a multiplex PCR to detect and identify members of the genus Mycobacterium, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. tuberculosis. Three different methods of extracting mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluid were compared for use with the multiplex PCR. Mycobacterial cells were pelleted from a small aliquot of blood culture fluid by centrifugation, ...
More, Simon John; Cameron, A. R.; Strain, S.; et al.
As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animal...
René Ramírez G.; Juan Maldonado E.
RESUMENEl Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP) es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune...
Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W
Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. Costly diagnostic testing, cumbersome control programs, incurability, and ineffective vaccination all make M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility a good candidate for genetic studies and genetic selection a potentially useful adjunct to management-based control programs. No report has been published for heritability of susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability for susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Jersey cattle. Data consisted of complete serum ELISA and partial fecal culture results on a total of 2,861 Jersey cows from 23 commercial herds throughout the United States after editing. Four M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility phenotypes were defined using (1) ELISA sample-to-positive ratios as a continuous trait, (2) ELISA results as a binary trait (positive=1, negative=0), (3) ELISA results as an ordered categorical trait, and (4) a combined test in which ELISA and fecal culture results were both taken into account in a binary analysis. Three statistical models, including linear, binary threshold, and ordered threshold sire models, were used to analyze the data. All analyses were executed using the restricted maximum likelihood method in ASReml 3 software. The heritability estimates were low to moderate and ranged from 0.08 (±0.03) to 0.27 (±0.11) based on different trait definitions. The nonzero heritability indicates that susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle is influenced by genetic factors. Therefore, selection of the least susceptible animals could decrease genetic predisposition to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey populations in future
Full Text Available El complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es un patógeno que se encuentra en el medioambiente y causa infecciones tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente VIH positivo varón de 38 años infectado por P. jirovecii y aparentemente infectado por Mycobacterium tuberculosis desde el año 2009, el cual fue tratado con antibioticoterapia para pneumocistosis y terapia antituberculosis (TB logrando mejoría parcial. En el año 2012 se le realizó nuevamente examen de cultivo y un nuevo tratamiento anti TB, frente a la sospecha de estar en presencia de una cepa de TB multidrogorresistente se recomienda realizar la identificación micobacteriana. El examen de cultivo fue positivo y el resultado genotípico resultó positivo para MAC. Se reporta el primer caso de un paciente VIH/SIDA con infección pulmonar por MAC en el Perú, así como una breve revisión de los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de tratamiento
Nagata, Reiko; Kawaji, Satoko; Mori, Yasuyuki
Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), remains difficult to control because of the lack of specific and sensitive diagnostic tests. In order to improve the specificity of sero-diagnosis for JD, the phage display library derived from genomic DNA of MAP was immunoscreened to identify novel antigenic targets. We selected a clone using antibodies from MAP experimentally infected cattle, and annotated its coding sequence as MAP1197 in the MAP genome, which encoded "echA12_2" in the MAP protein (Map-echA) belonging to Enoyl-CoA hydratase, known as a crotonase enzyme. The Map-echA was expressed in Esherichia coli and purified as a histidine-tag recombinant protein (rMap-echA), and the diagnostic potential of the protein was further evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Antibody responses to rMap-echA were higher in MAP-infected cattle than in uninfected cattle. The specificity of the Map-echA ELISA was also confirmed by evaluation with hyper-immune sera against various kinds of Mycobacterium species. Furthermore, in all experimentally infected cattle the antibody against rMap-echA was detected 2-7months earlier than by a commercially available ELISA kit. These results suggested that Map-echA can be used as a specific and sensitive serological diagnostic antigen for the detection of MAP infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir
Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), excreted in the feces and milk, is reported to be not easily inactivated by pasteurization and thermal treatments as other bacteria infecting humans and animals do. The D values of all MAP strains tested were considerably higher than those published for other pathogens. Culturing techniques for this organism are labor intensive. Although an increasing amount of scientific evidence suggests that this organism can be responsible for at least some cases of Crohn's disease (CD), there is controversy about MAP being a cause of CD in humans. In general, although some studies have described an association between the presence of MAP and CD, the role of Mycobacterium species and MAP in the etiology of this human disease remains unestablished. Although published reports indicate that it may not be completely inactivated by pasteurization of milk, the effectiveness of increasing the time or temperature in the pasteurization process has not been established and hence any potential benefit to human health cannot be determined. This article summarizes the incidences of MAP in milk and milk products with respect to human health and brief discussion of various serological as well as molecular techniques used for their isolation, enumeration, and characterization. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Scott D. Fitzgerald
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to retrospectively determine whether or not cattle from the state of Michigan which were classified as bovine tuberculosis reactors, based on currently approved field and laboratory testing methods, were overtly infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Included in this study were 384 adult cattle submitted to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health over a seven-year period. Cattle were tested utilizing standard methods to confirm that all cattle were lesion and culture negative for infection with Mycobacterium bovis at postmortem examination. Retrospective analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of ileum and ileocecal lymph node were evaluated by histopathology, acid-fast staining, and PCR assays to detect MAP. Overall, only 1.04 percent of cattle showed overt infection with MAP on visual examination of sections of ileum and/or ileo-cecal lymph node. This increased slightly to 2.1 percent of cattle likely infected with MAP after additional testing using a PCR assay. Based on these results, we found no evidence that overt infection with MAP plays a major role in the false tuberculosis reactor test results for cattle examined in this study.
Belisle John T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis
Irani, Vida R; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Eckstein, Torsten M; Inamine, Julia M; Belisle, John T; Maslow, Joel N
Background Mycobacterium avium are ubiquitous environmental organisms and a cause of disseminated infection in patients with end-stage AIDS. The glycopeptidolipids (GPL) of M. avium are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of this organism, however, establishment of a clear role for GPL in disease production has been limited by the inability to genetically manipulate M. avium. Methods To be able to study the role of the GPL in M. avium pathogenesis, a ts-sacB selection system, not previously used in M. avium, was employed as a means to achieve homologous recombination for the rhamnosyltransferase (rtfA) gene of a pathogenic serovar 8 strain of M. avium to prevent addition of serovar-specific sugars to rhamnose of the fatty acyl-peptide backbone of GPL. The genotype of the resultant rtfA mutant was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. Disruption in the proximal sugar of the haptenic oligosaccharide resulted in the loss of serovar specific GPL with no change in the pattern of non-serovar specific GPL moieties as shown by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Complementation of wild type (wt) rtfA in trans through an integrative plasmid restored serovar-8 specific GPL expression identical to wt serovar 8 parent strain. Results In this study, we affirm our results that rtfA encodes an enzyme responsible for the transfer of Rha to 6d-Tal and provide evidence of a second allelic exchange mutagenesis system suitable for M. avium. Conclusion We report the second allelic exchange system for M. avium utilizing ts-sacB as double-negative and xylE as positive counter-selection markers, respectively. This system of allelic exchange would be especially useful for M. avium strains that demonstrate significant isoniazid (INH) resistance despite transformation with katG. Through the construction of mutants in GPL or other mycobacterial components, their roles in M. avium pathogenesis, biosynthesis, or drug
Carvalho, Natália B.; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Durães, Fernanda V.; de Almeida, Leonardo A.; Flórido, Manuela; Prata, Luana O.; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Appelberg, Rui; Oliveira, Sérgio C.
To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium. Bacterial burdens were higher in the spleens, livers, and lungs of infected TLR9 KO mice than in those of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that TLR9 is required for efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR9 KO or TLR2 KO spleen cells displayed normal M. avium-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. This finding was confirmed by determining the number of splenic CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ by flow cytometry. Furthermore, TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR9, played a major role in interleukin-12 and TNF-α production by M. avium-infected macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also found that major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on DCs is regulated by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling but not by TLR9. Finally, lack of TLR9, TLR2, or MyD88 reduced the numbers of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes in M. avium-induced granulomas but only MyD88 deficiency affected the number of liver granulomas. In summary, our data demonstrated that the involvement of TLR9 in the control of M. avium infection is not related to the induction of Th1 responses. PMID:21300776
Marked Differences in Mucosal Immune Responses Induced in Ileal versus Jejunal Peyer's Patches to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Secreted Proteins following Targeted Enteric Infection in Young Calves.
Facciuolo, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J; Mutharia, Lucy M
In cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is primarily mediated through M cells overlying Peyer's patches (PP) in the ileum. The capacity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to invade ileal PP (IPP) versus discrete PP in the jejunum (JPP) and subsequent differences in mucosal immune responses were investigated. Intestinal segments were surgically prepared in both mid-jejunum, containing two JPPs, and in terminal small intestine containing continuous IPP. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (109 CFU) was injected into the lumen of half of each intestinal segment when calves were 10-14 days-old and infection confirmed 1-2 months later by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins, previously identified as immunogenic, were used to analyze pathogen-specific B- and T-cell responses in PP and mesenteric lymph nodes. IgA plasma cell responses to 9 of 13 recombinant proteins were detected in JPP but not in IPP. Secretory IgA reacting in ELISA with 9 of the 13 recombinant proteins was detected in luminal contents from both jejunal and ileal segments. These observations support the conclusion that pathogen-specific IgA B cells were induced in JPP but not IPP early after a primary infection. The presence of secretory IgA in intestinal contents is consistent with dissemination of IgA plasma cells from the identified mucosa-associated immune induction sites. This is the first direct evidence for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis uptake by bovine JPP and for local induction of pathogen-specific IgA plasma cell responses after enteric infection. We also provide evidence that bacterial invasion of IPP, a primary B lymphoid tissue, provides a novel strategy to evade induction of mucosal immune responses. Over 60% of PPs in the newborn calf small intestine is primary lymphoid tissue, which has significant implications when designing oral vaccines or diagnostic tests to detect early M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Arsenault, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Fecteau, Gilles; L'Homme, Yvan
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a granulomatous enteritis affecting a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A variety of molecular typing tools are used to distinguish M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, contributing to a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis epidemiology. In the present study, PCR-based typing methods, including mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units/variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and small sequence repeats (SSR) in addition to IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were used to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of 200 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains from dairy herds located in the province of Quebec, Canada. The majority of strains were of the "cattle type," or type II, although 3 strains were of the "bison type." A total of 38 genotypes, including a novel one, were identified using a combination of 17 genetic markers, which generated a Simpson's index of genetic diversity of 0.876. Additional analyses revealed no differences in genetic diversity between environmental and individual strains. Of note, a spatial and spatiotemporal cluster was evidenced regarding the distribution of one of the most common genotypes. The population had an overall homogeneous genetic structure, although a few strains stemmed out of the consensus cluster, including the bison-type strains. The genetic structure of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis populations within most herds suggested intraherd dissemination and microevolution, although evidence of interherd contamination was also revealed. The level of genetic diversity obtained by combining MIRU-VNTR and SSR markers shows a promising avenue for molecular epidemiology investigations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission patterns. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis
Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi
Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. PMID:15039374
Carvalho, Natália B; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Marinho, Fábio A V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Fahel, Júlia S; Báfica, André; Rothfuchs, Antonio G; Zamboni, Dario S; Caliari, Marcelo V; Oliveira, Sérgio C
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an innate immune receptor that recognizes peptidoglycan-derived muramyl dipeptide from intracellular bacteria and triggers proinflammatory signals. In this study, we sought to evaluate the role played by this receptor during early and late stages of infection with Mycobacterium avium in mice. We demonstrated that NOD2 knockout (KO) animals were able to control M. avium infection similarly to wild-type mice at all time points studied, even though IL-12 and TNF-α production was impaired in NOD2-deficient macrophages. At 100 days following infection with this bacterium, but not at 30 days post-infection, NOD2-deficient mice showed significantly diminished production of IFN-γ, as confirmed by reduced accumulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA in the spleens of KO mice. Additionally, a reduction in the size and in the number of lymphocytes/granulocytes of hepatic granulomas from NOD2 KO animals was observed only during late time points of M. avium infection. Taken together, these data demonstrate that NOD2 regulates type-1 cytokine responses to M. avium but is not required for the control of infection with this bacterium in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Seva, Juan; Sanes, Jose M; Ramis, Guillermo; Mas, Alberto; Quereda, Juan J; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Villar, David; Pallares, Francisco J
This study reports the performance of the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for Mycobacterium bovis in a cattle herd with high prevalence of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 58/350 animals were selected for necropsy based on one or more of the following criteria: positive to SIT, IFN-γ, a breeding cow that seroconverted to PTB and showed signs compatible with a wasting disease. Infection status was determined by post mortem diagnostic tests that included histopathology examination, mycobacterial cultures and PCR identification for M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In 7/58 animals primary tuberculosis (TB) lesions, affecting only the retropharyngeal and/or mediastinal lymph nodes, were found; 3/7 animals were found SIT positive. PTB was confirmed in 35/58 animals, of which 30 had seroconverted and 14 had typical clinical signs. 45/58 animals were IFN-γ(+) using the most stringent criterion (cut-off point ≥ 0.05); however, IFN-γ test was only positive in 33 animals when using a higher threshold (cut-off point ≥ 0.1). Three animals co-infected also showed extensive TB and diffuse PTB lesions. These results show that the combined use of SIT and IFN-γ, as interpreted using official guidelines, detected all confirmed cases of TB. Individually, the sensitivity of the SIT was inadequate to diagnose TB-positive animals with an advanced stage of PTB. The large number of IFN-γ(+) animals with no visible TB lesion could be due, in part, to some protection conferred by prior infection with MAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ajay Vir Singh
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.
Freedberg Kenneth A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to illustrate a method for making indirect treatment comparisons in the absence of head-to-head trials, by portraying the derivation of published efficacies for prophylaxis regimens of HIV-related opportunistic infections. Results We identified published results of randomized controlled trials from the United States in which HIV-infected patients received rifabutin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or placebo for prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. We extracted the number of subjects, follow-up time, primary MAC events, mean CD4 count, and proportion of subjects on mono or dual antiretroviral therapy (ART from each study. We derived the efficacy of each drug using adjusted indirect comparisons and, when possible, by direct comparisons. Five articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. Using direct comparison, we estimated the efficacies of rifabutin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin compared to placebo to be 53% (95% CI, 48-61%, 66% (95% CI, 61-74%, and 66% (95% CI, 60-81%, respectively. Using adjusted indirect calculations, the efficacy of rifabutin compared to placebo ranged from 41% to 44%. The adjusted indirect efficacies of clarithromycin and azithromycin were estimated to be 73% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Accurate estimates of specific drug dosages as compared to placebo are important for policy and implementation research. This study illustrates a simple method of adjusting for differences in study populations by using indirect comparisons in the absence of head-to-head HIV clinical trials.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.
Cirone, K.; Huberman, Y.; Morsella, C.; Méndez, L.; Jorge, M.; Paolicchi, F.
The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day 20 after inoculation. MAP was not detected during their preparation and short-term storage but was recuperated after starting at 180 min after inoculation storage. Live bacterial counts of E. coli, and S. Enteritidis increased during the first 24 hours, followed by a slight decrease towards the end of the study. In this study it was shown how MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis resisted the acidic conditions generated during the preparation of yogurt and low storage temperatures. This work contributes to current knowledge regarding survival of MAP, E. coli, and S. Enteritidis during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt and emphasizes the need to improve hygiene measures to ensure the absence of these pathogenic microorganisms in dairy products. PMID:24455399
Singh, Ajay Vir; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shoor Vir; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Abhinendra; Yadav, Anjali; Yadav, Virendra Singh
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.
Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2 g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90 d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12 mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, T L; Baca, V; Stalling, S S; Natalie, A A; Veldkamp, P J
A 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of anorexia nervosa developed a bilateral lower extremity rash comprised of palpable red to violaceous, sub-centimeter papular lesions that increased in quantity rapidly. She also noted a 2-month history of non-productive cough. Imaging modalities revealed a thin-walled cavitary lesion in the right lung apex and scattered nodular opacities. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were found in sputum and subsequently identified by culture as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). Punch biopsies of her skin lesions yielded a histological diagnosis of small-to-medium vessel vasculitis. Stains and cultures for organisms were negative. Her skin lesions resolved quickly after the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for MAI. Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with an atypical mycobacterial infection is unusual. The postulated underlying mechanism is the deposit of immune complexes and not the bacillus itself. While cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLV) due to MAI is certainly a rare entity, it should be entertained in patients with vasculitic skin lesions and a concomitant pulmonary disease.
Full Text Available The main reasons to improve the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP are animal health and monitoring of MAP entering the food chain via meat, milk, and/or dairy products. Different approaches can be used for the detection of MAP, but the use of magnetic separation especially in conjunction with PCR as an end-point detection method has risen in past years. However, the extraction of DNA which is a crucial step prior to PCR detection can be complicated due to the presence of inhibitory substances. Magnetic separation methods involving either antibodies or peptides represent a powerful tool for selective separation of target bacteria from other nontarget microorganisms and inhibitory sample components. These methods enable the concentration of pathogens present in the initial matrix into smaller volume and facilitate the isolation of sufficient quantities of pure DNA. The purpose of this review was to summarize the methods based on the magnetic separation approach that are currently available for the detection of MAP in a broad range of matrices.
Mita, Akiko; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Tetsuo; Tasaki, Tomoko; Utiyama, Katsuo; Mori, Hitomi
The aim of the study was to develop a sensitive method using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with pooled fecal samples for the screening of Johne's disease (JD). Manufacturer-specified and our new pooling method in combination with five commercial kits for DNA extraction and purification were compared. Different volumes of pooled fecal suspensions were tested, and the results were compared for individual samples and three pool sizes (5, 10, and 50 samples); each of the fecal suspensions, which were prepared from healthy dairy and beef cattle was spiked with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 cultured Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms or was mixed with fecal suspensions from experimentally infected cattle. The MAP DNA detection proportion with our pooling method in combination with Johne-Spin kit (Fasmac, Japan) was 100% for all models and all pool sizes, except for the low shedder model with a pool size of 50. There was no loss of sensitivity in pools of 10 subjects or less by using the new method. These results suggest that new method is a sensitive, practical, and cost-effective screening test for the detection of MAP-infected cattle and the monitoring of JD-free herds. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is an important pathogen that causes a chronic, progressive granulomatous enteritis known as Johne's disease or paratuberculosis. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and responsible for considerable losses to the livestock and associated industries. Diagnosis and control are problematic, due mostly to the long incubation period of the disease when infected animals show no clinical signs and are difficult to detect, and the ability of the organism to survive and persist in the environment. The existence of phenotypically distinct strains of Map has been known since the 1930s but the genetic differentiation of Map strain types has been challenging and only recent technologies have proven sufficiently discriminative for strain comparisons, tracing the sources of infection and epidemiological studies. It is important to understand the differences that exist between Map strains and how they influence both development and transmission of disease. This information is required to develop improved diagnostics and effective vaccines for controlling Johne's disease. Here I review the current classification of Map strain types, the sources of the genetic variability within strains, growth characteristics and epidemiological traits associated with strain type and the influence of strain type on infection and pathogenicity.
Koets, Ad P; Eda, Shigetoshi; Sreevatsan, Srinand
Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), occurs in domestic and wild animals worldwide, causing a significant economic loss to livestock industries. After a prolonged incubation time, infected cattle shed MAP bacilli into feces and spread the disease to an uninfected animal population. It is largely unknown how (or whether) the interplay between the pathogen and the host immunity determines timing of shedding after the long incubation time. Such information would provide an understanding of pathogenesis in individual animals and the epidemiology of MAP infection in animal populations. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of bovine Johne's disease pathology, pathogenesis, immunology and genetics. We discuss knowledge gaps that direly need to be addressed to provide a science-based approach to diagnostics and (immuno)prophylaxis. These knowledge gaps are related to anatomical/clinical manifestation of MAP invasion, interaction of bacteria with phagocytes, granuloma formation, shedding, establishment and kinetics of adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of the disease. These topics are discussed at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels with special attention to the within host dynamics including the temporal and the spatial context relevant for the various host-pathogen interactions.
Hesam Shariati, Sonia; Alaei, Anoosha; Keshavarz, Rouhollah; Mosavari, Nader; Rabbani, Ali; Niegowska, Magdalena; Sechi, Leonardo A; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease in ruminants. Its role in triggering autoimmunity, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), has been reported in recent years. Due to the high contamination rate of MAP in Iran's livestock and the increasing outbreak of T1DM, we investigated this association in a small group of patients with T1DM in Iran. Blood samples of 29 T1DM patients and 29 healthy control subjects were tested through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous epitopes and the presence of MAP DNA. Blood samples were also cultured in mycobacterial growth indicator tubes and Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin J. The results of ELISA showed a significant difference between T1DM patients and healthy group. IS900 was also detected in 51.72% of T1DM patients but in none of the control group. None of the samples grew in culture media. Due to the presence of MAP DNA and antibodies against MAP peptides in a significant number of T1DM patients compared with healthy control subjects, we may consider MAP as a possible trigger of T1DM in Iran. This indicates that exposure to MAP occurred in the positive subjects. Identifying the sources of contamination and routes of MAP transmission to humans seems necessary to prevent and reduce the burden of MAP infection in Iran.
Matos, Ana C; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria H; Matos, Manuela; Álvares, Sofia; Mendes, Andreia; Pinto, Maria L; Coelho, Ana C
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting both domestic and wild ruminants. The present work is part of a wider set of studies designed to assess the prevalence of paratuberculosis in free ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus). With that purpose, 877 free-ranging red deer legally hunted in the Centre-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy and sampled for molecular methods, microbiology and histopathology. Thirty-seven (4.2%) kidneys revealed acid-fast bacilli when screened with the Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Map was detected by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in thirty (81.1%) of the Ziehl-Neelsen positive kidneys. Subsequent PCR and/or culture from the different organs of the 37 examined animals allowed us to detect 86.4% (32 animals) infected red deer. Our results suggest that renal involvement in Map infected deer may be underdiagnosed and thus the routine examination of this organ and its inclusion in PCR techniques designed for Map detection could substantially improve the diagnostic of paratuberculosis in red deer.
Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F
This study was designed to examine (i) the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subs paratuberculosis (MAP) in a high-producing dairy herd with clinical symptoms of bovine paratuberculosis, (ii) MAP seroconversion and seronegativation dynamics in the herd and (iii) possible relationships between MAP infection status and herd reproductive performance. One single blood test per cow was performed early post-partum on a monthly basis from day 10-40 post-partum during the first year of the study in 519 cows belonging to a commercial dairy herd. A subset of 111 cows that became pregnant during the study was tested again 60-200 days later during the early foetal period, immediately after the first confirmation of gestation at 58-64 days post-AI. Logistic regression analysis indicated no effect of any independent variable on MAP seropositivity and conception rate 28-34 days post-AI. MAP seropositivity was not a factor affecting the anoestrous, subfertility and early foetal loss rates. In the subset of 111 cows, animals that seroconverted had a 3.9 times greater risk of suffering from early foetal loss (30.3%, 10/33) than the remaining pregnant animals (10.3%, 8/78), (95% confidence interval: 1.11-13.4; p = 0.003). In conclusion, early foetal loss was positively correlated with seroconversion to MAP. Reproductive performance was not impaired by MAP infection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mortier, Rienske A R; Barkema, Herman W; Wilson, Todd A; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Wolf, Robert; De Buck, Jeroen
The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay is considered useful for diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis. However, interpretation can be subjective and complex; therefore, additional information regarding the course of the cellular immune response and effects of age and dose at infection would be helpful. Thirty-three calves were randomly allocated to 10 challenge groups and a negative control group. Calves were inoculated orally at 2 weeks or at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months of age. Within each age group, calves received either a high or low dose of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Monthly blood samples were collected, stimulated with Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) Johnin in vitro, and the subsequent release of IFN-γ measured. Calves inoculated with a high dose had earlier and stronger IFN-γ responses than low-dose calves. Furthermore, calves inoculated at 2 weeks of age produced less IFN-γ compared to those inoculated later in life. The IFN-γ response peaked (on average) 4 months after exposure; therefore, this would be an optimal interval to test cattle for MAP-infection (although the timing of field-based infections is unknown and clearance of infection a possibility). To conclude, the IFN-γ release assay could be a valuable diagnostic test on herd-level to indicate exposure to MAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mercier, Pascale; Freret, Sandrine; Laroucau, Karine; Gautier, Marie-Pierre; Brémaud, Isabelle; Bertin, Claire; Rossignol, Christelle; Souriau, Armel; Guilloteau, Laurence A
The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination. Goats were defined as non-infected (NI), infected and non-shedder (INS), infected and shedder (IS) or atypical (A). Twenty-nine percent of goats were NI, 66% were infected and either shedding (14%) or not shedding (52%) MAP, and 5% were atypical. IFN-γ responses were detected first, followed by faecal shedding and antibody responses. The results showed that in goats naturally exposed to MAP, IFN-γ responses were regularly detected earlier in non-shedders than in young infected shedder goats and were stronger in shedder than in non-shedder goats. They were also higher in the mother goats than in their daughters. Goats shedding MAP or with positive antibody response at the beginning of their pregnancy are more likely to have an infected daughter positive to an IFN-γ assay by the age of 15 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K
Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones.
Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L.; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their ability to colonize murine tissues following oral delivery and the ability of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a nascent probiotic, to combat paratuberculosis. Oral inoculation of mice was able to establish paratuberculosis in a dose-dependent manner. Two consecutive doses of approximately 109 CFU per mouse resulted in a disseminated infection, whereas lower doses were not efficient to establish infection. All inoculated mice were colonized with M. paratuberculosis, maintained infection for up to 24 weeks post infection and generated immune responses that reflect M. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. Notably, oral administration of L. casei ATCC 334 did not reduce the level of M. paratuberculosis colonization in treated animals. Interestingly, cytokine responses and histology indicated a trend for the immunomodulation and reduction of pathology in animals receiving L. casei ATCC 334 treatment. Overall, a reproducible oral model of paratuberculosis in mice was established that could be used for future vaccine experiments. Although the L. casei ATCC 334 was not a promising candidate for controlling paratuberculosis, we established a protocol to screen other probiotic candidates. PMID:24551602
Elise A Lamont
Full Text Available Vaccination remains a major tool for prevention and progression of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants worldwide. Currently there is only one licensed vaccine within the United States and two vaccines licensed internationally against Johne’s disease. All licensed vaccines reduce fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP and delay disease progression. However, there are no available vaccines that prevent disease onset. A joint effort by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP, a USDA-funded consortium, and USDA- APHIS/VS sought to identify transposon insertion mutant strains as vaccine candidates in part of a three phase study. The focus of the Phase I study was to evaluate MAP mutant attenuation in a well-defined in vitro bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM model. Attenuation was determined by colony forming unit (CFUs counts and slope estimates. Based on CFU counts alone, the MDM model did not identify any mutant that significantly differed from the wild-type control, MAP K-10. Slope estimates using mixed models approach identified six mutants as being attenuated. These were enrolled in protection studies involving murine and baby goat vaccination-challenge models. MDM based approach identified trends in attenuation but this did not correlate with protection in a natural host model. These results suggest the need for alternative strategies for Johne’s disease vaccine candidate screening and evaluation.
Andrea Barral Martins
Full Text Available Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM, especially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC, has been considered responsible for human disease, especially in HIV patients. Nevertheless, it has been diagnosed in immunocompetent elderly men, frequently with previous pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, complications of tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis. We relate the case of a female patient, 51 years old, with continuously acid fast bacilli (AFB smears and with three previous treatments, which were conducted at the multiresistant tuberculosis (MRTB service. MAC was identified in the sputum culture, and she received treatment for one year. The posterior sputum exams were negative. The cavity lesions observed in the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT were reduced, and some of the nodule lesions became bronchiectasis, even after the end of treatment. We agree with the literature reports that indicate that MAC is the cause of bronchiectasis. It is necessary to identify the type of mycobacteria in immunocompetent individuals with positive AFB smears that do not become negative with tuberculosis treatment.
Stonos, Nancy; Bauman, Cathy; Menzies, Paula; Wootton, Sarah K; Karrow, Niel A
Infection with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) causes a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions that limit production. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is also a major production-limiting disease of sheep and goats, which causes severe inflammation of the small intestine. Previous studies have indicated that both SRLV and MAP are widespread in small ruminants in Ontario. This study estimated the prevalence of SRLV and MAP co-infection. Serum samples that were previously tested for MAP infection were re-tested for SRLV. The apparent prevalence of co-infection was low, with 3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 5.9] and 14.3% (95% CI: 11.6 to 17.5) of sheep and goats respectively, positive for both infections. However, co-infection is widespread with 36.8% (95% CI: 19.1 to 59.1) and 71.4% (95% CI: 52.8 to 84.9) of sheep and goat farms with 1 or more co-infected animals. A significant association was found between SRLV seropositivity and MAP fecal culture (P = 0.021), suggesting that co-infected goats may be more likely to shed MAP in their feces.
Jurkovich, Viktor; Bognár, Barbara; Balogh, Krisztián; Kovács-Weber, Mária; Fornyos, Kinga; Szabó, Rubina Tünde; Kovács, Péter; Könyves, László; Mézes, Miklós
Milk yield, milk ingredients, health and other, production-related parameters of subclinically infected, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-) shedding (positive faecal PCR, n = 20) and non-shedding (negative faecal PCR, n = 10) dairy cows were compared in the period from 10 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum. Body condition, rumen fill and faeces scores were lower in the MAP-shedding cows. There was no significant difference in plasma or urine metabolic parameters between the groups. Milk yield and lactose content tended to be lower (P = 0.074 and 0.077, respectively), somatic cell count tended to be higher (P = 0.097), while milk fat content was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in MAP-shedding cows than in the controls. Milk protein content did not differ between the groups. All other health and production parameters [number of reproductive tract treatments, number of udder treatments, number of artificial inseminations (AIs), calving interval, and service period] were significantly better in the control group. It is concluded that MAP infection, even in a subclinical form, has a significant impact on some production and health parameters of dairy cows.
Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons
The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066
Working, Selene; Tyser, Andrew; Levy, Dana
Nontuberculous mycobacteria are an uncommon cause of septic olecranon bursitis, though cases have increasingly been described in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Guidelines recommend a combination of surgical resection and antimicrobials for treatment. This case is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis that resolved without medical or surgical intervention. A 67-year-old female developed a painless, fluctuant swelling of the olecranon bursa following blunt trauma to the elbow. Due to persistent bursal swelling, she underwent three separate therapeutic bursal aspirations, two involving intrabursal steroid injection. After the third aspiration, the bursa became erythematous and severely swollen, and bursal fluid grew Mycobacterium avium complex. Triple-drug antimycobacterial therapy was initiated, but discontinued abruptly due to a rash. Surgery was not performed. The patient was observed off antimicrobials, and gradually clinically improved with a compressive dressing. By 14 months after initial presentation, clinical exam revealed complete resolution of the previously erythematous bursal mass. This is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis managed successfully without surgery or antimicrobials. Musculoskeletal nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are challenging given the lack of clinical data about optimal duration and choice of antimicrobials or the role of surgery. Additionally, the potential toxicity and drug interactions of antimycobacterials are not insignificant and warrant close monitoring if treatment is pursued. This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures.
Full Text Available Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents.
Gioffré, Andrea; Correa Muñoz, Magnolia; Alvarado Pinedo, María F; Vaca, Roberto; Morsella, Claudia; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Paolicchi, Fernando; Ruybal, Paula; Zumárraga, Martín; Travería, Gabriel E; Romano, María Isabel
Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents.
Bermudez, Luiz E; Motamedi, Nima; Kolonoski, Peter; Chee, Chris; Baimukanova, Gail; Bildfell, Robert; Wang, Guoqiang; Phan, Ly Tam; Lowell, S Young
Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is increasing in prevalence. MAC disease occurs in patients with chronic preexisting obstructive pulmonary diseases but is also diagnosed in individuals with no history of lung pathology or identifiable immune defect. Histologically, the disease is characterized by either the development of nodular granulomatous lesions in the peribronchial region or cavitary peripheral disease in smokers. Response to long-term treatment is poor. Limited comparative-efficacy data on treatment exist. A model that resembles nodular MAC disease was established in C57 (bg+/bg+) mice infected intranasally. Therapy with clarithromycin, a compound commonly used to treat MAC disease, was evaluated in parallel with treatment using a new bicyclolide, EDP-420, that achieves high levels of intrapulmonary concentrations. Although clarithromycin administered daily resulted in a reduction in the bacterial load in the lung, EDP-420 administered either daily or twice a week was significantly more effective. These results suggest that this animal model can be used to evaluate novel regimens against MAC disease and that compounds with high concentration in the lung might have a significant impact on the outcome of MAC lung disease.
Quantification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Representing Distinct Genotypes and Isolated from Domestic and Wildlife Animal Species by Use of an Automatic Liquid Culture System
Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker; Prieto, José M.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramon A.
Quantification of 11 clinical strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat) and wildlife (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) animal species in an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960) was accomplished. The strains were previously isolated and typed using IS1311 PCR followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) into type C, S, or B. A strain-specific quantification curve was generated for each M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain by relating the time to detection in the liquid culture system to the estimated log10 CFU in each inoculum. According to their growth curves, the tested M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were classified into two distinct groups. The first group included the S-type strain isolated from goat and all the sheep strains with C, S, and B genotypes. A second group contained the C- and B-type strains isolated from cattle, goat, and wildlife animals with the exception of the fallow deer strain. The strains isolated from cattle or sheep showed similar strain-specific standard curves irrespective of their genotype. In contrast, the strains isolated from goat or from wildlife animal species varied in their rates of growth in liquid culture. Universal-standard curves and algorithms for the quantification of each group of strains were generated. In addition, the liquid culture system was compared with a real-time quantitative PCR system for the quantification of the 11 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Correlations between the estimated log10 CFU and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA copy numbers were very high for all the tested strains (R ≥ 0.9). PMID:22649014
Chen, L; Boomershine, C; Wang, T; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S
The results of this investigation provides evidence that catecholamine hormones interact with macrophages that are infected with Mycobacterium avium resulting in the induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein. The effect of catecholamine hormones was prevented by treating the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The effect of catecholamine stimulation was mimicked by the addition of beta-2 adrenergic agonists and by the addition of cAMP to the infected macrophage cultures. These observations suggest that sympathetic nervous system activation together with microbial infection results in a synergistic interaction that could result in the control of inflammatory processes.
Imam H. Shaik
Full Text Available Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life.
Küntzel, Anne; Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Oertel, Peter; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen K; Reinhold, Petra; Köhler, Heike
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Bacterial growth is still the diagnostic 'gold standard', but is very time consuming. MAP-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) above media could accelerate cultural diagnosis. The aim of this project was to assess the kinetics of a VOC profile linked to the growth of MAP in vitro. The following sources of variability were taken into account: five different culture media, three different MAP strains, inoculation with different bacterial counts, and different periods of incubation. Needle-trap microextraction was employed for pre-concentration of VOCs, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for subsequent analysis. All volatiles were identified and calibrated by analysing pure references at different concentration levels. More than 100 VOCs were measured in headspaces above MAP-inoculated and control slants. Results confirmed different VOC profiles above different culture media. Emissions could be assigned to either egg-containing media or synthetic ingredients. 43 VOCs were identified as potential biomarkers of MAP growth on Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium without significant differences between the tree MAP strains. Substances belonged to the classes of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. With increasing bacterial density the VOC concentrations above MAP expressed different patterns: the majority of substances increased (although a few decreased after reaching a peak), but nine VOCs clearly decreased. Data support the hypotheses that (i) bacteria emit different metabolites on different culture media; (ii) different MAP strains show uniform VOC patterns; and (iii) cultural diagnosis can be accelerated by taking specific VOC profiles into account.
Komiya, Kosaku; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Ihi, Toshihiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Mizunoe, Shunji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Ohta, Ken; Kudoh, Shoji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi
Multidrug regimens are initially withheld in mild cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Based on the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides, some patients are treated with erythromycin, which does not appear to exhibit cross-resistance with clarithromycin in MAC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and adverse events of erythromycin monotherapy in patients with pulmonary MAC disease. This was a retrospective propensity score analysis consisting of 31 patients treated with erythromycin alone and 72 patients on conservative therapy, all of whom met the ATS/IDSA criteria for pulmonary MAC disease. The primary outcome was exacerbation requiring administration of a multidrug regimen. The secondary outcome was the rate of response to the multidrug regimens after exacerbation as a surrogate variable for cross-resistance to clarithromycin. As a result, erythromycin monotherapy was found to be likely to suppress exacerbation throughout the 7-year observation period after the diagnosis of pulmonary MAC disease (P=0.045, Breslow test). Multivariate analysis showed that erythromycin tended to prevent exacerbation, albeit statistically insignificantly (hazard ratio=0.495, 95% confidence interval 0.198-1.235; P=0.132). In addition, the rate of response to the multidrug regimens after exacerbation in the erythromycin group (56%; 5/9) was similar to that observed in the control group (62%; 13/21) (P=0.528). Erythromycin monotherapy for patients with pulmonary MAC disease may have the potential to suppress exacerbation without inducing cross-resistance to clarithromycin. However, further prospective studies are needed to microbiologically verify the effectiveness and potential for cross-resistance of these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halwe Jörg M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is suspected to be a causative agent in human Crohn's disease (CD. Recent evidence suggests that pathogenic mycobacteria and MAP can induce the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP, which are the main proteases in the pathogenesis of mucosal ulcerations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Within this study we assessed the prevalence of intestinal MAP specific DNA in patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC, and healthy controls. We further analysed regulation patterns of MMPs in mucosal tissues of UC patients with and without intestinal MAP DNA detection. Methods Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 63 Norwegian and German IBD patients and 21 healthy controls. RNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to study MMP gene expression in both pathological and healthy mucosal specimens. The presence of MAP DNA in colonic mucosa was examined using MAP specific PCR. Results MAP DNA was detected in 20% of UC patients and 33% of healthy controls but only in 7% of patients with CD. UC patients treated with corticosteroids exhibited a significantly increased frequency of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those not receiving corticosteroids. Expression of MMP-1, -2, -7, -9, -13, -19, -28 and TNF-α did not differ between UC patients with presence of intestinal MAP DNA compared to those without. MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased in UC patients receiving corticosteroids. Conclusions The presence of intestinal MAP specific DNA is not associated with altered MMP expression in UC in vivo. Corticosteroids are associated with increased detection of intestinal MAP DNA and decreased expression of certain MMPs. Frequent detection of MAP DNA in healthy controls might be attributable to the wide environmental distribution of MAP and its presence in the food-chain.
Salgado, M; Steuer, P; Troncoso, E; Collins, M T
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in animals. Diagnosis of MAP infection is challenging because of the pathogen's fastidious in vitro growth requirements and low-level intermittent shedding in feces during the preclinical phase of the infection. Detection of these "low-shedders" is important for effective control of paratuberculosis as these animals serve as sources of infection for susceptible calves. Magnetic separation technology, used in combination with culture or molecular methods for the isolation and detection of pathogenic bacteria, enhances the analytical sensitivity and specificity of detection methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) capture technology coupled with IS900 PCR using the Roche real-time PCR system (PMS-PCR), in comparison with fecal culture using BACTEC-MGIT 960 system, for detection of MAP in bovine fecal samples. Among the 351 fecal samples 74.9% (263/351) were PMS-PCR positive while only 12.3% (43/351) were MGIT culture-positive (p=0.0001). All 43 MGIT culture-positive samples were also positive by PMS-PCR. Mean PMS-PCR crossing-point (Cp) values for the 13 fecal samples with the highest number of MAP, based on time to detection, (26.3) were significantly lower than for the 17 fecal samples with <100 MAP per 2g feces (30.06) (p<0.05). PMS-PCR technology provided results in a shorter time and yielded a higher number of positive results than MGIT culture. Earlier and faster detection of animals shedding MAP by PMS-PCR should significantly strengthen control efforts for MAP-infected cattle herds by helping to limit infection transmission at earlier stages of the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isabel Azevedo Carvalho
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has attracted the interest of researchers because of similarities between paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease (CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of MAP through cultures, histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR on intestinal biopsies from Brazilian CD patients. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed on positive samples. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with control group at two federal universities. METHODS: Fresh samples were collected from 25 patients; five with CD, eight with ulcerative colitis (UC and 12 controls with non-inflammatory bowel disease (nIBD. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples from 143 patients were also collected: 44 CD, 49 UC and 56 nIBD. RESULTS: None of the fresh samples was positive for MAP. Five FFPE samples (one CD, two UC and two nIBD and three fresh samples (one in each group were positive through IS900-PCR. qRT-PCR was performed on these eight samples. Among the FFPE samples, there were 192.12 copies/μl in the CD group, 72.28 copies/μl in UC and 81.43 copies/μl in nIBD. Among the fresh samples, there were 432.99 copies/μl, 167.92 copies/μl and 249.73 copies/μl in the CD, UC and nIBD groups, respectively. The highest bacterial load was in the CD group. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide evidence for a role of MAP in the etiology of CD, although MAP DNA was detected in all three patient groups. This is the first report of MAP presence in human intestinal biopsies in Brazil.
Möbius, Petra; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Hölzer, Martin; Köhler, Heike
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis affecting ruminants worldwide. Depending on the MAP-Type (MAP-C or MAP-S, cattle or sheep type), strains differ in virulence and host preference. There is not yet any strong evidence indicating that individual field strains of the same MAP-subgroup exhibit differences in virulence. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential association between the genotype of individual field strains belonging to the MAP-C group and the presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions characteristic of paratuberculosis in the infected animals. 88 MAP-C isolates were sampled from clinically healthy cows at slaughter. Cows were grouped as A (n=46) with, and B (n=42) without macroscopic intestinal lesions. Sampled cows from both the A and B groups came from different farms and had a similar age distribution. MAP isolates were characterized by MIRU-VNTR and IS900-RFLP analysis. Resulting genotypes were examined for an association with the presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions characteristic of paratuberculosis. MAP isolates from groups A and B exhibited similar strain diversity: 20 and 18 combined genotypes, altogether 32 genotypes. Six of these genotypes were detected in both groups. Although no association was found between individual combined genotypes and presence of macroscopic intestinal lesions, IS900-RFLP-(BstEII)-Type-C1 (the most common type worldwide) was found more often in group A (p<0.01). The data give only weak indication for the existence of differences in virulence among MAP-cattle type isolates. Differences in the development and severity of lesions may rather depend on unknown host factors or inoculation dose. Virulence properties of IS900-RFLP-(BstEII)-Type-C1 isolates should be examined in more detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Rebecca L; Gröhn, Y T; Pradhan, A K; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Wolfgang, D R; Schukken, Y H
Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative numbers of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low- and high-path animals produced more milk before their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high-path animals. Although mean production decreased after a first positive test, low-path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High-path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelton David F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.
Leite, Fernando L; Eslabão, Livia B; Pesch, Bruce; Bannantine, John P; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Stabel, Judith R
Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminant animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A hallmark of paratuberculosis is a transition from a cell-mediated Th1 type response to a humoral Th2 response with the progression of disease from a subclinical to clinical state. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of two crucial molecules in T cell function, ZAP-70 (zeta-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa) and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4), in cows naturally infected with MAP. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from control non-infected cows (n=5), and cows in subclinical (n=6) and clinical stages of paratuberculosis (n=6) were cultured alone (medium only), and with concanavalin A, and a whole cell sonicate of MAP for 24, 72 and 144 h to measure the dynamic changes of ZAP-70 and CTLA-4 expression on CD4, CD8, and gamma delta (γδ) T cells. Flow cytometry was also performed to measure ZAP-70 phosphorylation to examine proximal T cell receptor signaling in animals of different disease status. The surface expression of CTLA-4 was increased in animals in subclinical stage of infection while levels of ZAP-70 were decreased in CD4+ T cells of both subclinical and clinical animals, indicating a change in T cell phenotype with disease state. Interestingly, proximal T cell receptor signaling was not altered in infected animals. This study demonstrated changes in crucial signaling molecules in animals infected with MAP, thereby elucidating T cell alterations associated with disease progression. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The Norwegian surveillance and control programme for paratuberculosis revealed 8 seroreactors in a single dairy cattle herd that had no clinical signs of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis infection. Paratuberculosis had been a clinical problem in goats several years previously in this herd. All 45 cattle were culled and a thorough investigation of the infection status was conducted by the use of interferon-γ (IFN-γ immunoassay, measurement of antibodies, and pathological and bacteriological examination. In the IFN-γ immunoassay, 9 animals gave positive results, and 13 were weakly positive, while 19 animals were negative. In the serological test,10 animals showed positive reactions, and 5 were doubtful, while 30 animals gave negative reactions. There appeared to be a weak trend toward younger animals having raised IFN-γ and older animals having raised serological tests. Histopathological lesions compatible with paratuberculosis were diagnosed in 4 animals aged between 4 and 9 years. Three of these animals had positive serological reaction and one animal gave also positive results in the IFN-γ immunoassay. Infection was confirmed by isolation of M. a. paratuberculosis from 2 of these 4 animals. One single bacterial isolate examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP had the same profile, B-C1, as a strain that had been isolated from a goat at the same farm several years previously. Despite many animals being positive in one or both of the immunological tests, indicative of a heavily infected herd, none of the animals showed clinical signs and only one cow was shown to be shedding bacteria. A cross-reaction with other mycobacteria might have caused some of the immunoreactions in these animals. It is also possible that the Norwegian red cattle breed is resistant to clinical infection with M. a. paratuberculosis.
Möbius, Petra; Hölzer, Martin; Felder, Marius; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Groth, Marco; Köhler, Heike; Reichwald, Kathrin; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja
Mycobacterium avium (M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) - the etiologic agent of Johne's disease - affects cattle, sheep and other ruminants worldwide. To decipher phenotypic differences among sheep and cattle strains (belonging to MAP-S [Type-I/III] respectively MAP-C [Type-II]) comparative genome analysis needs data from diverse isolates originating from different geographic regions of the world. The current study presents the so far best assembled genome of a MAP-S-strain: sheep isolate JIII-386 from Germany. One newly sequenced cattle isolate (JII-1961, Germany), four published MAP strains of MAP-C and MAP-S from U.S. and Australia and M. a. subsp. hominissuis (MAH) strain 104 were used for assembly improvement and comparisons. All genomes were annotated by BacProt and results compared with NCBI annotation. Corresponding protein-coding sequences (CDSs) were detected, but also CDSs that were exclusively determined either by NCBI or BacProt. A new Shine-Dalgarno sequence motif (5'AGCTGG3') was extracted. Novel CDSs including PE-PGRS family protein genes and about 80 non-coding RNAs exhibiting high sequence conservation are presented. Previously found genetic differences between MAP-types are partially revised. Four out of ten assumed MAP-S-specific large sequence polymorphism regions (LSPSs) are still present in MAP-C strains; new LSPSs were identified. Independently of the regional origin of the strains, the number of individual CDSs and single nucleotide variants confirm the strong similarity of MAP-C strains and show higher diversity among MAP-S strains. This study gives ambiguous results regarding the hypothesis that MAP-S is the evolutionary intermediate between MAH and MAP-C, but it clearly shows a higher similarity of MAP to MAH than to M. intracellulare. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Acharya, Kamal R; Dhand, Navneet K; Whittington, Richard J; Plain, Karren M
Johne's disease is a chronic debilitating enteropathy of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Current abattoir surveillance programs detect disease via examination of gross lesions and confirmation by histopathological and/or tissue culture, which is time-consuming and has relatively low sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate whether a high-throughput quantitative PCR (qPCR) test is a viable alternative for tissue testing. Intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were sourced from sheep experimentally infected with MAP and the DNA extracted using a protocol developed for tissues, comprised enzymatic digestion of the tissue homogenate, chemical and mechanical lysis, and magnetic bead-based DNA purification. The extracted DNA was tested by adapting a previously validated qPCR for fecal samples, and the results were compared with culture and histopathology results of the corresponding tissues. The MAP tissue qPCR confirmed infection in the majority of sheep with gross lesions on postmortem (37/38). Likewise, almost all tissue culture (61/64) or histopathology (52/58) positives were detected with good to moderate agreement (Cohen's kappa statistic) and no significant difference to the reference tests (McNemar's Chi-square test). Higher MAP DNA quantities corresponded to animals with more severe histopathology (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.60, 2.07). Culture-independent strain typing on tissue DNA was successfully performed. This MAP tissue qPCR method had a sensitivity equivalent to the reference tests and is thus a viable replacement for gross- and histopathological examination of tissue samples in abattoirs. In addition, the test could be validated for testing tissue samples intended for human consumption.
Song, Jong Woon; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ji Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Kwon, O Jung
The purpose of our study was to analyze the high-resolution CT findings of the nodular bronchiectatic form of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) pulmonary disease and to correlate the extent of high-resolution CT findings with pulmonary function test (PFT) results. From January 2005 through December 2005, we identified 47 patients (mean age, 58 +/- 13 years; age range, 24-72 years; male-female ratio, 11:36) with the nodular bronchiectatic form of MAC pulmonary disease who underwent both high-resolution CT and PFTs. High-resolution CT findings were reviewed retrospectively in terms of the presence and extent of bronchiectasis, cellular or inflammatory bronchiolitis (centrilobular small nodules and tree-in-bud signs), cavity, nodule, and other findings. The extent of the abnormalities seen on high-resolution CT was scored by modifying the cystic fibrosis scoring system proposed by Helbich and coworkers. The scores were correlated with PFT results using Spearman's correlation coefficient. On high-resolution CT, the three most frequently observed patterns of parenchymal abnormalities were, in decreasing order of frequency, cellular bronchiolitis (n = 47, 100%), bronchiectasis (n = 46, 98%), and consolidation (n = 27, 57%). The total CT score showed a significant correlation with the residual volume-total lung capacity (RV/TLC) ratio (r = 0.572, p forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) value (r = -0.426, p = 0.003), forced vital capacity (FVC) value (r = -0.360, p = 0.013), peak expiratory flow value (r = -0.352, p = 0.015), and peak expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) (r = -0.289, p = 0.049). CT scoring of pulmonary abnormalities correlates with measures of functional impairment in patients with MAC pulmonary disease.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung disease (LD due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. RESULTS: There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM, 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in cattle. To gain a better understanding of MAP virulence, we investigated the role of leuD gene in MAP metabolism and stress response. For this, we have constructed an auxotrophic strain of MAP by deleting the leuD gene using allelic exchange. The wildtype and mutant strains were then compared for metabolic phenotypic changes using Biolog phenotype microarrays. The responses of both strains to physiologically relevant stress conditions were assessed using DNA microarrays. Transcriptomic data was then analyzed in the context of cellular metabolic pathways and gene networks. Our results showed that deletion of leuD gene has a global effect on both MAP phenotypic and transcriptome response. At the metabolic level, the mutant strain lost the ability to utilize most of the carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nutrient supplements as energy source. At the transcriptome level, more than 100 genes were differentially expressed in each of the stress condition tested. Systems level network analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were distributed throughout the gene network, thus explaining the global impact of leuD deletion in metabolic phenotype. Further, we find that leuD deletion impacted metabolic pathways associated with fatty acids. We verified this by experimentally estimating the total fatty acid content of both mutant and wildtype. The mutant strain had 30% less fatty acid content when compared to wildtype, thus supporting the results from transcriptional and computational analyses. Our results therefore reveal the intricate connection between the metabolism and virulence in MAP.
Acharya, Kamal R; Dhand, Navneet K; Whittington, Richard J; Plain, Karren M
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been implicated in Crohn's disease in humans resulting in public concern over the presence of MAP in powdered infant formula, which could contribute towards early human exposure to MAP or MAP components. Testing of representative powdered infant formula samples using effective tests is required to provide information on contamination of infant formula with MAP, so that consumers can make informed decisions. This study aimed to test representative powdered infant formula samples for the presence of MAP using a quantitative PCR and liquid culture method. For this purpose, an efficient DNA extraction method was developed and an optimum decontamination protocol for culture method was identified. A total of 122 powdered infant formula samples were tested, comprising 72 brands produced by 12 manufacturers from 9 countries. Powdered infant formula samples were reconstituted and centrifuged to separate the casein pellet, cream layer and whey fraction. A sensitive qPCR test was performed on DNA extracted from the casein pellet. In addition, the cream layer and casein pellet were cultured in liquid media, following decontamination with the optimum protocol. Of the 122 samples tested, 6 were positive for MAP DNA but none were positive for growth in culture at 12 and 20 weeks. The limit of detection of the quantitative PCR was less than 5 MAP organisms per 1.5g milk powder. The methods developed in the study could be used for quality assurance testing for infant formula and calf milk replacers. The low contamination level of MAP and absence of viable forms in our study suggests a relatively low risk of exposure of infants to MAP components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus, bison (Bison bison and caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into the milk of cattle affected by Johne’s disease and, therefore, is a route of transmission for infection in youngstock in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to validate a decontamination and culture protocol for the recovery of ...
Evaluation of two absorbed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a complement fixation test as replacements for fecal culture in the detection of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Kalis, CHJ; Hesselink, JW; van Maanen, C; Collins, MT; Barkema, H.W.
Control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds is based on preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) from cows to calves by management measures, supported by removal of cows excreting these bacteria by the fecal route (Mptb shedders). Fecal culture is the most
Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M
Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.
Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.
Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541
Yagupsky, P; Menegus, M A
We examined the occurrence of low-grade Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare bacteremia and Cryptococcus neoformans fungemia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the consistency of positive cultures obtained using a sensitive blood culture system (Isolator, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours, Wilmington, Del) for the recovery of these organisms. The blood culture records were reviewed, and the proportion of positive blood cultures yielding less than 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter of M avium-intracellulare or C neoformans was calculated. To determine consistency, a period of potentially detectable septicemia was defined as the period between 1 week before the first positive blood culture and the last positive blood culture, providing consecutive positive blood cultures were separated by less than 2 weeks. All positive and negative blood cultures obtained during the period of potentially detectable septicemia were considered in the data analysis. Overall, 40 (16.9%) of 236 cultures positive for M avium-intracellulare and 36 (57.1%) of 63 for C neoformans yielded less than 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter. Mycobacteremia was detected in 52 of 57 periods of potentially detectable septicemia in the first culture and in 56 of 57 in the first two (cumulative detection rates of 91.2% and 98.2%, respectively). Cryptococcemia was detected in 12 of 17 periods of potentially detectable septicemia in the first culture and in 15 of 17 in the first two (cumulative detection rates of 70.6% and 88.2%, respectively). Because of the sensitivity of the blood culture system and the consistency of M avium-intracellulare bacteremia and C neoformans fungemia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, it appears that two blood cultures are sufficient for the detection of most septic episodes caused by these organisms.
Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J
Serum antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is the most commonly used test for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ruminants. However, the assay requires serum preabsorption with Mycobacterium phlei proteins to reduce cross reactions potentially contributed by the exposure of livestock to environmental mycobacteria. To trial the discovery of novel antigens which do not require serum absorption, synthetic MAP-specific peptides were selected based on in silico research to identify putative B cell epitopes. Four peptides from previously identified stress-regulated proteins were synthesized and evaluated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep. Two peptides were from hypothetical MAP proteins (MAP3567 and MAP1168c) and two were from proteins with known function (MAP2698c, an acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase-DesA2 and MAP2487c a carbonic anhydrase). The ability of each peptide to discriminate between unexposed and MAP exposed (infected and vaccinated) animals was similar to that of the parent recombinant MAP antigen, with area under receiver operating curve values of 0.86-0.93. Assays run with a combination of two peptides showed slightly higher reactivity than those of individual peptides. Peptides evaluated in this study had diagnostic potential similar to corresponding recombinant proteins but not superior to a complex native MAP antigen or a commercial assay. Further study is required to investigate other peptides for their diagnostic potential, and this may be simpler and cheaper than subunit protein-based research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deshpande, Devyani; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Gumbo, Tawanda
Mycobacterium aviumcomplex is now the leading mycobacterial cause of chronic pneumonia in the United States. Macrolides and ethambutol form the backbone of the regimen used in the treatment of pulmonary disease. However, therapy outcomes remain poor, with microbial cure rates of 4% in cavitary disease. The treatment dose of azithromycin has mostly been borrowed from that used to treat other bacterial pneumonias; there are no formal dose-response studies in pulmonaryM. aviumdisease and the optimal dose is unclear. We utilized population pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics-derived azithromycin exposures associated with optimal microbial kill or resistance suppression to perform 10,000 patient Monte Carlo simulations of dose effect studies for daily azithromycin doses of 0.5 to 10 g. The currently recommended dose of 500 mg per day achieved the target exposures in 0% of patients. Exposures associated with optimal kill and resistance suppression were achieved in 87 and 54% of patients, respectively, only by the very high dose of 8 g per day. The azithromycin susceptibility breakpoint above which patients failed therapy on the very high doses of 8 g per day was an MIC of 16 mg/liter, suggesting a critical concentration of 32 mg/liter, which is 8-fold lower than the currently used susceptibility breakpoint of 256 mg/liter. If the standard dose of 500 mg a day were used, then the critical concentration would fall to 2 mg/liter, 128-fold lower than 256 mg/liter. The misclassification of resistant isolates as susceptible could explain the high failure rates of current doses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Timms, Verlaine J; Mitchell, Hazel M; Neilan, Brett A
The aim of this study was to investigate DNA extraction methods and PCR assays suitable for the detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in bovine tissue. The majority of methods currently used to detect M. paratuberculosis have been developed using bovine samples, such as faeces, blood or tissue and, in many cases, have been based on detection from pooled samples from a herd. However most studies have not compared PCR results to culture results. In order to address this problem, four DNA extraction protocols and three PCR assays were employed to detect M. paratuberculosis in bovine tissue. Given that culture is reliable from cows, the results were then compared with the known M. paratuberculosis culture status. The following DNA extractions were included, two commercial kits, a boiling method, an in house extraction based on a published method and enrichment by sonication. The three PCR assays used included single round IS900 and f57 assays and a nested IS900 assay. In addition, another PCR assay was validated for the detection of any Mycobacterial species and a universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene assay was used to detect sample inhibition. The in-house DNA extraction was the most consistent in extracting good quality DNA compared to all other methods. The use of two PCR markers, IS900 and f57, and a universal PCR enabled the correct samples to be identified as M. paratuberculosis positive. In addition, when compared to the culture result, false-positives did not occur and PCR inhibition was readily identified. Using an in house DNA extraction coupled with the IS900 and f57 PCR markers, this study provides a reliable and simple method to detect M. paratuberculosis in both veterinary and spill over infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Syed M Faisal
Full Text Available Johnes disease (JD, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP, occurs worldwide as chronic granulomatous enteritis of domestic and wild ruminants. To develop a cost effective vaccine, in a previous study we constructed an attenuated Salmonella strain that expressed a fusion product made up of partial fragments of MAP antigens (Ag85A, Ag85B and SOD that imparted protection against challenge in a mouse model. In the current study we evaluated the differential immune response and protective efficacy of the Sal-Ag vaccine against challenge in a goat model as compared to the live attenuated vaccine MAP316F. PBMCs from goats vaccinated with Sal-Ag and challenged with MAP generated significantly lower levels of IFN-γ, following in vitro stimulation with either Antigen-mix or PPD jhonin, than PBMC from MAP316F vaccinated animals. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase in IFN-γ correlated with a significantly higher level of proliferation of CD4, CD8 and γδT cells and an increased expression of CD25 and CD45R0 in MAP316F vaccinated animals as compared to control animals. Evaluation of a range of cytokines involved in Th1, Th2, Treg, and Th17 immune responses by quantitative PCR showed low levels of expression of Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12 and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-α in the Sal-Ag immunized group. Significant levels of Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokines transcripts (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, TGF-β were expressed but their level was low and with a pattern similar to the control group. Over all, Sal-Ag vaccine imparted partial protection that limited colonization in tissues of some animals upon challenge with wild type MAP but not to the level achieved with MAP316F. In conclusion, the data indicates that Sal-Ag vaccine induced only a low level of protective immunity that failed to limit the colonization of MAP in infected animals. Hence the Sal-Ag vaccine needs further refinement to increase its efficacy.
Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models
Dernivoix, Kathy; Roupie, Virginie; Welby, Sarah; Roelandt, Sophie; Viart, Sophie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Wattiez, Ruddy; Huygen, Kris; Govaerts, Marc
Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteritis which primarily affects domestic and wild ruminants, resulting in serious economic losses for dairy and beef industry around the world. There is no satisfactory cure or vaccine, and actual diagnostic tests need improvement, particularly for the initial stages of the disease. Map specific cell-mediated immune responses may allow early detection of the infection at subclinical stages. In this study, over a period of 39 months, we collected 548 blood samples in two culture-confirmed Map-infected herds, 95 blood samples in five dairy herds that scored negative during 3 consecutive years of Map serology testing and 79 samples in three culture-confirmed M. bovis infected herds. Based on criteria of bacteriology, serology and ratio of IFN-γ induced with bovine and avian purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD-B/PPD-A), we classified the samples in four groups: 415 samples as Map-exposed/infected (MAP), 58 samples as aspecific reactors (AR), 179 samples as non-responders (NI) and 70 samples as M. bovis infected (TB). Age of the animals influenced the IFN-γ response in the MAP group, with PPD specific IFN-γ levels (but not PPD-B/PPD-A IFN-γ ratio) being significantly higher in animals 18 months old, Ag5 and MAP0388 were recognized by only 10.1% and 7.7% of the animals in the MAP group, whereas a total of 38.6.%, 29.4%, 25.6% and 39.0% of the animals in the MAP group reacted to Ag6, MAP1637c, MAP3547c and MAP0586c respectively. None of the animals in the TB group reacted to Ag6, MAP1637c or MAP586c. Except for MAP0388, the % of reactors in the MAP group was significantly higher in animals <18 months old: 28.0%, 24.0%, 45.5%, 47.1%, 49.8% and 47.4% respectively. Further studies of these candidates and their combination are needed to confirm their diagnostic potential for the detection of early Map infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
G. S. Abdellrazeq
Full Text Available Background: Johne's disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP represents a real threat to the agriculture and dairy food industries and believed to be a potential public health problem. Signs of infection in ruminant include weight loss, diarrhea, decreased milk production, and eventually death. The definition of an infected animal based either on the presence of anti-MAP antibodies, or positive bacterial culture. No treatment for the disease exists and controlling the disease is difficult due to its long latent period. JD is a worldwide problem and multiple studies in many countries have been carried out to determine the prevalence of MAP infections. Although some primary non intensive studies confirm presence of JD in Egypt, the disease is currently neglected by the official Egyptian veterinary agencies. There is no official data, no national control program, and no used vaccine. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate three conventional diagnostic methods for MAP under the Egyptian circumstances with a general aim to determine the appropriate strategy to develop a JD control program. These methods were pooled fecal culture, humoral response and insertion sequence IS900 targets polymerase chain reaction (IS900 PCR. Materials and Methods: Fecal and serum samples (500 each were collected from Holstein-Friesian cattle and buffaloes housed in five Egyptian governorates. Fecal samples were examined for MAP on the basis of a strategic pooling procedure and performed on Herrold's Egg Yolk Agar Medium (HEYM. Smears were prepared from developed colonies and stained using a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN technique. The identity of developed colonies was further confirmed by PCR analysis of IS900 sequence. Sera from both culture-positive and culture-negative animals were evaluated individually for humoral response. Results: Out of 50 pooled specimens, 34 (68% fecal cultures were positive for MAP. Serum positive samples of culture
Verdugo, Cristobal; Pleydell, Eve; Price-Carter, Marian; Prattley, Deborah; Collins, Desmond; de Lisle, Geoffrey; Vogue, Hinrich; Wilson, Peter; Heuer, Cord
The present study aimed to describe the molecular diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates obtained from sheep, cattle (beef and dairy) and deer farms in New Zealand. A total of 206 independent MAP isolates (15 beef cattle, 89 dairy cattle, 35 deer, 67 sheep) were sourced from 172 species-mobs (15 beef cattle, 66 dairy cattle, 31 deer, 60 sheep). Seventeen subtypes were identified, using a combination of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and short sequence repeat (SSR) methods. Rarefaction analysis, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), Fst pairwise comparisons and proportional similarity index (PSI) were used to describe subtype population richness, genetic structure and potential associations between livestock sectors and New Zealand two main islands (North and South). The rarefaction analysis suggests a significantly higher subtype richness in dairy cattle herds when compared to the other livestock sectors. AMOVA results indicate that the main source of subtype variation is attributable to the livestock sector from which samples were sourced suggesting that subtypes are generally sector-specific. The pairwise Fst results were similar, with low Fst values for island differences within a livestock sector when compared to between sector analyses, representing a low subtype differentiation between islands. However, for a given island, potential associations were seen between dominant subtypes and specific livestock sectors. Three subtypes accounted for 76% of the isolates. The most common of these was isolated from sheep and beef cattle in the North Island, the second most frequent subtype was mainly isolated from dairy cattle (either island), while the third most common subtype was associated with deer farmed in the South Island. The PSI analysis suggests similarities in subtypes sourced from sheep and beef cattle. This contrasted with the isolates sourced from other livestock sectors, which tended to present sector
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, an intestinal disease of ruminants with major economic consequences. Infectious bacilli are phagocytosed by host macrophages upon exposure where they persist, resulting in lengthy subclinical phases of infection that can lead to immunopathology and disease dissemination. Consequently, analysis of the macrophage transcriptome in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection can provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie Johne’s disease. Here, we investigate pan-genomic gene expression in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) purified from seven age-matched females, in response to in vitro infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (multiplicity of infection 2:1) at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-infection (hpi). Differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of the infected MDM to the non-infected control MDM at each time point (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.10). 1050 differentially expressed unique genes were identified 2 hpi, with 974 and 78 differentially expressed unique genes detected 6 and 24 hpi, respectively. Furthermore, in the infected MDM the number of upregulated genes exceeded the number of downregulated genes at each time point, with the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Inspection and systems biology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed an enrichment of genes involved in the inflammatory response, cell signalling pathways and apoptosis. The transcriptional changes associated with cellular signalling and the inflammatory response may reflect different immuno-modulatory mechanisms that underlie host-pathogen interactions during infection. PMID:22455317
Khalifeh, M. S.
CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) have costimulatory effects as part of a complex series of events in host immunity. In this study, the expression of CD40 and CD40L on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from cattle with Johne's disease were measured on freshly isolated PBMCs and on cells cultured for 8, 24, and 72 h in the presence or absence of live Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and exogenous gamma interferon, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β. Results demonstrated greater CD40 and CD40L expression on fresh PBMCs obtained from animals in the clinical stage of disease (symptomatic) than those from healthy control animals or cows in the subclinical stage of disease (asymptomatic). A similar expression profile with greater magnitude was noted for cultured PBMCs, with increased CD40 expression after 8 and 24 h of culture and increased CD40L expression between 24 and 72 h on PBMCs obtained from clinically infected animals. The addition of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to cell cultures resulted in downregulation of CD40L expression in naturally infected cows, regardless of the disease stage. In contrast, the addition of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to cultures resulted in upregulation of CD40 expression on cells obtained from clinically infected animals, while a decrease in expression was noted for healthy and subclinically infected cows. No effects of exogenous cytokines on CD40 or CD40L expression were observed. These results clearly point for the first time to a disparity in the expression of these costimulatory molecules on immune cells from cattle in different stages of Johne's disease and suggest further investigation into their roles in paratuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:23761659
de Juan, Lucía; Álvarez, Julio; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas
Culture is considered the definitive technique for Johne's disease diagnosis, and it is essential for later applications of certain molecular typing techniques. In this study, we have tested four solid media (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEYM] with sodium pyruvate and mycobactin [HEYMm-SP], HEYM with mycobactin and without sodium pyruvate [HEYMm], Middlebrook 7H11 with mycobactin [Mm], and Löwenstein-Jensen with mycobactin [LJm]) for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains in 319 tissue samples from cattle herds and goat flocks. We have shown that each of the two main groups of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (type II and type I/III) has different requirements for growth in the culture media studied. The recommended solid media for isolation of type I/III strains are LJm and Mm, since the combination of both media allowed the recovery of all these strains. The most widespread culture medium, HEYM, is not suitable for the isolation of this group of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Regarding the type II strains, HEYMm-SP was the medium where more strains were isolated, but the other three media are also needed in order to recover all type II strains. The incubation period is also related to the strain type. In conclusion, because the type of strain cannot be known in advance of culture, coupled with the fact that cattle and goats can be infected with both groups of strains, we recommend the use of the four solid media and the prolongation of the incubation period to more than 6 months to detect paratuberculous herds/flocks and to determine the true prevalence of the infection. PMID:16957212
Lee, Su Jung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Kang, Tae Heung; Han, Hee Dong; Shin, Sung Jae; Soh, Byoung Yul; Park, Jung Hee; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Park, Won Sun; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min
In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAP1305-treated DCs transform naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus indicating a key role for this protein in the Th1 polarization of the resulting immune response. Taken together, M. avium subsp. Paratuberculosis MAP1305 is important for the regulation of innate immune response through DC-mediated proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(2): 115-120] PMID:24393523
Full Text Available Lipoarabinomannan (LAM is a major glycolipidic antigen on the mycobacterial envelope. The aim of this study was to characterize the humoral immune response induced by immunization with a LAM extract in bovines and to evaluate the role of the generated antibodies in the in vitro infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Sera from fourteen calves immunized with LAM extract or PBS emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and from five paratuberculosis-infected bovines were studied. LAM-immunized calves developed specific antibodies with IgG1 as the predominant isotype. Serum immunoglobulins were isolated and their effect was examined in MAP ingestion and viability assays using a bovine macrophage cell line. Our results show that the antibodies generated by LAM immunization significantly increase MAP ingestion and reduce its intracellular viability, suggesting an active role in this model.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.
Susceptibility to paratuberculosis infection in cattle is associated withsingle nucleotide polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 2 which modulate immune responses against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
Koets, A; Santema, W; Oostenriik, D
Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal infection in ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). To study the role of host genetics in disease susceptibility, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene, selected based on its potential role in immunity to mycobacterial...... infections, was analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and their potential association with disease. For SNP discovery and to study SNP association with disease, a case-control study including 24 cows from farms with paratuberculosis was conducted. Sequence analysis of the TLR2 genes from 12...... paratuberculosis-infected animals and 12 age-matched healthy herd mates revealed 21 different SNP. The TLR2-1903 T/C SNP was significantly associated with resistance to Map. This and four additional TLR2 SNP were studied in a subsequent observational field study with 553 cows from farms with paratuberculosis...
Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; de Silva, Kumudika; Plain, Karren M; J Whittington, Richard
Mycobacteria have a complex cell wall with a high lipid content that confers unique advantages for bacterial survival in the hostile host environment, leading to long-term infection. There is a wealth of evidence suggesting the role cell wall-associated lipid antigens play at the host-pathogen interface by contributing to bacterial virulence. One pathway that pathogenic mycobacteria use to subvert host immune pathways to their advantage is host cholesterol/lipid homeostasis. This review focuses on the possible role of pathogen- and host-associated lipids in the survival and persistence of pathogenic mycobacteria with emphasis on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We draw upon literature in diverse areas of infectious and metabolic diseases and explain a mechanism by which mycobacterial-induced changes in the host cellular energy state could account for phenomena that are a hallmark of chronic mycobacterial diseases.
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were...... Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were...... then combined with the ELISA reading on the BTM test-date closest to the cow-level test-date. A mixed-effect analysis of covariance with autoregressive type 1 correlation structure was carried out using the log-transformed BTM-ELISA results as outcome. This model was used to assess the correlation between...
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...
Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cardoso, Marcos S; Silva, Tânia M; Resende, Mariana; Appelberg, Rui; Borges, Margarida
The establishment of mycobacterial infection is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are well-organized aggregates of immune cells, namely, infected macrophages. The granuloma's main function is to constrain and prevent dissemination of the mycobacteria while focusing the immune response to a limited area. In some cases these lesions can grow progressively into large granulomas which can undergo central necrosis, thereby leading to their caseation. Macrophages are the most abundant cells present in the granuloma and are known to adapt under hypoxic conditions in order to avoid cell death. Our laboratory has developed a granuloma necrosis model that mimics the human pathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using C57BL/6 mice infected intravenously with a low dose of a highly virulent strain of Mycobacterium avium. In this work, a mouse strain deleted of the hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under the Cre-lox system regulated by the lysozyme M gene promoter was used to determine the relevance of HIF-1α in the caseation of granulomas. The genetic ablation of HIF-1α in the myeloid lineage causes the earlier emergence of granuloma necrosis and clearly induces an impairment of the resistance against M. avium infection coincident with the emergence of necrosis. The data provide evidence that granulomas become hypoxic before undergoing necrosis through the analysis of vascularization and quantification of HIF-1α in a necrotizing mouse model. Our results show that interfering with macrophage adaptation to hypoxia, such as through HIF-1α inactivation, accelerates granuloma necrosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R
Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Obtención y evaluación de un derivado proteico purificado de una cepa argentina de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Production and evaluation of a purified protein derivative from an Argentine strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP
Full Text Available Los derivados proteicos purificados (PPD son mezclas antigénicas no definidas obtenidas de distintas micobacterias. Los PPD bovino (PPDb y PPD aviar (PPDa son los antígenos que se emplean para evaluar la respuesta inmunitaria celular en infecciones como tuberculosis y paratuberculosis en el bovino. El PPDa comercial se produce a partir de Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, y no a partir de la subespecie paratuberculosis. En este trabajo se seleccionó una cepa local de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cuyo patrón molecular por RFLP es el más frecuente entre los aislamientos de nuestro país que han sido estudiados, y a partir de esta, se obtuvo un derivado proteico purificado: PPDj-IB. Se emplearon tanto el PPDa comercial como el PPDj-IB como antígenos en la prueba de liberación de gamma-interferón en animales de un tambo con paratuberculosis y en animales control. Aun cuando ambos PPD fueron capaces de estimular diferencialmente la liberación de la citoquina en el tambo infectado (respecto de los tambos control, no hubo diferencias significativas en los niveles de estimulación producidos y solo dos animales fueron positivos mediante el empleo de PPDj-IB. A partir del análisis por Western blot se demostró que el contenido de lipoarabinomano y del antígeno Apa/ModD era distinto en los PDD evaluados. Estas diferencias podrían explicar, en parte, las diferencias en los niveles de estimulación en términos individuales. Si bien el empleo de PPDj-IB no mejoró significativamente los resultados de la prueba de liberación de ?IFN, es importante destacar que se logró producir en el laboratorio un PPD apto para su empleo en ensayos in vitro.Purified Protein Derivatives (PPDs are non-defined antigens prepared from mycobacteria cultures. They are usually employed to evaluate the specific cellular immune response both in animals and humans. Bovine and avian PPDs are usually employed as antigens in mycobacterial infections such as
Recent studies have identified in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) a potential zoonotic agent in the development of some autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, it is necessary a thorough understanding of Map's gene expression during infection of human host as well as the identification of its immunogenic and/or virulence factors for the development of appropriate diagnostic or therapeutic tools. In order to characterize Map's transcriptome during the infection of human mac...
Full Text Available Existe poca información sobre la presencia del complejo Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAC en el Perú. Se describen cinco casos de infección por MAC en pacientes con VIH/SIDA del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima-Perú. Los pacientes presentaron, principalmente, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica, síndrome consuntivo, pancitopenia y citofagocitosis. En todos ellos se identificó bacilos acido-alcohol resistentes en heces, por lo que recibieron tratamiento antituberculoso. El cultivo de heces fue negativo para Mycobacterium tuberculosis y, posteriormente, en todos se identificó a MAC mediante una prueba molecular (Genotype en el cultivo de heces. Tres pacientes recibieron tratamiento para MAC luego de la identificación; sin embargo, todos fallecieron. Ante presentaciones similares a lo reportado, se sugiere el uso de métodos de mayor rendimiento (hemocultivo, mielocultivo, pruebas moleculares, así como asociar tempranamente drogas con actividad para MAC al esquema antituberculoso con la intención de mejorar el pronóstico de este grupo de pacientes.
Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Plain, Karren M; de Silva, Kumudika; Begg, Douglas; Whittington, Richard J; Purdie, Auriol C
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic disease affecting ruminants and other species caused by the pathogenic mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP has developed a multitude of mechanisms to persist within the host, and these in turn are counteracted by the host through various immune pathways. Identifying and characterising the different strategies employed by MAP to alter the host immune system in its favour, and thereby persist intracellularly, could hold the key to developing strategies to fight this disease. In this study we analysed a subset of bovine microarray data derived from early time points after experimental infection with MAP. A specifically developed integrated approach was used to identify and validate host genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis (24DHCR, LDLR, SCD-1), calcium homeostasis and anti-bacterial defence mechanisms, (CD38, GIMAP6) which were downregulated in response to MAP exposure. A trend for upregulation of granulysin gene expression in MAP-exposed cattle in comparison to unexposed cattle was also observed. From these analyses, a model of potential pathogen-host interactions involving these novel pathways was developed which indicates an important role for host lipids in mycobacterial survival and persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Nguyen, Thi Kim Anh; Michel, Anita; Cooper, Dave; Govaerts, Marc; Cheng, Tan-Yun; van Eden, Willem; Moody, D. Branch; Coetzer, Jacobus A. W.; Rutten, Victor; Koets, Ad P.
Although CD1 proteins are known to present mycobacterial lipid antigens to T cells, there is little understanding of the in vivo behavior of T cells restricted by CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, and the relative immunogenicity and immunodominance of individual lipids within the total array of lipids that comprise a bacterium. Because bovines express multiple CD1 proteins and are natural hosts of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), we used them as a new animal model of CD1 function. Here, we report the surprisingly divergent responses against lipids produced by these two pathogens during infection. Despite considerable overlap in lipid content, only three out of 69 animals cross-react with M. bovis and MAP total lipid preparations. The unidentified immunodominant compound of M. bovis is a hydrophilic compound, whereas the immunodominant lipid of MAP is presented by CD1b and was identified as glucose monomycolate (GMM). The preferential recognition of GMM antigen by MAP-infected cattle may be explained by the higher expression of GMM by MAP than by M. bovis. The bacterial species-specific nature of the CD1-restricted, adaptive T-cell response affects the approach to development of lipid based immunodiagnostic tests. PMID:19688747
... TREATED? The MAC bacteria can mutate and develop resistance to some of the drugs used to fight it. Health care providers use a combination of antibacterial drugs (antibiotics) to treat MAC. At least two ...
Gioffré, A; Echeverría-Valencia, G; Arese, A; Morsella, C; Garbaccio, S; Delgado, F; Zumárraga, M; Paolicchi, F; Cataldi, A; Romano, M I
Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is widespread in almost all countries and remains difficult to eradicate. Nowadays, diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MPTB) infection is one of the main concerns. In this work, we evaluated the expression, biochemical properties and antigenicity of the Apa antigen, encoded by the gene annotated as MAP1569, in the MPTB genome. We confirmed its expression in MPTB and its glycosylation by the ConA binding assay. Although the MPTB-Apa is not an immunodominant antigen, MPTB-infected cattle showed a strong humoral response to recombinant Apa by Western blot and ELISA. Milk was also a suitable sample to be tested by ELISA. We comparatively analysed the humoral cross-reactivity to the Apa from MPTB (MPTB-Apa) and the orthologue from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT-Apa, identical to that from Mycobacterium bovis) in both infected and control cows. Response of M. bovis- and MPTB-infected animals against MT-Apa was similar (P=0.6985) but the response of the M. bovis-infected ones to MPTB-Apa was differential, being significantly diminished (PApa stimulation in the IFNgamma release assay, we found no significant differences when compared infected herds with non-infected ones (P=0.34). This antigen, in contrast to bovine Purified Protein Derivative (PPDb), was strongly represented in avian PPD (PPDa), as shown by the recognition of BALB/c mice hyperimmune sera against MPTB-Apa by Dot-blot immunoassay. We therefore demonstrated the antigenicity of Apa in MPTB-infected animals and a differential response to the recombinant antigen when compared to M. bovis-infected animals. These traits herein described, added to the usefulness of milk samples to detect IgG anti-Apa, could be important for routine screening in dairy cattle, considering a multiantigenic approach to overcome the lack of immunodominance.
Foddai, A C G; Grant, I R
To validate an optimized peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay for detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk. Inclusivity, specificity and limit of detection 50% (LOD50 ) of the optimized PMS-phage assay were assessed. Plaques were obtained for all 43 MAP strains tested. Of 12 other Mycobacterium sp. tested, only Mycobacterium bovis BCG produced small numbers of plaques. LOD50 of the PMS-phage assay was 0·93 MAP cells per 50 ml milk, which was better than both PMS-qPCR and PMS-culture. When individual milks (n = 146) and bulk tank milk (BTM, n = 22) obtained from Johne's affected herds were tested by the PMS-phage assay, viable MAP were detected in 31 (21·2%) of 146 individual milks and 13 (59·1%) of 22 BTM, with MAP numbers detected ranging from 6-948 plaque-forming-units per 50 ml milk. PMS-qPCR and PMS-MGIT culture proved to be less sensitive tests than the PMS-phage assay. The optimized PMS-phage assay is the most sensitive and specific method available for the detection of viable MAP in milk. Further work is needed to streamline the PMS-phage assay, because the assay's multistep format currently makes it unsuitable for adoption by the dairy industry as a screening test. The inclusivity (ability to detect all MAP strains), specificity (ability to detect only MAP) and detection sensitivity (ability to detect low numbers of MAP) of the optimized PMS-phage assay have been comprehensively demonstrated for the first time. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Kasnitz, Nadine; Köhler, Heike; Weigoldt, Mathias; Gerlach, Gerald F; Möbius, Petra
Mycobacterium (M.) avium subsp. paratuberculosis - the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) - affects domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. Recently, different typing techniques have been combined to provide sufficient discriminatory power for the differentiation of isolates and for epidemiological studies. In order to challenge the reliability of this approach the stability of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes determined after primary isolation was investigated after sub-cultivation on six different media (A), twelve in vitro passages (B), or a singular in vivo passage (C). In addition, different isolates from a single animal or herd were investigated (D). Sub-cultures of type- and reference strains, re-isolated inoculation strain after in vivo passage, and 23 field isolates were genotyped by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number of tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR)-, short-sequence-repeat (SSR)-, and IS900-based restriction-fragment length-polymorphism (IS900-RFLP)-analyses and compared with initial genotypes. MIRU-VNTR-alleles (at loci 292, X3, 25, 47, 7, and 32) were stable after in vitro cultivations and after animal passage. Results of SSR analysis at Locus 1 with 7G nucleotides and at Loci 8 and 9 (tri-nucleotides) were also stable. At Locus 2 9G repeats changed into 10G after goat passage. After in vitro subculture (A+B) but not after animal passage (C) IS900-RFLP-typing revealed changes of BstEII-patterns for 3 of 23 strains (including ATCC 19698). Multiple isolates from individual animals or from a single cattle herd with natural infection (D) which exhibited identical IS900-RFLP- and MIRU-VNTR- genotypes, showed different G repeat numbers at SSR locus 2. This implies strand slippage events during chromosomal duplication of bacteria in the course of bacterial spreading within hosts and herds. Consequently, SSR-Locus 2 is not suitable as genome marker for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier
Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan
Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluores...
Marked Differences in Mucosal Immune Responses Induced in Ileal versus Jejunal Peyer’s Patches to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Secreted Proteins following Targeted Enteric Infection in Young Calves
Facciuolo, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip J.
In cattle, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection is primarily mediated through M cells overlying Peyer’s patches (PP) in the ileum. The capacity of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to invade ileal PP (IPP) versus discrete PP in the jejunum (JPP) and subsequent differences in mucosal immune responses were investigated. Intestinal segments were surgically prepared in both mid-jejunum, containing two JPPs, and in terminal small intestine containing continuous IPP. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (109 CFU) was injected into the lumen of half of each intestinal segment when calves were 10–14 days-old and infection confirmed 1–2 months later by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins, previously identified as immunogenic, were used to analyze pathogen-specific B- and T-cell responses in PP and mesenteric lymph nodes. IgA plasma cell responses to 9 of 13 recombinant proteins were detected in JPP but not in IPP. Secretory IgA reacting in ELISA with 9 of the 13 recombinant proteins was detected in luminal contents from both jejunal and ileal segments. These observations support the conclusion that pathogen-specific IgA B cells were induced in JPP but not IPP early after a primary infection. The presence of secretory IgA in intestinal contents is consistent with dissemination of IgA plasma cells from the identified mucosa-associated immune induction sites. This is the first direct evidence for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis uptake by bovine JPP and for local induction of pathogen-specific IgA plasma cell responses after enteric infection. We also provide evidence that bacterial invasion of IPP, a primary B lymphoid tissue, provides a novel strategy to evade induction of mucosal immune responses. Over 60% of PPs in the newborn calf small intestine is primary lymphoid tissue, which has significant implications when designing oral vaccines or diagnostic tests to detect early M. avium subsp
Full Text Available Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP on selected Irish dairy farms in the Cork region, and the association between these factors and the results of MAP screening tests on milk sock filter residue (MFR. A total of 59 dairy farms, selected using non-random methods but apparently free of endemic paratuberculosis, were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data about risk factors for MAP introduction and transmission. The MFR was assessed on six occasions over 24 months for the presence of MAP, using culture and immunomagnetic separation prior to polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR. Furthermore, blood samples from all entire male and female animals over one year of age in 20 herds were tested by ELISA. Eighteen (31% farms had operated as closed herds since 1994, 28 (47% had purchased from multiple sources and 14 (24% had either direct or indirect (progeny contact with imported animals. Milk and colostrum were mixed on 51% of farms, while 88% of farms fed pooled milk. Thirty (51% herds tested negative to MFR culture and IMS-PCR, 12 (20% were MFR culture positive, 26 (44% were IMS-PCR positive and seven (12% were both culture and IMS-PCR positive. The probability of a positive MFR culture was significantly associated with reduced attendance at calving, and with increased use of individual calf pens and increased (but not significantly if mulitiple suckling was practised. There was poor agreement between MFR culture and MFR IMS-PCR results, but moderate agreement
Salgado, M; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Badilla, X; Troncoso, E; Zambrano, A; González, M; Mitchell, R M; Collins, M T
Slurry from dairy farms is commonly used to fertilize crops and pastures. This mixture of manure, urine and water can harbor multiple microbial pathogens among which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major concern. Persistence of MAP in soil and infection of soil Acanthamoeba was evaluated by culture, real-time IS900 PCR, and by staining of amoeba with acid-fast and vital stains comparing soils irrigated with MAP-spiked or control dairy farm slurry. MAP DNA was detected in soil for the 8 month study duration. MAP was detected by PCR from more soil samples for plots receiving MAP-spiked slurry (n=61/66) than from soils receiving control slurry (n=10/66 samples). Vital stains verified that intracellular MAP in amoeba was viable. More MAP was found in amoeba at the end of the study than immediately after slurry application. There was no relationship between MAP presence in soil and in amoeba over time. Infection of amoeba by MAP provides a protected niche for the persistence and even possibly the replication of MAP in soils. As others have suggested, MAP-infected amoeba may act like a "Trojan horse" providing a means for persistence in soils and potentially a source of infection for grazing animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Florou, M; Leontides, L; Kostoulas, P; Billinis, C; Sofia, M; Kyriazakis, I; Lykotrafitis, F
This study aimed to: (1) investigate whether non-ruminant wildlife interfacing with dairy sheep and goats of four Greek flocks endemically infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) harboured MAP and (2) genetically compare the strains isolated from the wildlife to those isolated from the small ruminants of these flocks. We cultured and screened, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pooled-tissue samples from 327 wild animals of 11 species for the MAP-specific IS900 insertion sequence. We also cultured faecal samples from 100 sheep or goats from each of the four flocks. MAP was detected in samples from 11 sheep, 12 goats, two mice, two rats, a hare and a fox. Only one rat had histopathological findings. Genetic typing categorized 21 isolates as cattle-type strains and two, from a house mouse and a goat respectively, as sheep-type strains; this is the first report of a rodent harbouring a sheep-type strain. The MAP types that were most frequently isolated amongst the sheep and goats of each flock were also the ones isolated from sympatric rodents; those isolated from the fox and hare also belonged to the predominant ruminant strains.
Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Shoor Vir; Gupta, Saurabh; Singh, Manju; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Bhatia, Ashok Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep
This review underlines the public health significance of 'Indian Bison Type' of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and also its potential as 'zoonotic infection'. In the absence of control programs, bio-load of MAP is increasing and if we take total population of animals (500 million plus) and human beings (1.23 billion plus) into account, the number of infected animals and human beings will run into millions in India. Our research on screening of over 26,000 domestic livestock for MAP infection using 4 different diagnostic tests (microscopy, culture, ELISA and PCR), during last 31 years has shown that the average bio-load of MAP in the livestock population of India is very high (cattle 43%, buffaloes 36%, goats 23% and sheep 41%). 'Mass screening' of 28,291 human samples between 2008-2016 revealed also high bio-load of MAP. It has been proved that MAP is not in-activated during pasteurization and therefore live bacilli are continuously reaching human population by consumption of even pasteurized milk and other milk products. Live bacilli have also been recovered from meat products and the environment thus illustrating the potential of MAP as pathogen of public health concern. However, at present, there is inadequate scientific evidence to confirm a conclusive link between MAP infection and Johne's disease in ruminants and some cases of Crohn's disease in human beings.
Experimental infection of New Zealand Merino sheep with a suspension of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford: Kinetics of the immune response, histopathology and Map culture.
Dukkipati, Venkata S R; Ridler, Anne L; Thompson, Keith G; Buddle, Bryce M; Hedgespeth, Barry A; Price-Carter, Marian; Begg, Douglas J; Whittington, Richard J; Gicquel, Brigitte; Murray, Alan
A long-term study was undertaken to monitor immune responses, faecal cultures and clinical disease in sheep experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain Telford. New Zealand Merino lambs (N=56) were challenged with three oral doses of Map suspension. The lambs were weighed and faecal and blood samples obtained at different time-points. At 63 weeks post-challenge, surviving sheep were euthanised and samples of liver, ileo-caecal valve and mesenteric lymph node were collected for histopathology and Map culture. High IFN-γ and antibody responses were evident as early as 8 weeks post-C1 which persisted until the end of the trial. Approximately 92% of the sheep shed Map in faeces at 36 weeks post-challenge, with the prevalence decreasing to around 40% at the end of the trial. Thirteen sheep progressively lost weight and were euthanised between weeks 32 and 58 post-challenge. Nearly 58% of surviving sheep exhibited histo-pathological lesions in at least one of the three tissues sampled, while 42% showed acid-fast bacilli in at least one tissue. A positive Map culture in at least one tissue was obtained from approximately 85% of sheep. These results indicate that the three doses of Map challenge were highly effective in establishing Johne's disease in NZ Merino lambs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lavers, Carrie J; McKenna, Shawn L B; Dohoo, Ian R; Barkema, Herman W; Keefe, Greg P
This study evaluated test characteristics of environmental culture (EC) for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in 32 herds over a 2-year period. Individual fecal samples were collected every 6 mo and environmental samples every 3 mo. Individual fecal culture was performed on samples from positive pools. Samples were cultured in broth, with confirmatory polymerase chain reaction performed on positive fecal samples. Repeated measures were accounted for using GEE logistic models. Relative to a MAP herd-status based on all pooled fecal culture results collected during the study, sensitivity of a set of 6 EC-samples collected from prescribed locations within the herd environment (EC-6) was 71% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49% to 86%] and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 95% to 100%). Sensitivity of EC increased as apparent within-herd fecal culture prevalence (aWHP) increased. The estimated aWHP increased as the proportion of positive EC-samples within an EC-6 set increased. Environmental culture is an acceptable tool for herd diagnosis of MAP in low-prevalence herds.
Matsumura, Yoko; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Ouji-Sageshima, Noriko; Yasui, Satsuki; Mochida, Naoko; Nakano, Ryuichi; Kasahara, Kei; Tomoda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kayano, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Toshihiro
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cause opportunistic chronic pulmonary infections. Notably, MAC susceptibility is regulated by various factors, including the host immune system. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tannin is a condensed tannin composed of a polymer of catechin groups. It is well known that condensed tannins have high antioxidant activity and bacteriostatic properties. However, it is hypothesized that condensed tannins might need to be digested and/or fermented into smaller molecules in vivo prior to being absorbed into the body to perform beneficial functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of soluble persimmon-derived tannins on opportunistic MAC disease. Soluble tannins were hydrolyzed and evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC value of soluble tannin hydrolysate was approximately five times greater than that of soluble tannin powder. In addition, soluble tannin hydrolysate exhibited high bacteriostatic activity against MAC in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo study, MAC infected mice fed a soluble tannin-containing diet showed significantly higher anti-bacterial activity against MAC and less pulmonary granuloma formation compared with those fed a control diet. Tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly lower in lungs of the soluble tannin diet group compared with the control diet group. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines induced by MAC stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages were significantly decreased by addition of soluble tannin hydrolysate. These data suggest that soluble tannin from persimmons might attenuate the pathogenesis of pulmonary NTM infection.
Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boniface Okuni, Julius; Oyo, Tony; Kisekka, Magid; Ochwo, Sylvester; Kalenzi Atuhaire, David; Afayoa, Mathias; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an emerging pathogen in many livestock and wildlife populations around the world. Concerns range from the serious economic impacts on livestock productivity to its suspected role in the human inflammatory bowel disease syndrome. Milk and faeces of infected animals are the main vehicles through which the organism spreads from infected to susceptible hosts. In this study, a survey was done in Nakasongola and Sembabule districts of Uganda involving a total of seven dairy collection centres to determine the prevalence of antibodies to MAP in bulk milk samples. The milk was tested with a commercial ELISA kit for MAP testing in milk. Positive and suspicious milk samples were further tested using nested PCR. Of the 257 milk samples tested, 11 (4.3%) were positive and five (1.9%) were suspicious. All the ELISA positive and suspicious milk samples were positive using nested PCR. The results show that MAP infection occurs in cattle from the two districts and highlight the need for a paratuberculosis control program in these and other districts where MAP infection has been reported.
Sardaro, Ruggiero; Pieragostini, Elisa; Rubino, Giuseppe; Petazzi, Ferruccio
A recent study on paratubercolosis in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms in Apulia revealed a flock positivity of 60.5% and a seroprevalence of 3.0% for sheep and 14.5% for goat, with peaks of 50%. In such a context, providing detailed economic information is crucial for the implementation of a suitable control plan. In this paper we investigated the impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on profit efficiency of the Apulian dairy sheep and goat farms. Empirical results through a stochastic frontier model showed that the uninfected farms had a mean level of profit efficiency of 84%, which dropped to 64% in the presence of paratubercolosis as it negatively affected the productivity of feeding, veterinary and labour factors. Structural, managerial and production aspects were involved in the greater inefficiency of the infected farms compared to the uninfected ones: lower experience and schooling of farmers, no access to credit, fewer family members (women in particular) participating in the farming activities, high density of animals per hectare, small flocks, high number of goats in mixed flocks, no confinement practices for young and purchased animals and no pasture rotation. Hence, targeted interventions on these factors by decision makers can ensure effectiveness and efficiency to veterinary and economic action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multiple strain infections and high genotypic diversity among Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis field isolates from diseased wild and domestic ruminant species in the eastern Alpine region of Austria.
Gerritsmann, H; Stalder, G L; Spergser, J; Hoelzl, F; Deutz, A; Kuebber-Heiss, A; Walzer, C; Smith, S
Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic fatal ruminant gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) whose foodborne zoonotic potential and association with Crohn's disease are still under debate. The disease is widespread but its epidemiology and epizootiology remains elusive. Wildlife is suspected to play a major role. After a surge in MAP seroprevalence in Austrian cattle, paratuberculosis was declared a notifiable disease in Austria in 2006. At the same time a rise in MAP cases in wild ruminant populations in the Austrian province of Styria was reported. All five autochthonous ruminants were affected. Genetic analysis of isolates, yielded numerous genotypes (>15) and several multiple strain infections (15%) across host species. Identical MIRU-VNTR profiles were identified in different species and sampling locations. On the other hand varying MIRU-VNTR profiles were revealed at the same location and in conspecifics. Our data, taken together with earlier epidemiological studies on MAP and other mycobacteria, raised concerns about the organisms' ecology. Constraints regarding in vitro culture of this highly fastidious organism potentially bias our current understanding of its epidemiology. We suggest that MAP infections could be polyclonal and question the informative value of genotyping a single MAP colony derived from a single specimen for epidemiological analysis of MAP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shiono, Ayako; Egashira, Hiroshi; Kishi, Etsuko; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Minoru; Nagata, Makoto
The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause miscellaneous disorders in humans, especially in the lungs, which present with a variety of radiological features. To date, knowledge of the pathogenic role of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in the human lung and the definitive criteria for initiating multidrug therapy are still lacking. However, there is little doubt that clarithromycin is the most efficacious drug among the various treatment regimens for lung NTM. In this study, with the use of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA) probe a detection system based on a real-time PCR (BNA-PCR) for the identification of the point mutations at position 2058 or 2059 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for clarithromycin resistance was developed and has been assessed using MAC isolates from clinical samples. Out of 199 respiratory specimens, the drug susceptibility test demonstrated 12 strains resistant to clarithromycin, while the BNA-PCR showed 8 strains carrying the point mutation at position 2058 or 2059 of the 23S rRNA gene. This system revealed that there were mycobacterial strains resistant to clarithromycin which do not carry previously identified resistance genes. This paper documents a novel system for detecting clarithromycin-resistant strains and demonstrates that although these mutations are tacitly assumed to account for >90% of the reported resistant mutants, there is a significant fraction of resistant mutants that do not harbor these mutations. Therefore, unknown mechanisms affecting clarithromycin resistance remain to be elucidated. PMID:26739154
Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, Kevin W; Kurkure, Paresh C; Brashears, Mindy M
The gut immune system is complex, and dysregulation leads to a number of disorders including inflammatory bowel syndrome and (in livestock) Johne's disease. Previous work has demonstrated that males and females respond differently to treatment with pathologic and probiotic microorganisms, suggesting that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to treat GIT inflammation may be inadequate. While we had observed significant differences between males and females in terms of cytokine production, it remains unclear how these changes occur. To better understand the mechanisms, transcript expression of genes important to gut immunoregulation were monitored from male and female BALB/c mice consuming the probiotic Lactobacillus animalis (1 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) ) and infected with the gut pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (1 × 10(7) CFU). Expression of transcripts analyzed included those important to the immune system, intestinal cell differentiation, and/or regulation. Males generally displayed increased expression of Th 2 and B-cell mediators, and females showed repressed cytokine expression after MAP infection (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 among others). Additionally, regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in female mice consuming probiotics suggests females responded positively to L. animalis when compared to males. Therefore, we speculate that studying mechanistic changes associated with sex and immunoregulation in gastrointestinal tissues could further elucidate host response to microorganisms. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mameli, Giuseppe; Cossu, Davide; Caggiu, Elisa; Arru, Giannina; Niegowska, Magdalena; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A
B cells are being recognized as one of the major players in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The B cell activating factor (BAFF) system plays an essential role in B cell homeostasis and function in the periphery. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been previously associated to MS in Sardinia. Antibodies against a MAP surface protein, MAP_2694, have been found significantly associated to MS patients, and this response was modified by interferon-β therapy. Increased BAFF levels following IFN-β therapy have been also described in MS patients. In this study, we evaluated whether soluble BAFF levels are comparable in men and women affected by MS and performed a correlation of the reported BAFF increase in MS patients under IFN-β therapy with changes of humoral response against MAP_2694. For these reasons, we investigated 44 MS patients before and after IFN-β therapy. A significant difference of BAFF levels was found between men and women with MS; moreover, we confirmed that IFN-β therapy strongly induces BAFF serum levels, but this was not related to the modification of immunological response against MAP_2694. In conclusion, our study highlights that IFN-β therapy induces the potent B cell survival factor BAFF without alterations of the humoral immune response against MAP.
Salgado, Miguel; Verdugo, Cristobal; Heuer, Cord; Castillo, Pedro; Zamorano, Patricia
PCR is a highly accurate technique for confirming the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in broth culture. In this study, a simple, efficient, and low-cost method of harvesting DNA from Map cultured in liquid medium was developed. The proposed protocol (Universidad Austral de Chile [UACH]) was evaluated by comparing its performance to that of two traditional techniques (a QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide [CTAB] method). The results were statistically assessed by agreement analysis for which differences in the number of cycles to positive (CP) were compared by Student's t-test for paired samples and regression analysis. Twelve out of 104 fecal pools cultured were positive. The final PCR results for 11 samples analyzed with the QIAamp and UACH methods or ones examined with the QIAamp and CTAB methods were in agreement. Complete (100%) agreement was observed between data from the CTAB and UACH methods. CP values for the UACH and CTAB techniques were not significantly different, while the UACH method yielded significantly lower CP values compared to the QIAamp kit. The proposed extraction method combines reliability and efficiency with simplicity and lower cost.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map is the causative agent of a chronic intestinal inflammation in ruminants named Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and a possible etiopathological agent of human Crohn's disease (CD. Analysis of macrophage transcriptomes in response to Map infection is expected to provide key missing information in the understanding of the role of this pathogen in establishing an inappropriate and persistent infection in a susceptible host and of the molecular mechanisms that might underlie the early phases of CD. In this paper we summarize transcriptomic studies of human and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, and macrophages-like cell lines in vitro infected with Map. Most studies included in this paper consistently reported common gene expression signatures of bovine and human macrophages in response to Map such as enhanced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, which promote bacterial survival. Overexpression of IL-10 could be responsible for the Map-associated reduction in the expression of the proapoptotic TNF-α gene observed in bovine and human macrophages.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map contains PPE family antigens which are Proline and glutamic acid rich and may play important role as T cell antigens. Hence the identification and generation of antigens are necessary for immunological characterization. In the present study, the epitopic region of a unique PPE gene encoding 34.9 kDa protein from Map was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned into Escherichia coli vector pQE30 UA. The recombinant plasmid designated as pQPPE was transformed into E. coli M15 and induced with IPTG revealed the high level expression of 37.1 kDa His-fusion protein (34.9 kDa PPE and 2.2 kDa His-tag, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Recombinant PPE protein was then purified by Ni-NTA agarose chromatography. The polyclonal antiserum raised against purified recombinant PPE protein reacted with expressed 37.1 kDa His-fusion protein as well as with Map sonicate. The protein elicited significant delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH skin reaction in mice sensitized with Map. The results indicated that the recombinant PPE protein of Map was associated with cellular immune response.
John P Bannantine
Full Text Available Due to a close genetic relatedness, there is no known antibody that detects M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, which causes Johne’s disease in cattle and sheep, and does not cross-react with other M. avium subspecies. In the present study, a monoclonal antibody (17A12 was identified from mice immunized with a cell membrane fraction of MAP strain K-10. This antibody is 100% specific as it detected a 25-kDa protein in all 29 MAP whole cell lysates, but did not bind to any of the 29 non-paratuberculosis strains tested in immunoblot assays. However, the antibody revealed variable reactivity levels in MAP strains as it detected higher levels in bovine isolates but comparably lower levels in ovine isolates of MAP. In order to identify the target binding protein for 17A12, a lambda phage expression library of MAP genomic fragments was screened with the monoclonal antibody. Four reactive clones were identified, sequenced and all shown to be overlapping. Further analysis revealed all four clones expressed an unknown protein encoded by a sequence that is not annotated in the K-10 genome and overlapped with MAP3422c on the opposing DNA strand. The epitope of 17A12 was precisely defined to 7 amino acids and was used to query the K-10 genome. Similarity searches revealed another protein, encoded by MAP1025, possessed a similar epitope (1-amino acid mismatch that also reacted strongly to the antibody. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in MAP1025 was then identified by comparative sequence analysis, which results in a Pro28His change at residue 28, the first amino acid within the 17A12 epitope. This SNP is present in all MAP strains but absent in all non-MAP strains and accounts for the specificity of the 17A12 antibody. This new antibody is the first ever isolated that binds only to the paratuberculosis subspecies of M. avium and opens new possibilities for the specific detection of this significant ruminant pathogen.
Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J
In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by
Marino, Rosanna; Capoferri, Rossana; Panelli, Simona; Minozzi, Giulietta; Strozzi, Francesco; Trevisi, Erminio; Snel, Gustavo G M; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Williams, John L
Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which affects ruminants worldwide and has a significant economic impact. MAP has also been associated with human Crohn's disease, although this connection is not well established. MAP is highly adapted for survival within host macrophages and prevents macrophage activation, blocks phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuates presentation of antigens to the immune system. The consequence is a very long silent infection before clinical signs are observed. The present work examined the transcriptome of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with the L1 strain of MAP at 2h, 6h and 24h post infection using RNA-seq. Pathway over-representation analysis of genes differentially expressed between infected vs. control MDM identified that immune related pathways were affected. Genes belonging to the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and members of the JAK-STAT pathway, which is involved in the regulation of immune response, were up-regulated. However, in parallel inhibitors of immune functions were activated, including suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH), which most likely suppresses IFNγ and the JAK/STAT signaling cascade in infected MDM, which may favour MAP survival. After exposure, macrophages phagocytise pathogens, activate the complement cascade and the adaptive immune system through the antigen presentation process. However, data presented here suggest that genes related to phagocytosis and lysosome function are down regulated in MAP infected MDM. Genes of MHC class II and complement pathway were also down-regulated. This study therefore shows that MAP infection is associated with changes in expression of genes related to the host immune response that may affect its ability to survive and multiply inside the host cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Park, Hyun-Eui; Park, Hong-Tae; Jung, Young Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang
Bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic enteric inflammatory disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that causes large economic losses in the dairy industry. Spread of PTB is mainly provoked by a long subclinical stage during which MAP is shed into the environment with feces; accordingly, detection of subclinical animals is very important to its control. However, current diagnostic methods are not suitable for detection of subclinical animals. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a diagnostic method for analysis of the expression of genes of prognostic potential biomarker candidates in the whole blood of cattle naturally infected with MAP. Real-time PCR with nine potential biomarker candidates was developed for the diagnosis of MAP subclinical infection. Animals were divided into four groups based on fecal MAP PCR and serum ELISA. Eight genes (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) were up-regulated in MAP-infected cattle (p <0.05). Moreover, ROC analysis revealed that eight genes (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) showed fair diagnostic performance (AUC≥0.8). Four biomarkers (Timp1, S100a8, Defb1, and Defb10) showed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the PCR positive and ELISA negative group (PN group) and three biomarkers (Tfrc, Hp, and Serpine1) showed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the PCR negative and ELISA positive group (NP group). Moreover, three biomarkers (S100a8, Hp, and Defb10) were considered the most reliable for the PCR positive and ELISA positive group (PP group). Taken together, our data suggest that real-time PCR based on eight biomarkers (Timp1, Hp, Serpine1, Tfrc, Mmp9, Defb1, Defb10, and S100a8) might be useful for diagnosis of JD, including subclinical stage cases.
Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis andMycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely,Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.
Correlation between Herrold egg yolk medium culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in pooled fecal and environmental samples.
Aly, Sharif S; Mangold, Beverly L; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W; Anderson, Randall J; Jiang, Jiming; Schukken, Ynte H; Hovingh, Ernest; Wolfgang, David; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S; Lombard, Jason E; Smith, Julia M; Gardner, Ian A
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal samples is a rapid alternative to culture on Herrold egg yolk medium (HEYM), the traditional antemortem reference test for MAP. Although the sensitivity and specificity of these 2 tests have been estimated based on dichotomized test results, the correlation between real-time qPCR threshold cycle (Ct) values and colony-forming units (CFU) on HEYM for fresh and thawed samples has not been evaluated. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the correlation and association between Ct and CFU in fresh and thawed pooled fecal and environmental samples. Results of HEYM culture of 1,997 pooled fecal samples from cows in 14 herds, and 802 environmental samples from 109 dairies nationwide were negatively (inversely) correlated with their respective real-time qPCR results. The Spearman's rank correlation between Ct and CFU was good (-0.66) in fresh and thawed pooled fecal samples, and excellent (-0.76) and good (-0.61) in fresh and thawed environmental samples, respectively. The correlation varied from good (-0.53) to excellent (-0.90) depending on the number of samples in a fecal pool. Truncated regression models indicated a significant negative association between Ct and CFU in fecal pools and environmental samples. The use of real-time qPCR instead of HEYM can yield rapid, quantitative estimates of MAP load and allow for incorporation of real-time qPCR results of pooled and environmental samples in testing strategies to identify dairy cow groups with the highest MAP shedding.
Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo
Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7% of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05 differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption.
Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; De Buck, Jeroen
Johne's disease is a worldwide concern, as it causes huge economic losses. The etiological agent, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), has limited genetic diversity, impeding efforts to understand transmission and distribution of strain types. Whole-genome sequencing was previously performed on a representative set of MAP isolates from Canadian dairy herds and 9 divergent clades were identified. Four clades were of particular interest, as they were either MAP types rarely reported in North America, or they represented a substantial proportion of isolates recovered from dairy farms in Canada. One clade included type I/III isolates, whereas the remaining clades included type II isolates. Variant sites in the MAP genome are often separated by thousands of base pairs, limiting use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping on a single genomic region. Therefore, a SNP-PCR assay was developed to facilitate interrogation of 5 SNP in 2 distant regions of the genome, linking them together in a single PCR reaction for subsequent Sanger sequencing. This high-throughput assay enabled discrimination of 602 MAP isolates from 264 herds (from all 10 provinces). More than 1 isolate was cultured from 133 herds, 14 of which included multiple subtypes. A previously identified dominant type included 87% of isolates, whereas the Bison type was more widespread than previously reported. The latter type and isolates from a second clade of interest were overrepresented in Québec and Saskatchewan, respectively. In conclusion, the distribution and relative frequency of MAP subtypes within Canadian dairy herds were assessed using a novel SNP-based typing assay. These findings will contribute to understanding the clinical relevance and transmission dynamics of MAP in this population and elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M
The development of lesions after infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) was examined in an experimental infection model. Goat kids were orally inoculated 10 times with 10 mg bacterial wet mass of MAP (total dose 2.6 × 10(8) colony-forming units). Six to 7 inoculated goats and 3 controls were autopsied 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postinoculation (mpi), lesions were documented, and samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and bacterial culture. Twenty-five of the 26 inoculated goats did not develop clinical signs. Macroscopic lesions were detected in 3 of the 7 inoculated goats as soon as 3 mpi. Jejunal Peyer's patches (JPPs) were thickened and had ulcerated surfaces and circumscribed serositis. Characteristic granulomatous infiltrates were seen in all goats in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), especially JPPs and lymphoid tissue at the ileocecal valve and in intestinal lymph nodes. Granulomatous intestinal infiltrates not associated with GALT were seen beginning at 6 mpi and with increasing frequency thereafter. Interindividual differences in lesions were most pronounced at 12 mpi, varying from mild focal paucibacillary to severe diffuse multibacillary patterns. Bacterial culture of MAP confirmed the IHC findings but was more sensitive and revealed widespread dissemination at 3 and 12 mpi. Granulomatous arteritis was found in intestinal submucosa of several goats. This may contribute to the spreading of MAP to the intestinal wall and possibly systemically. The different lesions observed during the clinically inapparent period of paratuberculosis are most likely indicators for the later progression of infection and development of clinical disease. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma
Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Johne's disease (JD in cattle and other animals. The hallmark of MAP infection in the early stages is a strong protective cell-mediated immune response (Th1-type, characterized by antigen-specific γ-interferon (IFN-γ. The Th1 response wanes with disease progression and is supplanted by a non-protective humoral immune response (Th2-type. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is believed to play a critical role in the regulation of host immune responses to MAP infection and potentially orchestrate the reversal of Th1/Th2 immune dominance during disease progression. However, how its role correlates with MAP infection remains to be completely deciphered. We developed mathematical models to explain probable mechanisms for IL-10 involvement in MAP infection. We tested our models with IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and MAP fecal shedding data collected from calves that were experimentally infected and followed over a period of 360 days in the study of Stabel and Robbe-Austerman (2011. Our models predicted that IL-10 can have different roles during MAP infection, (i it can suppress the Th1 expression, (ii can enhance Th2 (IL-4 expression, and (iii can suppress the Th1 expression in synergy with IL-4. In these predicted roles, suppression of Th1 responses was correlated with increased number of MAP. We also predicted that Th1-mediated responses (IFN-γ can lead to high expression of IL-10 and that infection burden regulates Th2 suppression by the Th1 response. Our models highlight areas where more experimental data is required to refine our model assumptions, and further test and investigate the role of IL-10 in MAP infection.
Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis. The aim of our study was to combine Mini-and Microsatellite loci analysis in order to explore the effectiveness of this sub-typing method in a group of Map isolates. For this purpose, 84 Italian Type C Map isolates, each from a different cattle herd, were submitted to MIRU-Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats (VNTRs) typing and Short Sequence repeats (SSRs) sequencing. Moreover, the method was used to analyse the variability inside 10 herds (from three to 50 isolates per herd). Results The molecular sub-typing, carried out using three SSR and 10 MIRU-VNTR loci, differentiated the 84 isolates into 33 clusters, reaching a Simpson's Discriminatory Index (SID) value of 0.952 (0.933 to 0.972, 95% confidence intervals). Among all considered loci, six (SSR2, MIRU2, SSR1, SSR8, VNTR3527 and VNTR1067) showed relevant allelic variability. Thirty-eight% of the isolates were clustered into four genotypes, differing from each other for the SSR2 locus. The other isolates, characterised by differences in two or more loci, were spread among the rest of the clusters. The intra-herd analysis revealed more than one genotype in most herds with a similar distribution of clusters. Conclusions Our results revealed the advantage of using both Mini-and Microsatellite approaches for successfully discriminating among Map Type C isolates from the same geographic area, host species and herd. These data suggest that the combination of loci here proposed could be a useful molecular tool for regional epidemiological studies. PMID:21929793
Kim, Sung G; Kim, Eun H; Lafferty, Caroline J; Miller, Loretta J; Koo, Hye J; Stehman, Susan M; Shin, Sang J
The ESP II Culture System (ESP II), a broth-based culture system, has been modified and optimized for culturing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in animal feces since 2000. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the IS900 sequence were performed as confirmatory tests for M. paratuberculosis in ESP II liquid culture medium. There were no differences between test results of conventional and real-time PCR assays. During the 5-week incubation period, if acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in ESP culture-positive samples, IS900 PCR assays were performed to confirm whether those AFB were M. paratuberculosis. At the end of the 5-week incubation, AF staining was performed on all ESP II-negative cultures to screen any false-negative cultures; IS900 PCR assays were performed on AFB-positive cultures. During a period of 1 year, of a total of 18,499 ESP II cultures, 2,814 (15.2%) PCR confirmation assays were performed. Of those, 2,259 (80%) were both ESP and PCR positive; 104 (4%) were ESP positive and PCR negative; 423 (15%) were ESP negative and PCR positive; 28 (1%) were both ESP and PCR negative. The AF-staining step after the 5-week incubation produced 423 (15%) more PCR-positive cultures. Of a total of 2,814 AFB-positive cultures, 132 (5%) were not confirmed as M. paratuberculosis. Further studies are needed for speciation of non-M. paratuberculosis isolates.
Lamont, Elise A; Xu, Wayne W; Sreevatsan, Srinand
The initial interaction between host cell and pathogen sets the stage for the ensuing infection and ultimately determine the course of disease. However, there is limited knowledge of the transcripts utilized by host and pathogen and how they may impact one another during this critical step. The purpose of this study was to create a host-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) interactome for early infection in an epithelium-macrophage co-culture system using RNA-seq. Establishment of the host-MAP interactome revealed a novel iron assimilation system for carboxymycobactin. Iron assimilation is linked to nitric oxide synthase-2 production by the host and subsequent nitric oxide buildup. Iron limitation as well as nitric oxide is a prompt for MAP to enter into an iron sequestration program. This new iron sequestration program provides an explanation for mycobactin independence in some MAP strains grown in vitro as well as during infection within the host cell. Utilization of such a pathway is likely to aid MAP establishment and long-term survival within the host. The host-MAP interactome identified a number of metabolic, DNA repair and virulence genes worthy for consideration as novel drug targets as well as future pathogenesis studies. Reported interactome data may also be utilized to conduct focused, hypothesis-driven research. Co-culture of uninfected bovine epithelial cells (MAC-T) and primary bovine macrophages creates a tolerant genotype as demonstrated by downregulation of inflammatory pathways. This co-culture system may serve as a model to investigate other bovine enteric pathogens.
Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The environmental factors at play in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D remain enigmatic. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is transmitted from dairy herds to humans through food contamination. MAP causes an asymptomatic infection that is highly prevalent in Sardinian T1D patients compared with type 2 diabetes (T2D and healthy controls. Moreover, MAP elicits humoral responses against several mycobacterial proteins. We asked whether antibodies (Abs against one of these proteins, namely MAP3865c, which displays a sequence homology with the β-cell protein zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8 could be cross-reactive with ZnT8 epitopes. To this end, Ab responses against MAP3865c were analyzed in Sardinian T1D, T2D and healthy subjects using an enzymatic immunoassay. Abs against MAP3865c recognized two immunodominant transmembrane epitopes in 52-65% of T1D patients, but only in 5-7% of T2D and 3-5% of healthy controls. There was a linear correlation between titers of anti-MAP3865c and anti-ZnT8 Abs targeting these two homologous epitopes, and pre-incubation of sera with ZnT8 epitope peptides blocked binding to the corresponding MAP3865c peptides. These results demonstrate that Abs recognizing MAP3865c epitopes cross-react with ZnT8, possibly underlying a molecular mimicry mechanism, which may precipitate T1D in MAP-infected individuals.
René Ramírez G.
Full Text Available El Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune del individuo afectado. Una vez MAP es fagocitado por el macrófago bovino, tanto el macrófago como MAP activan: el uno para tratar de destruir a MAP y luego sufrir apoptosis y el otro para evadir su destrucción dentro del fagolisosoma del macrófago. El balance de dicha confrontación molecular determina el curso inicial de la infección hacia la eliminación eficiente del microorganismo o hacia el establecimiento de la infección, que culminará en los estadios III (clínico intermitente y IV (clínica terminal de la enfermedad de Johne. En la presente revisión se discuten los diferentes mecanismos moleculares por los cuales MAP evade la respuesta inmune, con énfasis en su comportamiento dentro de la vacuola fagocítica y como el agente establece mecanismos de sobrevivencia intracelular y altera la activación de los macrófagos del hospedero y de la respuesta inmune específica.
María Fernanda Cepeda
Full Text Available Introducción: Los departamentos de la Guajira y Cesar son considerados los principales productores de ovinos y caprinos del país, según censo del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA en el año 2015. Estas especies animales revisten interés desde el punto de vista sanitario, no solo por los productos obtenidos de ellos, sino también por la capacidad que tienen de ser reservorio de diferentes agentes infecciosos. A la fecha en Colombia no se encuentran reportes relacionados con la prevalencia de agentes infecciosos, como es el caso de Mycobacterium avium en estas poblaciones animales, razón por la cual, en 2015 se comienza a desarrollar un trabajo inter-institucional titulado: “Proyecto Piloto de Excelencia Sanitaria en Ganadería para la Guajira y el Cesar”, proyecto en el que participan entidades públicas y privadas, el cual, anida el presente trabajo. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de M. avium en caprinos y ovinos, con el propósito de diseñar e implementar un perfil sanitario en los municipios del sur de la Guajira y el Norte del Cesar. Materiales y métodos: El presente trabajo corresponde a un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, que tuvo como universo de estudio una población de 15.300 ovinos y caprinos del sur de la Guajira y norte del Cesar definida por Censo realizado en 2015 por el ICA. Tomado como base esta población, se calculó un tamaño muestral de 998 individuos mediante la herramienta WinEpi versión 2.0 (Zaragoza, España. La determinación de la prevalencia de M. avium se realizará mediante la determinación de la presencia de IgG sérica específica para este agente infeccioso mediante pruebas comerciales de ELISA indirecta, según las recomendaciones del fabricante. Las pruebas serán realizadas a sueros provenientes de muestras sanguíneas de animales incluidos en la muestra calculada, tomadas por veterinarios entrenados en municipios del sur de la Guajira y norte del Cesar, los cuales, fueron
Groenendaal, Huybert; Zagmutt, Francisco J; Patton, Elisabeth A; Wells, Scott J
Johne's disease (JD), or paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Johne's disease causes considerable economic losses to the US dairy industry, estimated to be over $200 million annually. Available control strategies include management measures to improve calf hygiene, test-and-cull strategies, and vaccination. Although the first 2 strategies have shown to reduce the prevalence of MAP, they require dedicated and long-term efforts from dairy producers, with often relatively slow progress. As a result, uptake of both strategies has not been as wide as expected given the economic benefits especially of improved hygiene. Vaccination has also been found to reduce the prevalence and economic losses of JD, but most economic estimates have been based on simulation of hypothetical vaccines. In addition, if an animal is vaccinated, cross-reactivity between MAP antibodies and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) antigens may occur, decreasing the specificity of BTB tests. Therefore, MAP vaccination would cause additional indirect costs to the BTB surveillance and control program. The objective of the present study was to use data from a MAP vaccine trial together with an epidemiologic and economic model to estimate the direct on-farm benefits of MAP vaccination and to estimate the indirect costs of MAP vaccination due to the cross-reactivity with BTB tests. Direct economic benefits of MAP vaccination were estimated at $8.03 (90% predictive interval: -$25.97 to $41.36) per adult animal per year, all accruing to the dairy producers. This estimate is likely an underestimation of the true direct benefits of MAP vaccination. In addition, indirect economic costs due to cross-reactivity were $2.14 per adult animal per year, making MAP vaccination economically attractive. Only in regions or states with a high frequency of BTB testing (because of, for example, Mycobacterium bovis outbreaks in a wild
Fraser W. Davidson
Full Text Available Many pathogenic mycobacteria are known to cause severe disease in humans and animals. M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map is the causative agent of Johne’s disease—a chronic wasting disease affecting ruminants such as cattle and sheep, responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and beef industries. Due to the lack of treatment options or effective vaccines, mitigating losses can be difficult. In addition, the early stages of Map infection may occur in asymptomatic hosts that continue to shed viable bacteria in their faeces, leading to the infection of other healthy animals. Using multi-locus short sequence repeat (ML-SSR analysis we previously reported that individual Johne’s positive dairy cattle from farms across the island of Newfoundland were infected by Map with multiple SSR-types simultaneously. The occurrence of multiple mixed genotype infections has the potential to change pathogen and disease dynamics as well as reduce the efficacy of treatments and vaccines. Therefore, we conducted whole genome sequencing (WGS and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis on a subset of these isolates for a more in-depth examination. We also implemented a PCR assay using two discriminatory SNPs and demonstrated the incidence of a mixed infection by three genotypically diverse Map isolates in a single animal. In addition, results show that WGS and SNP analysis can provide a better understanding of the relationship between Map isolates from individual and different animals. In the future such studies on the occurrence of mixed genotype infections could potentially lead to the identification of variable pathogenicity of different genotypes and allow for better tracking of Map isolates for epidemiological studies.
Elise A Lamont
Full Text Available Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated.
Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R
Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may
SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
Mackintosh, C G; Griffin, J F T; Scott, I C; O'Brien, R; Stanton, J L; MacLean, P; Brauning, R
This study compared in vivo lymph node gene expression levels between six young red deer that were either relatively resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to paratuberculosis following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Intestinal lymph nodes were biopsied at 4, 12 and 50 weeks post challenge (pc) and parallel changes in histopathology, immunology and bacterial load monitored. SOLiD SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) next generation sequencing of biopsied lymph node samples generated a total of 373 million transcript tags 26-28bp in length after filtering. A total of 36,632 unique transcripts were identified and 14,325 of these were able to be annotated. The copy number of each transcript was counted, averaged and compared for R and S animals (R-S). P values and False Discovery Rates (FDR) were calculated for each transcript. Genes differentially upregulated ≥2 fold (FDR<0.5) totalled 9, 40 and 32 in R animals (+ values) and 23, 164 and 47 in S animals (- values) at weeks 4, 12, and 50pc, respectively. Transcripts displaying greatest differential expression between R and S animals at each time point were IFIT2 (189 fold) and S100A8 (-32.7 fold) at week 4, LRR1 (52.7 fold), SERPINF2 (-214.6 fold) at week 12 and CEACAM8 (84.6 fold), and STK31 (-129.5 fold) at week 50, respectively. All 9 genes significantly upregulated at week 4 in R animals relate specifically to host defence and all involve Type I interferon stimulated genes. By contrast genes upregulated in S animals at week 4, relate predominantly to inflammation, but also involve adaptive immune responses, mitochondrial function and apoptosis regulation. At week 12, the genes differentially upregulated in R animals are linked predominantly to regulation of adaptive immunity and mucosal immunity, while many of the genes in S animals are associated with pro-inflammatory interleukins involved with innate and adaptive immunity. These correlated with greater lesion severity
Krüger, C; Köhler, H; Liebler-Tenorio, E M
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes lesions in naturally and experimentally infected ruminants which greatly differ in severity, cellular composition and number of mycobacteria. Morphologically distinct lesions are already found during the clinically inapparent phase of infection. The complex local host response and number of MAP were characterized at the initial sites of lesions, organized gut-associated lymphoid tissue, in experimentally infected goats. Tissues were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 month post-inoculation (mpi) from goat kids that had orally received 10 times 10mg of bacterial wet mass of MAP (JII-1961). The cellular composition of lesions in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and next to the ileocecal valve was evaluated in 21 MAP-inoculated goats, where lesions were compared with unaltered tissue of six control goats. CD68+, CD4+, CD8+, γδ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and plasma cells, MHC class II+ and CD25+ cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in serial cryostat sections. At 3 mpi, extensive granulomatous infiltrates predominated, consisting of numerous epitheloid cells admixed with many CD4 and γδ T lymphocytes. Only single MAP were detected. This indicates a strong cellular immune reaction able to control MAP infection. γδ T lymphocytes were markedly increased in this type of lesion which may reflect their important role early in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. At 9 and 12 mpi, divergent lesions were observed which may reflect different outcomes of host-pathogen interactions. In five goats, minimal granulomatous lesions were surrounded by extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and no MAP were detected by immunohistochemistry. This was interpreted as effective host response that was able to eliminate MAP locally. In three goats, decreased numbers of lymphocytes, but extensive granulomatous infiltrates with numerous epitheloid cells containing increased numbers of mycobacteria were seen. This shift of the
Waddell, Lisa; Rajić, Andrijana; Stärk, Katharina; McEwen, Scott A
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and is hypothesized to be an infectious cause of Crohn's disease, as well as some other human diseases. Due to key knowledge gaps, the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis is unknown. This scoping review aims to identify and characterised the evidence on potential sources and vehicles of M. paratuberculosis exposure for humans to better understand how exposure is likely to occur. Evidence from 255 primary research papers is summarized; most examined the prevalence or concentration of M. paratuberculosis in animals (farmed domestic, pets and wildlife) (n=148), food for human consumption (62) (milk, dairy, meat, infant formula) or water (drinking and recreational) and the environment (farm, pasture and areas affected by runoff water) (20). The majority of this research has been published since 2000 (Figure- abstract). Nine case-control studies examining risk factors for Crohn's disease highlighted significant associations with the consumption of processed meats and cheese, while direct contact with ruminants, high risk occupations (farmer, veterinarian), milk consumption and water source were factors not associated with the disease and/or M. paratuberculosis exposure status. Molecular epidemiology studies demonstrated strain-sharing between species. Produce and seafood were the only previously suggested sources of human exposure for which there was no supporting evidence identified in this scoping review. The results of this review indicate that ruminant populations from around the globe are infected with M. paratuberculosis and many non-ruminant species have also been found to carry or be infected with M. paratuberculosis. Several potential sources for human exposure to M. paratuberculosis were identified; however there remain important gaps in quantitative information on the prevalence and concentration of M. paratuberculosis in contaminated sources of
Douarre Pierre E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP causes a chronic gastroenteritis affecting many species. Johne's disease is one of the most widespread and economically important disease of ruminants. Since 1992 and the opening of the European market, the exposure and the transmission of MAP in cattle herds considerably increased. Improvements in diagnostic strategies for Ireland and elsewhere are urgently required. In total, 290 cattle from seven Irish herds with either a history or a strong likelihood of paratuberculosis infection were selected by a veterinary team over 2 years. Faecal samples (290 were collected and screened for MAP by a conventional culture method and two PCR assays. In order to further evaluate the usefulness of molecular testing, a nested PCR was also assessed. Results M. paratuberculosis was isolated and cultured from 23 faecal samples (7.9% on solid medium. From a molecular perspective, 105 faecal samples (36% were PCR positive for MAP specific DNA. A complete correlation (100% was observed between the results of both molecular targets (IS900 and ISMAP02. Sensitivity was increased by ~10% with the inclusion of a nested PCR for ISMAP02 (29 further samples were positive. When culturing and PCR were retrospectively compared, every culture positive faecal sample also yielded a PCR positive result for both targets. Alternatively, however not every PCR positive sample (n = 105, 36% produced a corresponding culture isolate. Interestingly though when analysed collectively at the herd level, the correlation between culture and PCR results was 100% (ie every herd which recorded at least 1 early PCR +ve result later yielded culture positive samples within that herd. Conclusion PCR on bovine faecal samples is a fast reliable test and should be applied routinely when screening for MAP within herds suspected of paratuberculosis. Nested PCR increases the threshold limit of detection for MAP DNA by approximately 10
Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula
The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.
de Kruijf, Marcel; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim
The inability of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) to produce endogenous mycobactin in-vitro is most likely due to the presence of a truncated mbtA gene within the mycobactin cluster of MAP. The main goal of this study was to investigate this unique mbtA truncation as a potential novel PCR diagnostic marker for MAP. Novel primers were designed that were located within the truncated region and the contiguous MAP2179 gene. Primers were evaluated against non-MAP isolates and no amplicons were generated. The detection limit of this mbtA-MAP2179 target was evaluated using a range of MAP DNA concentrations, MAP inoculated faecal material and 20 MAP isolates. The performance of mbtA-MAP2179 was compared to the established f57 target. The detection limits recorded for MAP K-10 DNA and from MAP K-10 inoculated faecal samples were 0.34pg and 10 4 CFU/g respectively for both f57 and mbtA-MAP2179. A detection limit of 10 3 CFU/g was recorded for both targets, but not achieved consistently. The detection limit of MAP from inoculated faecal material was successful at 10 3 CFU/g for mbtA-MAP2179 when FAM probe real-time PCR was used. A MAP cell concentration of 10 2 CFU/g was detected successfully, but again not consistently achieved. All 20 mycobacterial isolates were successfully identified as MAP by f57 and mbtA-MAP2179. Interestingly, the mbtA-MAP2179 real-time PCR assay resulted in the formation of a unique melting curve profile that contained two melting curve peaks rather than one single peak. This melting curve phenomenon was attributed towards the asymmetrical GC% distribution within the mbtA-MAP2179 amplicon. This study investigated the implementation of the mbtA-MAP2179 target as a novel diagnostic marker and the detection limits obtained with mbtA-MAP2179 were comparable to the established f57 target, making the mbtA-MAP2179 an adequate confirmatory target. Moreover, the mbtA-MAP2179 target could be implemented in multiplex real-time PCR assays and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains led to classify paratuberculosis isolates in two main types, cattle type strains, found affecting all host species, and sheep type strains, reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years have been characterized. Five-hundred and twenty isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar and origins had been cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction-endonuclease-analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-nine isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. Results All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-Cattle type strains. IS1311-Sheep type encompassed 96% and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all three Portuguese sheep. Thirty-seven distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for the 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43% and another three profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis, clustered all profiles found in cattle, "wild" hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. Conclusion Cattle in Spain are infected with cattle type strains, while sheep and goats are mainly infected
More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D
As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also
Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord
The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B
Shimomura, Hitoshi; Andachi, Sena; Aono, Takahiro; Kigure, Akira; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Imanaka, Keiko; Majima, Toru; Masuyama, Hidenori; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Aoyama, Takao
Concomitant use of clarithromycin (CAM) and rifampicin (RFP) for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease affects the systemic concentrations of both drugs due to CYP3A4-related interactions. To date, however, there has been no report that invest