WorldWideScience

Sample records for virus information update

  1. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  2. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  3. Update on Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G.; Asif, Irfan M.

    2016-01-01

    As public health experts work to contain the outbreak of Zika virus in South America and minimize the devastating prenatal complications, the international sports community prepares for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes have publicly expressed concern regarding the health risks of competition in Zika-endemic areas.33 Ensuring the safety of the athletes during training and competition is the primary role of the team physician. Special consideration is needed for sports teams preparing for travel to areas affected by Zika virus. PMID:27436751

  4. [An update on Lassa virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leparc-Goffart, I; Emonet, S F

    2011-12-01

    Lassa virus, the etiologic agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, infects 100,000 to 300,000 people every year in West Africa with an overall mortality rate ranging from 1 to 2%. It was discovered in 1969 and remains a significant public health risk in endemic areas. Because airborne transmission is possible and mortality can be high under certain conditions, Lassa virus has been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Early diagnosis is difficult due to insidious non-specific onset and to the great genetic divergence of the virus that makes RT-PCR assays unreliable. The lack of proper diagnostic tools promotes nosocomial infection and diminishes the efficacy of treatment. Recently, numerous advances have been made in the development of both diagnostic and vaccination techniques. The purpose of this review is to present an update on that research as well as the current epidemiology of Lassa virus.

  5. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  7. Zika virus epidemic: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gregory; Marquez, Lucila; Pammi, Mohan

    2016-12-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community. Areas covered: This review seeks to consolidate ZIKV epidemiology, diagnostic testing methods, CDC screening recommendations, and preventive strategies including potential vaccines. Expert commentary: Many unknowns still exist regarding ZIKV infections and its long-term effects in neonates. In addition, further studies need to evaluate if genomic differences that have occurred from the African to the Asian lineage of the virus have led to increased virulence of the virus. The authors believe that all pregnant women with fetuses showing microcephaly and/or intracranial calcifications should be tested for ZIKV infection if they cannot recall their sexual partner travel history. This change from the current CDCs recommendations could increase substantially the number of pregnant women and neonates, screened for ZIKV.

  8. 34 CFR 668.55 - Updating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updating information. 668.55 Section 668.55 Education... Information § 668.55 Updating information. (a)(1) Unless the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this... applicant to verify the information contained in his or her application for assistance in an award year if...

  9. Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Friedman, Allison; Kachur, Rachel E; Petersen, Emily E; Jamieson, Denise J; Cohn, Amanda C; Brooks, John T

    2016-04-01

    CDC issued interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016. The following recommendations apply to men who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission and their female or male sex partners. These recommendations replace the previously issued recommendations and are updated to include time intervals after travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission or after Zika virus infection for taking precautions to reduce the risk for sexual transmission. This guidance defines potential sexual exposure to Zika virus as any person who has had sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available.

  10. Zika virus: The transboundary pathogen from mosquito and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Li, Hengtao; Zhu, Jian

    2017-12-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was relatively obscure until outbreaks started in 2013. ZIKV is associated with neurological manifestations such as Guillan-Barrè Syndrome in adult and microcephaly in the newborn population. Although the majority of disease mechanisms of ZIKV is unclear, some information was updated with new scientific evidence. Currently, there are no approved drugs or vaccine that can be used for therapy during ZIKV infection. Based on the transmission mechanism of ZIKV, vector control and safe sex seem to be the most effective available preventive measures against ZIKV spread. This study summarized the current ZIKV epidemiology, the status of the existing pathogenic mechanism of ZIKV, the development of potential compounds and vaccines against ZIKV, and the control efforts against ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum Information Science: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, L. C.; Zen, Freddy P.

    2016-08-01

    It is now roughly thirty years since the incipient ideas on quantum information science was concretely formalized. Over the last three decades, there has been much development in this field, and at least one technology, namely devices for quantum cryptography, is now commercialized. Yet, the holy grail of a workable quantum computing machine still lies faraway at the horizon. In any case, it took nearly several centuries before the vacuum tubes were invented after the first mechanical calculating were constructed, and several decades later, for the transistor to bring the current computer technology to fruition. In this review, we provide a short survey of the current development and progress in quantum information science. It clearly does not do justice to the amount of work in the past thirty years. Nevertheless, despite the modest attempt, this review hopes to induce younger researchers into this exciting field.

  12. Giant viruses of amoebas: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eAherfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreoever, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages.

  13. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health..., from the list of quarantined areas and by adding portions of Niagara, Orleans, and Wayne Counties, NY, to the list of quarantined areas and restricted the interstate movement of regulated articles from...

  14. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas... Wayne Counties, NY, to the list of quarantined areas and restricting the interstate movement of regulated articles from these quarantined areas. We are also amending the regulations by removing the...

  15. Update on the global distribution of genotypes of wild type measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J

    2003-05-15

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is an important component of measles surveillance because these studies enhance our ability to identify the source and transmission pathways of the virus. Molecular surveillance is most beneficial when it is possible to observe the change in virus genotypes over time in a particular region. Such information can help to document the interruption of transmission of measles virus and thus provide an important method for assessing the effectiveness of vaccination programs. It is recommended that virus surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control and be expanded to give an accurate description of the global distribution of measles genotypes. This review provides updated information on the circulation patterns of measles genotypes and examples of the utility of virologic surveillance.

  16. An updated review of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Negida, Ahmed; Ahmed, Hussien

    2016-11-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99.7% of nucleotides and 99.9% of amino acids with the strain of French Polynesia epidemic [2013], suggesting that it has spread across the Pacific Ocean to invade South America. Aedes Aegypti mosquito is the main vector for ZIKV and there are some reports describing possible sexual and maternal to fetal transmission. ZIKV infection is known to be self-limited. However, recent reports suggested that it can be associated with neurological manifestations as Guillan-Barrè Syndrome and microcephaly in the newborn population. Currently, vector control seems to be the most effective available preventive measure against ZIKV spread. The development of broad spectrum antivirals and ZIKV vaccines should be a priority of future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physician use of updated anti-virus software in a tertiary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Busy schedule, 40(33.9%) and lack of credit card 39(33.1%) were perceived barriers to updating antivirus software. The use of regularly updated anti-virus software is sub-optimal among physicians implying vulnerability to computer viruses. Physicians should be careful with flash drives and should avoid being victims of the ...

  18. Update on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2011-03-15

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

  19. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  20. Mobile Mapping,Geographic Information Update and Urban Management Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Xiushan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of urban management intelligence is internet,geographic information platform and cloud computing platform.Data updating is the soul of geographic information platform.The rapid updating of urban geographic information involves concepts,funds and techniques.These three factors constitute the historic challenge of urban surveying and mapping,and also the reality bottleneck of the implementation of urban management intelligence.This paper presents a city natural data model(CNDMthat is based on the color laser point cloud.Based on vehicle borne mobile mapping,unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV aerial photograph,mobile phone taking,HD video surveillance and cloud computing platform,a fast updating system of CNDM is formed.City geographic information platform for city actuality is constructed based on the real-time update of CNDM,which is to establish the base data of urban management intelligence.

  1. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of Chikungunya virus: An updating review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, causing a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash. In this review, we summarized a series of articles published from 2013 to 2016 concerning CHIKV epidemiology, phylogeny, vaccine and therapies, to give an update of our most recent article written in 2014 (Lo Presti et al.,2014). CHIKV infection was first reported in 1952 from Makonde plateaus and since this time caused many outbreaks worldwide, involving the Indian Ocean region, African countries, American continent and Italy. CHIKV infection is still underestimated and it is normally associated with clinical symptoms overlapping with dengue virus, recurring epidemics and mutations within the viral genome. These characteristics promote the geographical spread and the inability to control vector-mediated transmission of the virus. For these reasons, the majority of studies were aimed to describe outbreaks and to enhance knowledge on CHIKV biology, pathogenesis, infection treatment, and prevention. In this review, 16 studies on CHIKV phylogenetic and phylodinamics were considered, during the years 2013-2016. Phylogenetic and phylodinamic analysis are useful tools to investigate how the genealogy of a pathogen population is influenced by pathogen's demographic history, host immunological milieu and environmental/ecological factors. Phylogenetic tools were revealed important to reconstruct the geographic spread of CHIKV during the epidemics wave and to have information on the circulating strains of the virus, that are important for the prediction and control of the epidemics, as well as for vaccines and antiviral drugs development. In conclusion, this updating review can give a critical appraisal of the epidemiology, therapeutic and phylogenesis of CHIKV, reinforcing the need to monitor the geographic spread of virus and vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic maintenance of majority information in constant time per update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Skyum, Sven

    1997-01-01

    We show how to maintain information about the existence of a majority colour in a set of elements under insertion and deletion of single elements using O(1) time and at most 4 equality tests on colours per update. No ordering information is used....

  3. NASA Earth Science Update with Information Science Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, Milton

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA earth science updates with information science technology. Details are given on NASA/Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)/Goddard Space Flight Center strategic plans, ESE missions and flight programs, roles of information science, ESE goals related to the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network, and future plans.

  4. Information Updating in Working Memory: Its Effect on Teacher Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher efficacy has a great impact on effective teaching and has been studied in various perspectives. The updating information ability in working memory is always related with many capabilities of cognition. An experiment of N-back task and a questionnaire of teacher efficacy were conducted in this study to test the effect of the ability of information updating in working memory on the teacher efficacy. A significant difference was found in the reaction time between high teacher efficacy group and low teacher efficacy group. The results showed that teachers who scored higher in the teacher efficacy scale tended to react faster than those who scored lower based on the same accuracy. And the updating information ability could serve as a predictor of teacher efficacy.

  5. Physician use of updated anti-virus software in a tertiary Nigerian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabes, E P; Nyango, D D; Ayedima, M M; Ladep, N G

    2010-01-01

    While physicians are becoming increasingly dependent on computers and the internet, highly lethal malware continue to be loaded into cyberspace. We sought to assess the proportion of physicians with updated anti-virus software in Jos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria and to determine perceived barriers to getting updates. We used a pre-tested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional survey among 118 physicians. The mean age (+/- SD) of subjects was 34 (+/- 4) years, with 94 male and 24 female physicians. Forty-two (36.5%) of 115 physicians with anti-virus software used an updated program (95% Cl: 27, 45). The top-three antivirus software were: McAfee 40 (33.9%), AVG 37 (31.4%) and Norton 17 (14.4%). Common infections were: Trojan horse 22 (29.7%), Brontok worm 8 (10.8%), and Ravmonlog.exe 5 (6.8%). Internet browsing with a firewall was an independent determinant for use of updated anti-virus software [OR 4.3, 95% CI, 1.86, 10.02; P virus software is sub-optimal among physicians implying vulnerability to computer viruses. Physicians should be careful with flash drives and should avoid being victims of the raging arms race between malware producers and anti-virus software developers.

  6. Bacteriophages: update on application as models for viruses in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of these features, phages are particularly useful as models to assess the behaviour and survival of enteric viruses in the environment, and as surrogates to assess the resistance of human viruses to water treatment and disinfection processes. Since there is no direct correlation between numbers of phages and ...

  7. Physician use of updated anti-virus software in a tertiary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While physicians are becoming increasingly dependent on computers and the internet, highly lethal malware continue to be loaded into cyberspace. We sought to assess the proportion of physicians with updated anti-virus software in Jos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria and to determine perceived barriers to getting ...

  8. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  9. Update on Zika Virus: Considerations for the Traveling Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G; Asif, Irfan M

    2016-09-01

    As public health experts work to contain the outbreak of Zika virus in South America and minimize the devastating prenatal complications, the international sports community prepares for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes have publicly expressed concern regarding the health risks of competition in Zika-endemic areas.(33) Ensuring the safety of the athletes during training and competition is the primary role of the team physician. Special consideration is needed for sports teams preparing for travel to areas affected by Zika virus. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  11. Updated Dosing Instructions for Immune Globulin (Human) GamaSTAN S/D for Hepatitis A Virus Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Noele P

    2017-09-15

    GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications. These changes were made because of concerns about decreased HAV immunoglobulin G antibody (anti-HAV IgG) potency, likely resulting from decreasing prevalence of previous HAV infection among plasma donors, leading to declining anti-HAV antibody levels in donor plasma (2). No changes in dosing instructions were made for measles, varicella, or rubella preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis.

  12. An Update on Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Experimental Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sahiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ebola Virus Disease (EVD, formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a re-emerging zoonotic disease that has caused periodic outbreaks since the first reported outbreak in 1976. In 2014, in West Africa, the largest outbreak of ebolavirus in history emerged, affecting close to 30,000 people; more than 10,000 of these individuals died. This virus, which causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, has the highest mortality rate (25–90% among the viral hemorrhagic fever diseases. Ebolavirus is transmitted through the blood and body fluids of infected animals and humans, as well as through contaminated materials. The virus is often spread in the hospital setting, and it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent. Accordingly, diagnostic procedures and infected patient care should be performed at the highest safety levels. The potential therapies and vaccines against EVD have continued developing or been used in emergency situations during last outbreak. Some of these include the cAd3 and rVSV-Ebola vaccines and new treatment modalities, such as passive immunization, brincidofovir, and ZMapp. Although these trials have shown different levels of success, there are no standardized treatments or vaccines that have been approved for humans. Such prevention is the only way to reduce human infection and the spread of outbreaks and is primarily based on personal protection measures and raising awareness of the risk factors. [Dis Mol Med 2016; 4(4.000: 43-50

  13. Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses : 2016 update from the ICTV bacterial and archaeal viruses subcommittee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaenssens, Evelien M.; Krupovic, Mart; Knezevic, Petar; Ackermann, Hans Wolfgang; Barylski, Jakub; Brister, J. Rodney; Clokie, Martha R C; Duffy, Siobain; Dutilh, Bas E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304546313; Edwards, Robert A; Enault, Francois; Jang, Ho Bin; Klumpp, Jochen; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Lavigne, Rob; Poranen, Minna M.; Prangishvili, David; Rumnieks, Janis; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Wittmann, Johannes; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Gillis, Annika; Kuhn, Jens H.

    The prokaryotic virus community is represented at the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) by the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. Since our last report [8], the committee composition has changed, and a large number of taxonomic proposals (TaxoProps) were submitted to

  14. Chikungunya Virus Infection: An Update on Joint Manifestations and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Krutikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The advent of sophisticated diagnostics has enabled the discovery of previously unknown arthropod-borne viruses like Chikungunya. This infection has become increasingly prevalent in the last 10 years across the Indian Ocean and has been brought to media attention by a recent outbreak in the Caribbean. The outbreak has been aided by a drastic rise in air travel, allowing infected individuals to transport the virus to previously unaffected regions. In addition, a recently documented viral mutation has allowed its transmission by the Aedes albopictus mosquito, therefore facilitating outbreaks in Southern Europe and the USA. The duration and extent of the arthritis seen peri- and post infection has become a topic of academic interest. Although published data are largely observational, there has been a definite increase in original research focusing on this. Symptoms can persist for years, particularly in older patients with pre-existing medical conditions. The etiology is still not fully understood, but viral persistence and immune activation within synovial fluid have been shown in mouse models. There have been no prospective clinical trials of treatment in humans; however, animal trials are in process. The mainstay of treatment remains anti-inflammatories and steroids where necessary. The clinical presentation seems to mimic common rheumatological conditions like rheumatoid arthritis; therefore recent recommendations suggest the use disease-modifying agents as a common practice for the specific syndrome. This review uses recent published data and draws on our own clinical experience to provide an overview of joint complications of Chikungunya infection.

  15. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  16. Updates and solution to the 21st century computer virus sourge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The computer virus scourge continues to be a problem the Information Technology (IT), industries must address. Computer virus is a malicious program codes, which can replicate and spread infections into large number of possible hosts and cause damage to computer programs, files, databases and data, in general.

  17. 48 CFR 2452.239-71 - Information Technology Virus Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... computer viruses. The contractor shall be responsible for examining all such products prior to their... resulting from computer virus damage or malicious destruction of computer information arising from the... Virus Security. 2452.239-71 Section 2452.239-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Analysis of YouTube as a source of information for West Nile Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Amritphale, Amod; Sawhney, Anshudha; Dubey, Devashish; Srivastav, Nupur

    2014-12-01

    A major outbreak of West Nile Virus was seen last year in different parts of the United States. Adequate dissemination of correct information about the disease would have helped decrease its spread and the associated panic in the general population. In this study, we looked into the use of YouTube as a resource for providing information about West Nile Virus infection. This study aims to identify and evaluate YouTube as resource for providing information on West Nile Virus infection to the general public. YouTube was searched on November 25, 2012, using the keywords West Nile Virus epidemic, West Nile Virus infection, and West Nile Virus prevention for videos uploaded in the past 6 months containing relevant information about the disease. The videos were classified as useful, misleading, or as news updates based on the type of information contained. Total viewership, number of days since upload, total duration of videos, and source of upload were noted. A total of 106 videos with information on West Nile Virus infection were included in the study, with 79.24% having useful information about the disease. Among the useful videos, 51/84 (60.71%) had information on disease prevention, and 29/84 (34.52%) contained information on news and research updates. The majority of these videos were uploaded by individuals (54.6%) or news agencies (41.8 %). Healthcare agencies contributed only 3.4 % of the total videos. Even though the useful videos represented 72% of all videos, there was significantly higher total viewership and viewership per day for the non-useful videos (PYouTube may be a significant resource for dissemination of information on public health issues like West Nile virus infection and should be targeted by healthcare agencies for this use. The major drawback of this medium is lack of verification by authorized healthcare professionals before these videos are made available for viewing by the community. Hence, a strict caution should be exercised in obtaining

  19. Key Techniques for Dynamic Updating of National Fundamental Geographic Information Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Donghua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important missions of fundamental surveying and mapping work is to keep the fundamental geographic information fresh. In this respect, National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation has launched the project of dynamic updating of national fundamental geographic information database since 2012, which aims to update 1:50 000, 1:250 000 and 1:1 000 000 national fundamental geographic information database continuously and quickly, by updating and publishing once a year. This paper introduces the general technical thinking of dynamic updating, states main technical methods, such as dynamic updating of fundamental database, linkage updating of derived databases, and multi-tense database management and service and so on, and finally introduces main technical characteristics and engineering applications.

  20. Knowledge structure representation and automated updates in intelligent information management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Stephen; Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems is examined. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within the proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. Potential techniques are studied for developing such an automated update capability and IIMS update requirements are examined in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.

  1. Zika virus: An update on epidemiology, pathology, molecular biology, and animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos da Silva, Suzane; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first described in 1947, and became a health emergency problem in 2016 when its association with fetal microcephaly cases was confirmed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. To date, ZIKV infection has been documented in 66 countries. ZIKV is recognized as a neurotropic virus and numerous diseases manifested in multiple neurological disorders have been described, mainly in countries that have been exposed to ZIKV after the 2007 outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia. The most dramatic consequence of ZIKV infection documented is the abrupt increase in fetal microcephaly cases in Brazil. Here, we present an update of the published research progress in the past few months. J. Med. Virol. 88:1291-1296, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inverse-Free Extreme Learning Machine With Optimal Information Updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; You, Zhu-Hong; Guo, Hongliang; Luo, Xin; Zhao, Zhong-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has drawn insensitive research attentions due to its effectiveness in solving many machine learning problems. However, the matrix inversion operation involved in the algorithm is computational prohibitive and limits the wide applications of ELM in many scenarios. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we propose an inverse-free ELM to incrementally increase the number of hidden nodes, and update the connection weights progressively and optimally. Theoretical analysis proves the monotonic decrease of the training error with the proposed updating procedure and also proves the optimality in every updating step. Extensive numerical experiments show the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type-2-A milder, kinder virus: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kannangai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2 belongs to the family retroviridae which is phylogenetically clusters with SIV SM from sooty mangabeys. This virus is morphologically similar to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 but has got only a 40% homology at the nucleotide level. There is a distinct geographical distribution of HIV-2 unlike HIV-1. There are currently eight subtypes/groups identified with subtype/group A responsible for the majority of infections. HIV-2 shows a considerable difference in the course of the disease. Clinical, haematological and immunological evaluation of individuals infected with HIV-2 has shown the virus to be less pathogenic than HIV-1 although the exact mechanism underlying this difference is not well defined. Similar to HIV-1, the HIV-2 isolates also showed distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics. The transmission rate for HIV-2 compared to HIV-1 is very low both by heterosexual route and mother to child transmission. The clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency associated with HIV-2 are similar to the ones seen among the HIV-1-infected individuals and they can also progress to AIDS. It is naturally resistant to NNRTI and hence the diagnosis become important as it affects the treatment strategy. Similar to HIV-1, HIV-2 strains of infected individuals also show mutations that can cause drug resistance. The current evidence suggests that there is no protective effective for HIV-2 against HIV-1.

  4. Spatial updating in virtual reality: the sufficiency of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Cunningham, Douglas W; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2007-05-01

    Robust and effortless spatial orientation critically relies on "automatic and obligatory spatial updating", a largely automatized and reflex-like process that transforms our mental egocentric representation of the immediate surroundings during ego-motions. A rapid pointing paradigm was used to assess automatic/obligatory spatial updating after visually displayed upright rotations with or without concomitant physical rotations using a motion platform. Visual stimuli displaying a natural, subject-known scene proved sufficient for enabling automatic and obligatory spatial updating, irrespective of concurrent physical motions. This challenges the prevailing notion that visual cues alone are insufficient for enabling such spatial updating of rotations, and that vestibular/proprioceptive cues are both required and sufficient. Displaying optic flow devoid of landmarks during the motion and pointing phase was insufficient for enabling automatic spatial updating, but could not be entirely ignored either. Interestingly, additional physical motion cues hardly improved performance, and were insufficient for affording automatic spatial updating. The results are discussed in the context of the mental transformation hypothesis and the sensorimotor interference hypothesis, which associates difficulties in imagined perspective switches to interference between the sensorimotor and cognitive (to-be-imagined) perspective.

  5. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  6. The novel influenza A (H1N1 virus pandemic: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrosillo N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus (S-OIV, is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7– 35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000– 750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1 infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic.

  7. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  8. Virus variation resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information: dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanov Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of complete and incomplete virus genome sequences available in public databases. This large body of sequence data harbors information about epidemiology, phylogeny, and virulence. Several specialized databases, such as the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource or the Los Alamos HIV database, offer sophisticated query interfaces along with integrated exploratory data analysis tools for individual virus species to facilitate extracting this information. Thus far, there has not been a comprehensive database for dengue virus, a significant public health threat. Results We have created an integrated web resource for dengue virus. The technology developed for the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource has been extended to process non-segmented dengue virus genomes. In order to allow efficient processing of the dengue genome, which is large in comparison with individual influenza segments, we developed an offline pre-alignment procedure which generates a multiple sequence alignment of all dengue sequences. The pre-calculated alignment is then used to rapidly create alignments of sequence subsets in response to user queries. This improvement in technology will also facilitate the incorporation of additional virus species in the future. The set of virus-specific databases at NCBI, which will be referred to as Virus Variation Resources (VVR, allow users to build complex queries against virus-specific databases and then apply exploratory data analysis tools to the results. The metadata is automatically collected where possible, and extended with data extracted from the literature. Conclusion The NCBI Dengue Virus Resource integrates dengue sequence information with relevant metadata (sample collection time and location, disease severity, serotype, sequenced genome region and facilitates retrieval and preliminary analysis of dengue sequences using integrated web analysis and visualization tools.

  9. An updated proposal for classification of infectious salmon anemia virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Constanza; Ojeda, Nicolás; Labra, Alvaro; Marshall, Sergio H

    2017-09-01

    Biological databases contain a wealth of valuable information that can contribute to the enrichment of virtually any area. However, the exponential growth of information together with its dissemination through virtual networks has become a double-edged sword, promoting synonymy that leads to confusion and chaos. Organization of data is a big effort that must be accompanied by clarity, both in the deposited data and in the publications arising from them. In this report, an effort is made to organize the information related to infectious salmon anemia virus and its classification based on the variability of genomic segment 6.

  10. Reasons of the Incremental Information in the Updating Spatial Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huaji; Wu, Huarui; Sun, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In order to quickly extract and distribute the incremental information of spatial database, this work analyses the reasons of incremental information of spatial database with the instance of residential feature. Firstly, a new concept of increment is proposed based on the spatio-temporal change type and data delta. The change type describes the semantics of increment information and data delta describes the content of increment information. Based on this concept, the t...

  11. Reassessing the Skills Required of Graduates of an Information Systems Program: An Updated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legier, John; Woodward, Belle; Martin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The study involves an updated analysis of the job characteristics of information systems graduates based on the status of the job market as well as the perceptions of 72 graduates from an information systems program of a Midwestern university. Approximately one-third of the graduates were working in positions related to technical support.…

  12. Current trends in the management of Ebola virus disease-an updated systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Sivanandy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus created a ripple of fear when its number of cases rose rapidly and drastically in recent years. Ebola infection is transmitted in humans when contact closely with blood, organs or other body fluids of infected animals or secretions. It is often mortal as it affects vascular system of the body, results in organ failure and serious internal bleeding. Hence, this review was aimed to summarize various essential aspects of Ebola virus disease and its management. A systematic review was carried out by collecting various literatures, published research articles, notes and other published date related to Ebola virus disease. Standard supporting care in a hospital setting such as replenishment of fluid and electrolytes, ventilation support, pain control and nutritional support is initiated to the patients to manage the symptoms and prevent any complications of Ebola disease since there are no Food and Drug Administrationapproved medications available. In terms of pharmacological drug therapy, favipiravir has been shown to be efficacious and safe in treating the Ebola virus disease. Nevertheless, there are some preventive measures as well to decrease the risk of getting the disease. Further, the review suggests the efficient control and prevention of Ebola epidemic require adequate political support from the government as well as the establishment of a robust public health infrastructure and medical reserve. Strengthening of contact tracing and quarantine policies are also important for the prevention of Ebola virus disease. There should be a well-designed disease surveillance system when a suspected case is reported. Given the elevated case-fatality rate and the absence of effective treatment, it is sensible to evade research ethics and develop the promising future of experimental vaccines. The collection of clinical and epidemiological information of Ebola should be vigorous and systematic in the endemic affected areas.

  13. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure--United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-04-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.

  14. Disclosure of information to adult cancer patients: issues and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R J

    1984-08-01

    Clinicians are regularly faced with decisions regarding disclosure of information to cancer patients. Many of these decisions constitute a dilemma between the physician's paternalistic concern for the patient and the patient's right to know as much as possible. This paper reviews changes in the attitudes of physicians over the last several decades, elaborates on the problems that confront the clinician in the process of disclosure, and reviews the available data concerning the documented impact on the patient from receiving or not receiving information. The arguments both supporting and challenging the paternalistic view are discussed, and the necessity for viewing the disclosure of clinical information as a clinical process is offered.

  15. Neural correlates of informational cascades: brain mechanisms of social influence on belief updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rafael E; Klucharev, Vasily; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Informational cascades can occur when rationally acting individuals decide independently of their private information and follow the decisions of preceding decision-makers. In the process of updating beliefs, differences in the weighting of private and publicly available social information may modulate the probability that a cascade starts in a decisive way. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activity while participants updated their beliefs based on the decisions of two fictitious stock market traders and their own private information, which led to a final decision of buying one of two stocks. Computational modeling of the behavioral data showed that a majority of participants overweighted private information. Overweighting was negatively correlated with the probability of starting an informational cascade in trials especially prone to conformity. Belief updating by private information was related to activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex; the more a participant overweighted private information, the higher the activity in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and the lower in the parietal-temporal cortex. This study explores the neural correlates of overweighting of private information, which underlies the tendency to start an informational cascade. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 19 CFR 149.2 - Importer security filing-requirement, time of transmission, verification of information, update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transmission, verification of information, update, withdrawal, compliance date. 149.2 Section 149.2 Customs..., verification of information, update, withdrawal, compliance date. (a) Importer security filing required. For...) Verification of information. Where the party electronically presenting to CBP the Importer Security Filing...

  17. Research Update: Performance Pay for Teachers. Information Capsule. Volume 0911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing recognition that the traditional teacher salary schedule does not reward the most effective teachers, most U.S. school districts don't offer teacher incentives for improving student performance and the vast majority of teachers actually oppose such a plan. This Information Capsule reviewed recent studies conducted on…

  18. Advances in Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Monitoring of Zika Virus: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj K.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Malik, Yashpal S.; Bueno-Marí, Rubén

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with numerous human health-related disorders, including fetal microcephaly, neurological signs, and autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Perceiving the ZIKA associated losses, in 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global public health emergency. In consequence, an upsurge in the research on ZIKV was seen around the globe, with significant attainments over developing several effective diagnostics, drugs, therapies, and vaccines countering this life-threatening virus at an early step. State-of-art tools developed led the researchers to explore virus at the molecular level, and in-depth epidemiological investigations to understand the reason for increased pathogenicity and different clinical manifestations. These days, ZIKV infection is diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, along with serological and molecular detection tools. As, isolation of ZIKV is a tedious task; molecular assays such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time qRT-PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), lateral flow assays (LFAs), biosensors, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) tests, strand invasion-based amplification tests and immune assays like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are in-use to ascertain the ZIKV infection or Zika fever. Herein, this review highlights the recent advances in the diagnosis, surveillance, and monitoring of ZIKV. These new insights gained from the recent advances can aid in the rapid and definitive detection of this virus and/or Zika fever. The summarized information will aid the strategies to design and adopt effective prevention and control strategies to counter this viral pathogen of great public health concern. PMID:29403448

  19. Email Reminders Increase the Frequency That Pet Owners Update Their Microchip Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stray animals with incorrect microchip details are less likely to be reclaimed, and unclaimed strays are at increased risk of euthanasia. A retrospective cohort study was performed using 394,747 cats and 904,909 dogs registered with Australia’s largest microchip database to describe animal characteristics, determine whether annual email reminders increased the frequency that owners updated their information, and to compare frequencies of microchip information updates according to pet and owner characteristics. More than twice as many dogs (70% than cats (30% were registered on the database; the most numerous pure-breeds were Ragdoll cats and Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs, and the number of registered animals per capita varied by Australian state or territory. Owners were more likely (p < 0.001 to update their details soon after they were sent a reminder email, compared to immediately before that email, and there were significant (p < 0.001 differences in the frequency of owner updates by state or territory of residence, animal species, animal age, and socioeconomic index of the owner’s postcode. This research demonstrates that email reminders increase the probability of owners updating their details on the microchip database, and this could reduce the percentages of stray animals that are unclaimed and subsequently euthanized.

  20. The Role of Mechanism and Covariation Information in Causal Belief Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jose C.; Catena, Andres; Maldonado, Antonio; Candido, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The present study is aimed at identifying how prior causal beliefs and covariation information contribute to belief updating when evidence, either compatible or contradictory with those beliefs, is provided. Participants were presented with a cover story with which it was intended to activate or generate a causal belief. Variables related to the…

  1. An update on mechanism of entry of white spot syndrome virus into shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao

    2017-08-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The origin of genetic information: viruses as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, M

    1993-12-15

    A living entity can be described as a complex adaptive system which differs from any, however complex, chemical structure by its capability of functional self-organization based on the processing of information. If one asks, where does this information come from and what is its primary semantics, the answer is: information generates itself in feedback loops via replication and selection, the objective being 'to be or not to be'. This paper describes the theoretical framework of information-generating systems and provides experimental clues for some basic forms of genetic organization, such as molecular quasi-species, hypercyclic and compartmentalized RNA-protein assemblies. The results are primarily obtained with RNA viruses and virus-like systems. The experiments are carried out with the help of automated, computer-controlled bioreactors, called 'evolution machines', that may form the basis of a new 'evolutionary biotechnology'.

  3. Updated CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus-infected health-care providers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    This report updates the 1991 CDC recommendations for the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected health-care providers and students to reduce risk for transmitting HBV to patients during the conduct of exposure-prone invasive procedures (CDC. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-8]). This update reflects changes in the epidemiology of HBV infection in the United States and advances in the medical management of chronic HBV infection and policy directives issued by health authorities since 1991. The primary goal of this report is to promote patient safety while providing risk management and practice guidance to HBV-infected health-care providers and students, particularly those performing exposure-prone procedures such as certain types of surgery. Because percutaneous injuries sustained by health-care personnel during certain surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures provide a potential route of HBV transmission to patients as well as providers, this report emphasizes prevention of operator injuries and blood exposures during exposure-prone surgical, obstetrical, and dental procedures. These updated recommendations reaffirm the 1991 CDC recommendation that HBV infection alone should not disqualify infected persons from the practice or study of surgery, dentistry, medicine, or allied health fields. The previous recommendations have been updated to include the following changes: no prenotification of patients of a health-care provider's or student's HBV status; use of HBV DNA serum levels rather than hepatitis B e-antigen status to monitor infectivity; and, for those health-care professionals requiring oversight, specific suggestions for composition of expert review panels and threshold value of serum HBV DNA considered "safe" for practice (<1,000 IU/ml). These recommendations also explicitly address the issue of medical and

  4. Update: nuclear power program information and data, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATE is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interst to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.

  5. Update: nuclear power program information and data, March-April 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATE is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interest to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.

  6. Providing Doctors With High-Quality Information: An Updated Evaluation of Web-Based Point-of-Care Information Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Koren Hyogene; González-Lorenzo, Marien; Banzi, Rita; Bonovas, Stefanos; Moja, Lorenzo

    2016-01-19

    The complexity of modern practice requires health professionals to be active information-seekers. Our aim was to review the quality and progress of point-of-care information summaries-Web-based medical compendia that are specifically designed to deliver pre-digested, rapidly accessible, comprehensive, and periodically updated information to health care providers. We aimed to evaluate product claims of being evidence-based. We updated our previous evaluations by searching Medline, Google, librarian association websites, and conference proceedings from August 2012 to December 2014. We included Web-based, regularly updated point-of-care information summaries with claims of being evidence-based. We extracted data on the general characteristics and content presentation of products, and we quantitatively assessed their breadth of disease coverage, editorial quality, and evidence-based methodology. We assessed potential relationships between these dimensions and compared them with our 2008 assessment. We screened 58 products; 26 met our inclusion criteria. Nearly a quarter (6/26, 23%) were newly identified in 2014. We accessed and analyzed 23 products for content presentation and quantitative dimensions. Most summaries were developed by major publishers in the United States and the United Kingdom; no products derived from low- and middle-income countries. The main target audience remained physicians, although nurses and physiotherapists were increasingly represented. Best Practice, Dynamed, and UptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions. The majority of products did not excel across all dimensions: we found only a moderate positive correlation between editorial quality and evidence-based methodology (r=.41, P=.0496). However, all dimensions improved from 2008: editorial quality (P=.01), evidence-based methodology (P=.015), and volume of diseases and medical conditions (PUptoDate scored the highest across all dimensions, while others that were marketed as evidence

  7. UPDATE: nuclear power program information and data, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NBM--6011986

    1981-01-01

    UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATA is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interest to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.

  8. Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubareva, Larisa V; Besselaar, Terry G; Daniels, Rod S; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicki; Huang, Weijuan; Hurt, Aeron C; Jorquera, Patricia A; Lackenby, Angie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Lo, Janice; Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Siqueira, Marilda M; Takashita, Emi; Odagiri, Takato; Wang, Dayan; Zhang, Wenqing; Meijer, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) assessed antiviral susceptibility of 14,330 influenza A and B viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres (NICs) between May 2015 and May 2016. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for NA inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Furthermore, NA sequences from 13,484 influenza viruses were retrieved from public sequence databases and screened for amino acid substitutions (AAS) associated with reduced inhibition (RI) or highly reduced inhibition (HRI) by NAIs. Of the viruses tested by WHO CCs 93% were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 0.8% (n = 113) exhibited either RI or HRI by at least one of four NAIs. As in previous seasons, the most common NA AAS was H275Y in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which confers HRI by oseltamivir and peramivir. Two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carried a rare NA AAS, S247R, shown in this study to confer RI/HRI by the four NAIs. The overall frequency of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses containing NA AAS associated with RI/HRI was approximately 1.8% (125/6915), which is slightly higher than in the previous 2014-15 season (0.5%). Three B/Victoria-lineage viruses contained a new AAS, NA H134N, which conferred HRI by zanamivir and laninamivir, and borderline HRI by peramivir. A single B/Victoria-lineage virus harboured NA G104E, which was associated with HRI by all four NAIs. The overall frequency of RI/HRI phenotype among type B viruses was approximately 0.6% (43/7677), which is lower than that in the previous season. Overall, the vast majority (>99%) of the viruses tested by WHO CCs were susceptible to all four NAIs, showing normal inhibition (NI). Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antivirals for treatment of

  9. Update: Interim Guidance for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Tolulope; Godfred-Cato, Shana; Viens, Laura; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Kuhnert-Tallman, Wendi; Walke, Henry; Oduyebo, Titilope; Polen, Kara; Peacock, Georgina; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Moore, Cynthia A

    2017-10-20

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection (1) in response to recently published updated guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure (2), unknown sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests for congenital Zika virus infection, and recognition of additional clinical findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection. All infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus exposure* during pregnancy should receive a standard evaluation at birth and at each subsequent well-child visit including a comprehensive physical examination, age-appropriate vision screening and developmental monitoring and screening using validated tools (3-5), and newborn hearing screen at birth, preferably using auditory brainstem response (ABR) methodology (6). Specific guidance for laboratory testing and clinical evaluation are provided for three clinical scenarios in the setting of possible maternal Zika virus exposure: 1) infants with clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome regardless of maternal testing results, 2) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection, † and 3) infants without clinical findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome who were born to mothers without laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection. Infants in the first two scenarios should receive further testing and evaluation for Zika virus, whereas for the third group, further testing and clinical evaluation for Zika virus are not recommended. Health care providers should remain alert for abnormal findings (e.g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities without microcephaly) in infants with possible congenital Zika virus exposure without apparent abnormalities at birth.

  10. Recent advances in vesicular stomatitis virus-based oncolytic virotherapy: a 5-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Sébastien A; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2017-11-16

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anti-cancer approach that uses viruses that preferentially infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) is an OV that is currently being tested in the USA in several phase I clinical trials against different malignancies. Several factors make VSV a promising OV: lack of pre-existing human immunity against VSV, a small and easy to manipulate genome, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host cell transformation, independence of cell cycle and rapid growth to high titres in a broad range of cell lines facilitating large-scale virus production. While significant advances have been made in VSV-based OV therapy, room for improvement remains. Here we review recent studies (published in the last 5 years) that address 'old' and 'new' challenges of VSV-based OV therapy. These studies focused on improving VSV safety, oncoselectivity and oncotoxicity; breaking resistance of some cancers to VSV; preventing premature clearance of VSV; and stimulating tumour-specific immunity. Many of these approaches were based on combining VSV with other therapeutics. This review also discusses another rhabdovirus closely related to VSV, Maraba virus, which is currently being tested in Canada in phase I/II clinical trials.

  11. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Iglesias, María; de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, María; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-10-08

    The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario. The nutrition facts declared on the labels of non-alcoholic beverages by manufacturers in Spain were compiled and studied. The database included 211 beverages classified in 7 groups with energy/carbohydrate content per 100 mL ranging from 0-55 kcal/0-13 g for soft drinks; 2-60 kcal/0-14.5 g for energy drinks; 24-31 kcal/5.8-7.5 g for sports drinks; 1-32 kcal/0-7.3 g for drinks containing mineral salts in their composition; 14-69 kcal/2.6-17 g for fruit juice, nectar, and grape musts; 43-78 kcal/6.1-14.4 g for vegetable drinks; and 33-88 kcal/3.6-14 g for dairy drinks. The current non-alcoholic beverage market is a dynamic, growing, and highly innovative one, allowing consumers to choose according to their preferences, needs, or level of physical activity at any moment of the day.

  12. Professional activity, information demands, training and updating needs of occupational medicine physicians in Italy: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Persechino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Occupational medicine is a discipline continually evolving in response to technological advances, changes in workplaces and production processes, emergence of new occupational risks and diseases and modifications in regulatory framework for occupational health and safety. Therefore, the recurrent revaluation of professional activity, information demands and education and training needs of occupational physicians is essential in order to identify methodologies and tools that may contribute to improvement of their professional knowledge and competency. In this regard, we conducted the first large-scale national survey of Italian occupational medicine physicians to define their demographic and professional activity and to assess their information demands, training and updating needs. Material and Methods: A random sample of occupational physicians, listed in the national register of the Italian Ministry of Health, was selected to complete a voluntary survey. Subjects recruited in this study were asked to complete 3 different sections (personal and professional information, training and updating needs, professional activity and practice characteristics of a questionnaire for a total of 35 questions. Results: Most of participants were specialized in occupational medicine, worked for a large number of companies and carried out health surveillance on a total number of workers that exceeds 1500. Occupational physicians would like to have a higher training offer towards practical aspects of health surveillance, risks assessment, manual handling of loads, chemical substances and upper limb biomechanical overload. Interestingly, statistically significant differences were observed subdividing the sample into different groups according to the legal requirements to perform the professional activity of occupational physicians in Italy or according to particular aspects of their professional activity. Conclusions: This study has provided interesting

  13. UPDATE ON PREVALENCE, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (Master Degree Thesis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    HBV is a Hepatotropic DNA-containing virus, discovered in 1966 by Blumberg. The virion of hepatitis B (Dane particle) consists of surface and core with a diameter of 42 nm (Kumar and Agrawal, 2004). The protein composition of HBV particles; either surface protein (HBs proteins) composed of LHBs (largest Hepatitis B proteins), MHBs (middle Hepatitis B proteins), SHBs (small Hepatitis B proteins) or core proteins; composed of HBc protein and HBe protein. The world health organization (WHO, 2...

  14. Critical appraisal and update on tenofovir in management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Elena Alvarez1, Judit Morello1, Vincent Soriano2, Pablo Labarga2, Sonia Rodriguez-Nóvoa11Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Unit, Service of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Tenofovir is currently one of the most widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV due to its good efficacy, tolerability, and convenience as a once-daily dosage. It is a drug of choice both for first-line therapy in naïve and pretreated patients, along with two other active drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Moreover, tenofovir can be used to treat hepatitis B virus-infected patients as well as coinfected patients who meet criteria to be treated for HIV or hepatitis B virus infection, and more recently some studies have supported its use as part of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Although large clinical trials and postmarketing studies have shown a gentle renal profile for tenofovir, some prospective cohort studies and case reports have raised concern about renal damage and bone disorders associated with use of tenofovir in a small proportion of patients, and apprehension lingers over its long-term usage. Renal toxicity from tenofovir seems to be linked to tubular damage, so classical markers for monitoring renal function that mainly assess glomerular function would not be advisable to detect early renal impairment. Management of toxicity associated with tenofovir should be based on assessment of optimal biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of renal disease.Keywords: tenofovir, antiretroviral treatment, kidney, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B

  15. Update on Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    1971. Viral hepatits type B MS-2 strain): studies on active immunization. JAMA 217:41-45. Lau, J. Y. N., and T. L. Wright. 1993. Molecular virology...ISSUES ZZZZZZZ362 Mutant Viruses 362 Public Health Considerations 362 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 363 REFERENCES 363 INTRODUCTION Viral hepatitis is a...evidence of a viral cause with at least two etiologic agents (60, 100, 101). In 1947, MacCallum and Bauer (100) proposed the current nomenclature of

  16. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-22

    Say), and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Mosquito larvae and pupae (Ae. vexans, Oc. canadensis, and Oc. cantator) were collected in Westport...Scott. 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1385Ð1391. Hardy, J. L. 1988. Susceptibility and... California . Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 14: 170Ð177. Turell, M. J., T. P. Gargan, I. I., and C. L. Bailey. 1984. Replication anddissemination ofRift Valley

  17. Cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beineke, Andreas; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wohlsein, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a pantropic morbillivirus with a worldwide distribution, which causes fatal disease in dogs. Affected animals develop dyspnea, diarrhea, neurological signs and profound immunosuppression. Systemic CDV infection, resembling distemper in domestic dogs, can be found also in wild canids (e.g. wolves, foxes), procyonids (e.g. raccoons, kinkajous), ailurids (e.g. red pandas), ursids (e.g. black bears, giant pandas), mustelids (e.g. ferrets, minks), viverrids (e.g. civets, genets), hyaenids (e.g. spotted hyenas), and large felids (e.g. lions, tigers). Furthermore, besides infection with the closely related phocine distemper virus, seals can become infected by CDV. In some CDV outbreaks including the mass mortalities among Baikal and Caspian seals and large felids in the Serengeti Park, terrestrial carnivores including dogs and wolves have been suspected as vectors for the infectious agent. In addition, lethal infections have been described in non-carnivore species such as peccaries and non-human primates demonstrating the remarkable ability of the pathogen to cross species barriers. Mutations affecting the CDV H protein required for virus attachment to host-cell receptors are associated with virulence and disease emergence in novel host species. The broad and expanding host range of CDV and its maintenance within wildlife reservoir hosts considerably hampers disease eradication.

  18. Zika virus: An updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Talaga, Stanislas; Epelboin, Loïc; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the Americas. Over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among African, Asian, and Pacific Island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban ZIKV outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. This paper is a systematic review intended to list all mosquito species studied for ZIKV infection or for their vector competence. We discuss whether studies on ZIKV vectors have brought enough evidence to formally exclude other mosquitoes than Aedes species (and particularly Aedes aegypti) to be ZIKV vectors. From 1952 to August 15, 2017, ZIKV has been studied in 53 mosquito species, including 6 Anopheles, 26 Aedes, 11 Culex, 2 Lutzia, 3 Coquillettidia, 2 Mansonia, 2 Eretmapodites, and 1 Uranotaenia. Among those, ZIKV was isolated from 16 different Aedes species. The only species other than Aedes genus for which ZIKV was isolated were Anopheles coustani, Anopheles gambiae, Culex perfuscus, and Mansonia uniformis. Vector competence assays were performed on 22 different mosquito species, including 13 Aedes, 7 Culex, and 2 Anopheles species with, as a result, the discovery that A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus were competent for ZIKV, as well as some other Aedes species, and that there was a controversy surrounding Culex quinquefasciatus competence. Although Culex, Anopheles, and most of Aedes species were generally observed to be refractory to ZIKV infection, other potential vectors transmitting ZIKV should be explored.

  19. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Japan: update on therapy and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayama, Kazuaki; Hayes, C Nelson; Ohishi, Waka; Kawakami, Yoshiiku

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem leading to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The recent introduction of telaprevir, which was approved in November 2011, in combination with peg-interferon and ribavirin is expected to markedly improve the eradication rate of the virus. However, side effects of triple therapy may be severe. In a phase three III clinical trial, 2250 mg of telaprevir, which is the same dosage used in clinical trials in Western countries, was given to Japanese patients. As this dosage is considered to be relatively high for Japanese patients, who typically have lower weight than patients in Western countries, reduction of telaprevir is recommended in the 2012 revision of the guidelines established by the Study Group for the Standardization of Treatment of Viral Hepatitis Including Cirrhosis published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Other protease inhibitors with fewer side effects are now in clinical trials in Japan. Alternatively, treatment of patients with combination of direct acting antivirals without interferon has been reported. In this review we summarize current treatment options in Japan and discuss how we treat patients with chronic HCV infection.

  20. Rotavirus virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) vaccines: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changotra, Harish; Vij, Avni

    2017-10-19

    Rotaviruses (RVs) cause over 0.2 million deaths annually and are reported to be the foremost cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. Vaccination against RVs is the most successful and unsurpassed strategy to combat infection to date. Although the 2 current vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have dramatically reduced the disease burden, still there is a need for new vaccines. In this context, RV virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) represent potential vaccine candidates as they are noninfectious and effective nonreplicating immunogens that may reduce the risk of side effects related to the conventional vaccines. VLPs being conformationally similar to the parent virus are highly immunogenic and hence provide enhanced protection and better serotype coverage. In this review, we have highlighted the various advantages and the implications of RV-VLPs, discussed the general strategies employed for their production, and talked about the recent developments made in this regard. Overall, the review emphasizes the probable utility of RV-VLPs in eradicating the highly widespread RVs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partner: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banholzer, Maria Longauer; Wandel, Christoph; Barrow, Paul; Mannino, Marie; Schmitt, Georg; Guérard, Melanie; Müller, Lutz; Greig, Gerard; Amemiya, Kenjie; Peck, Richard; Singer, Thomas; Doessegger, Lucette

    2016-12-01

    This is an update to our 2012 publication on clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partner, after critical review of recent (draft) guidances released by the International Council for Harmonisation [ICH] the Clinical Trial Facilitation Group [CTFG] and the US Food & Drug Administration [FDA]. Relevant aspects of the new guidance documents are discussed in the context of male contraception and pregnancy reporting from female partner in clinical trials and the approach is updated accordingly. Genotoxicity The concept of a threshold is introduced using acceptable daily intake/permissible daily exposure to define genotoxicity requirements, hence highly effective contraception in order to avoid conception. The duration for highly effective contraception has been extended from 74 to 90 days from the end of relevant systemic exposure. Teratogenicity Pharmacokinetic considerations to estimate safety margins have been contextualized with regard to over- and underestimation of the risk of teratogenicity transmitted by a vaginal dose. The duration of male contraception after the last dose takes into account the end of relevant systemic exposure if measured, or a default period of five half-lives after last dose for small molecules and two half-lives for immunoglobulins (mAbs). Measures to prevent exposure of the conceptus via a vaginal dose apply to reproductively competent or vasectomized men, unless measurements fail to detect the compound in seminal fluid. Critical review of new guidance documents provides a comparison across approaches and resulted in an update of our previous publication. Separate algorithms for small molecules and monoclonal antibodies are proposed to guide the recommendations for contraception for male trial participants and pregnancy reporting from female partners. No male contraception is required if the dose is below a defined threshold for genotoxic concern applicable to small

  2. Composition and Nutrient Information of Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Spanish Market: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Serrano Iglesias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario. Materials and Methods: The nutrition facts declared on the labels of non-alcoholic beverages by manufacturers in Spain were compiled and studied. Results: The database included 211 beverages classified in 7 groups with energy/carbohydrate content per 100 mL ranging from 0–55 kcal/0–13 g for soft drinks; 2–60 kcal/0–14.5 g for energy drinks; 24–31 kcal/5.8–7.5 g for sports drinks; 1–32 kcal/0–7.3 g for drinks containing mineral salts in their composition; 14–69 kcal/2.6–17 g for fruit juice, nectar, and grape musts; 43–78 kcal/6.1–14.4 g for vegetable drinks; and 33–88 kcal/3.6–14 g for dairy drinks. Conclusion: The current non-alcoholic beverage market is a dynamic, growing, and highly innovative one, allowing consumers to choose according to their preferences, needs, or level of physical activity at any moment of the day.

  3. 21 CFR 1.234 - How and when do you update your facility's registration information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... access to the Internet through any of the methods described in § 1.231(a)), you may update your facility... through any of the methods provided under § 1.231(a), you may update your facilities' registrations by CD-ROM. (1) Registrants submitting their updates in CD-ROM format must use ISO 9660 (CD-R or CD-RW) data...

  4. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Dialysis Patients: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Weclawiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a blood-borne infection and its prevalence used to be elevated in hemodialysis (HD patients. Its main mode of contamination relies on nosocomial transmission. HCV infection is frequently associated in HD patients with normal liver enzymes whereas liver histology can display some degree of HCV-related lesions. The assessment of HCV-related lesions, even in HD dialysis patients, can be done via noninvasive tests. After kidney transplantation, HCV-related lesions can worsen; however, in this setting antiviral treatment harbors the risk of acute rejection. Therefore, it is recommended to implement antiviral treatment while the patient is receiving dialysis therapy. In this setting, the rate of viral clearance is usually high. In case of sustained virological response, no relapse occurs after kidney transplantation, despite heavy immunosuppression.

  5. Hepatitis B virus and its sexually transmitted infection – an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Inoue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: About 5% of the world’s population has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, and nearly 25% of carriers develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals is 5%-15%; HIV/HBV coinfected individuals have a higher level of HBV replication, with higher rates of chronicity, reactivation, occult infection, and HCC than individuals with HBV only. The prevalence of HBV genotype A is significantly higher among men who have sex with men (MSM, compared with the rest of the population. Molecular mechanisms of infection, pathology, and symptomatology: HBV replication begins with entry into the hepatocyte. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide was identified in 2012 as the entry receptor of HBV. Although chronic hepatitis B develops slowly, HIV/HBV coinfected individuals show more rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Transmission and protection: The most common sources of HBV infection are body fluids. Hepatitis B (HB vaccination is recommended for all children and adolescents, and all unvaccinated adults at risk for HBV infection (sexually active individuals such as MSM, individuals with occupational risk, and immunosuppressed individuals. Although HB vaccination can prevent clinical infections (hepatitis, it cannot prevent 100% of subclinical infections. Treatment and curability: The goal of treatment is reducing the risk of complications (cirrhosis and HCC. Pegylated interferon alfa and nucleos(tide analogues (NAs are the current treatments for chronic HBV infection. NAs have improved the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, and decreased the incidence of acute liver failure.

  6. Equilibrium Decision Method for Earthquake First-Aid Medicine Allocation Based on Demand Information Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of rescue resources after an earthquake has become a popular research topic in the field of emergency management. The allocation of first-aid medicine for earthquake rescue has stronger time sensitivity than that of general rescue materials. This study focuses on the problem of first-aid medicine allocation in earthquake response. First, we consider the incompleteness and renewal of decision information in an emergency environment, as well as the balance between the risk of decision error and delay. Second, we propose an equilibrium decision method for the allocation of first-aid medicine in earthquake rescue based on information update. This method attempts to realize a fair allocation to all disaster places and minimize total transport time loss. Third, a simulation analysis is performed in which the proposed method is applied to the first-aid medicine allocation problem in the Wenchuan earthquake response. Results show that the method can be used to create a good allocation plan in an earthquake rescue situation.

  7. 75 FR 75169 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Update of Nursery Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Update of Nursery Stock Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with regulations for the importation of nursery stock into the United States. DATES: We... regulations for the importation of nursery stock into the United States, contact Mr. Alex Belano, Branch Chief...

  8. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo

    2016-05-01

    updated estimates on cost-effectiveness of interventions and inform policy decisions in country-specific settings.

  10. [GESIDA/National AIDS Plan: Consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines and recommendations for HIV-1 infected adult patients. To formulate these recommendations, a panel composed of members of the AIDS Study Group and the AIDS National Plan (GeSIDA/Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, and cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. The strength of the recommendations, and the evidence that supports them, are based on modified criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. In this update, cART is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and level of the recommendation depends on the CD4+T-lymphocyte count, the presence of opportunistic diseases or comorbid conditions, age, and prevention of transmission of HIV. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial cART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and a third drug from a different family. Three out of the ten recommended regimes are regarded as preferential (all of them with an integrase inhibitor as the third drug), and the other seven (based on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, or an integrase inhibitor) as alternatives. This update presents the causes and criteria for switching cART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load, and in cases of virological failure where rescue cART should comprise 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against the virus. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for cART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid conditions (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer). These new guidelines

  11. [GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan: Consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines for HIV-1 infected adult patients. To formulate these recommendations a panel composed of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. Recommendations strength and the evidence in which they are supported are based on modified criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation varies with the clinical circumstances: CDC stage B or C disease (A-I), asymptomatic patients (depending on the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count: 500 cells/μL, B-III), comorbid conditions (HIV nephropathy, chronic hepatitis caused by HBV or HCV, age >55years, high cardiovascular risk, neurocognitive disorders, and cancer, A-II), and prevention of transmission of HIV (mother-to-child or heterosexual, A-I; men who have sex with men, A-III). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial ART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a third drug from a different family (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, or integrase inhibitor). Some of the possible initial regimens have been considered alternatives. This update presents the causes and criteria for switching ART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load and in cases of virological failure where rescue ART should comprise 2 or 3 drugs that are fully active against the virus. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid

  12. Does the Certainty of Information Influence the Updating Process? Evidence from the Reading of News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Stiegler-Balfour, Jennifer J.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read a series of news articles, each containing a target event followed by 2 causes. To study the ease with which readers update their mental representation as they proceed through the text, the certainty of the first cause was manipulated: It was presented as either a certain explanation of the subsequent target event or as a…

  13. Combining A Priori Knowledge and Sensor Information for Updating the Global Position of an Autonomous Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Z.; Schoute, Albert L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L; Stramigioli, S.

    The problem of updating the global position of an autonomous vehicle is considered. An iterative procedure is proposed to fit a map to a set of noisy measurements. The procedure is inspired by a non-parametric procedure for probability density function mode searching. We show how this could be used

  14. La construcción del virus informático

    OpenAIRE

    Vilches, Lorenzo; Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, España

    2000-01-01

    En este artículo, el autor construye analogías entre el desarrollo de los virus informáticos y el desarrollo del virus del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida - SIDA - desde la perspectiva de la construcción social de la realidad por los medios de comunicación. Se afirma que hay tendencias científicas que exploran el problema de los cada vez más difusos límites entre la vida real y vida artificial. Se construyen analogías entre ambos virus a partir del análisis de percepcioes colectivas f...

  15. [The clinical relevance of drug interactions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: update 2009-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Newar A; Amariles, Pedro; Pino Marín, Daniel E; Faus, María José

    2016-10-01

    To update information about drug interactions in patients with HIV/AIDS. Comprehensive literature review in MEDLINE/PubMed database from May of 2009 to December of 2014, using the Mesh terms: Anti-retroviral agents and drug interactions or herb-drug interactions or food-drug interactions. Publications with drug interactions in humans, in English or Spanish, and with full text were retrieved. Additionally, citation lists from identified articles were reviewed. The study inclusion was assessed by three independent researchers and by consensus among them when was necessary. Clinical relevance of drug interaction was grouped into four levels according to seriously and probability of occurrence. Global, 546 different references were retrieved and 243 were selected. In addition 11 further manuscripts were identified in the references of the included articles. Overall, 935 pairs of drug interactions were identified, 95.7% pharmacokinetic (823 by enzyme induction or inhibition and 67 by changes in bioavailability). Of the 935 pairs of drug interactions, 402(43%) were classified as levels 1 or 2. The most clinically relevant antiretroviral drug interactions are due to pharmacokinetic mechanism, mainly induction or enzyme inhibition, according to previous reviews, the protease inhibitors remain as the antiretrovirals with the highest number of clinical relevant interactions.

  16. Securing image information using double random phase encoding and parallel compressive sensing with updated sampling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiqiang; Xiao, Di; Wang, Yong; Xiang, Tao; Zhou, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a new kind of image encryption approach using compressive sensing (CS) and double random phase encoding has received much attention due to the advantages such as compressibility and robustness. However, this approach is found to be vulnerable to chosen plaintext attack (CPA) if the CS measurement matrix is re-used. Therefore, designing an efficient measurement matrix updating mechanism that ensures resistance to CPA is of practical significance. In this paper, we provide a novel solution to update the CS measurement matrix by altering the secret sparse basis with the help of counter mode operation. Particularly, the secret sparse basis is implemented by a reality-preserving fractional cosine transform matrix. Compared with the conventional CS-based cryptosystem that totally generates all the random entries of measurement matrix, our scheme owns efficiency superiority while guaranteeing resistance to CPA. Experimental and analysis results show that the proposed scheme has a good security performance and has robustness against noise and occlusion.

  17. An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengfeng; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji; Yoshida, Hitoaki

    Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent computer viruses are almost always compressed and obfuscated. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the binary code from the obfuscated computer viruses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method that unpacks compressed computer viruses automatically independent of the compression format. The proposed method unpacks the common compression formats accurately 80% of the time, while unknown compression formats can also be unpacked. The proposed method is effective against unknown viruses by combining it with the existing known virus detection system like Paul Graham's Bayesian Virus Filter etc.

  18. The Utility of Social Media in Providing Information on Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Gressick, Kimberly; Singh, Vivek; Kwal, Jaclyn; Cap, Natalia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Curry, Christine L

    2017-10-23

    Introduction In 2015, there was an outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil that spread throughout the Americas. The association of Zika virus with birth defects in infants born to infected pregnant women created concern for women of childbearing age. Social media is an important platform for health promotion, communication, and education on preventative methods during Zika virus outbreaks. Methods We evaluated the utility of social media on providing information regarding Zika virus. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube were utilized for our study. A search of the term "#Zikavirus" on Twitter and Instagram, and "Zika virus" on Facebook and YouTube was performed. The first 50 search results were analyzed from each source. Only English, Spanish, or Portuguese results were included. Results were categorized into three groups: "Useful", "Not Useful", or "Misleading". Results Search was conducted on December 17th, 2016, with 185 results. Forty (21.6%) were from Facebook, 50 (27%) from Twitter, 48 (25.9%) from YouTube, and 47 (25.4%) from Instagram. A total of 104 (56.22%) results were "Useful", 67 (36.2%) "Not Useful", and 14 (7.5%) were "Misleading". There were significantly more "Useful" results compared to "Not Useful" and "Misleading" results (Fisher's exact: p < 0.0001). Conclusion Social media is a useful resource for providing relevant information on Zika virus. Young women can utilize social media for Zika virus information. The role of social media in public health should be further investigated and established. Patient education interventions should focus on social media impact on behavior modification and education of public to recognize useful information.

  19. Computational Comparison and Visualization of Viruses in the Perspective of Clinical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, António M; Machado, J A Tenreiro; Galhano, Alexandra M

    2017-04-08

    This paper addresses the visualization of complex information using multidimensional scaling (MDS). MDS is a technique adopted for processing data with multiple features scattered in high-dimensional spaces. For illustrating the proposed techniques, the case of viral diseases is considered. The study evaluates the characteristics of 21 viruses in the perspective of clinical information. Several new schemes are proposed for improving the visualization of the MDS charts. The results follow standard clinical practice, proving that the method represents a valuable tool to study a large number of viruses.

  20. Are Aquatic Viruses a Biological Archive of Genetic Information from Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toparceanu, F.; Negoita, Gh. T.; Nita, I. I.; Sava, D.

    2009-04-01

    After 1990, when the viruses were admited as the most abundant lifeforms from aquatic environments, it became obvious that viral lysis had an essential role on release and recycling of nutrients. Studies on cellular cultures and modeling suggest that this is an important quantitative process. The viruses from oceans represent the widest source of genetic diversity on the Earth, uncharacterized yet. The ancient lifeforms records stretching back a million years are locked in ice caps. The trend of glaciers melting as effect of actual climate change will promote the release of ancient viruses from ice caps. The increasing of the freshwater layer led to the replace of some algae species by others. Law-Racovitza Station (69o23'S 76o23'E) from East Antarctica (Larsemann Hills Oasis) offers opportunities to study the Antarctic marine ecosystem, as well as archaic aquatic ecosystems from this area ( 150 lakes and waterways resulted from ice and snow melting during the austral summer). According to Law-Racovitza Station Scientific Program, we are performing studies regarding the effect of climate changes on virus-algae host relationship in these aquatic ecosystems. Phycodnaviruses, that infect the eukaryote algae, are comprised of ancient genes and they are considered a "peek" of genetic diversity useful in biological studies and exobiology regarding the evolution of genetic sequencing. The latest discoveries of the giant aquatic viruses open the unexpected perspectives for understanding the role of viral infection in global ecosystem; beyond the old concept which considered that the viruses were only etiological agents of human, animals and plants illnesses. The aquatic viruses which infect microalgae contain similar genes of other viruses, bacteria, arhebacteria and eukaryotes, all of them being on the same genome. Which is the signification of enormous abundance of viruses and excessive diversity of genetic information encoded by viruses? There is the possibility that

  1. 30 CFR 778.9 - Certifying and updating existing permit application information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information already in AVS is accurate and complete may certify to us by swearing or affirming, under oath and... corrections and swear or affirm, under oath and in writing, that the information you submit is accurate and... swear or affirm, under oath and in writing, that all information you provide in an application is...

  2. Review, Revise, and (re)Release: Updating an Information Literacy Tutorial to Embed a Science Information Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Jeffra Diane; Plovnick, Caitlin E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, University of California, Irvine (UCI) Libraries launched their first Find Science Information online tutorial. It was an innovative web-based tool, containing not only informative content but also interactive activities, embedded hyperlinked resources, and reflective quizzes, all designed primarily to educate undergraduate science…

  3. Zika virus pandemic-analysis of Facebook as a social media health information platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Megha; Yadav, Kapil; Yadav, Nitika; Ferdinand, Keith C

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of Zika virus in the United States has generated a lot of activity on social media focusing on the algorithmic increase in the spread of the disease and its concerning complications. Accurate and credible dissemination of correct information about the arbovirus could help in decreasing the pandemic spread and associated apprehension in the population. Our study examined the effective use of the social media site Facebook (Facebook Inc, Menlo Park, CA) as an information source for the Zika virus pandemic. We found that the misleading posts were far more popular than the posts dispersing accurate, relevant public health information about the disease. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of information on the Internet about carpal tunnel syndrome: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Kevin; Bernstein, Joseph; Beredjiklian, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The use of the Internet for health-related information has increased significantly. In 2000, the current authors examined the source and content of orthopedic information on the Internet. At that time, Internet information regarding carpal tunnel syndrome was found to be of limited quality and poor informational value. The purposes of the current study were to reevaluate the type and quality of information on the Internet regarding carpal tunnel syndrome and to determine whether the quality of information available has improved compared with 1 decade ago. The phrase carpal tunnel syndrome was entered into the 5 most commonly used Internet search engines. The top 50 nonsponsored and the top 5 sponsored universal resource locators identified by each search engine were collected. Each unique Web site was evaluated for authorship and content, and an informational score ranging from 0 to 100 points was assigned. Approximately one-third of nonsponsored Web sites were commercial sites or selling commercial products. Seventy-six percent of sponsored sites were selling a product for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Thirty-eight percent of nonsponsored sites provided unconventional information, and 48% of sponsored sites provided misleading information. Just more than half of nonsponsored sites were authored by a physician or academic institution. The informational mean score was 53.8 points for nonsponsored sites and 14.5 points for sponsored sites. The informational quality on the Internet on carpal tunnel syndrome has improved over the past decade. Despite this progress, significant room exists for improvement in the quality and completeness of the information available. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Update and Commentary on Four Emerging Tick-Borne Infections: Ehrlichia muris-like Agent, Borrelia miyamotoi, Deer Tick Virus, Heartland Virus, and Whether Ticks Play a Role in Transmission of Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; Pritt, Bobbi

    2015-06-01

    Emerging tick-borne infections continue to be observed in the United States and elsewhere. Current information on the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of infections due to Ehrlichia muris-like agent, deer tick virus, Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato, and Heartland virus was provided and critically reviewed. More research is needed to define the incidence and to understand the clinical and the laboratory features of these infections. There is also a growing need for the development of sensitive and specific serologic and molecular assays for these infections that are easily accessible to clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Information Seeking by Geoscientists: An Update on Bichteler and Ward (1989)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstad, Knut; Hertzum, Morten

    2018-01-01

    , and the library database). Bibliographic databases were used infrequently and perceived as yielding poorer quality results than consulting a colleague. The likelihood of using web search and colleagues to find information about a new topic was determined by the ease of using these sources. In contrast...... more journal articles and conference papers. Research limitations/implications – Geoscientists’ use of an information source is self-reinforcing and unlikely to increase through improving its quality alone. It should be noted that the study is restricted to one geoscience organization. Originality......Purpose – This study investigates how often geoscientists use different information sources and how this pattern of source use balances their perceptions of the quality and ease of use of the information sources. Design/methodology/approach – The geoscientists at the Geological Survey of Norway...

  7. Report: Follow-Up Review - EPA Updated Information for Indoor Mold Research Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0308, September 8, 2016. Corrective actions taken by the EPA should help ensure that the public has correct information about EPA approved technology and tools for evaluating indoor mold.

  8. Efficient Structural System Reliability Updating with Subspace-Based Damage Detection Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Michael; Thöns, Sebastian

    and prognosis is hardly exploited nor treated in scientific literature up to now. In order to utilize the information provided by DDS for the structural performance, usually high computational efforts for the pre-determination of DDS reliability are required. In this paper, an approach for the DDS performance......Damage detection systems and algorithms (DDS and DDA) provide information of the structural system integrity in contrast to e.g. local information by inspections or non-destructive testing techniques. However, the potential of utilizing DDS information for the structural integrity assessment...... modelling is introduced building upon the non-destructive testing reliability which applies to structural systems and DDS containing a strategy to overcome the high computational efforts for the pre-determination of the DDS reliability. This approach takes basis in the subspace-based damage detection method...

  9. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrós, Silvia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Peña, Leandro; Moreno, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumors were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumors, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests (1) strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and (2) the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and reliable system.

  10. An Update on Analyzing Differences Between Public and Private Sector Information Resource Management: Strategic Information Challenges and Critical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    ecommerce architecture is the business —it is the company’s competitive advantage. (Morgan, 1998:40) Morgan goes on to illustrate this point by...It Can Work in the Public Sector,” MIS Quarterly, Dec:435-448, 1990. Morgan, T.P. “ Ecommerce Options,” Global Technology Business , Sept:40-42...to focus on managing information resources and IT as a business , conducting performance reviews of these programs, and trying to change agency

  11. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Autism Breast Cancer Cardiomyopathy Colorectal Cancer Diabetes Familial Hypercholesterolemia Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Influenza Listeriosis Lynch Syndrome Malaria Osteoporosis Sudden Death Tuberculosis Zika Virus Updates on Specific Topics Big Data ...

  12. Use of distributed snow cover information to update snow storages of a lumped rainfall-runoff model operationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisniak, D.; Meissner, D.; Klein, B.; Pinzinger, R.

    2013-12-01

    The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) offers navigational water-level forecasting services on the Federal Waterways, like the rivers Rhine and Danube. In cooperation with the Federal States this mandate also includes the forecasting of flood events. For the River Rhine, the most frequented inland waterway in Central Europe, the BfG employs a hydrological model (HBV) coupled to a hydraulic model (SOBEK) by the FEWS-framework to perform daily forecasts of water-levels operationally. Sensitivity studies have shown that the state of soil water storage in the hydrological model is a major factor of uncertainty when performing short- to medium-range forecasts some days ahead. Taking into account the various additional sources of uncertainty associated with hydrological modeling, including measurement uncertainties, it is essential to estimate an optimal initial state of the soil water storage before propagating it in time, forced by meteorological forecasts, and transforming it into discharge. We show, that using the Ensemble Kalman Filter these initial states can be updated straightforward under certain hydrologic conditions. However, this approach is not sufficient if the runoff is mainly generated by snow melt. Since the snow cover evolution is modeled rather poorly by the HBV-model in our operational setting, flood events caused by snow melt are consistently underestimated by the HBV-model, which has long term effects in basins characterized by a nival runoff regime. Thus, it appears beneficial to update the snow storage of the HBV-model with information derived from regionalized snow cover observations. We present a method to incorporate spatially distributed snow cover observations into the lumped HBV-model. We show the plausibility of this approach and asses the benefits of a coupled snow cover and soil water storage updating, which combine a direct insertion with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The Ensemble Kalman Filter used here takes into account the

  13. Ebola virus - epidemiology, diagnosis, and control: threat to humans, lessons learnt, and preparedness plans - an update on its 40 year's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Khandia, Rekha; Tiwari, Ruchi; Munjal, Ashok; Saminathan, Mani; Sachan, Swati; Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Joshi, Sunil Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. For curbing the disease timely, we need effective therapeutics/prophylactics, however, in the absence of any approved vaccine, timely diagnosis and monitoring of EBOV remains of utmost importance. The technologically advanced vaccines like a viral-vectored vaccine, DNA vaccine and virus-like particles are underway for testing against EBOV. In the absence of any effective control measure, the adaptation of high standards of biosecurity measures, strict sanitary and hygienic practices, strengthening of surveillance and monitoring systems, imposing appropriate quarantine checks and vigilance on trade, transport, and movement of visitors from EVD endemic countries remains the answer of choice for tackling the EBOV spread. Herein, we converse with the current scenario of EBOV giving due emphasis on animal and veterinary perspectives along with advances in diagnosis and control strategies to be adopted, lessons learned from the recent outbreaks and the global preparedness plans. To retrieve the evolutionary information, we have analyzed a total of 56 genome sequences of various EBOV species submitted between 1976 and 2016 in public databases.

  14. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  15. 76 FR 12361 - Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...) communication and information, and (10) applications. NIOSH is considering focusing the overarching strategic... Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and... NIOSH 2009 nanotechnology strategic plan. Public Comment Period: Comments must be received by April 15...

  16. 77 FR 70407 - Updated Information and Comment Sought on Review of Hearing Aid Compatibility Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... initiate a review of the hearing aid compatibility rules for digital wireless services and handsets in 2010...? In particular, are consumers informed about the functioning of handsets that have a separate menu... volume control and amplification for wireline phones, including digital cordless phones, which include...

  17. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  18. The Valence of Self-Generated (Status Updates and Other-Generated (Wall-Posts Information Determines Impression Formation on Facebook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet E S Rosenthal-Stott

    Full Text Available We examined whether self-generated (status updates or other-generated (wall-posts information on Facebook influenced the impression formed of the target individual. Along with examining reliance on particular types of information, we explored the valence (positive/ neutral/ negative of the information, as reliance on self-generated or other-generated information may depend on whether self-presentation is perceived (i.e., presenting oneself positively / not negatively. Self-presentation may be perceived if the targets have positive/ neutral statuses, while negative statuses would indicate a lack of self-presentation. In line with previous research, participants should rely on other-generated information (wall-posts to form an impression when participants are viewed to have self-presented (positive / neutral status updates, as this information could be viewed as unreliable. Forty participants rated nine Facebook profiles where statuses and wall-posts portrayed personality traits varying in valence. Each profile consisted of a neutral profile photo, three status updates (all positive, negative, or neutral and three wall-posts (all positive, negative, or neutral. Materials were established in two pilots. Impression formation was measured as perceived social, task, and physical attractiveness of the target individual. Participants also ranked the profiles for likeability. Supporting our expectations, other-generated information (wall-posts dominated impression formation for social attractiveness when self-generated information (status updates was positive/ neutral. Task attractiveness was affected by information valence, regardless of source (self or other. Despite the inclusion of neutral photos, physical attractiveness was affected by self-generated information, with negative statuses lowering physical attractiveness. We suggest that these findings have implications for impression formation beyond the Facebook setting. The 557 traits analyzed in

  19. The Valence of Self-Generated (Status Updates) and Other-Generated (Wall-Posts) Information Determines Impression Formation on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S; Dicks, Rea E; Fielding, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-generated (status updates) or other-generated (wall-posts) information on Facebook influenced the impression formed of the target individual. Along with examining reliance on particular types of information, we explored the valence (positive/ neutral/ negative) of the information, as reliance on self-generated or other-generated information may depend on whether self-presentation is perceived (i.e., presenting oneself positively / not negatively). Self-presentation may be perceived if the targets have positive/ neutral statuses, while negative statuses would indicate a lack of self-presentation. In line with previous research, participants should rely on other-generated information (wall-posts) to form an impression when participants are viewed to have self-presented (positive / neutral status updates), as this information could be viewed as unreliable. Forty participants rated nine Facebook profiles where statuses and wall-posts portrayed personality traits varying in valence. Each profile consisted of a neutral profile photo, three status updates (all positive, negative, or neutral) and three wall-posts (all positive, negative, or neutral). Materials were established in two pilots. Impression formation was measured as perceived social, task, and physical attractiveness of the target individual. Participants also ranked the profiles for likeability. Supporting our expectations, other-generated information (wall-posts) dominated impression formation for social attractiveness when self-generated information (status updates) was positive/ neutral. Task attractiveness was affected by information valence, regardless of source (self or other). Despite the inclusion of neutral photos, physical attractiveness was affected by self-generated information, with negative statuses lowering physical attractiveness. We suggest that these findings have implications for impression formation beyond the Facebook setting. The 557 traits analyzed in Pilot 1 are

  20. The Valence of Self-Generated (Status Updates) and Other-Generated (Wall-Posts) Information Determines Impression Formation on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E. S.; Dicks, Rea E.; Fielding, Lois S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-generated (status updates) or other-generated (wall-posts) information on Facebook influenced the impression formed of the target individual. Along with examining reliance on particular types of information, we explored the valence (positive/ neutral/ negative) of the information, as reliance on self-generated or other-generated information may depend on whether self-presentation is perceived (i.e., presenting oneself positively / not negatively). Self-presentation may be perceived if the targets have positive/ neutral statuses, while negative statuses would indicate a lack of self-presentation. In line with previous research, participants should rely on other-generated information (wall-posts) to form an impression when participants are viewed to have self-presented (positive / neutral status updates), as this information could be viewed as unreliable. Forty participants rated nine Facebook profiles where statuses and wall-posts portrayed personality traits varying in valence. Each profile consisted of a neutral profile photo, three status updates (all positive, negative, or neutral) and three wall-posts (all positive, negative, or neutral). Materials were established in two pilots. Impression formation was measured as perceived social, task, and physical attractiveness of the target individual. Participants also ranked the profiles for likeability. Supporting our expectations, other-generated information (wall-posts) dominated impression formation for social attractiveness when self-generated information (status updates) was positive/ neutral. Task attractiveness was affected by information valence, regardless of source (self or other). Despite the inclusion of neutral photos, physical attractiveness was affected by self-generated information, with negative statuses lowering physical attractiveness. We suggest that these findings have implications for impression formation beyond the Facebook setting. The 557 traits analyzed in Pilot 1 are

  1. Citizens as Source of "Fresh" Information: A Mobile App for Updated Vegetation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Crowdsourcing is more and more frequently mentioned as a possible additional source of geospatial information that scientists should exploit. The diffusion of smartphones and tablets with built-in GPS receivers and cameras led to what can be pictured as a "dense network of observers" spread all over the world; the aim of crowdsourcing is to take advantage of this network in order to collect data, specifically for this case geo- localized information, in a cheap and quite detailed way. The idea is to re-use the same application capabilities in order to increase the amount of gathered data and, most of all, use the outcome to improve the refresh rate of Copernicus Land services layers.

  2. Autism spectrum disorder updates – relevant information for early interventionists to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Allen-Meares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  3. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  4. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of the ...

  5. A genetic system for Citrus Tristeza Virus using the non-natural host Nicotiana benthamiana: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eAmbrós

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In nature Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, genus Closterovirus, infects only the phloem cells of species of Citrus and related genera. Finding that the CTV T36 strain replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB protoplasts and produced normal virions allowed development of the first genetic system based on protoplast transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-genome cDNA clone, a laborious and uncertain system requiring several months for each experiment. We developed a more efficient system based on agroinfiltration of NB leaves with CTV-T36-based binary plasmids, which caused systemic infection in this non-natural host within a few weeks yielding in the upper leaves enough CTV virions to readily infect citrus by slash inoculation. Stem agroinoculation of citrus and NB plants with oncogenic strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a CTV-T36 binary vector with a GUS marker, induced GUS positive galls in both species. However, while most NB tumours were CTV positive and many plants became systemically infected, no coat protein or viral RNA was detected in citrus tumours, even though CTV cDNA was readily detected by PCR in the same galls. This finding suggests i strong silencing or CTV RNA processing in transformed cells impairing infection progress, and ii the need for using NB as an intermediate host in the genetic system. To maintain CTV-T36 in NB or assay other CTV genotypes in this host, we also tried to graft-transmit the virus from infected to healthy NB, or to mechanically inoculate NB leaves with virion extracts. While these trials were mostly unsuccessful on non-treated NB plants, agroinfiltration with silencing suppressors enabled for the first time infecting NB plants by side-grafting and by mechanical inoculation with virions, indicating that previous failure to infect NB was likely due to virus silencing in early infection steps. Using NB as a CTV host provides new possibilities to study virus-host interactions with a simple and

  6. Elementos teórico-prácticos útiles para conocer los virus informáticos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bello Hernández, Ramón Orlando; Alfonso Sánchez, Ileana R

    2003-01-01

    .... They produce large losses of information, resources, time and money; the systems of security of the service suppliers are violated and the network become infected with harmful codes; virus or malware (malicious software...

  7. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics reveals Hendra virus sensitizes bat cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James W; Shiell, Brian J; Marsh, Glenn A; Boyd, Victoria; Harper, Jennifer A; Heesom, Kate; Monaghan, Paul; Zhou, Peng; Payne, Jean; Klein, Reuben; Todd, Shawn; Mok, Lawrence; Green, Diane; Bingham, John; Tachedjian, Mary; Baker, Michelle L; Matthews, David; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-01-01

    Bats are a major reservoir of emerging infectious viruses. Many of these viruses are highly pathogenic to humans however bats remain asymptomatic. The mechanism by which bats control viral replication is unknown. Here we utilize an integrated approach of proteomics informed by transcriptomics to compare the response of immortalized bat and human cells following infection with the highly pathogenic bat-borne Hendra virus (HeV). The host response between the cell lines was significantly different at both the mRNA and protein levels. Human cells demonstrated minimal response eight hours post infection, followed by a global suppression of mRNA and protein abundance. Bat cells demonstrated a robust immune response eight hours post infection, which led to the up-regulation of apoptosis pathways, mediated through the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). HeV sensitized bat cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, by up-regulating death receptor transcripts. At 48 and 72 hours post infection, bat cells demonstrated a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. This is the first study to comprehensively compare the response of bat and human cells to a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus. An early induction of innate immune processes followed by apoptosis of virally infected bat cells highlights the possible involvement of programmed cell death in the host response. Our study shows for the first time a side-by-side high-throughput analysis of a dangerous zoonotic virus in cell lines derived from humans and the natural bat host. This enables a way to search for divergent mechanisms at a molecular level that may influence host pathogenesis.

  8. The value of information for woodland management: Updating a state–transition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William K.; Runge, Michael C.; Vesk, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) analyses reveal the expected benefit of reducing uncertainty to a decision maker. Most ecological VOI analyses have focused on population models rarely addressing more complex community models. We performed a VOI analysis for a complex state–transition model of Box-Ironbark Forest and Woodland management. With three management alternatives (limited harvest/firewood removal (HF), ecological thinning (ET), and no management), managing the system optimally (for 150 yr) with the original information would, on average, increase the amount of forest in a desirable state from 19% to 35% (a 16-percentage point increase). Resolving all uncertainty would, on average, increase the final percentage to 42% (a 19-percentage point increase). However, only resolving the uncertainty for a single parameter was worth almost two-thirds the value of resolving all uncertainty. We found the VOI to depend on the number of management options, increasing as the management flexibility increased. Our analyses show it is more cost-effective to monitor low-density regrowth forest than other states and more cost-effective to experiment with the no-management alternative than the other management alternatives. Importantly, the most cost-effective strategies did not include either the most desired forest states or the least understood management strategy, ET. This implies that managers cannot just rely on intuition to tell them where the most VOI will lie, as critical uncertainties in a complex system are sometimes cryptic.

  9. RESIS-II: An Updated Version of the Original Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Katherine V.; Mixon, David M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Stallard, Robert F.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) database, originally compiled by the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) in collaboration with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, is the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout the conterminous United States (U.S.). The database is a cumulative historical archive that includes data from as early as 1755 and as late as 1993. The 1,823 reservoirs included in the database range in size from farm ponds to the largest U.S. reservoirs (such as Lake Mead). Results from 6,617 bathymetric surveys are available in the database. This Data Series provides an improved version of the original RESIS database, termed RESIS-II, and a report describing RESIS-II. The RESIS-II relational database is stored in Microsoft Access and includes more precise location coordinates for most of the reservoirs than the original database but excludes information on reservoir ownership. RESIS-II is anticipated to be a template for further improvements in the database.

  10. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently. Despite these progresses, currently there is neither any effective drug nor any vaccine available against ZIKV. Under such circumstances and to tackle the problem at large, control measures of which mosquito population control need to be strengthened following appropriate mechanical, chemical, biological and genetic control measures. Apart from this, several other known modes of ZIKV transmission which have gained importance in recent past such as intrauterine, sexual intercourse, and blood-borne spread need to be checked and kept under control by adopting appropriate precautions and utmost care during sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The virus inactivation by pasteurization, detergents, chemicals, and filtration can effectively reduce viral load in plasma-derived medicinal products. Added to this, strengthening of the surveillance and monitoring of ZIKV as well as avoiding travel to Zika infected areas would aid in keeping viral infection under check. Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. Additionally, owing to the success of vaccines for a number of infections

  11. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  12. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  13. Informational gene phylogenies do not support a fourth domain of life for nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Williams

    Full Text Available Mimivirus is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV with a genome size (1.2 Mb and coding capacity ( 1000 genes comparable to that of some cellular organisms. Unlike other viruses, Mimivirus and its NCLDV relatives encode homologs of broadly conserved informational genes found in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes, raising the possibility that they could be placed on the tree of life. A recent phylogenetic analysis of these genes showed the NCLDVs emerging as a monophyletic group branching between Eukaryotes and Archaea. These trees were interpreted as evidence for an independent "fourth domain" of life that may have contributed DNA processing genes to the ancestral eukaryote. However, the analysis of ancient evolutionary events is challenging, and tree reconstruction is susceptible to bias resulting from non-phylogenetic signals in the data. These include compositional heterogeneity and homoplasy, which can lead to the spurious grouping of compositionally-similar or fast-evolving sequences. Here, we show that these informational gene alignments contain both significant compositional heterogeneity and homoplasy, which were not adequately modelled in the original analysis. When we use more realistic evolutionary models that better fit the data, the resulting trees are unable to reject a simple null hypothesis in which these informational genes, like many other NCLDV genes, were acquired by horizontal transfer from eukaryotic hosts. Our results suggest that a fourth domain is not required to explain the available sequence data.

  14. The EMPRES-i genetic module: a novel tool linking epidemiological outbreak information and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Filip; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Liechti, Robin; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Truong, Bao Dinh; Gleizes, Anne; Conversa, Daniele; Colonna, Alessandro; Demaio, Ettore; Ramazzotto, Sabina; Larfaoui, Fairouz; Pinto, Julio; Le Mercier, Philippe; Xenarios, Ioannis; Dauphin, Gwenaelle

    2014-01-01

    Combining epidemiological information, genetic characterization and geomapping in the analysis of influenza can contribute to a better understanding and description of influenza epidemiology and ecology, including possible virus reassortment events. Furthermore, integration of information such as agroecological farming system characteristics can provide new knowledge on risk factors of influenza emergence and spread. Integrating viral characteristics into an animal disease information system is therefore expected to provide a unique tool to trace-and-track particular virus strains; generate clade distributions and spatiotemporal clusters; screen for distribution of viruses with specific molecular markers; identify potential risk factors; and analyze or map viral characteristics related to vaccines used for control and/or prevention. For this purpose, a genetic module was developed within EMPRES-i (FAO's global animal disease information system) linking epidemiological information from influenza events with virus characteristics and enabling combined analysis. An algorithm was developed to act as the interface between EMPRES-i disease event data and publicly available influenza virus sequences in OpenfluDB. This algorithm automatically computes potential links between outbreak event and sequences, which are subsequently manually validated by experts. Subsequently, other virus characteristics such as antiviral resistance can then be associated to outbreak data. To visualize such characteristics on a geographic map, shape files with virus characteristics to overlay on other EMPRES-i map layers (e.g. animal densities) can be generated. The genetic module allows export of associated epidemiological and sequence data for further analysis. FAO has made this tool available for scientists and policy makers. Contributions are expected from users to improve and validate the number of linked influenza events and isolate information as well as the quality of information

  15. Information Is Not a Virus, and Other Consequences of Human Cognitive Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The many decisions that people make about what to pay attention to online shape the spread of information in online social networks. Due to the constraints of available time and cognitive resources, the ease of discovery strongly impacts how people allocate their attention to social media content. As a consequence, the position of information in an individual’s social feed, as well as explicit social signals about its popularity, determine whether it will be seen, and the likelihood that it will be shared with followers. Accounting for these cognitive limits simplifies mechanics of information diffusion in online social networks and explains puzzling empirical observations: (i information generally fails to spread in social media and (ii highly connected people are less likely to re-share information. Studies of information diffusion on different social media platforms reviewed here suggest that the interplay between human cognitive limits and network structure differentiates the spread of information from other social contagions, such as the spread of a virus through a population.

  16. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, David T; Henderson, David K; Struble, Kimberly A; Heneine, Walid; Thomas, Vasavi; Cheever, Laura W; Gomaa, Ahmed; Panlilio, Adelisa L

    2013-09-01

    This report updates US Public Health Service recommendations for the management of healthcare personnel (HCP) who experience occupational exposure to blood and/or other body fluids that might contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the principles of exposure management remain unchanged, recommended HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens and the duration of HIV follow-up testing for exposed personnel have been updated. This report emphasizes the importance of primary prevention strategies, the prompt reporting and management of occupational exposures, adherence to recommended HIV PEP regimens when indicated for an exposure, expert consultation in management of exposures, follow-up of exposed HCP to improve adherence to PEP, and careful monitoring for adverse events related to treatment, as well as for virologic, immunologic, and serologic signs of infection. To ensure timely postexposure management and administration of HIV PEP, clinicians should consider occupational exposures as urgent medical concerns, and institutions should take steps to ensure that staff are aware of both the importance of and the institutional mechanisms available for reporting and seeking care for such exposures. The following is a summary of recommendations: (1) PEP is recommended when occupational exposures to HIV occur; (2) the HIV status of the exposure source patient should be determined, if possible, to guide need for HIV PEP; (3) PEP medication regimens should be started as soon as possible after occupational exposure to HIV, and they should be continued for a 4-week duration; (4) new recommendation-PEP medication regimens should contain 3 (or more) antiretroviral drugs (listed in Appendix A ) for all occupational exposures to HIV; (5) expert consultation is recommended for any occupational exposures to HIV and at a minimum for situations described in Box 1 ; (6) close follow-up for exposed personnel ( Box 2 ) should be provided that includes counseling, baseline and

  17. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between

  18. Model-informed risk assessment for Zika virus outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Bi, Dehua; Xie, Guigang; Jin, Yuan; Huang, Yong; Lin, Baihan; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Feng, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as a significant threat to global public health. The disease was present in large parts of the Americas, the Caribbean, and also the western Pacific area with southern Asia during 2015 and 2016. However, little is known about the factors affecting the transmission of ZIKV. We used Gradient Boosted Regression Tree models to investigate the effects of various potential explanatory variables on the spread of ZIKV, and used current with historical information from a range of sources to assess the risks of future ZIKV outbreaks. Our results indicated that the probability of ZIKV outbreaks increases with vapor pressure, the occurrence of Dengue virus, and population density but decreases as health expenditure, GDP, and numbers of travelers. The predictive results revealed the potential risk countries of ZIKV infection in the Asia-Pacific regions between October 2016 and January 2017. We believe that the high-risk conditions would continue in South Asia and Australia over this period. By integrating information on eco-environmental, social-economical, and ZIKV-related niche factors, this study estimated the probability for locally acquired mosquito-borne ZIKV infections in the Asia-Pacific region and improves the ability to forecast, and possibly even prevent, future outbreaks of ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interferon-based anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is highly prevalent in renal transplant (RT recipients. Currently, interferon-based (IFN-based antiviral therapies are the standard approach to control HCV infection. In a post-transplantation setting, however, IFN-based therapies appear to have limited efficacy and their use remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IFN-based therapies for HCV infection post RT. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and The Cochrane Library (1997-2013 for clinical trials in which transplant patients were given Interferon (IFN, pegylated interferon (PEG, interferon plus ribavirin (IFN-RIB, or pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-RIB. The Sustained Virological Response (SVR and/or drop-out rates were the primary outcomes. Summary estimates were calculated using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird, with heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: We identified 12 clinical trials (140 patients in total. The summary estimate for SVR rate, drop-out rate and graft rejection rate was 26.6% (95%CI, 15.0-38.1%, 21.1% (95% CI, 10.9-31.2% and 4% (95%CI: 0.8%-7.1%, respectively. The overall SVR rate in PEG-based and standard IFN-based therapy was 40.6% (24/59 and 20.9% (17/81, respectively. The most frequent side-effect requiring discontinuation of treatment was graft dysfunction (14 cases, 45.1%. Meta-regression analysis showed the covariates included contribute to the heterogeneity in the SVR logit rate, but not in the drop-out logit rate. The sensitivity analyses by the random model yielded very similar results to the fixed-effects model. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-based therapy for HCV infection post RT has poor efficacy and limited safety. PEG-based therapy is a more effective approach for treating HCV infection post-RT than standard IFN-based therapy. Future research is required to develop novel strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and

  20. Spectrum of Text Information Content in the RNA Sequence of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyukov, Alexander A.

    A new strategy to recognize patterns in the DNA sequences with functional significance is proposed. The strategy is based on the general definition of any individual organism as a Gibbsian ensemble of identical personal DNA molecules. This approach provides application of the methods of statistical thermodynamics of irreversible steady processes to genome informatics. The random processes theory and its Markov chains approximation lead in this approach directly to the definition of the generalized concept of evolution entropy and to the genuine measure of text information content in the sequences. Computer-assisted proofs of the existence of the nonequilibrium steady state conditions in genome molecule were obtained by investigation of the special type balance relations in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA sequence. The main maxima of the text information content were decoded and denominated. The established coding principles are connected with deviations from equilibrium conditions and from equipartition.

  1. YouTube as a Source of Information on Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ranjan; Poudel, Dilli Ram; Karmacharya, Paras; Pathak, Amrit; Aryal, Madan Raj; Mahmood, Maryam; Donato, Anthony A

    2015-07-01

    The current West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began from Guinea in December 2013, has been the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak to date. With the propagation of the internet, public health officials must now compete with other official and unofficial sources of information to get their message out. This study aimed at critically appraising videos available on one popular internet video site (YouTube) as a source of information for Ebola virus disease (EVD). Videos were searched in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) using the keyword "Ebola outbreak" from inception to November 1, 2014 with the default "relevance" filter. Only videos in English language under 10 min duration within first 10 pages of search were included. Duplicates were removed and the rest were classified as useful or misleading by two independent reviewers. Video sources were categorized by source. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with kappa coefficient. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and Chi-squared test, respectively. One hundred and eighteen out of 198 videos were evaluated. Thirty-one (26.27%) videos were classified as misleading and 87 (73.73%) videos were classified as useful. The kappa coefficient of agreement regarding the usefulness of the videos was 0.68 (P YouTube were characterized as useful. Although YouTube seems to generally be a useful source of information on the current outbreak, increased efforts to disseminate scientifically correct information is desired to prevent unnecessary panic among the among the general population.

  2. 77 FR 63783 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ....regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. For access to the docket to read background... highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Adv Virus Res. 2009;73:55-97. 12. WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Continued evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1): updated nomenclature...

  3. Red Hill Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  4. Rapid and highly informative diagnostic assay for H5N1 influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Pourmand

    Full Text Available A highly discriminative and information-rich diagnostic assay for H5N1 avian influenza would meet immediate patient care needs and provide valuable information for public health interventions, e.g., tracking of new and more dangerous variants by geographic area as well as avian-to-human or human-to-human transmission. In the present study, we have designed a rapid assay based on multilocus nucleic acid sequencing that focuses on the biologically significant regions of the H5N1 hemagglutinin gene. This allows the prediction of viral strain, clade, receptor binding properties, low- or high-pathogenicity cleavage site and glycosylation status. H5 HA genes were selected from nine known high-pathogenicity avian influenza subtype H5N1 viruses, based on their diversity in biologically significant regions of hemagglutinin and/or their ability to cause infection in humans. We devised a consensus pre-programmed pyrosequencing strategy, which may be used as a faster, more accurate alternative to de novo sequencing. The available data suggest that the assay described here is a reliable, rapid, information-rich and cost-effective approach for definitive diagnosis of H5N1 avian influenza. Knowledge of the predicted functional sequences of the HA will enhance H5N1 avian influenza surveillance efforts.

  5. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Replication: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 was the first human retrovirus discovered. Studies on HTLV-1 have been instrumental for our understanding of the molecular pathology of virus-induced cancers. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and can lead to a variety of neurological pathologies, including HTLV-1-associated-myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The ability to treat the aggressive ATL subtypes remains inadequate. HTLV-1 replicates by (1 an infectious cycle involving virus budding and infection of new permissive target cells and (2 mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. Virus replication initiates host antiviral immunity and the checkpoint control of cell proliferation, but HTLV-1 has evolved elegant strategies to counteract these host defense mechanisms to allow for virus persistence. The study of the molecular biology of HTLV-1 replication has provided crucial information for understanding HTLV-1 replication as well as aspects of viral replication that are shared between HTLV-1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Here in this review, we discuss the various stages of the virus replication cycle—both foundational knowledge as well as current updates of ongoing research that is important for understanding HTLV-1 molecular pathogenesis as well as in developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  6. Projects to expand energy sources in the western states: an update of Information Circular 8719. [24 states west of the Mississippi River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, C.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report is an expansion and update of BM-IC-8719 and comprises maps and tables listing the name, location, and other pertinent data concerning certain fuel-related projects. The maps show the locations of the planned or proposed facilities. The tables include information on projects involving the proposed or planned development of fuel resources, as well as the development of storage, transportation, and conversion facilities. The report covers the 24 states west of the Mississippi River including Alaska and Hawaii. Of the 808 projects for which information is provided, 219 concern coal mines, 246 concern electric generating plants, and 115 concern uranium mines; Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act coal conversion notices are also included. Because of the dynamic nature of the energy industry, many uncertainties exist and some of the listed projects may never become realities. Also, no attempt has been made to determine the degree of certainty or viability of each project.

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Resources & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  9. Use of baseline and updated information on alcohol intake on risk for breast cancer: importance of latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    City Heart Study, in which alcohol intake was measured four times, 9318 Danish women with no previous diagnosis of cancer were followed for breast cancer for 27 years, from 1976 to 2002. During follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in 476 women. RESULTS: The association between alcohol intake at first......BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the analysis of longitudinal prospective cohort studies, however, the analysis of repeated measurements of alcohol intake might not be straightforward. METHODS: In this analysis of the Copenhagen...... measurement (baseline alcohol intake) and breast cancer was positive and approximately linear. When alcohol intake was updated during follow-up, no association was observed between breast cancer and alcohol intake. It is suggested that this difference in results may be attributable to long latency time...

  10. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus-Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure - U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R; Jones, Abbey M; Petersen, Emily E; Lee, Ellen H; Rice, Marion E; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D; Polen, Kara D; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Moore, Cynthia A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-04-07

    In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus-associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%-7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%-14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%-26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal

  11. Digital Monsters, Binary Aliens – Computer Viruses, Capitalism and the Flow of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Parikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with articulations of digital accidents, focusing especially on how the computer virus has been signified as a problem for national security, international commerce and the individual user. However, at the same time as viruses have since the 1980s been constructed as malicious software threatening the very basics of the network society, they have been captured as part of the consumer capitalist system, exemplified e.g. in the rise of anti-virus industry. Thus, the article argues that capitalism itself is viral, functioning through a constant reshifting of its limits. Capitalism proceeds per se via these accidents and disruptions that it at the same time constructs as its enemies. In this sense, computer viruses and worms can be understood as the general accidents of digital capitalist culture.

  12. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other

  13. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristi L; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED) personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I) tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other arthropod

  14. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  15. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  16. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  17. Calculation and Update of a 3d Building Model of Bavaria Using LIDAR, Image Matching and Catastre Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aringer, K.; Roschlaub, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation has launched a statewide 3D Building Model with standardized roof shapes without textures for all 8.1 million buildings in Bavaria. For acquisition of the 3D Building Model LiDAR-data are used as data basis as well as the building ground plans of the official cadastral map and a list of standardized roof shapes. The data management of the 3D Building Model is carried out by a central database with the usage of a nationwide standardized data model and the data exchange interface CityGML. On the one hand the update of the 3D Building Model for new buildings is done by terrestrial building measurements within the maintenance process of the cadastre. On the other hand the roofs of buildings which were built after the LiDAR flight and which were not measured terrestrially yet, are captured by means of picture-based digital surface-models derived from image-matching of oriented aerial photographs (DSM from image matching).

  18. Verification and Updating of the Database of Topographic Objects with Geometric Information About Buildings by Means of Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendela-Anzlik Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning data (ALS are used mainly for creation of precise digital elevation models. However, it appears that the informative potential stored in ALS data can be also used for updating spatial databases, including the Database of Topographic Objects (BDOT10k. Typically, geometric representations of buildings in the BDOT10k are equal to their entities in the Land and Property Register (EGiB. In this study ALS is considered as supporting data source. The thresholding method of original ALS data with the use of the alpha shape algorithm, proposed in this paper, allows for extraction of points that represent horizontal cross section of building walls, leading to creation of vector, geometric models of buildings that can be then used for updating the BDOT10k. This method gives also the possibility of an easy verification of up-to-dateness of both the BDOT10k and the district EGiB databases within geometric information about buildings. For verification of the proposed methodology there have been used the classified ALS data acquired with a density of 4 points/m2. The accuracy assessment of the identified building outlines has been carried out by their comparison to the corresponding EGiB objects. The RMSE values for 78 buildings are from a few to tens of centimeters and the average value is about 0,5 m. At the same time for several objects there have been revealed huge geometric discrepancies. Further analyses have shown that these discrepancies could be resulted from incorrect representations of buildings in the EGiB database.

  19. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  20. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  1. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  2. 75 FR 62444 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3057, Medical Clearance Update, OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... information collection is necessary for the proper performance of our functions. Evaluate the accuracy of our... federal employee and family members will have sufficient medical resources at a diplomatic mission abroad...

  3. Dynamic update with probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Benthem, Johan; Gerbrandy, Jelle; Kooi, Barteld

    2009-01-01

    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant

  4. [Conditional shared confidentiality with regard to the exchange of information between members of a team or network; ethical advice needs to be updated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, A; Haekens, A; Eneman, M

    2011-01-01

    Care-givers not only work as a team, but increasingly they also participate in networks. This development represents an ethical challenge to the exchange of information and to confidentiality. To revise and update earlier advice formulated by the Ethics Committee for Mental Health Care of the Brothers of Charity in Flanders, in particular concerning the question of whether shared confidentiality can be extended from a team to a network. The Ethics Committee applied an appropriate method which combined ethical discussion and literature research. The earlier advice is no longer adequate because of certain practical and theoretical grounds. The Ethics Committee chooses to take a positive view of the developing cooperation between care-givers and networks. Consequently, the committee proposes shared confidentiality, but links this to five conditions: (1) the care-givers should participate in a clearly defined and identifiable team or network, (2) they should have a caring task in common, (3) they should be pledged to confidentiality, (4) they should consult with the patient and obtain his/her informed consent, (5) they should apply 'the filter of relevance'. Care-givers can exchange information with members of a team or network, but this should be done on the basis of conditional shared confidentiality.

  5. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  6. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains." © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Value of Information by updating model uncertainties utilising proof loading in the context of series and Daniels systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüske, Henning; Thöns, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an approach is presented for the determination of the Value of Information (VoI) in relation to models which can represent structural systems such as e.g. towers, cables, jackets. Stochastic capacities and loads are assumed for the models studied herein. The VoI is obtained...... and probable component failures are considered explicitly. The analyses results point to high Value of Information for component proof loading in systems with a low reliability....... with a prior and a pre-posterior decision analysis. The prior decision analysis takes basis in the design phase of the structural system. Pre-posterior decision analysis builds upon modelling results of not yet conducted experiments. In order to perform the prior and pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis...

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  9. Rota virus infections: prevalence, diagnosis and prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidya, Padmanabhan; Ponnambalam, Arun; Gunasekeran, Palani; Arunagiri, Kavitha; Sambasivam, Mohana; Krishnasami, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    ...: Molecular typing methods for viruses should aim to provide clinically and biologically useful information about field viruses, particularly with regard to virulence, viral epidemiology, and virus...

  10. How can informal caregivers in cancer and palliative care be supported? An updated systematic literature review of interventions and their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; List, Sally; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Jones, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Informal caregivers needs in cancer/advanced disease are largely unmet. The science of carer intervention evaluation is methodologically challenging, and the evidence historically weak. This systematic review updates an earlier effectiveness review to determine both the effectiveness of subsequently published intervention studies, and the current state of science. The evidence was identified and appraised using a comprehensive search strategy. Articles were searched from 2001 to 2010 using the following electronic databases: Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting intervention data for informal adult caregivers of a patient with a diagnosis of cancer or receiving palliative care. The design and evidence rigour were assessed using the Jadad Rating Scale, and the Quality Rating Scale. 33 studies met inclusion criteria. From the original review, an encouraging increase was identified in the number of evaluations (from 8 to 33), in carer-specific interventions (from 6 to 17) and in the robustness of the study design (an increase from 2 to 12 studies with before/after measures, comparison groups and prospective data). The evidence suggests a rapid increase in the number of robust intervention studies. However, the range of models remains narrow in relation to caregivers' needs and preferences.

  11. Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arelis

    2010-01-01

    This article offers some updates on the share of the higher education institutions in the billion-worth stimulus package and how institutions were assisted through this funding. Since the $787 billion stimulus package, formally known as the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA), was signed into law in 2009, an estimated $50 billion to $75…

  12. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo; Parpia, Alyssa S.; Meagan C Fitzpatrick; Tamagnan, Jules A.; Jan Medlock; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Durland Fish; María L. Ávila-Agüero; Rodrigo Marín; Ko, Albert I.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Background As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016. Methodology/Principal Findings Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period ...

  13. Strategy for the maximization of clinically relevant information from hepatitis C virus, RT-PCR quantification.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Levis, J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The increasing clinical application of viral load assays for monitoring viral infections has been an incentive for the development of standardized tests for the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple model for the prediction of baseline viral load in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODOLOGY: Viral load quantification of each patient\\'s first sample was assessed by RT-PCR-ELISA using the Roche MONITOR assay in triplicate. Genotype of the infecting virus was identified by reverse line probe hybridization, using amplicons resulting from the qualitative HCV Roche AMPLICOR assay. RESULTS: Retrospective evaluation of first quantitative values suggested that 82.4% (n=168\\/204) of individuals had a viral load between 4.3 and 6.7 log(10) viral copies per ml. A few patients (3.4%; n=7\\/204) have a serum viremia less than the lower limit of the linear range of the RT-PCR assay. Subsequent, prospective evaluation of hepatitis C viral load of all new patients using a model based on the dynamic range of viral load in the retrospective group correctly predicted the dynamic range in 75.9% (n=33\\/54). CONCLUSION: The dynamic range of hepatitis C viremia extends beyond the linear range of the Roche MONITOR assay. Accurate determination of serum viremia is substantially improved by dilution of specimens prior to quantification.

  14. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  15. [Consensus Statement by GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines for HIV-1 infected adult patients. To formulate these recommendations a panel composed of members of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat (Grupo de Estudio de Sida and the Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. The strength of the recommendations and the evidence which support them are based on a modification of the criteria of Infectious Diseases Society of America. cART is recommended in patients with symptoms of HIV infection, in pregnant women, in serodiscordant couples with high risk of transmission, in hepatitisB co-infection requiring treatment, and in HIV nephropathy. cART is recommended in asymptomatic patients if CD4 is 500cells/μl cART should be considered in the case of chronic hepatitisC, cirrhosis, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >100.000 copies/ml, proportion of CD4 cells 55years. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. The first cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) nucleoside analogs and a third drug (a non-analog RTI, a ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor, or an integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected some drug combinations, for the first cART and specific criteria for cART in acute HIV infection, in tuberculosis and other HIV related opportunistic infections, for the women and in pregnancy, in hepatitisB or C co-infection, in HIV-2 infection, and in post-exposure prophylaxis. These new guidelines update previous recommendations related to first cART (when to begin and what drugs should be used), how to monitor, and what to do in case of viral failure or adverse drug reactions. cART specific criteria in comorbid patients and special situations are similarly updated. Copyright

  16. An update on the management of glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis and its sequelae caused by Epstein–Barr virus (HHV-4: new and emerging treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martin Lerner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner1, Safedin H Beqaj2, Ken Gill3, James Edington3, James T Fitzgerald4, Robert G Deeter51Department of Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA; 2DCL Medical Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3The Dr A Martin Lerner, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Foundation, Beverly Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan, Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Hematology-Oncology, Global Health Economics, Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAPurpose: Beginning in 1993 at a single chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS treatment center, we began studies that demonstrate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nonpermissive replication. In the most recent study performed, EBV nonpermissive replication is the cause of 28.3% of 106 consecutive CFS cases, and is etiologic with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and/or human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 as a coinfection in an additional 52.8% of CFS cases. Therefore, EBV is causally involved in 81% of cases of CFS. Further, EBV CFS is effectively treated with long-term valacyclovir. Coinfection HCMV and HHV-6 CFS requires valganciclovir with valacyclovir.Patients and results: The validated Energy Index Point Score® (EIPS® monitors severity of CFS illness and its recovery. A specific CFS diagnostic panel identifies EBV CFS subsets. Four separate EBV CFS therapeutic studies of several hundred CFS patients describe valacyclovir administration and long-term patient recovery. With valacyclovir, serum EBV titers (EBV, early antigen (diffuse; EBV, viral capsid antigen, immunoglobulin M; 24-hour electrocardiography Holter monitors; and cardiac dynamic studies improve.Conclusion: Nonpermissive EBV infection is causal in a significant proportion of CFS cases. EBV CFS is safely and effectively treated with long-term valacyclovir.Keywords: valacyclovir treatment, chronic fatigue syndrome, Epstein–Barr virus, EIPS, Energy Index Point Score

  17. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA’s Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation’s nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. PMID:26773020

  18. Meeting Report: 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkommen, Hannelore; Blümel, Johannes; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Dayue; Chen, Qi; Gröner, Albrecht; Kreil, Thomas R; Ruffing, Michel; Ruiz, Sol; Scott, Dorothy; Silvester, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the presentations at the Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 organized by the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) and held in Cascais, Portugal, from 9 to 11 June, 2015. As with previous conferences of this series, the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2015 provided an excellent forum for the exchange of information and opinions between the industry, research organizations, and regulatory bodies. Regulatory updates on virus and TSE safety aspects illustrating current topics of discussion at regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States were provided; the conference covered emerging viruses and new virus detection systems that may be used for the investigation of human pathogenic viruses as well as the virus safety of cell substrates and of raw material of ovine/caprine or human origin. Progress of development and use of next-generation sequencing methods was shown by several examples. Virus clearance data illustrating the effectiveness of inactivation or removal methods were presented and data provided giving insight into the mechanism of action of these technologies. In the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) part of the conference, the epidemiology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reviewed and an overview about diagnostic tests provided; current thinking about the spread and propagation of prions was presented and the inactivation of prions by disinfection (equipment) and in production of bovine-derived reagents (heparin) shown. The current report provides an overview about the outcomes of the 2015 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum, a unique event in this field. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  19. Towards Optimal Operation of the Reservoir System in Upper Yellow River: Incorporating Long- and Short-term Operations and Using Rolling Updated Hydrologic Forecast Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Y.; Li, X.; Li, T.; Huang, Y.; Yin, D.

    2016-12-01

    The cascade reservoirs in Upper Yellow River (UYR), one of the largest hydropower bases in China, play a vital role in peak load and frequency regulation for Northwest China Power Grid. The joint operation of this system has been put forward for years whereas has not come into effect due to management difficulties and inflow uncertainties, and thus there is still considerable improvement room for hydropower production. This study presents a decision support framework incorporating long- and short-term operation of the reservoir system. For long-term operation, we maximize hydropower production of the reservoir system using historical hydrological data of multiple years, and derive operating rule curves for storage reservoirs. For short-term operation, we develop a program consisting of three modules, namely hydrologic forecast module, reservoir operation module and coordination module. The coordination module is responsible for calling the hydrologic forecast module to acquire predicted inflow within a short-term horizon, and transferring the information to the reservoir operation module to generate optimal release decision. With the hydrologic forecast information updated, the rolling short-term optimization is iterated until the end of operation period, where the long-term operating curves serve as the ending storage target. As an application, the Digital Yellow River Integrated Model (referred to as "DYRIM", which is specially designed for runoff-sediment simulation in the Yellow River basin by Tsinghua University) is used in the hydrologic forecast module, and the successive linear programming (SLP) in the reservoir operation module. The application in the reservoir system of UYR demonstrates that the framework can effectively support real-time decision making, and ensure both computational accuracy and speed. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the general framework can be extended to any other reservoir system with any or combination of hydrological model

  20. The Relationship Between Usage Rate of Information and Communication Technology by Faculty Members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, and Motivation Rate, Updating of Lesson Content and Attractiveness of Classroom in Academic Year of 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Soleymani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed to study the relationship between usage rate of information and communication technology by faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and motivation rate, updating of lesson content and attractiveness of classroom in academic year of 2008-2009 and to study the ability to use information and communication technology in the classroom effectively , its effects on motivation of teachers and learners and updating of lesson content and to investigate possible difficulties and challenges in its usage and to suggest a course of action. Statistical universe studied was selected 274 members of faculty of Ferdowsi University using random-stratified sampling with proper assignment. Considering purpose of the paper, it was applied research and descriptive survey and concerning methodology it was correlation research. A researcher-built questionnaire was filled as face to face and precisely an interview in which professors expressed their problems in usage of information and communication technologies were used as a data collection tool. The results showed that the relationship between usage rate of information and communication technology by faculty members of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and updating lesson content, attractiveness of class and their motivation level (low, medium, high according to one-sided variance analysis, the assumption of average equality of usage rate of information and communication technology by faculty members was rejected in all three cases. In other words, there was a significant difference (positive between them, in ascending order were as low, medium and high.

  1. Improving the selection and development of influenza vaccine viruses - Report of a WHO informal consultation on improving influenza vaccine virus selection, Hong Kong SAR, China, 18-20 November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Alan; Barr, Ian; Cox, Nancy; Donis, Ruben O; Siddhivinayak, Hirve; Jernigan, Daniel; Katz, Jacqueline; McCauley, John; Motta, Fernando; Odagiri, Takato; Tam, John S; Waddell, Anthony; Webby, Richard; Ziegler, Thedi; Zhang, Wenqing

    2017-02-22

    Since 2010 the WHO has held a series of informal consultations to explore ways of improving the currently highly complex and time-pressured influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. In November 2015 experts from around the world met to review the current status of efforts in this field. Discussion topics included strengthening influenza surveillance activities to increase the availability of candidate vaccine viruses and improve the extent, timeliness and quality of surveillance data. Consideration was also given to the development and potential application of newer laboratory assays to better characterize candidate vaccine viruses, the potential importance of antibodies directed against influenza virus neuraminidase, and the role of vaccine effectiveness studies. Advances in next generation sequencing and whole genome sequencing of influenza viruses were also discussed, along with associated developments in synthetic genomics technologies, evolutionary analysis and predictive mathematical modelling. Discussions were also held on the late emergence of an antigenic variant influenza A(H3N2) virus in mid-2014 that could not be incorporated in time into the 2014-15 northern hemisphere vaccine. There was broad recognition that given the current highly constrained influenza vaccine development and production timeline it would remain impossible to incorporate any variant virus which emerged significantly long after the relevant WHO biannual influenza vaccine composition meetings. Discussions were also held on the development of pandemic and broadly protective vaccines, and on associated regulatory and manufacturing requirements and constraints. With increasing awareness of the health and economic burdens caused by seasonal influenza, the ever-present threat posed by zoonotic influenza viruses, and the significant impact of the 2014-15 northern hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccine mismatch, this consultation provided a very timely opportunity to share

  2. Modeling hepatitis C virus kinetics under therapy using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shudo, Emi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models have proven helpful in analyzing the virological response to antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCY) infected subjects. Objective: To summarize the uses and limitations of different models for analyzing HCY kinetic data under pegylated interferon therapy. Methods: We formulate mathematical models and fit them by nonlinear least square regression to patient data in order estimate model parameters. We compare the goodness of fit and parameter values estimated by different models statistically. Results/Conclusion: The best model for parameter estimation depends on the availability and the quality of data as well as the therapy used. We also discuss the mathematical models that will be needed to analyze HCV kinetic data from clinical trials with new antiviral drugs.

  3. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Updated January 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by HIV-1. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should be based on a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir in either of its two formulations plus emtricitabine or abacavir plus lamivudine) and another drug from a different family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase inhibitor as the third drug (dolutegravir, elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat or raltegravir), are considered preferential, whereas a further 3 regimens (based on elvitegravir/cobicistat, rilpivirine, or darunavir boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir) are considered alternatives. We present the reasons and criteria for switching ART in patients with an undetectable PVL and in those who present virological failure, in which case salvage ART should include 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against HIV. We also update the criteria for ART in specific situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbidities (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease and cancer). Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  5. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ain Rahmat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority of the participants were: symptoms of H1N1, causes of the infection, preventive measures, and possible treatments. Data analysis also revealed that mass media such as television, newspapers, and radio were most frequently used for seeking the needed information. The use of human information sources was also quite high while only a small number of the respondents accessed online news and healthcare websites. About three-quarters of the participants indicated that the gathered information helped them to stay vigilant and take necessary precautionary measures. A major problem identified by the participants in using H1N1 information was the lack of understanding of certain terms used in public communications. This paper suggests certain measures for strengthening health information communication during future outbreaks.

  6. Informing the Historical Record of Experimental Nonhuman Primate Infections with Ebola Virus: Genomic Characterization of USAMRIID Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1995/Kikwit-9510621 Challenge Stock R4368 and Its Replacement R4415

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-20

    countermeasures against Select Agents such as Ebola 43 virus (EBOV) is critically dependent on the use of standardized reagents, assays, and animal 44 models...essential to 49 understanding the quality of the seed stock reagents used in pivotal animal studies that have been 50 used to inform medical...52 outcome and inform attempts to avoid the evolution of EBOV escape mutants in response to 53 current therapeutics. Finally, as the primary

  7. Genetic variability and evolutionary dynamics of viruses of the family Closteroviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eRubio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses have a great potential for genetic variation, rapid evolution and adaptation. Characterization of the genetic variation of viral populations provides relevant information on the processes involved in virus evolution and epidemiology and it is crucial for designing reliable diagnostic tools and developing efficient and durable disease control strategies. Here we performed an updated analysis of sequences available in Genbank and reviewed present knowledge on the genetic variability and evolutionary processes of viruses of the family Closteroviridae. Several factors have shaped the genetic structure and diversity of closteroviruses. I A strong negative selection seems to be responsible for the high genetic stability in space and time for some viruses. II Long distance migration, probably by human transport of infected propagative plant material, have caused that genetically similar virus isolates are found in distant geographical regions. III Recombination between divergent sequence variants have generated new genotypes and plays an important role for the evolution of some viruses of the family Closteroviridae. IV Interaction between virus strains or between different viruses in mixed infections may alter accumulation of certain strains. V Host change or virus transmission by insect vectors induced changes in the viral population structure due to positive selection of sequence variants with higher fitness for host-virus or vector-virus interaction (adaptation or by genetic drift due to random selection of sequence variants during the population bottleneck associated to the transmission process.

  8. Public views of wetlands and waterfowl conservation in the United States—Results of a survey to inform the 2018 update of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Emily J.; Miller, Holly M.

    2018-01-24

    Executive SummaryThis report provides information from a general public survey conducted in early 2017 to help inform the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) 2018 update. This report is intended for use by the NAWMP advisory committees and anyone interested in the human dimensions of wetlands and waterfowl management. A mail-out survey was sent to 5,000 addresses in the United States, which were selected randomly in proportion to the population of each State. A total of 1,030 completed surveys representing 49 States were returned, resulting in a 23 percent overall response rate.When comparing the demographics of the respondents to the U.S. census data, this sample overrepresented people who are male, older, highly educated, and white. Data were weighted on gender and age to make the results more representative of the overall U.S. population. Additionally, this sample had higher participation rates in all wildlife-related recreation activities than has been found in previous studies; this indicates there may have been selection bias, with people interested in nature-related topics more likely to complete the survey. Therefore, results likely represent a segment of the U.S. public that is more oriented toward and aware of wildlife and conservation issues than the general public as a whole. Because of this bias, responses for each question were also broken down by recreationist type (hunters, anglers, wildlife viewers, and no wildlife-related recreation). Additionally, responses for each question were split by administrative flyway (Atlantic, Central, Mississippi, Pacific) and residency (urban, urban cluster, rural) to better understand the different groups.Most respondents knew of wetlands in their local area or community, and more than half had visited wetlands in the previous 12 months. Of those who had visited wetlands, the most common reasons were for walking/hiking/biking and enjoying nature/picnicking. In addition, this sample was very concerned

  9. Particle Filtering Methods for Incorporating Intelligence Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    appropriate information-updating mechanism. There exists a variety of ways to incorporate information updating. These methods include simple heuristics , such...threshold is preferable. It produces smoother results that are visibly more tractable. It eliminates a possible source of bias in the model by not

  10. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection and preterm labor(birth) in pregnant women-an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosong; Sun, Dehong; Li, Chuansheng; Ying, Jie; Yan, Youde

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection certainly affects preterm labor (birth) in pregnant women. Four databases were systematically searched up to May 31, 2017, without language restriction. Any study was included if it clearly defined exposure to chronic HBV infection, reported risk of preterm labor or birth in pregnant women, and reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) or provided data for estimation. RRs (or ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 statistic. Twenty-two observational studies involving 6 141 146 pregnant women (three prospective cohort studies, n = 1 116 799; 15 retrospective cohort studies, n = 5 022 513 and four case-control studies, n = 1834) were included. The risk of preterm labor was significantly intensified with chronic HBV infection compared with uninfected women, with substantial heterogeneity. Chronic HBV infection was also significantly associated with a 16% increase in the risk of preterm birth, with substantial heterogeneity. The risk of preterm birth significantly increased by 21% in HBsAg+/HBeAg+ pregnant women compared with uninfected pregnant women. Chronic HBV infection intensifies the risk of preterm labor and birth in pregnant women, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding and be confirmed by well-designed studies in the future. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor (PI/ r), but other combinations are possible. The panel has consensually selected and prioritized some drug combinations, some of them co-formulated. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. Adherence to therapy plays an essential role in maintaining antiviral response. Therapeutic options are limited after c

  12. Research on computer virus database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  13. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  14. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  15. Zika virus infection in Vietnam: current epidemic, strain origin, spreading risk, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dinh-Toi; Ngoc, Vo Truong Nhu; Tao, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus infection and its associated microcephaly have being receiving global concern. This infection has spread widely since the first outbreak was recorded in Africa in 1952. Now, it has been reported in over 70 countries on five continents including Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Vietnam is one of the most recent countries which had cases of Zika virus infection at the end of 2016. This country has also reported the first case of a microcephaly-born baby which was probably linked to Zika virus infection. However, information on the Zika virus epidemic in Vietnam is still limited. This brief report intends to update the current Zika virus epidemic, and to discuss challenges and perspectives in controlling this infection in Vietnam.

  16. ILRS Website Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  17. [Diagnostic Services Case Update : Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains two Diagnostic Services Case Updates, one from 8/7/2015 and one from 8/10/2015. The updates provide information about recent bird mortality...

  18. News and Features Updates from USA.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Stay on top of important government news and information with the USA.gov Updates: News and Features RSS feed. We'll update this feed when we add news and featured...

  19. Computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  20. Improving influenza vaccine virus selection: report of a WHO informal consultation held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 14-16 June 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K; Baylor, Norman; Cobey, Sarah; Cox, Nancy J; Daves, Sharon; Edwards, Steven; Ferguson, Neil; Grohmann, Gary; Hay, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline; Kullabutr, Kornnika; Lambert, Linda; Levandowski, Roland; Mishra, A C; Monto, Arnold; Siqueira, Marilda; Tashiro, Masato; Waddell, Anthony L; Wairagkar, Niteen; Wood, John; Zambon, Maria; Zhang, Wenqing

    2012-03-01

    • For almost 60 years, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) has been the key player in monitoring the evolution and spread of influenza viruses and recommending the strains to be used in human influenza vaccines. The GISRS has also worked to continually monitor and assess the risk posed by potential pandemic viruses and to guide appropriate public health responses. • The expanded and enhanced role of the GISRS following the adoption of the International Health Regulations (2005), recognition of the continuing threat posed by avian H5N1 and the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provide an opportune time to critically review the process by which influenza vaccine viruses are selected. In addition to identifying potential areas for improvement, such a review will also help to promote greater appreciation by the wider influenza and policy-making community of the complexity of influenza vaccine virus selection. • The selection process is highly coordinated and involves continual year-round integration of virological data and epidemiological information by National Influenza Centres (NICs), thorough antigenic and genetic characterization of viruses by WHO Collaborating Centres (WHOCCs) as part of selecting suitable candidate vaccine viruses, and the preparation of suitable reassortants and corresponding reagents for vaccine standardization by WHO Essential Regulatory Laboratories (ERLs). • Ensuring the optimal effectiveness of vaccines has been assisted in recent years by advances in molecular diagnosis and the availability of more extensive genetic sequence data. However, there remain a number of challenging constraints including variations in the assays used, the possibility of complications resulting from non-antigenic changes, the limited availability of suitable vaccine viruses and the requirement for recommendations to be made up to a year in advance of the peak of influenza season because of production constraints.

  1. Improving influenza vaccine virus selectionReport of a WHO informal consultation held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 14–16 June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K.; Baylor, Norman; Cobey, Sarah; Cox, Nancy J.; Daves, Sharon; Edwards, Steven; Ferguson, Neil; Grohmann, Gary; Hay, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline; Kullabutr, Kornnika; Lambert, Linda; Levandowski, Roland; Mishra, A. C.; Monto, Arnold; Siqueira, Marilda; Tashiro, Masato; Waddell, Anthony L.; Wairagkar, Niteen; Wood, John; Zambon, Maria; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Executive summary • For almost 60 years, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) has been the key player in monitoring the evolution and spread of influenza viruses and recommending the strains to be used in human influenza vaccines. The GISRS has also worked to continually monitor and assess the risk posed by potential pandemic viruses and to guide appropriate public health responses.• The expanded and enhanced role of the GISRS following the adoption of the International Health Regulations (2005), recognition of the continuing threat posed by avian H5N1 and the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provide an opportune time to critically review the process by which influenza vaccine viruses are selected. In addition to identifying potential areas for improvement, such a review will also help to promote greater appreciation by the wider influenza and policy‐making community of the complexity of influenza vaccine virus selection.• The selection process is highly coordinated and involves continual year‐round integration of virological data and epidemiological information by National Influenza Centres (NICs), thorough antigenic and genetic characterization of viruses by WHO Collaborating Centres (WHOCCs) as part of selecting suitable candidate vaccine viruses, and the preparation of suitable reassortants and corresponding reagents for vaccine standardization by WHO Essential Regulatory Laboratories (ERLs).• Ensuring the optimal effectiveness of vaccines has been assisted in recent years by advances in molecular diagnosis and the availability of more extensive genetic sequence data. However, there remain a number of challenging constraints including variations in the assays used, the possibility of complications resulting from non‐antigenic changes, the limited availability of suitable vaccine viruses and the requirement for recommendations to be made up to a year in advance of the peak of influenza season because of

  2. Mumps Virus: Modification of the Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Frontline Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristi L; Shastry, Siri; Mzahim, Bandr; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.

  3. Early response to the emergence of influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans in China: the central role of prompt information sharing and public communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; O'Leary, Michael; Feng, Zijian

    2014-04-01

    In 2003, China's handling of the early stages of the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was heavily criticized and generally considered to be suboptimal. Following the SARS outbreak, China made huge investments to improve surveillance, emergency preparedness and response capacity and strengthen public health institutions. In 2013, the return on these investments was evaluated by investigating China's early response to the emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans. Clusters of human infection with a novel influenza virus were detected in China - by national surveillance of pneumonia of unknown etiology - on 26 February 2013. On 31 March 2013, China notified the World Health Organization (WHO) of the first recorded human infections with A(H7N9) virus. Poultry markets - which were rapidly identified as a major source of transmission of A(H7N9) to humans - were closed down in the affected areas. Surveillance in humans and poultry was heightened and technical guidelines were quickly updated and disseminated. The health authorities collaborated with WHO in risk assessments and risk communication. New cases were reported promptly and publicly. The relevant infrastructures, surveillance systems and response capacity need to be strengthened in preparation for future emergencies caused by emerging or existing disease threats. Results of risk assessments and other data should be released promptly and publicly and such release should not jeopardize future publication of the data in scientific journals. Coordination between public health and veterinary services would be stronger during an emergency if these services had already undertaken joint preparedness planning.

  4. HTT-DB: new features and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Bruno Reis; Carvalho, Evelise Leis; da Silva, Alexandre Freitas; Dezordi, Filipe Zimmer; Pinto, Paulo Marcos; Campos, Tulio de Lima; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; Wallau, Gabriel da Luz

    2018-01-01

    Horizontal Transfer (HT) of genetic material between species is a common phenomenon among Bacteria and Archaea species and several databases are available for information retrieval and data mining. However, little attention has been given to this phenomenon among eukaryotic species mainly due to the lower proportion of these events. In the last years, a vertiginous amount of new HT events involving eukaryotic species was reported in the literature, highlighting the need of a common repository to keep the scientific community up to date and describe overall trends. Recently, we published the first HT database focused on HT of transposable elements among eukaryotes: the Horizontal Transposon Transfer DataBase (http://lpa.saogabriel.unipampa.edu.br: 8080/httdatabase/). Here, we present new features and updates of this unique database: (i) its expansion to include virus-host exchange of genetic material, which we called Horizontal Virus Transfer (HVT) and (ii) the availability of a web server for HT detection, where we implemented the online version of vertical and horizontal inheritance consistence analysis (VHICA), an R package developed for HT detection. These improvements will help researchers to navigate through known HVT cases, take data-informed decision and export figures based on keywords searches. Moreover, the availability of the VHICA as an online tool will make this software easily reachable even for researchers with no or little computation knowledge as well as foster our capability to detect new HT events in a wide variety of taxa. (Database URL: http://lpa.saogabriel.unipampa.edu.br:8080/httdatabase/). © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Internet Journal of Medical Update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    The two surveys on 'Gambling Addiction' published in this issue of the Internet Journal of. Medical Update recommend that there is a need to improve training of psychiatrists in India as regards identification, assessment and treatment of gambling addicts. I think the findings will inform the development and implementation of ...

  6. Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bashir, Uzma; Cox, Nancy J; Fasce, Rodrigo; Giovanni, Maria; Grohmann, Gary; Huang, Sue; Katz, Jackie; Mironenko, Alla; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Sasono, Pretty Multihartina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siqueira, Marilda; Waddell, Anthony L; Waiboci, Lillian; Wood, John; Zhang, Wenqing; Ziegler, Thedi

    2015-08-26

    Despite long-recognized challenges and constraints associated with their updating and manufacture, influenza vaccines remain at the heart of public health preparedness and response efforts against both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses. Globally coordinated virological and epidemiological surveillance is the foundation of the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. Although national influenza surveillance and reporting capabilities are being strengthened and expanded, sustaining and building upon recent gains has become a major challenge. Strengthening the vaccine virus selection process additionally requires the continuation of initiatives to improve the timeliness and representativeness of influenza viruses shared by countries for detailed analysis by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Efforts are also continuing at the national, regional, and global levels to better understand the dynamics of influenza transmission in both temperate and tropical regions. Improved understanding of the degree of influenza seasonality in tropical countries of the world should allow for the strengthening of national vaccination policies and use of the most appropriate available vaccines. There remain a number of limitations and difficulties associated with the use of HAI assays for the antigenic characterization and selection of influenza vaccine viruses by WHOCCs. Current approaches to improving the situation include the more-optimal use of HAI and other assays; improved understanding of the data produced by neutralization assays; and increased standardization of serological testing methods. A number of new technologies and associated tools have the potential to revolutionize influenza surveillance and response activities. These include the increasingly routine use of whole genome next-generation sequencing and other high-throughput approaches. Such approaches could not only become key elements in outbreak

  7. Keeping Updated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reading, David; Botjes, Erna; Nørhede, Pia

    2013-01-01

    . The best way to stay up to date is via the Internet. There are numerous websites that fulfill this function, including those run by regulatory bodies, scientific organizations, and groups whose specific objective is to provide industry with helpful information to assist with the assessment and management...... of risk. This chapter guides food companies to the most important web links....

  8. 76 FR 37057 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Virus-Serum-Toxin Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...- Toxin Act and regulations, contact Dr. Albert Morgan, Section Leader, Operational Support Staff, Center... include viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products of natural or synthetic origin, such as vaccines...

  9. 78 FR 32229 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ..., Section Leader, Policy, Evaluation and Licensing, CVB, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 148, Riverdale, MD... products include viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products of natural or synthetic origin, such as...

  10. Mapping Zika virus infection using geographical information systems in Tolima, Colombia, 2015-2016 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geographical information systems (GIS have been extensively used for the development of epidemiological maps of tropical diseases, however not yet specifically for Zika virus (ZIKV infection. Methods: Surveillance case data of the ongoing epidemics of ZIKV in the Tolima department, Colombia (2015-2016 were used to estimate cumulative incidence rates (cases/100,000 pop. to develop the first maps in the department and its municipalities, including detail for the capital, Ibagué. The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1®. Two thematic maps were developed according to municipality and communes incidence rates. Results: Up to March 5, 2016, 4,094 cases of ZIKV were reported in Tolima, for cumulated rates of 289.9 cases/100,000 pop. (7.95% of the country. Burden of ZIKV infection has been concentrated in its east area, where municipalities have reported >500 cases/100,000 pop. These municipalities are bordered by two other departments, Cundinamarca (3,778 cases and Huila (5,338 cases, which also have high incidences of ZIKV infection. Seven municipalities of Tolima ranged from 250-499.99 cases/100,000 pop., of this group five border with high incidence municipalities (>250, including the capital, where almost half of the reported cases of ZIKV in Tolima are concentrated. Conclusions: Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to  guide decisions for the prevention and control of diseases that represent significant issues in the region and the country, but also in emerging conditions such as ZIKV.

  11. Improvements to pairwise sequence comparison (PASC): a genome-based web tool for virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yiming; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2014-12-01

    The number of viral genome sequences in the public databases is increasing dramatically, and these sequences are playing an important role in virus classification. Pairwise sequence comparison is a sequence-based virus classification method. A program using this method calculates the pairwise identities of virus sequences within a virus family and displays their distribution, and visual analysis helps to determine demarcations at different taxonomic levels such as strain, species, genus and subfamily. Subsequent comparison of new sequences against existing ones allows viruses from which the new sequences were derived to be classified. Although this method cannot be used as the only criterion for virus classification in some cases, it is a quantitative method and has many advantages over conventional virus classification methods. It has been applied to several virus families, and there is an increasing interest in using this method for other virus families/groups. The Pairwise Sequence Comparison (PASC) classification tool was created at the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The tool's database stores pairwise identities for complete genomes/segments of 56 virus families/groups. Data in the system are updated every day to reflect changes in virus taxonomy and additions of new virus sequences to the public database. The web interface of the tool ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sutils/pasc/ ) makes it easy to navigate and perform analyses. Multiple new viral genome sequences can be tested simultaneously with this system to suggest the taxonomic position of virus isolates in a specific family. PASC eliminates potential discrepancies in the results caused by different algorithms and/or different data used by researchers.

  12. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings.

  13. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  14. Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

    2014-09-26

    The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is

  15. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2013 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    are assessed. Identified safety concerns for a taxonomic unit are, where possible and reasonable in number, reflected as ‘qualifications’ in connection with a recommendation for a QPS status. The list of QPS recommended biological agents is reviewed and updated periodically. Therefore, the only valid list...... is the one in the most recently published scientific opinion. The 2013 update reviews previously assessed microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, oomycetes and viruses used for plant protection purposes. All taxonomic units previously recommended for the QPS list had their status...... reconfirmed. The new notifications since the last QPS update were reviewed. Gluconobacter oxydans and Alphaflexiviridae were assessed for the first time and were recommended for the QPS list. The information of the previous opinion was updated for the taxonomic units on the QPS list. Qualifications...

  4. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  5. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  6. TAXONOMY OF THE ORDER MONONEGAVIRALES: UPDATE 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R.; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H.; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N.; Collins, Peter L.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M.; Easton, Andrew J.; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M.; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Kobinger, Gary P.; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A.; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M.; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L.; Payne, Susan L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Randall, Rick E.; Rima, Bertus K.; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Stone, David M.; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B.; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A.; Walker, Peter J.; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E.; Xiè, Jiǎtāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). PMID:27216929

  7. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R.; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H.; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N.; Collins, Peter L.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M.; Easton, Andrew J.; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M.; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Kobinger, Gary P.; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A.; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M.; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L.; Payne, Susan L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Randall, Rick E.; Rima, Bertus K.; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Stone, David M.; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B.; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A.; Walker, Peter J.; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E.; Xiè, Jiǎtāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-05-23

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  8. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-04

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

  9. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer; Gould, Carolyn; Fine, Anne D.; Polen, Kara D.; Lake-Burger, Heather; Hillard, Christina L.; Hall, Noemi; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Slaughter, Karnesha; Sommer, Jamie N.; Adamski, Alys; Raycraft, Meghan; Fleck-Derderian, Shannon; Gupta, Jyoti; Newsome, Kimberly; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.; Petersen, Lyle; Boyle, Coleen; Jamieson, Denise J.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Adair, Jennifer; Ruberto, Irene; Haselow, Dirk T.; Im, Lucille; Jilek, Wendy; Lehmann, Monica S.; Olney, Richard; Porse, Charsey Cole; Ramstrom, Karen C.; Sowunmi, Similoluwa; Marzec, Natalie S.; Davis, Karin; Esponda-Morrison, Brenda; Fraser, M. Zachariah; O'Connor, Colleen Ann; Chung, Wendy; Richardson, Folasuyi; Sexton, Taylor; Stocks, Meredith E.; Woldai, Senait; Bundek, Amanda M.; Zambri, Jennifer; Goldberg, Cynthia; Eisenstein, Leah; Jackson, Jennifer; Kopit, Russell; Logue, Teresa; Mendoza, Raphael; Feldpausch, Amanda; Graham, Teri; Mann, Sylvia; Park, Sarah Y.; Carter, Kris Kelly; Potts, Emily J.; Stevens, Taryn; Simonson, Sean; Tonzel, Julius L.; Davis, Shari; Robinson, Sara; Hyun, Judie K.; Jenkins, Erin M.; Piccardi, Monika; Reid, Lawrence D.; Dunn, Julie E.; Higgins, Cathleen A.; Lin, Angela E.; Munshi, Gerlinde S.; Sandhu, Kayleigh; Scotland, Sarah J.; Soliva, Susan; Copeland, Glenn; Signs, Kimberly A.; Schiffman, Elizabeth; Byers, Paul; Hand, Sheryl; Mulgrew, Christine L.; Hamik, Jeff; Koirala, Samir; Ludwig, Lisa A.; Fredette, Carolyn Rose; Garafalo, Kristin; Worthington, Karen; Ropri, Abubakar; Ade, Julius Nchangtachi; Alaali, Zahra S.; Blog, Debra; Brunt, Scott J.; Bryant, Patrick; Burns, Amy E.; Bush, Steven; Carson, Kyle; Dean, Amy B.; Demarest, Valerie; Dufort, Elizabeth M.; Dupuis II, Alan P.; Sullivan-Frohm, Ann; Furuya, Andrea Marias; Fuschino, Meghan; Glaze, Viola H.; Griffin, Jacquelin; Hidalgo, Christina; Kulas, Karen E.; Lamson, Daryl M.; Lance, Lou Ann; Lee, William T.; Limberger, Ronald; Many, Patricia S.; Marchewka, Mary J.; Naizby, Brenda Elizabeth; Polfleit, MaryJo; Popowich, Michael; Rahman, Tabassum; Rem, Timothy; Robbins, Amy E.; Rowlands, Jemma V.; Seaver, Chantelle; Seward, Kimberley A.; Smith, Lou; Sohi, Inderbir; St. George, Kirsten; Souto, Maria I.; Wester, Rachel Elizabeth; Wong, Susan J.; Zeng, Li; Ackelsberg, Joel; Alex, Byron; Ballen, Vennus; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Bloch, Danielle; Clark, Sandhya; Conners, Erin; Cooper, Hannah; Davidson, Alexander; Dentinger, Catherine; Deocharan, Bisram; DeVito, Andrea; Fu, Jie; Hrusa, Gili; Iqbal, Maryam; Iwamoto, Martha; Jones, Lucretia; Kubinson, Hannah; Lash, Maura; Layton, Marcelle; Lee, Christopher T.; Liu, Dakai; McGibbon, Emily; Moy, Morgan; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B.; Peterson, Eric; Poy, Jose; Rakeman, Jennifer; Stoute, Alaina; Thompson, Corinne; Weiss, Don; Westheimer, Emily; Winters, Ann; Younis, Mohammad; Chan, Ronna L.; Cronquist, Laura Jean; Caton, Lisa; Lind, Leah; Nalluswami, Kumar; Perella, Dana; Brady, Diane S.; Gosciminski, Michael; McAuley, Patricia; Drociuk, Daniel; Leedom, Vinita; Witrick, Brian; Bollock, Jan; Hartel, Marie Bottomley; Lucinski, Loraine Swanson; McDonald, Morgan; Miller, Angela M.; Ponson, Tori Armand; Price, Laura; Nance, Amy E.; Peterson, Dallin; Cook, Sally; Martin, Brennan; Oltean, Hanna; Neary, Jillian; Baker, Melissa A.; Cummons, Kathy; Bryan, Katie; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Arth, Annelise C.; Bollweg, Brigid C.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dawson, April L.; Denison, Amy M.; Dziuban, Eric J.; Estetter, Lindsey; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Free, Rebecca J.; Galang, Romeo R.; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Green, Caitlin; Hale, Gillian L.; Hayes, Heather M.; Igbinosa, Irogue; Keating, M. Kelly; Khan, Sumaiya; Kim, Shin Y.; Lampe, Margaret; Lewis, Amanda; Mai, Cara; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Miers, Brooke; Moore, Jazmyn; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Nahabedian, John; Panella, Amanda; Parihar, Vaunita; Patel, Mitesh M.; Rabeneck, D. Brett; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Ritter, Jana M.; Rollin, Dominique C.; Sanders, Jeanine H.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Simeone, Regina M.; Simon, Elizabeth L.; Sims, John R.; Spivey, Pamela J.; Talley-McRae, Helen; Tshiwala, Alphonse K.; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Viens, Laura; Wainscott-Sargent, Anne; Williams, Tonya; Zaki, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. Results During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus–associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%–7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%–14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%–26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Journal Clinical Updates Practice Management Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality ... Students For Patients About Us Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement RSS Advertising Opportunities Careers at ACOG ...

  11. Information visualisation as a resource for popularising the technical-biomedical aspects of the last Ebola virus epidemic: The case of the Spanish reference press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcíbar, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the role that information visualisation played in the popularisation of the technical-biomedical aspects of the last Ebola virus epidemic, the most devastating to date. Applying content analysis methods, the total population of information visualisations ( N = 209) was coded and analysed to identify topics, and to define features and identify patterns in the images. The corpus was based on the record of articles with graphics appearing in five Spanish reference newspapers from 22 March 2014 to 13 January 2016, the start and suppression of the epidemic, respectively. The results suggest that information visualisation was a key factor in the popularisation of the epidemic's technical-biomedical aspects, as well as contributing actively to construct, in the words of Myers, a narrative of nature.

  12. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  13. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, H.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Zha, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  14. Selection of antigenically advanced variants of seasonal influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C. (Chengjun); Hatta, M. (Masato); D.F. Burke (David); Ping, J. (Jihui); Zhang, Y. (Ying); Ozawa, M. (Makoto); Taft, A.S. (Andrew S.); Das, S.C. (Subash C.); Hanson, A.P. (Anthony P.); Song, J. (Jiasheng); M. Imai; Wilker, P.R. (Peter R.); Watanabe, T. (Tokiko); Watanabe, S. (Shinji); Ito, M. (Mutsumi); Iwatsuki-Horimoto, K. (Kiyoko); C.A. Russell (Colin); S.L. James (Sarah ); E. Skepner (Eugene); E. Maher (Eileen); G. Neumann (Gabriele); A. Klimov (Alexander); A. Kelso; McCauley, J. (John); D. Wang (Dayan); Y.L. Shu (Yue-Long); T. Odagiri (Takato); Tashiro, M. (Masato); X. Xu (Xiyan); Wentworth, D.E. (David E.); J. Katz (Jacqueline); N.J. Cox (Nancy); D.J. Smith (Derek James); Y. Kawaoka (Yoshihiro)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing

  15. Update on Neonatal Herpes Simplex Epidemiology in the Netherlands: A Health Problem of Increasing Concern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Louise; Biekram, Manisha; Poeran, Jashvant; Hukkelhoven, Chantal; Galjaard, Sander; van der Meijden, Wim; Op de Coul, Eline

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides an update on the incidence of neonatal herpes, guideline adherence by health care professionals (HCP), and trends in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy in the Netherlands.

  16. Local and Regional Spatial Analysis of Plant Virus Disease Epidemics with Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in personal computer hardware and the rapid development of spatial analysis software that is user-friendly on PC's has provided remarkable new tools for the analysts of plant diseases, particularly ecologically complex virus diseases. Due to the complexity of the disease cycle of the animal-vectored plant virus, these diseases present the most interesting challenges for the application of spatial analysis technology. While traditional quantitative analysis of plant diseases concentrated on within-field spatial analysis, often involving rather arcane mathematical descriptions of pattern, the new spatial analysis tools are most useful at the dimension where many disease epidemics occur, the regional level. The output of many of the programs used in spatial analysis is a highly visual picture of a disease epidemic which has a strong intuitive appeal to managers of agricultural enterprises. Applications by us, thus far, have included tomato, pepper and cotton virus diseases in Arizona. Mexico, California and Pakistan. In addition, this technology has been applied by us to Phytophthora infestans in potato and tomato. Aspergillus flavus in cotton, and regional insect problems of tomato and cotton.

  17. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    .... The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided...

  18. Updates to Information Presented in the Scope and Methods Plans for the Ozone NAAQS Health and Welfare Risk and Exposure Assessments, May 2012 Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum provides an overview of changes to the scope and methods plan, and reasons for them, to inform the CASAC Ozone Panel and the public as they prepare to review the first drafts of the Risk and Exposure Assessments.

  19. [Fibromyalgia--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigers, Sigrid Hørven

    2002-05-20

    Fibromyalgia is a common, female dominated condition, characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression and a number of other symptoms. The syndrome's aetiology and treatment is disputed. However, research over the last decade has provided substantial new information. This review is an update on fibromyalgia with respect to predictors, pathogenesis and treatment. On the basis of a number of important scientific publications, the most relevant theory is presented and discussed. Fibromyalgia may be described as a biopsychosocial disorder in which long lasting distress, myofascial pain, central sensitisation, sickness behaviour, anxiety/depression, neuroendocrine and autonomic dysfunction play central aetiological roles as elements in a vicious circle. Treatment should be focused on each of these elements and requires active patient participation. It is best given as a multidimensional, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme with continuous support from the general practitioner. Even though the fibromyalgia riddle is not yet fully solved, research over the last decade has given valuable new information on pathogenesis and treatment. We should be able to offer our patients substantial help on the basis of present knowledge.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January/February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Mayer, S.J.; Salk, M.S.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives impacting environmental, health, and safety management responsibilities. the table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  2. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMany macroeconomic forecasts and forecast updates like those from IMF and OECD typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive,

  3. The master two-dimensional gel database of human AMA cell proteins: towards linking protein and genome sequence and mapping information (update 1991)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Leffers, H; Rasmussen, H H

    1991-01-01

    autoantigens" and "cDNAs". For convenience we have included an alphabetical list of all known proteins recorded in this database. In the long run, the main goal of this database is to link protein and DNA sequencing and mapping information (Human Genome Program) and to provide an integrated picture...

  4. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  5. Partial sequence analysis of an atypical Turkish isolate provides further information on the evolutionary history of Plum pox virus (PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Candresse, Thierry

    2005-03-01

    A variety of techniques, such as typing with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies, restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis or subgroup-specific RT-PCR are available for the discrimination of Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates. However, the existence of PPV isolates showing abnormal typing properties has been observed in the past [Candresse, T., Cambra, M., Dallot, S., Lanneau, M., Asensio, M., Gorris, M.T., Revers, F., Macquaire, G., Olmos, A., Boscia, D., Quiot J.B., Dunez, J., 1998. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the D and M serotypes of Plum pox potyvirus. Phytopathology 88, 198-204.]. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such anomalous serological and molecular typing characteristics, partial 3' (1449 nt) and 5' (3706 nt) sequences have been determined for an atypical Turkish PPV isolate (Abricotier Turquie or Ab-Tk). The results obtained indicate that its unusual typing behaviour is caused by point mutations affecting key restriction sites and epitopes and confirm that this isolate represents a divergent member of the PPV-M subgroup. In addition, analysis of the partial Ab-Tk genomic sequences demonstrated that the 5' region of the genome of this isolate has a mosaic structure resulting from recombination event(s), shedding new light on the evolutionary history of Plum pox virus.

  6. Update History of This Database - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us Dicty_cDB Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2015/01/09 The original websi...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive ... ...te information was updated. 2010/03/29 Dicty_cDB English archive site is opened. 2009/8 Data is updated. 199...6/12 Dicty_cDB(http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/cDNA/database.html) is released. About This Database Datab

  7. Sharka (Plum pox virus) of stone fruits

    OpenAIRE

    JAKUBÍKOVÁ, Hedvika

    2017-01-01

    Plum pox virus causes one of the most devastating stone fruit diseases. The main target of this thesis is a detection of Plum pox virus in infected leaf tissue of Prunus domestica.. The presence of the virus in a plant material was confirmed by the RNA isolation and its use as a template for RT-PCR. Furthermore, the basic information about properties of the virus, common methods of the virus detection and protection possibilities against the virus is are included.

  8. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  9. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  10. Dali server update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-08

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. The Differences Between Male And Female Status Updates On Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    ELFRIDA, FELLA FIRUZAH

    2014-01-01

    Key words: language and gender differences, status updates, theme, expression word. This research focuses on analyzing the differences between male and female status updates on twitter. Twitter is one of the most popular social networking and also a one kind of tool for communicating to each other, besides we can get accurate information and it's not only a friendship media. When people updated status, it has differences from one another. Every person has individual own style in writing a twe...

  12. Electron microscopy of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy is widely used in virology because viruses are generally too small for a direct inspection by light microscopy. Analysis of virus morphology is necessary in many circumstances, e.g., for the diagnosis of a virus in particular clinical situations or the analysis of virus entry and assembly. Moreover, quality control of virus particle integrity is required if a virus is propagated in cell culture, particularly if the virus genome has changed. In most cases already the basic methodology for transmission electron microscopy, i.e., negative staining and ultrathin sectioning, is sufficient to give relevant information on virus ultrastructure. This chapter gives detailed information on the principles of these basic methodologies and provides simple but reliable protocols for a quick start. Moreover, the description of standard protocols for negative staining and ultrathin sectioning are supplemented by protocols on immuno-negative staining and rapid ultrathin sectioning. Finally, principles of methods for an extended ultrastructural research using more elaborate techniques, such as cryotechniques or methods to reveal the three-dimensional virus architecture, are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Meeting Report: 2013 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkommen, Hannelore; Blümel, Johannes; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Dayue; Chen, Qi; Gröner, Albrecht; Hubbard, Brian R; Kreil, Thomas R; Ruffing, Michel; Ruiz, Sol; Scott, Dorothy; Silvester, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2013 organized by the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) and held in Berlin, Germany, from June 4 to 6, 2013. The conference was accompanied by a workshop, "Virus Spike Preparations and Virus Removal by Filtration: New Trends and Developments". The presentations and the discussion at the workshop are summarized in a separate report that will be published in this issue of the journal as well. As with previous conferences of this series, the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2013 provided again an excellent opportunity to exchange information and opinions between the industry, research organizations, and regulatory bodies. Updates on regulatory considerations related to virus and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) safety of biopharmaceuticals were provided by agencies of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), and Singapore. The epidemiology and detection methods of new emerging pathogens like hepatitis E virus and parvovirus (PARV 4) were exemplified, and the risk of contamination of animal-derived raw materials like trypsin was considered in particular. The benefit of using new sequence-based virus detection methods was discussed. Events of bioreactor contaminations in the past drew the attention to root cause investigations and preventive actions, which were illustrated by several examples. Virus clearance data of specific unit operations were provided; the discussion focused on the mechanism of virus clearance and on the strategic concept of viral clearance integration. As in previous years, the virus safety section was followed by a TSE section that covered recent scientific findings that may influence the risk assessment of blood and cell substrates. These included the realization that interspecies transmission of TSE by blood components in sheep is greater than predicted by assays in transgenic mice. Also, the pathogenesis and possibility of

  14. Pharmaceutical Approval Update

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Michele B.

    2016-01-01

    Obeticholic acid (Ocaliva) for primary biliary cholangitis; sofosbuvir 400 mg/velpatasvir 100 mg (Epclusa) for chronic hepatitis C virus infection; and daclizumab (Zinbryta) for relapsing multiple sclerosis

  15. Evaluation and refinement of a handheld health information technology tool to support the timely update of bedside visual cues to prevent falls in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ruth C-A; Visvanathan, Renuka; Ranasinghe, Damith; Wilson, Anne

    2017-11-27

    To evaluate clinicians' perspectives, before and after clinical implementation (i.e. trial) of a handheld health information technology (HIT) tool, incorporating an iPad device and automatically generated visual cues for bedside display, for falls risk assessment and prevention in hospital. This pilot study utilized mixed-methods research with focus group discussions and Likert-scale surveys to elicit clinicians' attitudes. The study was conducted across three phases within two medical wards of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Phase 1 (pretrial) involved focus group discussion (five staff) and surveys (48 staff) to elicit preliminary perspectives on tool use, benefits and barriers to use and recommendations for improvement. Phase 2 (tool trial) involved HIT tool implementation on two hospital wards over consecutive 12-week periods. Phase 3 (post-trial) involved focus group discussion (five staff) and surveys (29 staff) following tool implementation, with similar themes as in Phase 1. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis, and quantitative data using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis, with subgroup analyses on user status (P ≤ 0.05). Four findings emerged on clinicians' experience, positive perceptions, negative perceptions and recommendations for improvement of the tool. Pretrial, clinicians were familiar with using visual cues in hospital falls prevention. They identified potential benefits of the HIT tool in obtaining timely, useful falls risk assessment to improve patient care. During the trial, the wards differed in methods of tool implementation, resulting in lower uptake by clinicians on the subacute ward. Post-trial, clinicians remained supportive for incorporating the tool into clinical practice; however, there were issues with usability and lack of time for tool use. Staff who had not used the tool had less appreciation for it improving their understanding of patients' falls risk factors (odds ratio 0.12), or

  16. IMS Learning Design Update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Presentation at the seminar: "Learning Designs in a Networked World: A Dutch - Canada Education Seminar". Organized by Terry Anderson at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, October 15th 2004. Contains update on activities around IMS LD.

  17. USDA Gin Lab Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an update to ginning industry stakeholders on current research efforts ongoing at the three USDA ARS ginning laboratories in Lubbock, TX, Stoneville, MS, and Mesilla Park, NM....

  18. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: ... Us Contact Us Copyright Information Privacy Statement RSS Advertising Opportunities Careers at ACOG Sitemap Website Feedback American ...

  20. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  1. Hepatitis C virus An overview for dental health care providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Monina Klevens; Anne C. Moorman

    2013-01-01

    and Overview. Changes in the science of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and transmission in a private dental practice provide an opportunity to update dental health care providers about this pathogen...

  2. Targeted interventions in Rajasthan, India: How informed are the beneficiaries about transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: What is the present level of knowledge among the high-risk groups regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and what is the source of such knowledge? What role do the stakeholders play in enhancing their level of knowledge? Objectives: To assess the efficacy of interventions focused on high-risk groups, and to find out indications on the needs to work with the general population. Study Design : Community-based cross-sectional survey about transmission of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS; Study Period: December 2002. Participants: 1792 respondents, which included 1001 truckers, 389 migrants, 206 street children, and 196 commercial sex workers (CSWs. Setting: In intervention sites under SACS in Rajasthan Analysis: Frequency distribution and Chi-square tests. Results: Knowledge about all the four methods of transmission of HIV/AIDS was found to be relatively poor among the targeted intervention subjects. Of those who knew about HIV/AIDS about 67 per cent of the spouses of out migrants (55% over one-third of the in migrants (35%, 45 per cent of the female commercial sex workers and 0.8 per cent truckers knew about all the correct modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. TV/Radio emerged as the main source of knowledge about the correct modes of transmission for most of the respondents. The state health services and NGO workers, though primarily responsible for imparting knowledge to the subjects were found to be playing marginal role in the same.

  3. Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Megan R.; Jones, Abbey M.; Petersen, Emily E.; Lee, Ellen H.; Rice, Marion E.; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R.; Evert, Nicole; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Oduyebo, Titilope; Brown, Catherine M.; Martin, Stacey; Ahmad, Nina; Bhatnagar, Julu; Macdonald, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidenc...

  4. Obesidade: atualização sobre sua etiologia, morbidade e tratamento Obesity: updated information about its etiology, morbidity and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pamfilio Prado de FRANCISCHI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As tendências de transição nutricional ocorridas neste século direcionam para uma dieta mais ocidentalizada, a qual, aliada à diminuição progressiva da atividade física, converge para o aumento no número de casos de obesidade em todo o mundo. Isso representa aumento na morbidade e na mortalidade associadas à obesidade, já que esta é fator de risco para várias doenças como diabetes tipo II, hipertensão, doenças cardiovasculares e cálculo na vesícula biliar. A obesidade se apresenta não apenas como problema científico e de saúde pública, porém como grande indústria que envolve o desenvolvimento de fármacos, de alimentos modificados e estratégias governamentais estimulando a prática regular de atividade física e a orientação alimentar a fim de promover melhores hábitos. Assim, o conhecimento das causas e estratégias preventivas da obesidade é o objeto de estudo de pesquisadores de diferentes centros. Esse artigo tem como objetivo rever esses estudos, abordando o aumento na prevalência e incidência da obesidade, doenças relacionadas ao excesso de peso e os tratamentos para redução da gordura corporal.The trend in nutritional transition in this century leads to an occidentalized diet, which, allied to a decrease in physical activity, results in increasing of obesity all over the world. It raises the risk of morbidity and mortality, since obesity is the first step to several diseases such as Diabetes type II, hypertension, cardiovascular and gallbladder diseases. Obesity is not only a scientific and public health problem, but also an industry of pharmacos, special foods and governmental strategies to encourage people to be more active and to provide more food information in order to promote better habits. Several studies all around the world discuss the causes and treatments for obesity. In this way, this paper summarizes these researches, approaching the elements associated with higher obesity incidence and

  5. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.

  6. Likely correlation between sources of information and acceptability of A/H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus vaccine in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougairède, Antoine; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Ninove, Laetitia; Sartor, Catherine; Badiaga, Sékéné; Botelho, Elizabeth; Brouqui, Philippe; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Gould, Ernest A; Charrel, Rémi N; Raoult, Didier

    2010-06-25

    In France, there was a reluctance to accept vaccination against the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus despite government recommendation and investment in the vaccine programme. We examined the willingness of different populations to accept A/H1N1 vaccination (i) in a French hospital among 3315 employees immunized either by in-house medical personnel or mobile teams of MDs and (ii) in a shelter housing 250 homeless persons. Google was used to assess the volume of enquiries concerning incidence of influenza. We analyzed the information on vaccination provided by Google, the website of the major French newspapers, and PubMed. Two trust Surveys were used to assess public opinion on the trustworthiness of people in different professions. Paramedics were significantly more reluctant to accept immunisation than qualified medical staff. Acceptance was significantly increased when recommended directly by MDs. Anecdotal cases of directly observed severe infections were followed by enhanced acceptance of paramedical staff. Scientific literature was significantly more in favour of vaccination than Google and French newspaper websites. In the case of the newspaper websites, information correlated with their recognised political reputations, although they would presumably claim independence from political bias. The Trust Surveys showed that politicians were highly dis-trusted in contrast with doctors and pharmacists who were considered much more trustworthy. The low uptake of the vaccine could reflect failure to convey high quality medical information and advice relating to the benefits of being vaccinated. We believe that the media and internet contributed to this problem by raising concerns within the general population and that failure to involve GPs in the control programme may have been a mistake. GPs are highly regarded by the public and can provide face-to-face professional advice and information. The top-down strategy of vaccine programme management and information

  7. CERN's web application updates for electron and laser beam technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sigas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the modifications at CERN's web application for electron and laser beam technologies. There are updates at both the front and the back end of the application. New electron and laser machines were added and also old machines were updated. There is also a new feature for printing needed information.

  8. [Laryngeal papillomatosis: problem update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistushkin, V M; Mustafaev, D M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present overview was to analyse the available data on etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis. It is shown that the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the development of this pathology is related to cell proliferation mechanisms. The human papilloma virus is most effectively identified by the polymerase chain reaction technique in combination with in situ hybridization. It is expected that new and more informative criteria for diagnostics, treatment,and prognosis of laryngeal papillomatosis will be proposed based on recent progress in molecular biology, morphology,and immunology. Different variants of the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis are described.Modern practice of the management of laryngeal papillomatosis takes advantage of the three main approaches and/or their combination. First, further improvement of surgical techniques, such as the application of endoscopic devices and surgical lasers.Second, the search for new pharmaceutical agents (indole-3-carbinol, cidofovir, antiviral medicines, etc.) most frequently used for adjuvant therapy. Third, the development of new vaccination methods. Besides these three approaches, photodynamic therapy and the use of ionizing radiation are currently being studied as the tools for the treatment of extensive and recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis as well as the methods of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

  9. How has the flu virus infected the Web? 2010 influenza and vaccine information available on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Mascaretti, Silvia; Caruana, Anna; Orizio, Grazia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-01-29

    The 2009-10 influenza pandemic was a major public health concern. Vaccination was recommended by the health authorities, but compliance was not optimal and perception of the presumed associated risks was high among the public. The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of health information and advice. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of websites providing information about flu vaccine and the quality of the information provided. Website selection was performed in autumn 2010 by entering eight keywords in two of the most commonly used search engines (Google.com and Yahoo.com). The first three result pages were analysed for each search, giving a total of 480 occurrences. Page rank was evaluated to assess visibility. Websites based on Web 2.0 philosophy, websites merely displaying popular news/articles and single files were excluded from the subsequent analysis. We analysed the selected websites (using WHO criteria) as well as the information provided, using a codebook for pro/neutral websites and a qualitative approach for the adverse ones. Of the 89 websites selected, 54 dealt with seasonal vaccination, three with anti-H1N1 vaccination and 32 with both. Rank analysis showed that only classic websites (ones not falling in any other category) and one social network were provided on the first pages by Yahoo; 21 classic websites, six displaying popular news/articles and one blog by Google. Analysis of the selected websites revealed that the majority of them (88.8%) had a positive/neutral attitude to flu vaccination. Pro/neutral websites distinguished themselves from the adverse ones by some revealing features like greater transparency, credibility and privacy protection. We found that the majority of the websites providing information on flu vaccination were pro/neutral and gave sufficient information. We suggest that antivaccinationist information may have been spread by a different route, such as via Web 2.0 tools, which may be

  10. Respiratory viruses in transplant recipients: more than just a cold. Clinical syndromes and infection prevention principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Raybould, Jillian E; Sastry, Sangeeta; de la Cruz, Oveimar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for literature regarding the aforementioned aspects of RVIs, with focus on respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus. Compared to immunocompetent hosts, SOT and HSCT patients are much more likely to experience a prolonged duration of illness, prolonged shedding, and progression of upper respiratory tract disease to pneumonia when infected with respiratory viruses. Adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus tend to have the highest mortality and risk for disseminated disease, but all the RVIs are associated with higher morbidity and mortality in these patients than in the general population. These viruses are spread via direct contact and aerosolized droplets, and nosocomial spread has been reported. RVIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality among SOT and HSCT recipients. Management options are currently limited or lack strong clinical evidence. As community and nosocomial spread has been reported for all reviewed RVIs, strict adherence to infection control measures is key to preventing outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Worries Over Computer "Viruses" Lead Campuses to Issue Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1987-01-01

    Computer viruses are programs that propagate themselves from disk to disk and destroy programs or information files. Several universities have recently reported virus outbreaks. Some suggestions for avoiding the viruses are provided. (MLW)

  13. Update: routine screening for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus, civilian applicants for U.S. military service and U.S. Armed Forces, active and reserve components, January 2008-June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report contains an update through June 2013 on the results of screening for HIV infection among civilian applicants for military service and among members of the active and reserve components of the Armed Forces. Among civilian applicants, annual rates of prevalence of HIV infection showed a continuing downward trend. Rates among black, non-Hispanic applicants were higher than other racial/ethnic groups but have declined sharply since 2008. Among service members, annual rates have varied by service and component, with higher rates in the Army and Navy and lower rates in the Marine Corps and Air Force. Members of the Army and Air Force Reserves have had consistently higher rates than members of their respective active components. For both civilian applicants and service members, rates among men are notably higher than among women. The possible roles of unprotected sex and pre-deployment behaviors and the associated challenges to prevention of HIV infection are discussed.

  14. Situation model updating in young and older adults: Global versus incremental mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  16. Terrestrial Planet Space Weather Information: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Lee, C.; Mays, M. L.; Odstrcil, D.; Jian, L.; Galvin, A. B.; Mewaldt, R. A.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Russell, C. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Thompson, W. T.; Baker, D. N.; Dewey, R. M.; Zheng, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather research is now a solar system-wide enterprise. While with the end of the Venus Express Express mission and MESSENGER, we lost our 'inside' sentinels, new missions such as Solar Orbiter and SPP, and Bepi-Colombo will soon be launched and operating. In the meantime the combination of L1 resources (ACE,WIND,SOHO) and STEREO-A at 1 AU, and Mars Express and MAVEN missions at ~1.5 AU, provide opportunities. Comparative conditions at the Earth orbit and Mars orbit locations are of special interest because they are separated by the region where most solar wind stream interaction regions develop. These alter the propagation of disturbances including the interplanetary CME-driven shocks that make the space radiation affecting future Human mission planning. We share some observational and modeling results thatillustrate present capabilities, as well as developing ones such as ENLIL-based SEP event models that use a range of available observations.

  17. Congenital Chagas disease: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Carlier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a global problem, occurring on average in 5% of children born from chronically infected mothers in endemic areas, with variations depending on the region. This presentation aims to focus on and update epidemiological data, research methods, involved factors, control strategy and possible prevention of congenital infection with T. cruzi. Considering that etiological treatment of the child is always effective if performed before one year of age, the diagnosis of infection in pregnant women and their newborns has to become the standard of care and integrated into the surveillance programs of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus. In addition to the standard tests, polymerase chain reaction performed on blood of neonates of infected mothers one month after birth might improve the diagnosis of congenital infection. Recent data bring out that its transmission can be prevented through treatment of infected women before they become pregnant. The role of parasite genotypes and host genetic factors in parasite transmission and development of infection in foetuses/neonates has to be more investigated in order to better estimate the risk factors and impact on health of congenital infection with T. cruzi.

  18. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  19. Women's Health Endocrine Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ekta; Faubion, Stephanie; Hines, Stephanie; Stuenkel, Cynthia A

    2017-11-07

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality.

  20. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high......Geographic distribution: VHSV can be divided into 4 genotypes and at least 8 subtypes and there is a close linkage between genotypes, geographic range and affected fish species. VHS is still only reported from the Northern hemisphere- and while countries like Denmark, Norway and England have freed...... themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...

  1. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high......Geographic distribution: VHSV can be divided into 4 genotypes and at least 8 subtypes and there is a close linkage between genotypes, geographic range and affected fish species. VHS is still only reported from the Northern hemisphere- and while countries like Denmark, Norway and England have freed...... themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...

  2. Important update of CERN Mail Services

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Mail Services are evolving. In the course of June and July 2009, all CERN mailboxes will be updated with a new infrastructure for hosting mailboxes, running Exchange 2007. This update is taking place in order to provide the capacity upgrade for the constantly growing volume of CERN mailboxes. It is also the opportunity to provide a number of improvements to CERN mailboxes: new and improved Outlook Web Access (the web interface used to access your mailbox from a web browser, also known as "webmail"), new features in the Out-of-Office auto-reply assistant, easier spam management... The update will preserve the mailbox configuration and no specific action is required by users. During the next weeks, each mailbox will be individually notified of the upcoming update the day before it takes place. We invite all users to carefully read this notification as it will contain the latest information for this update. The mailbox will be unavailable for a short time during the ni...

  3. Zika Virus in Ontario: Evaluating a Rapid Risk Assessment Tool for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meer, Ryan; Hohenadel, Karin; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Warshawsky, Bryna; Sider, Doug; Schwartz, Brian; Nelder, Mark P

    To determine the Ontario-specific risk of local and travel-related Zika virus transmission in the context of a public health emergency of international concern, Public Health Ontario (PHO) completed a rapid risk assessment (RRA) on January 29, 2016, using a newly developed RRA guidance tool. The RRA concluded that risk of local mosquito-borne transmission was low, with a high risk of imported cases through travel. The RRA was updated 3 times based on predetermined triggers. An independent evaluation assessed both the application of the RRA guidance tool (process evaluation) and the usefulness of the RRA (outcome evaluation). We conducted face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 7 individuals who participated in the creation or review of the Zika virus RRA and 4 end-users at PHO and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. An inductive thematic analysis of responses was undertaken, whereby themes were directly informed by the data. The process evaluation determined that most steps outlined in the RRA guidance tool were adhered to, including forming a cross-functional writing team, clarifying the scope and describing context, completing the RRA summary report, and updating the RRA based on predefined triggers. The outcome evaluation found that end-users judged the Zika virus RRA as evidence-informed, useful, consistent, and timely. The evaluation established that the locally tailored guidance tool, adapted from national and international approaches to RRAs, facilitated a systematic, evidence-informed, and timely formal RRA process at PHO for the Zika virus RRA, which met the needs of end-users. Based on the evaluation, PHO will modify future RRAs by incorporating some flexibility into the literature review process to support timeliness of the RRA, explicitly describing the limitations of studies used to inform the RRA, and refining risk algorithms to better suit emerging infectious disease threats. It is anticipated that these refinements will improve upon the

  4. Update: Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Updates knowledge on nitrogen fixation, indicating that investigation of free-living nitrogen-fixing organisms is proving useful in understanding bacterial partners and is expected to lead to development of more effective symbioses. Specific areas considered include biochemistry/genetics, synthesis control, proteins and enzymes, symbiotic systems,…

  5. Drug interactions: 1998 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    (1) The 1998 edition of the Drug Interactions section of the French data sheet compendium (Dictionnaire Vidal) includes welcome updates. (2) Increasingly numerous interactions involve tramadol, clarithromycin, oral anticoagulants, antiepileptics, theophylline and various psychotropic agents. (3) An entire section is now devoted to the numerous potassium-raising drugs.

  6. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  7. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  8. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  9. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  10. [Cardiology update in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Tran, Van Nam; Regamey, Julien; Pascale, Patrizio; Monney, Pierre; Hullin, Roger; Vogt, Pierre

    2017-01-11

    In 2016 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published new guidelines. These documents update the knowledge in various fields such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia. Of course it is impossible to summarize these guidelines in detail. Nevertheless, we decided to highlight the major modifications, and to emphasize some key points that are especially useful for the primary care physician.

  11. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly wit information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  12. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, March/April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  13. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January/February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action. This table is for January/February 1992.

  14. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, July--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  15. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  16. Environmental regulatory update table, September--October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Lewis, E.B.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  17. Environmental regulatory update table, March--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Salk, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1994-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  18. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  19. Environmental regulatory update table: September/October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Salk, M.S.

    1994-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, May--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Salk, M.S.

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bimonthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, March/April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bimonthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, January--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1994-03-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations ad contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table July/August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, May/June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-07-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bimonthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, March/April 1993. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-05-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bimonthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September/October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.; Danford, G.S.; Lewis, E.B.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operation and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  7. Environmental regulatory update table, July/August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Salk, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Environmental regulatory update table November--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Bock, R.E.; Mayer, S.J.; Salk, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated bi-monthly with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  9. Then and now … HIV consultation psychiatry update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Harold W; Bader, Matthew; Fernandez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) illness has transformed to a chronic disease model. However, challenges, including the effects of co-morbid illnesses and the challenge of preventing future spread of the disease, continue to confront those infected with HIV. Addictions remain an important problem and a serious contributor to overall morbidity and mortality in this population. This book chapter seeks to illustrate the new developments in the treatment of these addictions as well as provide an overview of the medical updates regarding HIV and hepatitis C virus exposure prophylaxis and how they relate to the consultant psychiatrist. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The universal tree of life: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eForterre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologists used to draw schematic universal trees of life as metaphors illustrating the history of life. It is indeed a priori possible to construct an organismal tree connecting the three major domains of ribosome encoding organisms: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, since they originated by cell division from LUCA. Several universal trees based on ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons proposed at the end of the last century are still widely used, although some of their main features have been challenged by subsequent analyses. Several authors have proposed to replace the traditional universal tree with a ring of life, whereas others have proposed more recently to include viruses as new domains. These proposals are misleading, suggesting that endosymbiosis can modify the shape of a tree or that viruses originated from the Last Universal Common ancestor (LUCA. I propose here an update version of the Carl Woese universal tree that includes several rooting for each domain and internal branching within domains that are supported by recent phylogenomic analyses of domain specific proteins. The tree is rooted between Bacteria and Arkarya, a new name proposed for the clade grouping Archaea and Eukarya. A consensus version, in which each of the three domains are unrooted, and a version in which eukaryotes emerged within archaea are also presented. This last scenario assumes the transformation of a modern domain into another, a controversial evolutionary pathway. Viruses are not indicated in these trees but are intrinsically present because they infect the tree from its roots to its leaves. Finally, I present a detailed tree of the domain Archaea, proposing the sub-phylum neo-euryarchaeota for the monophyletic group of euryarchaea containing DNA gyrase. These trees, that will be easily updated as new data become available, could be useful to discuss controversial scenarios regarding early life evolution.

  11. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Kuzmanovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates. After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on

  12. Association of the miR-196a2 C>T and miR-499 A>G polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk: an updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu SL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shao-Liang Zhu,1,* Jian-Hong Zhong,1,* Wen-Feng Gong,1,* Hang Li,2 Le-Qun Li11Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 2Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: This study meta-analyzed data on the possible association of the miR-196a2 C>T (rs11614913 and miR-499 A>G (rs3746444 polymorphisms with risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Methods: Databases in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China BioMedicine, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the association of the miR-196a2 C>T and miR-499 A>G polymorphisms with HBV-related HCC risk. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated.Results: A total of 13 studies involving 3,964 cases and 5,875 healthy controls were included. Random-effect meta-analysis showed that the T allele and TT genotype of miR-196a2 C>T were associated with significantly lower HBV-related HCC risk (allelic model, OR =0.84, 95% CI =0.71–0.99, P=0.04; homozygous model, OR =0.68, 95% CI =0.47–0.98, P=0.04. In contrast, miR-499 A>G showed no significant association with HBV-related HCC risk in either overall pooled analysis or ethnic subgroup analysis according to any of the four genetic models. Based on analysis of ethnic subgroups, neither miR-196a2 C>T nor miR-499 A>G was significantly associated with risk of HBV-related HCC in Chinese population.Conclusion: The polymorphism miR-196a2 C>T, but not miR-499 A>G, may be associated with decreased HBV-related HCC risk. These conclusions should be verified in large, well-designed studies.Keywords: microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hepatitis B virus related, meta-analysis, hepatocellular carcinoma

  13. The cost-effectiveness and value of information of three influenza vaccination dosing strategies for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Nosyk

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccine immunogenicity is diminished in patients living with HIV/AIDS. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and expected value of perfect information (EVPI of three alternative influenza vaccine dosing strategies intended to increase immunogenicity in those patients.A randomized, multi-centered, controlled, vaccine trial was conducted at 12 CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network sites. Three dosing strategies with seasonal, inactivated trivalent, non-adjuvanted intramuscular vaccine were used in HIV infected adults: two standard doses over 28 days (Strategy A, two double doses over 28 days (Strategy B and a single standard dose of influenza vaccine (Strategy C, administered prior to the 2008 influenza season. The comparator in our analysis was practice in the previous year, in which 82.8% of HIV/AIDS received standard-dose vaccination (Strategy D. A Markov cohort model was developed to estimate the monthly probability of Influenza-like Illness (ILI over one influenza season. Costs and quality-adjusted life years, extrapolated to the lifetime of the hypothetical study cohorts, were estimated in calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER and EVPI in conducting further research.298 patients with median CD4 of 470 cells/µl and 76% with viral load suppression were randomized. Strategy C was the most cost-effective strategy for the overall trial population and for suppressed and unsuppressed individuals. Mean ICERs for Strategy A for unsuppressed patients could also be considered cost-effective. The level of uncertainty regarding the decision to implement strategy A versus C for unsuppressed individuals was high. The maximum acceptable cost of reducing decision uncertainty in implementing strategy A for individuals with unsuppressed pVL was $418,000--below the cost of conducting a larger-scale trial.Our results do not support a policy to implement increased antigen dose or booster dosing strategies with seasonal, inactivated trivalent

  14. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors?

  15. Announcement: Guidance for U.S. Laboratory Testing for Zika Virus Infection: Implications for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-25

    CDC has released updated guidance online for U.S. laboratory testing for Zika virus infection. The guidance is available at https://www.cdc.gov/zika/laboratories/lab-guidance.html. Frequently asked questions are addressed at https://www.cdc.gov/zika/laboratories/lab-guidance-faq.html. This guidance updates recommendations for testing of specimens by U.S. laboratories for possible Zika virus infection. Major updates to the guidance with clinical implications for health care providers include the following.

  16. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  17. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  18. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...

  19. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  20. Methodological update in Medicina Intensiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Garmendia, J L

    2018-02-06

    Research in the critically ill is complex by the heterogeneity of patients, the difficulties to achieve representative sample sizes and the number of variables simultaneously involved. However, the quantity and quality of records is high as well as the relevance of the variables used, such as survival. The methodological tools have evolved to offering new perspectives and analysis models that allow extracting relevant information from the data that accompanies the critically ill patient. The need for training in methodology and interpretation of results is an important challenge for the intensivists who wish to be updated on the research developments and clinical advances in Intensive Medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurocritical care update

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the c...

  2. Cohort Profile Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to...... the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: niels.obel@regionh.dk)....

  3. Hepatitis E virus and fulminant hepatitis - a virus or host-specific pathology?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatitis is a rare outcome of infection with hepatitis E virus. Several recent reports suggest that virus variation is an important determinant of disease progression.AIMS: To critically examine the evidence that virus-specific factors underlie the development of fulminant hepatitis following hepatitis E virus infection.METHODS: Published sequence information of hepatitis E virus isolates from patients with and without fulminant hepatitis was collected and analysed usin...

  4. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula...

  5. Pharmaceutical approval update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Kunj

    2014-12-01

    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (Harvoni) for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection; dulaglutide (Trulicity) for glycemic control in type-2 diabetes; netupitant/palonosetron (Akynzeo) for prevention of nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy; and naloxegol (Movantik) for opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic noncancer pain.

  6. Non-Parametric Bayesian Updating within the Assessment of Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the updating and incorporation of information in the assessment of fatigue reliability for offshore wind turbine. The new information, coming from external and condition monitoring can be used to direct updating of the stochastic variables through a non-parametric Bayesian...... updating approach and be integrated in the reliability analysis by a third-order polynomial chaos expansion approximation. Although Classical Bayesian updating approaches are often used because of its parametric formulation, non-parametric approaches are better alternatives for multi-parametric updating...... with a non-conjugating formulation. The results in this paper show the influence on the time dependent updated reliability when non-parametric and classical Bayesian approaches are used. Further, the influence on the reliability of the number of updated parameters is illustrated....

  7. Perancangan Sistem Otomatis Update Pada Aplikasi Desktop Abios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karto Iskandar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike web applications easier to update the latest version, desktop applications more difficult and must involve the user in doing so. It is caused by a desktop application is an application that is installed in the computer user. The purpose of this research is to design an automatic system updates on a desktop application, an example case: Application Binus International Operational Support (ABIOS. This research used literature study and system design. In desktop applications, often there is update the latest applications that are not known to the user who sometimes fatal and disrupt business operations. Generally, developer will inform the changes version to user that they can update the application. In an update of applications, should be done by the system automatically, not manually by users. Once in a while, the user background is not from computer base. After doing the research, it can be concluded that the system automatically updates the application has benefits to users in obtaining information regarding the latest version, and can assist in automatically update the latest application is based on computerization. For further development of this system is expected to operate on multi platforms and or mobile applications. 

  8. The revised global yellow fever risk map and recommendations for vaccination, 2010: consensus of the Informal WHO Working Group on Geographic Risk for Yellow Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentes, Emily S; Poumerol, Gilles; Gershman, Mark D; Hill, David R; Lemarchand, Johan; Lewis, Rosamund F; Staples, J Erin; Tomori, Oyewale; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Monath, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and continued reports of rare but serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine have drawn attention to the need to revisit criteria for the designation of areas with risk for yellow fever virus activity, and to revise the vaccine recommendations for international travel. WHO convened a working group of international experts to review factors important for the transmission of yellow fever virus and country-specific yellow fever information, to establish criteria for additions to or removal from the list of countries with risk for yellow fever virus transmission, to update yellow fever risk maps, and to revise the recommendations for vaccination for international travel. This report details the recommendations made by the working group about criteria for the designation of risk and specific changes to the classification of areas with risk for transmission of yellow fever virus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Update History of This Database - TP Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us TP Atlas Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2013/12/16 The email address i...s ( http://www.tanpaku.org/tpatlas/ ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of Thi...s Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - TP Atlas | LSDB Archive ... ...n the contact information is corrected. 2013/11/19 TP Atlas English archive site is opened. 2008/4/1 TP Atla

  10. Estimated Incubation Period for Zika Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin

    2017-05-01

    Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. In 2015-2016, data from 197 symptomatic travelers with recent Zika virus infection indicated an estimated incubation period of 3-14 days. For symptomatic persons with symptoms >2 weeks after travel, transmission might be not travel associated.

  11. Web Browser Security Update Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebendorfer, Thomas; Frei, Stefan

    We analyze the effectiveness of different Web browser update mechanisms on various operating systems; from Google Chrome's silent update mechanism to Opera's update requiring a full re-installation. We use anonymized logs from Google's world wide distributed Web servers. An analysis of the logged HTTP user-agent strings that Web browsers report when requesting any Web page is used to measure the daily browser version shares in active use. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first global scale measurement of Web browser update effectiveness comparing four different Web browser update strategies including Google Chrome. Our measurements prove that silent updates and little dependency on the underlying operating system are most effective to get users of Web browsers to surf the Web with the latest browser version.

  12. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  13. Radiotherapy: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Kasat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the art of using ionizing radiation to destroy malignant cells while minimizing damage to normal tissue. Radiotherapy has become a standard treatment option for a wide range of malignancies. Several new imaging techniques, both anatomical and functional are currently being evaluated as well as practiced for treatment planning of cancer. These recent developments have allowed radiation oncologists to escalate the dose of radiation delivered to tumors while minimizing the dose delivered to surrounding normal tissue. In this update, we attempt to pen down important aspects of radiotherapy.

  14. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, P.T.

    2002-08-31

    This Federal Geothermal Program Research Update reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Program for Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2001. The information contained in this Research Update illustrates how the mission and goals of the Office of Geothermal Technologies are reflected in each R&D activity. The Geothermal Program, from its guiding principles to the most detailed research activities, is focused on expanding the use of geothermal energy.

  15. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  16. Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, t...

  17. Update on scleral lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    Scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses play an important and underappreciated role in the treatment of corneal disease. This review provides an update on scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses for the visual rehabilitation of ectasia and irregular astigmatism, and an update on scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses in the therapy of ocular surface disease. Several series and one case report present advances in the treatment of ocular surface disease with scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses. In addition, there are two reports describing one center's consecutive case experience using modern scleral lens design, predominantly in patients with ectasia and postkeratoplasty astigmatism. Finally, a comprehensive article reviewing the history and principles behind current scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses, with particular attention to the use of scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses in the management of ocular surface disorders was published. Clinicians who treat patients with ocular surface disease should be aware of scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses as a therapeutic option for their patients. Advances in lens design make scleral rigid gas-permeable lenses a practical option for an increasing number and variety of patients with corneal disease.

  18. [Classification of viruses by computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, O N; Andzhaparidze, O G; Kibardin, V M; Nazarova, G M; Pleteneva, E A

    1982-01-01

    The study used the information mass containing information on 83 viruses characterized by 41 markers. The suitability of one of the variants of cluster analysis for virus classification was demonstrated. It was established that certain stages of automatic allotment of viruses into groups by the degree of similarity of their properties end the formation of groups which consist of viruses sufficiently close to each other by their properties and are sufficiently isolated. Comparison of these groups with the classification proposed by the ICVT established their correspondence to individual families. Analysis of the obtained classification system permits sufficiently grounded conclusions to be drawn with regard to the classification position of certain viruses, the classification of which has not yet been completed by the ICVT.

  19. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  20. Virus Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic life long infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To asses the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method: Sources of information were mainly from ...

  2. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    agents is reviewed and updated annually. Therefore, the only valid list is the one in the most recent scientific opinion. The 2011 update reviews microorganisms previously assessed including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and viruses used for plant protection purposes and confirms the previous...... this qualification applies for yeast strains able to grow above 37 °C’. The body of knowledge of filamentous fungi and enterococci was updated and their ineligibility for the QPS list confirmed....

  3. The history and epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osail, Aisha M; Al-Wazzah, Marwan J

    2017-01-01

    Corona viruses cause common cold, and infections caused by corona viruses are generally self-resolving. During the last 4 years, corona viruses have become the most important viruses worldwide because of the occurrence of several recent deaths caused by corona viruses in Saudi Arabia. Spread of the infection occurred worldwide; however, most cases of mortality have occurred in the Middle East. Owing to the predominance of outbreaks in the Middle Eastern countries, the virus was renamed a Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) by the Corona virus Study Group. The Center for Diseases Control and Prevention and World Health Organization maintain a website that is updated frequently with new cases of MERS-CoV infection. In this review, we describe the history and epidemiology of this novel virus. Studies of the genetics and molecular mechanisms of this virus are expected to facilitate the development of vaccines in the future.

  4. Creating a disease risk map for West Nile virus for surveillance in Central Texas using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the discovery of the West Nile virus (WNv) in Brazos County, TX in 2002, mosquito research personnel at Texas A&M University established a routine WNv mosquito vector surveillance program in the county. In 2004, a map of Brazos County was created depicting areas that had a heightened leve...

  5. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  6. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity...

  7. Alkaline Phosphatase: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Hepatitis A blockage in the bile duct Mononucleosis , which can sometimes cause swelling in the liver ... and Human Services; Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis; [updated 2016 Sep 14; cited 2017 Mar 13]; [ ...

  8. Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virus Testing Clinical Signs & Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms & Laboratory Diagnosis Information for Clinicians on Rapid Diagnostic Testing for ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  9. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  10. Updates in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia R Mendoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  11. Coagulation concepts update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stacy D; Taylor, Andrew J; Williams, Eliot C; Winter, Thomas C

    2009-12-01

    Since the previous comprehensive radiology review on coagulation concepts that was done in 1990, many studies have been published in the medical and surgical literature that can guide the approach of a radiology practice. The purpose of this article is to provide an analysis of these works, updating the radiologist on proper use and interpretation of coagulation assessment tools, medications that modify the hemostatic system, and the use of transfusions prior to interventions. The basic tools for coagulation assessment have not changed; however, results from subspecialty research have suggested ways in which the use of these tools can be modified and streamlined to safely reduce time and expense for the patient and the health care system.

  12. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  13. Regadenoson: a focused update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Gopal; Hage, Fadi G; Heo, Jaekyeong; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2013-04-01

    Since its approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 2008, regadenoson has become the most commonly used vasodilator in the United States. Previous reviews have summarized the pre-clinical and clinical data on the use of regadenoson for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Since then, data have emerged on the safety of this agent in special groups of patients such as those with chronic kidney disease, airway disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and liver disease. There has also been recent interest in the use of regadenoson in hybrid protocols with exercise as a way to improve patient tolerance and image quality. Finally, although regadenoson was approved for clinical use based on the agreement rate of regadenoson MPI and adenosine MPI with regards to perfusion abnormalities, data are now available on the prognostic data derived from regadenoson MPI. We will briefly summarize these recent reports here in a focused update on the use of regadenoson for MPI.

  14. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction.

  15. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Y2K UPDATE

    CERN Multimedia

    Sverre JARP

    1999-01-01

    Concerning Y2K preparation, please note the following:Everybody, who has a NICE installation on his/her PC, needs to log in to NICE at least once before Xmas to get the Y2K update installed. This applies especially to dual boot systems.The test schedule on Y2Kplus.cern.ch will be prolonged. The last restart took place on 10 November and two more will take place on 24 November and 8 December, respectively. The Oracle users responsible for the maintenance of Oracle Forms applications which include PL/SQL blocks where date fields are handled with the default format are requested to contact oracle.support@cern.ch at their earliest convenience.Sverre Jarp (CERN Y2K co-ordinator, phone: 74944)

  17. Decentralized Consistent Network Updates in SDN with ez-Segway

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-03-06

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and black-holes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  18. Mining Sequential Update Summarization with Hierarchical Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of unexpected news events such as large human accident or natural disaster brings about a new information access problem where traditional approaches fail. Mostly, news of these events shows characteristics that are early sparse and later redundant. Hence, it is very important to get updates and provide individuals with timely and important information of these incidents during their development, especially when being applied in wireless and mobile Internet of Things (IoT. In this paper, we define the problem of sequential update summarization extraction and present a new hierarchical update mining system which can broadcast with useful, new, and timely sentence-length updates about a developing event. The new system proposes a novel method, which incorporates techniques from topic-level and sentence-level summarization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, we apply it to the task of sequential update summarization of temporal summarization (TS track at Text Retrieval Conference (TREC 2013 to compute four measurements of the update mining system: the expected gain, expected latency gain, comprehensiveness, and latency comprehensiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed method has good performance.

  19. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  20. FEM Updating of the Heritage Court Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Dascotte, E.

    2001-01-01

    . The starting model of the structure was developed from the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention......This paper describes results of a model updating study conducted on a 15-storey reinforced concrete shear core building. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the building were used to update a finite element model of the structure...... was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified by the updating software in order to ensure that the necessary changes to the model were realistic and physically realisable and meaningful. The paper highlights the model updating process and provides an assessment of the usefulness of using...

  1. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    This user's manual provides information on the updated 1991-2010 National Solar Radiation Database. Included are data format descriptions, data sources, production processes, and information about data uncertainty.

  2. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k-mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k-mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  3. Many family physicians will not manually update PDA software: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Granikov, Vera; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective study to explore connections between clinical information delivery and information retrieval, 41 Canadian family physicians searched an electronic knowledge resource (EKR) as needed for practice. Research software, called the Information Assessment Method (IAM), prompted family physicians to report on the situational relevance, perceived cognitive impact and application of their retrieved information hits. Both the IAM and the EKR needed periodic updating to properly address our research questions. To determine the frequency of software updating when manual or semi-automatic approaches are used by family physicians. Each family physician received a handheld computer (PDA) that ran the Windows Mobile 6 operating system. For technical reasons, both the IAM and the EKR were accessed offline on PDA. To update the EKR and the IAM, family physicians were asked to synchronize their PDA to their PC. Updating the IAM was a manual process, whereas updating the EKR was semi-automatic. We found: (1) about 25% of family physicians never or rarely updated PDA software on their own, (2) a large number of software updates were never installed and (3) the semi-automatic method was associated with a small increase in the proportion of installed software updates (58.9% versus 48.6% for the manual method). When a wireless internet connection is not used to update PDA software, sociotechnical issues complicate mobile data collection and data transfer.

  4. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  5. Update on rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  6. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakani, Sravan; LaBeaud, A Desirée; King, Charles H

    2010-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for "exotic" viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km(2), i.e. 42%) of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km(2), i.e. by 89%.

  7. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)-related transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Sravan Kakani; Desirée LaBeaud, A.; King, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Int...

  8. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of capsicum chlorosis virus isolated from Phalaenopsis orchid and the prediction of the unexplored genetic information of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Xiu; Chen, Ching-Chung; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2011-03-01

    Phalaenopsis orchids are popular ornamentals all over the world. A tospovirus, capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV-Ph) had been identified as the cause of chlorotic ringspots on leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids in Taiwan. The tripartite genome of CaCV-Ph was found to contain 3608, 4848 and 8916 nt of S, M and L RNAs, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein confirmed that CaCV-Ph is a member of the watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) serogroup in the genus Tospovirus. Based on the relations among the nonstructural protein (NSs), glycoprotein (GnGc), thrips genera, host and geographical distribution, tospoviruses and thrips could be classified into two major types: WSMoV-Thrips-Asian and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)-Frankliniella-EuroAmerican. The proline (P(459)) of all tospoviral Gn proteins was indispensable for thrips transmission, but the RGD motif, which is maintained by only six tospoviruses, may not be required for thrips transmission. An RdRp catalytic domain found in the conserved region of the L protein may recognize the typically conserved sequences on the 5' and 3' terminal regions (5' AGAGCAAU 3').

  10. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  11. Tenofovir Nephrotoxicity: 2011 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenofovir is an acyclic nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor structurally similar to the nephrotoxic drugs adefovir and cidofovir. Tenofovir is widely used to treat HIV infection and approved for treatment of hepatitis B virus. Despite initial cell culture and clinical trials results supporting the renal safety of tenofovir, its clinical use is associated with a low, albeit significant, risk of kidney injury. Proximal tubular cell secretion of tenofovir explains the accumulation of the drug in these mitochondria-rich cells. Tenofovir nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal tubular cell dysfunction that may be associated with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease. Withdrawal of the drug leads to improvement of analytical parameters that may be partial. Understanding the risk factors for nephrotoxicity and regular monitoring of proximal tubular dysfunction and serum creatinine in high-risk patients is required to minimize nephrotoxicity. Newer, structurally similar molecular derivatives that do not accumulate in proximal tubules are under study.

  12. Right hemisphere brain damage impairs strategy updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Quehl, Nadine; Anderson, Britt

    2012-12-01

    Our behavior is predicated on mental models of the environment that must be updated to accommodate incoming information. We had 13 right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients and 10 left-brain-damaged (LBD) patients play the children's game "rock, paper, scissors" against a computer opponent that covertly altered its strategy. Healthy age-matched controls and LBD patients quickly detected extreme departures from uniform play ("paper" chosen on 80% of trials), but the RBD patient group did not. Seven RBD patients presented with neglect and although this was associated with greater impairment in strategy updating, there were exceptions: 2 of 7 neglect patients performed above the median of the patient group and 1 of the 6 nonneglect participants was severely impaired. Although speculative, lesion analyses contrasting high and low performing patients showed that severe impairments were associated with insula and putamen lesions. Interestingly, relative to the controls, the LBD group tended to "maximize" choices in the strongly biased condition (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 100% of the trials), whereas controls "matched" the computer's strategy (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 80% of the trials). We conclude that RBD leads to impaired updating of mental models to exploit environmental changes.

  13. Updates on obesity pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Amanda; Apovian, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing disease that necessitates a multidisciplinary approach to management. Behavioral changes are the foundation to management, but adjunctive therapy is often warranted, including pharmacologic therapies and/or bariatric surgery. Until recently, treatment options included only short-term therapy (≤12 weeks), and paths beyond that schedule were challenging, as knowledge of the biology of obesity was lacking. With increased recognition of obesity as a chronic, complex medical disease, newer agents have been approved as long-term therapy, and the cornerstone of treatment is chronic behavior and lifestyle change. In the last decade, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several new weight loss medications for the chronic management of obesity. In this review paper, we provide the latest updates on obesity pharmacotherapy. The main areas we will cover include (1) pharmacological management of obesity, (2) a review of FDA-approved weight loss medications, (3) comanagement of obesity and its metabolic sequelae (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), and (4) obesity-centric prescribing for mental illness, neurological disorders, and contraceptive planning. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Tetraplegia Management Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Jan; Gohritz, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Tetraplegia is a profound impairment of mobility manifesting as a paralysis of all 4 extremities owing to cervical spinal cord injury. The purpose of this article is to provide an update and analyze current management, treatment options, and outcomes of surgical reconstruction of arm and hand function. Surgical restoration of elbow and wrist extension or handgrip has tremendous potential to improve autonomy, mobility, and critical abilities, for example, eating, personal care, and self-catheterization and productive work in at least 70% of tetraplegic patients. Tendon and nerve transfers, tenodeses, and joint stabilizations reliably enable improved arm and hand usability, reduce muscle imbalance and pain in spasticity, and prevent joint contractures. One-stage combined procedures have proven considerable advantages over traditional multistage approaches. Immediate activation of transferred muscles reduces the risk of adhesions, facilitates relearning, avoids adverse effects of immobilization, and enhances functional recovery. Transfer of axillary, musculocutaneous, and radial nerve fascicles from above the spinal cord injury are effective and promising options to enhance motor outcome and sensory protection, especially in groups with limited resources. Improved communication between medical disciplines, therapists, patients, and their relatives should help that more individuals can benefit from these advances and could empower many thousands tetraplegic individuals "to take life into their own hands" and live more independently. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Stefan; Wildner, Gerhild; Kestelyn, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a bilateral, usually seasonally recurrent, allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva, characterised by limbal gelatinous hypertrophy and/or upper tarsal giant conjunctival papillae. Although rare in temperate regions, it represents an important cause of hospital referral in many parts of Africa and Asia. Clinical and immunohistochemical studies suggest that IgE-dependent (type I allergic) and IgE-independent (type IV allergic) mechanisms are involved in the immunopathogenesis of VKC, in which various inflammatory cells, including different T cell subpopulations play an active role via a cascade of chemical mediators. Endocrine, genetic, neurogenic, environmental and socioeconomic risk factors have been identified. However, its aetiology and pathophysiology remain unclear. The clinical course of this disease is usually benign and self-limiting, but a minority of patients will face very debilitating and sight threatening complications. Topical corticosteroids are often used during flare-ups in combination with mast cell stabilizers as maintenance treatment for VKC. However this management is unsatisfactory in controlling severe cases and avoiding recurrences. Non-steroidal immune modulators such as ciclosporin A and tacrolimus are promising alternatives, but tolerance to these agents needs to be improved and production costs reduced. The purpose of this review is to give an update on its epidemiology, immunopathogenesis and management.

  16. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Updates of pathologic myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Lai, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Chiu Ming Gemmy

    2016-05-01

    Complications from pathologic myopia are a major cause of visual impairment and blindness, especially in east Asia. The eyes with pathologic myopia may develop loss of the best-corrected vision due to various pathologies in the macula, peripheral retina and the optic nerve. Despite its importance, the definition of pathologic myopia has been inconsistent. The refractive error or axial length alone often does not adequately reflect the 'pathologic myopia'. Posterior staphyloma, which is a hallmark lesion of pathologic myopia, can occur also in non-highly myopic eyes. Recently a revised classification system for myopic maculopathy has been proposed to standardize the definition among epidemiological studies. In this META-PM (meta analyses of pathologic myopia) study classification, pathologic myopia was defined as the eyes having chorioretinal atrophy equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy. In addition, the advent of new imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) has enabled the detailed observation of various pathologies specific to pathologic myopia. New therapeutic approaches including intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the advance of vitreoretinal surgeries have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with pathologic myopia. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on topics related to the field of pathologic myopia, and to outline the remaining issues which need to be solved in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Email Updates: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ensure that MedlinePlus email updates ... com to your email address book, adjust your spam settings, or follow the instructions from your email ...

  19. Thalamocortical dysrhythmia: a theoretical update in tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eDe Ridder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. Pathophysiologically it has been attributed to bottom up deafferentation and/or top down noise-cancelling deficit. Both mechanisms are proposed to alter auditory thalamocortical signal transmission resulting in thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD. In deafferentation, TCD is characterized by a slowing down of resting state alpha to theta activity associated with an increase in surrounding gamma activity, resulting in persisting cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma activity. Theta burst-firing increases network synchrony and recruitment, a mechanism which might enable long range synchrony, which in turn could represent a means for finding the missing thalamocortical information and for gaining access to consciousness. Theta oscillations could function as a carrier wave to integrate the tinnitus related focal auditory gamma activity in a consciousness enabling network, as envisioned by the global workspace model. This model suggests that focal activity in the brain does not reach consciousness, except if the focal activity becomes functionally coupled to a consciousness enabling network, aka the global workspace. In limited deafferentation the missing information can be retrieved from the auditory cortical neighborhood, decreasing surround inhibition, resulting in TCD. When the deafferentation is too wide in bandwidth it is hypothesized that the missing information is retrieved from theta mediated parahippocampal auditory memory. This suggests that based on the amount of deafferentation TCD might change to parahippocampo-cortical persisting and thus pathological theta-gamma rhythm. From a Bayesian point of view, in which the brain is conceived as a prediction machine that updates its memory-based predictions through sensory updating, tinnitus is the result of a prediction error between the predicted and sensed auditory input. The decrease in sensory updating

  20. HERVd: the Human Endogenous RetroViruses Database: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, Jan; Pavlícek, Adam; Zika, Radek; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Paces, Václav

    2004-01-01

    An elaboration of HERVd (http://herv.img.cas.cz) is being carried out in two directions. One of them is the integration and better classification of families that diverge considerably from typical retroviral genomes. This leads to a more precise identification of members with individual families. The second improvement is better accessibility of the database and connection with human genome annotation.

  1. Extraterrestrial Viruses?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Hernández, Daniel José

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Life - Origin and Fundamentals of Living Things. Evaluation rubric to evaluate the debate and presentation about the point of view regarding the possibility of viruses from the outer space.

  2. Update on GPS Modernization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Space and Missile Systems Center Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 11 June 2015 Col Steve Whitney GPS User Equipment Division PUBLICALLY...DATE 11 JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Update on GPS Modernization Efforts 5a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space and Missile Systems Center, GPS User Equipment Division ,Los Angeles AFB, El Segundo,CA

  3. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  4. POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS- AN UPDATED REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    A. Suhas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major growing public health problem with impact that crosses medical, social, and economic lines. Osteoporosis in older women is the 2nd most cause of death in America thus it is one of the essential area to be understand in medical science and need to update time to time. The objective of the present review is to update all aspect of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, including current etiology, diagnostic methods, calculator of osteoporotic risk fators (FRAX), laborator...

  5. Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especi...

  6. An update on inflammatory breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thapaliya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Once considered to be a uniformly fatal disease, treatment of this entity has evolved significantly over the last two decades. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathology, biologic underpinnings, radiologic advances, and treatment modalities for inflammatory breast cancer. Updates in surgical therapy, medical oncologic therapy and radiation therapy are reviewed. Emphasis is on cutting edge information regarding inflammatory breast cancer. The management of inflammatory breast cancer is best served by a multidisciplinary team. Continued research into molecular pathways and potential targets is imperative. Future clinical trials should include evaluation of conventional therapy with targeted therapies.

  7. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnancy : US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: Reaffirmation of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for hepatitis B virus hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy. Methods: The USPSTF performed a brief literature update, including a search for new and substantial evidence on the benefits

  8. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued its support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal interpretation letters written OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  9. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued its support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal interpretation letters written by OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  10. DOE interpretations Guide to OSH standards. Update to the Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    Reflecting Secretary O`Leary`s focus on occupational safety and health, the Office of Occupational Safety is pleased to provide you with the latest update to the DOE Interpretations Guide to OSH Standards. This Guide was developed in cooperation with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which continued it`s support during this last revision by facilitating access to the interpretations found on the OSHA Computerized Information System (OCIS). This March 31, 1994 update contains 123 formal in letter written by OSHA. As a result of the unique requests received by the 1-800 Response Line, this update also contains 38 interpretations developed by DOE. This new occupational safety and health information adds still more important guidance to the four volume reference set that you presently have in your possession.

  11. Herpes Labialis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Barankin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Herpes labialis is characterized by recurrent vesicular eruptions primarily on the lips and perioral skin. The condition is contagious, can cause significant discomfort/pain, and can have an adverse effect on the quality of life. To update the evaluation and treatment of herpes labialis. A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "herpes labialis". Patents were searched using the key term "herpes labialis" from www.freepatentsonline.com. The diagnosis of herpes labialis is mainly clinical based on classic grouped lesions (papules, vesicles, ulcers) on the lip. Antiviral therapy shortens the duration of pain and discomfort, hastens healing, and reduces viral shedding. Thus, episodic treatment is warranted, especially if the patient desires treatment for cosmetic purposes or for relief of pain. Such treatment needs to be initiated promptly, ideally in the prodromal stage and no later than 48 hours from the onset of lesions to achieve optimal results. Chronic suppressive therapy with oral antiviral agents should be considered for patients with severe or frequent (six or more episodes per year) recurrences. Recent patents related to the management of herpes labialis are also discussed. For episodic treatment, oral antiviral agents, such as acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), are superior to topical antiviral therapy. Valacyclovir and famciclovir have greater oral bioavailability and are better absorbed than acyclovir, require less frequent dosing, but are more expensive and are not approved for children. Topical antiviral agents such as 5% acyclovir cream/ointment (Zovirax) ± hydrocortisone (Xerese), 1% penciclovir (Denavir) cream, and 50 mg Buccal Adhesive Tablet (ABT-50 mg) can also be used for episodic treatment of herpes labialis. These topical agents are not effective in the prevention of recurrent herpes labialis. For chronic daily suppressive therapy, oral antivirals are the treatment of choice

  12. Zika virus epidemic: the newest international emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Minamisava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection from the Zika virus is a relatively new disease with limited publications reporting cases and research on outbreaks. It was initially described before 2007 in Africa and Asia, then later in the French Polynesia in the Pacific, and finally in the Americas, in 2015. Brazil confirmed its first case of infection from the Zika virus in March 2015(1 and since October 2015 it has recorded an explosive growth in the number of babies born with microcephaly and also an increase in neurological conditions, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. The strong suspicion that the infection from the Zika virus is related to these manifestations is what brought the Public Health Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization to declare on February 1st of 2016 that the spread of the virus is an emergency international public health problem, meaning that it is a serious, unexpected extraordinary event that could potentially require a coordinated international action(2-3. The absence of another explanation for the dramatic increase in cases of microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, both concentrated in areas newly infected by the Zika virus, supports the recommendation of aggressive measures to prevent and reduce infection with the Zika virus, especially among pregnant women and those of reproductive age. In the same document, the World Health Organization recommends monitoring cases of microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome in the areas of risk and etiological studies of these events to determine whether infection by the Zika virus is causal and if there are other risk factors associated. Measures of additional precautions are as follows: (i             Related to the transmission of the virus: epidemiological surveillance, vector control, protection measures, information and counseling for pregnant women and to those who wish to get pregnant. (ii           Long-term measures: investment in research for vaccine

  13. Biosafety Recommendations for Work with Influenza Viruses Containing a Hemagglutinin from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Denise; Smith, Jacinta; Weyant, Robbin

    2013-06-28

    The CDC and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual describes biosafety recommendations for work involving highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], CDC. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories, 5th ed. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2009. HHS publication no. [CDC] 21-1112. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5). The U.S. Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Avian Influenza Viruses builds on the BMBL manual and provides additional biosafety and biocontainment guidelines for laboratories working with HPAI (US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Select Agent Program. Guidelines for avian influenza viruses. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2011. Available at http://www.selectagents.gov/Guidelines_for_Avian_Influenza_Viruses.html). The recommendations in this report, which are intended for laboratories in the United States, outline the essential baseline biosafety measures for working with the subset of influenza viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the HPAI influenza A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, including reassortant influenza viruses created in a laboratory setting. All H5N1 influenza virus clades known to infect humans to date have been derived from this lineage (WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Continued evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A [H5N1]: updated nomenclature. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012;6:1-5). In 2009, the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules were amended to include specific biosafety and biocontainment recommendations for laboratories working with Recombinant Risk Group 3 influenza viruses, including HPAI H5N1 influenza viruses within the Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like H5 lineage. In February 2013, the NIH guidelines were further revised to provide additional

  14. Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Trypanosomes Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2014/05/07 The co...ntact information is corrected. The features and manner of utilization of the database are corrected. 2014/02/04 Trypanosomes Databas...e English archive site is opened. 2011/04/04 Trypanosomes Database ( http://www.tan...paku.org/tdb/ ) is opened. About This Database Database Description Download Lice...nse Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Immune responses to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2011-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of respiratory tract infection with attack rates of 5-10%. This means that humans are infected repeatedly with intervals of, on average, 10-20 years. Upon each infection subjects develop innate and adaptive immune responses which aim at clearing the infection. Strain-specific antibody responses are induced, which exert selective pressure on circulating influenza viruses and which drive antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, especially in the hemagglutinin molecule. This antigenic drift necessitates updating of seasonal influenza vaccines regularly in order to match the circulating strains. Upon infection also virus-specific T cell responses are induced, including CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cells are mainly directed to conserved proteins and therefore display cross-reactivity with a variety of influenza A viruses of different subtypes. T cell mediated immunity therefore may contribute to so-called heterosubtypic immunity and may afford protection against antigenically distinct, potentially pandemic influenza viruses. At present, novel viral targets are identified that may help to develop broad-protective vaccines. Here we review the various arms of the immune response to influenza virus infections and their viral targets and discuss the possibility of developing universal vaccines. The development of such novel vaccines would imply that also new immune correlates of protection need to be established in order to facilitate assessment of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Hepatitis E virus infection in Latin America: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, J M; González, J E; Lewis-Ximenez, L L; Dos Santos, D R Lopes; Munné, M S; Pinto, M A; Pujol, F H; Rodríguez-Lay, L A

    2013-06-01

    Data reported during recent years reveal the complex picture of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Latin America. Whereas in countries like Argentina and Brazil is almost identical to the characteristic of most countries from North America and Europe, HEV in the Caribbean and Mexico involves the water-borne, non-zoonotic viral genotypes responsible for epidemics in Asia and Africa. Nevertheless, Latin America has been considered a highly endemic region for hepatitis E in the scientific literature, a generalization that ignores the above complexity. In addition, reports from isolated Amerindian communities, which display well known, important and very specific epidemiological features for hepatitis B and D virus infections are neither taken into account when considering the epidemiology of hepatitis E in the region. This review updates compilation of the available information for the HEV infection, both among humans and other mammals, in Latin America, discusses the strengths and the weaknesses of our current knowledge, and identifies future areas of research. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara... on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Suki Gill...

  19. 76 FR 39150 - Updated Noise Exposure Map Notice for Indianapolis International Airport; Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Updated Noise Exposure Map Notice for Indianapolis International Airport... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by... on the noise exposure maps is August 13, 2009. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bobb A. Beauchamp...

  20. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle disease virus ( ...

  1. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  2. IV Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - an update on allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Eulalia; Sarinho, Emanuel S C; Cruz, Alvaro A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Tamashiro, Edwin; Kuschnir, Fábio; Castro, Fábio F M; Romano, Fabrizio R; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Mello, João F de; Silva, Luciana R; Rizzo, Maria Cândida; Miyake, Mônica A M; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Rubini, Norma de Paula M; Mion, Olavo; Camargos, Paulo A; Roithmann, Renato; Godinho, Ricardo N; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue N; Sih, Tania; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Solé, Dirceu

    2017-11-02

    The guidelines on allergic rhinitis aim to update knowledge about the disease and care for affected patients. The initiative called "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma", initially published in 2001 and updated in 2008 and 2010, has been very successful in disseminating information and evidence, as well as providing a classification of severity and proposing a systemized treatment protocol. In order to include the participation of other medical professionals in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, it is important to develop algorithms that accurately indicate what should and can be done regionally. To update the III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis - 2012, with the creation of an algorithm for allergic rhinitis management. We invited 24 experts nominated by the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology, Brazilian Association of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery and Brazilian Society of Pediatrics to update the 2012 document. The update of the last Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis incorporated and adapted the relevant information published in all "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma" Initiative documents to the Brazilian scenario, bringing new concepts such as local allergic rhinitis, new drugs and treatment evaluation methods. A flowchart for allergic rhinitis treatment has been proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  4. Viruses Avian influenza, bovine herpes, bovine viral diarrhea virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus I, influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles, papilloma, rabies, respiratory syncitial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian virus 40. Bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Moraxella bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...

  5. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  6. 78 FR 60684 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 232 Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... in the Sole, Shared, and None columns in COLUMN 8 of the Information Table. Along with the adoption...

  7. 76 FR 1514 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 232 Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... (Notice of stay of effective and compliance dates) for more information. Along with adoption of the Filer...

  8. 78 FR 29616 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 232 Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... additional information. Along with the adoption of the Filer Manual, we are amending Rule 301 of Regulation S...

  9. 77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about poverty...

  10. 78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about poverty...

  11. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, State, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about poverty...

  12. The SKI-HI Program: A Descriptive Update, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Sandy; And Others

    This document provides updated information on the SKI-HI program model which presently serves over 2000 young hearing impaired children in 35 states and Canada. The program focuses on training parents in the skills needed to maximize language stimulation and minimize language deprivation. Among 14 educational and philosophical underpinnings of the…

  13. A review of methods for updating forest monitoring system estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Franco-Lopez; Alan R. Ek; Andrew P. Robinson

    2000-01-01

    Intensifying interest in forests and the development of new monitoring technologies have induced major changes in forest monitoring systems in the last few years, including major revisions in the methods used for updating. This paper describes the methods available for projecting stand- and plot-level information, emphasizing advantages and disadvantages, and the...

  14. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  15. Improving Mantel-Haenszel DIF Estimation through Bayesian Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ye, Lei; Isham, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the stability of Mantel-Haenszel (MH) DIF (differential item functioning) methods can be improved by integrating information across multiple test administrations using Bayesian updating (BU). The authors conducted a simulation that showed that this approach, which is based on earlier work by Zwick, Thayer, and Lewis,…

  16. What We Are Watching-Top Global Infectious Disease Threats, 2013-2016: An Update from CDC's Global Disease Detection Operations Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Kira A; Iuliano, A Danielle; Uyeki, Timothy M; Mintz, Eric D; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre; Staples, J Erin; Arthur, Ray R

    To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events that may represent an acute risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Operations Center (GDDOC) was created in 2007 to serve as CDC's platform dedicated to conducting worldwide event-based surveillance, which is now highlighted as part of the "detect" element of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The GHSA works toward making the world more safe and secure from disease threats through building capacity to better "Prevent, Detect, and Respond" to those threats. The GDDOC monitors approximately 30 to 40 public health events each day. In this article, we describe the top threats to public health monitored during 2012 to 2016: avian influenza, cholera, Ebola virus disease, and the vector-borne diseases yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and Zika virus, with updates to the previously described threats from Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and poliomyelitis.

  17. Solar System Update

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This book, the first in a series of forthcoming volumes, consists of topical and timely reviews of a number of carefully selected topics in solar systemn science. Contributions, in form of up-to-date reviews, are mainly aimed at professional astronomers and planetary scientists wishing to inform themselves about progress in fields closely related to their own field of expertise.

  18. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brett W; Harms, Tiara J; Reynolds, Mary G; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-03-18

    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vaccinia virus infections and whose contact with replication-competent vaccinia viruses is limited to contaminated materials (e.g., dressings) and persons administering ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine who adhere to appropriate infection prevention measures can be offered vaccination with ACAM2000 (recommendation category: B, evidence type 2 [Box]). These revised recommendations update the previous ACIP recommendations for nonemergency use of vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine for laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses (1). Since 2001, when the previous ACIP recommendations were developed, ACAM2000 has replaced Dryvax as the only smallpox vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and available for use in the United States (2). These recommendations contain information on ACAM2000 and its use in laboratory and health care personnel at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses.

  20. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  1. Five cases of acute Zika virus infection in French women of reproductive age returning from Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penot, P; Balavoine, S; Leplatois, A; Brichler, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Alloui, A-C; Flusin, O; Guilleminot, J; Amellou, M; Molina, J-M

    2017-08-01

    The favorable season for Aedes albopictus circulation has started in Europe and may lead to autochthonous transmission of Zika virus. Health care providers should be familiar with evocative clinical presentations and able to give updated information to women of reproductive age infected by Zika virus. We report five laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infections imported to metropolitan France from Central and South America between January and April, 2016. The five young women were not connected and not pregnant; common presentation combined a rash with persistent arthralgia. Zika virus was identified by RT-PCR from serum or urines, between two and eight days after the onset of the symptoms. As the duration of potential materno-foetal infectivity is still unknown, we were unable to answer with certitude to the patients' questions about the time interval to respect before attempting a pregnancy: one of them became pregnant one month after the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. RNA Replicons - A New Approach for Influenza Virus Immunoprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Zimmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA replicons are derived from either positive- or negative-strand RNA viruses. They represent disabled virus vectors that are not only avirulent, but also unable to revert to virulence. Due to autonomous RNA replication, RNA replicons are able to drive high level, cytosolic expression of recombinant antigens stimulating both the humoral and the cellular branch of the immune system. This review provides an update on the available literature covering influenza virus vaccines based on RNA replicons. The pros and cons of these vaccine strategies will be discussed and future perspectives disclosed.

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Klein, Marina B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will give an update on the prevalence of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, and describe recent trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality. The focus is mainly on patients followed in clinics in high-income countries and their heterogeneity in terms...

  4. HITRAN2008 and Current Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Laurence; Gordon, Iouli

    2010-05-01

    The current edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database1 appeared in 2008. In the intervening period to the present, there have been several important updates. The archived database, as described in the HITRAN paper, is available at a public ftp site, while critical updates are posted in the HITRAN website (www.cfa.harvard.edu/hitran/updates.html). An international committee meets at least once per year and discusses the many issues involved in improving the database. These issues encompass not only acquisition of new data (both experimental and theoretical), but validation, new directions, etc. In this presentation, we review highlight some of the successes of the current edition of HITRAN. We also discuss new directions. This effort has been supported by the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program, under the grant NAG5-13534.

  5. Innate Immunity and BK Virus: Prospective Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Yaghobi, Ramin; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2016-03-01

    Recent information demonstrated that BK virus reactivation is a dominant complication after kidney transplantation, which occurs because of immunosuppression. BK virus reactivation is the main reason of transplanted kidney losing. Immune response against BK virus is the major inhibitor of the virus reactivation. Therefore, improving our knowledge regarding the main parameters that fight against BK viruses can shed light on to direct new treatment strategies to suppress BK infection. Innate immunity consists of numerous cell systems and also soluble molecules, which not only suppress virus replication, but also activate adaptive immunity to eradicate the infection. Additionally, it appears that immune responses against reactivated BK virus are the main reasons for induction of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKAN). Thus, improving our knowledge regarding the parameters and detailed mechanisms of innate immunity and also the status of innate immunity of the patients with BK virus reactivation and its complications can introduce new prospective strategies to either prevent or as therapy of the complication. Therefore, this review was aimed to collate the most recent data regarding the roles played by innate immunity against BK virus and also the status of innate immunity in the patients with reactivation BK virus and BKAN.

  6. Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdle, W R

    1976-01-01

    Marburg virus disease, which produced 20 per cent mortality when it first occured during 1967 in Germany and Yugoslavia, recently appeared again in South Africa. The source of the first outbreak was monkeys shipped from Africa; the origin of the second episode is unclear. Because distribution of the virus in nature is unknown, its threat to man cannot be readily determined. Differential laboratory diagnoses of hemorrhagic fevers should be encouraged in order to learn more about the epidemiology of these diseases and to better assess the risks which their etiologic agents may pose for attending medical personnel.

  7. Updates on Influenza Vaccination in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela J P; Grohskopf, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all children 6 months of age and older who do not have contraindications. This article provides an overview of information concerning burden of influenza among children in the United States; US-licensed influenza vaccines; vaccine immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety; and recent updates relevant to use of these vaccines in pediatric populations. Influenza antiviral medications are discussed. Details concerning vaccine-related topics may be found in the current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for use of influenza vaccines (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html). Additional information on influenza antivirals is located at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/index.htm. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus currently poses a global threat and is a major public health issue throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. However, Zika virus infections in humans have also been observed in other regions, including Southeast Asia, where arboviral diseases are very common. In this study, we summarize the current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. This review aims to provide an overview of the current situation and also to suggest ways of adequately managing the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. The literature searching for the reports on Zika virus in Southeast Asia was done using standard database PubMed and the re-analysis and summarization on the reports was done. A limited number of reports have addressed Zika virus disease in Southeast Asia, but it is has been confirmed that a problem already exists. Individual case reports and outbreaks of Zika virus have been confirmed in Southeast Asia. Several reports have also described patients becoming infected after visiting Southeast Asia. In addition, the concurrent circulation of Zika virus with other arboviruses has been confirmed. As a tropical region with a high prevalence of arboviral diseases, the emergence of Zika virus in Southeast Asia is a major concern. It is essential for local medical personnel to recognize this disease. Given the status of Southeast Asia as a globally important tourist destination, continuous updates on the status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia are required and should be incorporated into global health advisories regarding travel.

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  10. Dealing with Inconsistencies and Updates in Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Savo, Domenico Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of an "Ontology-based Information System" (OIS) is to provide an explicit description of the domain of interest, called ontology, and let all the functions of the system be based on such representation, thus freeing the users from the knowledge about the physical repositories where the real data reside. The functionalities that an OIS should provide to the user include both query answering, whose goal is to extract information from the system, and update, whose goal is to mod...

  11. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients’ daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients’ physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures’ arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient’s preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

  12. A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

  13. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  15. Information security principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stamp, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Now updated-your expert guide to twenty-first century information security Information security is a rapidly evolving field. As businesses and consumers become increasingly dependent on complex multinational information systems, it is more imperative than ever to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data. Featuring a wide array of new information on the most current security issues, this fully updated and revised edition of Information Security: Principles and Practice provides the skills and knowledge readers need to tackle any information security challenge. Taking a pract

  16. Bevalac operations update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The Bevalac passed the recent Tiger Team assessment with flying colors, thanks to the unremitting effort of countless people over the last several months, pulling miles of cables, sending tons of valuable'' junk to salvage, painting, pushing brooms, writing operating procedures. It is time to look ahead now and plan for doing science again; however, it is not business as usual. The Bevalac survived, but not without changes. There are more procedures to be followed, safety appraisals to be made, training to be gone through. The primary goal is not just to get a task done, but to get it done in a safe manner according to code. If this means a delay in a run because enough time wasn't allotted for making a change in the setup, then the experiment will be delayed. Many of the obvious changes you will find the next time you come to work here are summarized in this newsletter. We will inform you of others as they are forthcoming. Also we will discuss these changes at our We Survived the Tigers, but{hor ellipsis}'' Users' Information Meeting at the Washington APS meeting. Details are inside this report.

  17. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  18. Working for America: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    America: An Update 31 Job Satisfacion service than in the W&tto i i ............. private sector." The findings confirm that the dynamics of job ...offers recommendations for improvment. JUL 2 94",J ..... .. ~~. . . . - . . Federal Government, attitude survey, job satisfaction, quality of the...How Do Supervisors Rate the Quality of Job Applicants

  19. Update of telephone exchange switches

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of the CERN phone services improvement, a software update will be done on exchange switches on Wednesday 27 october from 7.00 pm to 12.00 pm. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this intervention. We appology in advance for any inconveniences that may occur.

  20. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  1. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  2. Model validation: Correlation for updating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a review is presented of the various methods which are available for the purpose of performing a systematic comparison and correlation between two sets of vibration data. In the present case, the application of interest is in conducting this correlation process as a prelude to model correlation or updating activity ...

  3. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  4. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  5. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Igarashi, A. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (JP)] [and others

    2002-10-01

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  6. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science,. Technology and Medicine, London, UK email: d.ewins@ic.ac.uk ... and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology. Keywords. Model updating; model correlation; analytical ...

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  8. Eczema and ceramides: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    types of treatment. We also consider the genetic influence on stratum corneum lipids. The review is an update on research indexed in PubMed following the discovery of the filaggrin mutations in atopic dermatitis in 2006, but when newer publications cannot stand alone, we include publications from before...

  9. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  10. Archives: Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 23 of 23 ... Archives: Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Journal Home > Archives: Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Judith A; Gallant, Joel E; Ghanem, Khalil G; Emmanuel, Patricia; Zingman, Barry S; Horberg, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were prepared by an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace those published in 2009. The guidelines are intended for use by healthcare providers who care for HIV-infected patients. Since 2009, new antiretroviral drugs and classes have become available, and the prognosis of persons with HIV infection continues to improve. However, with fewer complications and increased survival, HIV-infected persons are increasingly developing common health problems that also affect the general population. Some of these conditions may be related to HIV infection itself or its treatment. HIV-infected persons should be managed and monitored for all relevant age- and sex-specific health problems. New information based on publications from the period 2009-2013 has been incorporated into this document.

  12. VeteranOtherInformationService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This service is used to create, read, delete and update additional information captured during the EVSS Disability Compensation interview in an effort to align with...

  13. Diffusion of information throughout the host interactome reveals gene expression variations in network proximity to target proteins of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Mosca

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the most common and chronic in the world, and hepatitis associated with HCV infection is a major risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The rapidly growing number of viral-host and host protein-protein interactions is enabling more and more reliable network-based analyses of viral infection supported by omics data. The study of molecular interaction networks helps to elucidate the mechanistic pathways linking HCV molecular activities and the host response that modulates the stepwise hepatocarcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions (cirrhosis and dysplasia to HCC. Simulating the impact of HCV-host molecular interactions throughout the host protein-protein interaction (PPI network, we ranked the host proteins in relation to their network proximity to viral targets. We observed that the set of proteins in the neighborhood of HCV targets in the host interactome is enriched in key players of the host response to HCV infection. In opposition to HCV targets, subnetworks of proteins in network proximity to HCV targets are significantly enriched in proteins reported as differentially expressed in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver samples by two independent studies. Using multi-objective optimization, we extracted subnetworks that are simultaneously "guilt-by-association" with HCV proteins and enriched in proteins differentially expressed. These subnetworks contain established, recently proposed and novel candidate proteins for the regulation of the mechanisms of liver cells response to chronic HCV infection.

  14. Diffusion of Information throughout the Host Interactome Reveals Gene Expression Variations in Network Proximity to Target Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the most common and chronic in the world, and hepatitis associated with HCV infection is a major risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rapidly growing number of viral-host and host protein-protein interactions is enabling more and more reliable network-based analyses of viral infection supported by omics data. The study of molecular interaction networks helps to elucidate the mechanistic pathways linking HCV molecular activities and the host response that modulates the stepwise hepatocarcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions (cirrhosis and dysplasia) to HCC. Simulating the impact of HCV-host molecular interactions throughout the host protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, we ranked the host proteins in relation to their network proximity to viral targets. We observed that the set of proteins in the neighborhood of HCV targets in the host interactome is enriched in key players of the host response to HCV infection. In opposition to HCV targets, subnetworks of proteins in network proximity to HCV targets are significantly enriched in proteins reported as differentially expressed in preneoplastic and neoplastic liver samples by two independent studies. Using multi-objective optimization, we extracted subnetworks that are simultaneously “guilt-by-association” with HCV proteins and enriched in proteins differentially expressed. These subnetworks contain established, recently proposed and novel candidate proteins for the regulation of the mechanisms of liver cells response to chronic HCV infection. PMID:25461596

  15. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  16. Meta-analysis: antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding - an updated Cochrane review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez-Tapia, N C; Barrientos-Gutierrez, T; Tellez-Avila, F

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis seems to decrease the incidence of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is considered standard of care. However, there is no updated information regarding the effects of this intervention.......Antibiotic prophylaxis seems to decrease the incidence of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is considered standard of care. However, there is no updated information regarding the effects of this intervention....

  17. Literature searches on Ayurveda: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggithaya, Madhur G; Narahari, Saravu R

    2015-01-01

    searching is important to identify Ayurveda publications that are not indexed elsewhere. Availability information of citations in Ayurveda libraries from National Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials in India if regularly updated will improve the efficacy of hand searching. A grey database (ARD) contains unpublished PG/Ph.D. theses. The AYUSH portal, DHARA (funded by Ministry of AYUSH), and ARD should be merged to form single larger database to limit Ayurveda literature searches.

  18. Graphical user interface for intraoperative neuroimage updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Kyle R.; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David W.; Lunn, Karen E.; Sun, Hai; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2003-05-01

    Image-guided neurosurgery typically relies on preoperative imaging information that is subject to errors resulting from brain shift and deformation in the OR. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed to facilitate the flow of data from OR to image volume in order to provide the neurosurgeon with updated views concurrent with surgery. Upon acquisition of registration data for patient position in the OR (using fiducial markers), the Matlab GUI displays ultrasound image overlays on patient specific, preoperative MR images. Registration matrices are also applied to patient-specific anatomical models used for image updating. After displaying the re-oriented brain model in OR coordinates and digitizing the edge of the craniotomy, gravitational sagging of the brain is simulated using the finite element method. Based on this model, interpolation to the resolution of the preoperative images is performed and re-displayed to the surgeon during the procedure. These steps were completed within reasonable time limits and the interface was relatively easy to use after a brief training period. The techniques described have been developed and used retrospectively prior to this study. Based on the work described here, these steps can now be accomplished in the operating room and provide near real-time feedback to the surgeon.

  19. Infected Cardiac Myxoma: an Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aims to present an updated clinical picture of the infected cardiac myxoma. Revankar & Clark made a systematic review of infected cardiac myxoma based on the literature before 1998. Since then, there has not been any updated information describing its recent changing trends. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of infected cardiac myxoma was conducted on MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google between 1998 and 2014. RESULTS: In comparison with Revankar & Clark's series, the present series disclosed a significantly decreased overall mortality. It is believed that refinement of the prompt diagnosis and timely management (use of sensitive antibiotics and surgical resection of the infected myxoma have resulted in better outcomes of such patients. CONCLUSION: The present series of infected cardiac myxoma illustrated some aggravated clinical manifestations (relative more occasions of high-grade fever, multiple embolic events and the presence of refractory microorganisms, which should draw enough attention to careful diagnosis and treatment. In general, the prognosis of infected cardiac myxoma is relatively benign and the long-term survival is always promising.

  20. Infected Cardiac Myxoma: an Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to present an updated clinical picture of the infected cardiac myxoma. Revankar & Clark made a systematic review of infected cardiac myxoma based on the literature before 1998. Since then, there has not been any updated information describing its recent changing trends. A comprehensive literature search of infected cardiac myxoma was conducted on MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google between 1998 and 2014. In comparison with Revankar & Clark's series, the present series disclosed a significantly decreased overall mortality. It is believed that refinement of the prompt diagnosis and timely management (use of sensitive antibiotics and surgical resection of the infected myxoma) have resulted in better outcomes of such patients. The present series of infected cardiac myxoma illustrated some aggravated clinical manifestations (relative more occasions of high-grade fever, multiple embolic events and the presence of refractory microorganisms), which should draw enough attention to careful diagnosis and treatment. In general, the prognosis of infected cardiac myxoma is relatively benign and the long-term survival is always promising.

  1. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: (An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zarei

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:To study the dimensions of fatigue in multiple sclerosis, its pathophysiology, the efficacy, tolerability and safety of drug and non-drug treatments and measurement of fatigue. METHODS: Relevant articles from PubMed and Google scholar search engines from January 1987 until September 2006 were studied to compose a short clinical update (not a systematic review and make the required clinical information available for the clinicians. RESULTS: There is evidence that fatigue is very common in all types and stages of multiple sclerosis, but its pathophysiology is not well explained. Consequently, few drug options have been offered for its treatment. Amantadine is the bestknown drug, though its efficacy and duration of action are limited. Pemoline and modafinil are alternatives and have
    some effects on fatigue. DAP (diaminopyridine, ASA (acetylsalicylic acid, methylphenidate and fluoxetine are other possible options but await further confirmation. Neurorehabilitation, regular exercise and cooling are confirmed to be of value in MS treatment. Measurement of fatigue is a complicated issue. At present fatigue does not have a laboratory marker. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this short clinical update provide guidelines for diagnosing MS-related fatigue and differentiating
    it from other similar physical and psychological conditions. It also examines prescription drug options and other therapies for MS patients with fatigue.
    KEYWORDS: Multiple sclerosis, fatigue, pathophysiology, treatment, measurement.

  2. Update on hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, Elisabetta; Goadsby, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare primary headache syndrome, characterized by unilateral pain and an absolute response to indometacin. Since the term was first coined in 1984, more than 100 cases have been described worldwide. Most recently, detailed case series that provide more detailed information concerning the sometimes complex clinical presentation of HC have been reported. Functional imaging studies suggest a unique pattern of subcortical involvement in HC: contralateral to the pain posterior hypothalamic region, ipsilateral dorsal pons and ipsilateral ventral midbrain, which, along with the particular effect of indometacin, probably justifies its classification as a unique entity. Increasing the awareness of this primary headache form among clinicians will aid in its diagnosis while further work is being undertaken to characterize the syndrome.

  3. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  4. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  5. Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Ashok Kumar, Kaparaboyna; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2015-04-01

    This update of a 2007 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to manage adult rhinosinusitis, defined as symptomatic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer added to the update group, evidence from 42 new systematic reviews, enhanced information on patient education and counseling, a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships, expanded opportunities for watchful waiting (without antibiotic therapy) as initial therapy of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), and 3 new recommendations for managing chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing adult rhinosinusitis and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to improve diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, promote appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management, and promote judicious use of systemic and topical therapy, which includes radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. The update group made strong recommendations that clinicians (1) should distinguish presumed ABRS from acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) caused by viral upper respiratory infections and noninfectious conditions and (2) should confirm a clinical diagnosis of CRS with objective documentation of sinonasal inflammation, which may be accomplished using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, or computed tomography. The update group made recommendations that clinicians (1) should either offer watchful waiting (without

  6. Mengenal Hanta Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Tri

    2009-01-01

    Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

  7. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    , when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses....... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses....

  8. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  9. An Update on Travel Vaccines and Issues in Travel and International Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Bunn, William B; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-08-23

    The fields of travel and international medicine are rapidly changing and growing. The role of occupational and travel health nurses is expanding and should be a focus for the future. At the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Annual meeting on March 24, 2015, in Boston, five presentations were included in the session, An Update on Travel Vaccines and Issues in Travel and International Medicine. This article summarizes three of the presentations and includes a portion of the information generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) included in the fourth presentation. The first section focuses on the Essential Elements of Travel Medicine Programs including the pre-travel care assessment, trip research and risk identification, medication intervention review, non-pharmaceutical and prevention strategies, and post-travel care. The next section is an overview of key issues for business travelers. The growth in the number of international business travelers and unique aspects of business travel are emphasized in a comprehensive travel health program. This section also includes a discussion of expatriates and their special risks identified in recent literature (e.g., an assessment of the significant costs of health events and productivity losses by both business travelers and expatriates). The final section offers a specific example of a vaccine-preventable disease, namely, Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, and needed changes in JE vaccine recommendations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Issacson, Richard S; Koppel, Barbara S

    2010-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. The prevalence of the disease varies depending on uptake of measles vaccination, with the virus disproportionally affecting regions with low vaccination rates. The physiopathology of the disease is not fully understood; however, there is evidence that it involves factors that favour humoral over cellular immune response against the virus. As a result, the virus is able to infect the neurons and to survive in a latent form for years. The clinical manifestations occur, on average, 6 years after measles virus infection. The onset of SSPE is insidious, and psychiatric manifestations are prominent. Subsequently, myoclonic seizures usually lead to a final stage of akinetic mutism. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by periodic complexes on electroencephalography, brain imaging suggestive of demyelination, and immunological evidence of measles infection. Management of the disease includes seizure control and avoidance of secondary complications associated with the progressive disability. Trials of treatment with interferon, ribavirin, and isoprinosine using different methodologies have reported beneficial results. However, the disease shows relentless progression; only 5% of individuals with SSPE undergo spontaneous remission, with the remaining 95% dying within 5 years of diagnosis.

  11. FRAX updates 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Eugene V; Harvey, Nicholas C; Johansson, Helena; Kanis, John A

    2016-07-01

    In the 8 years since the launch of the FRAX tool, it has continued to grow with the addition of new country or territory models. Although the core of the fracture risk algorithm remains unchanged, there is growing evidence of possible additional independent clinical variables that might modulate the interpretation of the FRAX outputs. There is also an expanding number of international guidelines that incorporate FRAX assessments, leading to discussions on the use of FRAX in treated patients and the determination of intervention thresholds. This review encompasses recent information on the use of FRAX in immigrant populations and the potential influence of skeletal and extraskeletal risk factors on FRAX estimations. For example, trabecular bone score and falls risk appear to be promising additional factors in individual risk assessment. FRAX appears to remain accurate in those on osteoporosis treatments, but FRAX is not a suitable tool for use in treat-to-target strategies. The assessment of fracture risk in immigrants is probably more accurate with the use of the FRAX tool for the country of origin, if available. The impact of additional risk variables will need evaluation of the impact of these on recharacterizing patients by moving them across intervention thresholds.

  12. Cassini Spacecraft Uncertainty Analysis Data and Methodology Review and Update/Volume 1: Updated Parameter Uncertainty Models for the Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHEELER, TIMOTHY A.; WYSS, GREGORY D.; HARPER, FREDERICK T.

    2000-11-01

    Uncertainty distributions for specific parameters of the Cassini General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) Final Safety Analysis Report consequence risk analysis were revised and updated. The revisions and updates were done for all consequence parameters for which relevant information exists from the joint project on Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of European Communities.

  13. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  15. Update on intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1979-03-01

    This document provides clinicians with up-to-date information on IUDs in regard to safety, acceptance, effectiveness, insertion technics, insertion timing, continuing care, complications and their management, contraindications, subsequent fertility, and current research to improve IUDs. IUD popularity is increasing in the U. S. 6.4% of all eligible currently married women use IUDs in the U. S. IUD continuation rates are approximately 75% during the 1st year. The pregnancy rate is 4/100 women years of use, and the expulsion rate is 4-18/100 users. IUDs are associated with a lower mortality rate than most other methods and the rate of complications requiring hospitalization is 0.3-1.0/100 women years of use. There is no evidence that IUDs increase the risk of gynecologic malignancy but IUDs are associated with an increased risk of pelvic infection among certain groups. The IUD must be placed high in the uterine fundus but care must be taken to avoid uterine perforation. The advantages and disadvantages of using different types of IUDs were discussed. Clinical conditions which must be taken into account in prescribing and selecting an appropriate IUD were also described. IUDs were also described. IUDs are ideally inserted during menstruation and some pain and bleeding frequently accompanies insertion. After insertion the patient should return for a check-up within 3 months and then annually. Guidelines for the management of complications such as expulsion, excessive bleeding and cramping, perforation, pregnancy, and pelvic infections were provided. After IUD removal there is a risk that fertility return will be delayed and among women who developed infections while using an IUD there is risk of sterility. Current research efforts are directed primarily at developing IUDs which produce fewer side effects and which have longer life spans.

  16. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. In furtherance of these goals, we have developed the hepatitis C virus protein interaction database (HCVpro) by integrating manually verified hepatitis C virus-virus and virus-human protein interactions curated from literature and databases. HCVpro is a comprehensive and integrated HCV-specific knowledgebase housing consolidated information on PPIs, functional genomics and molecular data obtained from a variety of virus databases (VirHostNet, VirusMint, HCVdb and euHCVdb), and from BIND and other relevant biology repositories. HCVpro is further populated with information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related genes that are mapped onto their encoded cellular proteins. Incorporated proteins have been mapped onto Gene Ontologies, canonical pathways, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and extensively cross-referenced to other essential annotations. The database is enriched with exhaustive reviews on structure and functions of HCV proteins, current state of drug and vaccine development and links to recommended journal articles. Users can query the database using specific protein identifiers (IDs), chromosomal locations of a gene, interaction detection methods, indexed PubMed sources as well as HCVpro, BIND and VirusMint IDs. The use of HCVpro is free and the resource can be accessed via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/hcvpro/ or http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hcvpro/. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. An Incremental Updating Method for Land Cover Database Using Refined 2-dimensional Intersection Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to incremental updating the land cover database using the change-only information from imagery change detection methods, an vector change-only information model is designed to represent the spatial and attribute information after change, and an automatic incremental updating method for land cover database based on refined 2-dimensional intersection type is presented. As the differentiation and identification of 2-dimensional intersection type between new updates and existing objects is one of the first steps in the automatic incremental updating process for a land cover database, the 14 refined 2-dimensional intersection types are distinguished by the E-WID topological hierarchical model. Then according to the 14 refined 2-dimensional intersection types, 9 automatic updating rules for land cover database are presented. An automatic incremental updating for land cover database prototype system is developed. The effectiveness of the models and rules was verified using real data. The results of this study represent a new avenue for automatic spatial data handling in incremental updating processes.

  18. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  19. A Schema for Generating Update Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza; Claudia Zepeda; Guillermo Flores

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update...

  20. On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, M J

    2009-10-06

    The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

  1. A selective-update affine projection algorithm with selective input vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, NamWoong; Shin, JaeWook; Park, PooGyeon

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes an affine projection algorithm (APA) with selective input vectors, which based on the concept of selective-update in order to reduce estimation errors and computations. The algorithm consists of two procedures: input- vector-selection and state-decision. The input-vector-selection procedure determines the number of input vectors by checking with mean square error (MSE) whether the input vectors have enough information for update. The state-decision procedure determines the current state of the adaptive filter by using the state-decision criterion. As the adaptive filter is in transient state, the algorithm updates the filter coefficients with the selected input vectors. On the other hand, as soon as the adaptive filter reaches the steady state, the update procedure is not performed. Through these two procedures, the proposed algorithm achieves small steady-state estimation errors, low computational complexity and low update complexity for colored input signals.

  2. Chondrosarcoma: With Updates on Molecular Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma (CHS is a malignant cartilage-forming tumor and usually occurs within the medullary canal of long bones and pelvic bones. Based on the morphologic feature alone, a correct diangosis of CHS may be difficult, Therefore, correlation of radiological and clinicopathological features is mandatory in the diagnosis of CHS. The prognosis of CHS is closely related to histologic grading, however, histologic grading may be subjective with high inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present histologic grading system and clinicopathological and radiological findings of conventional CHS. Subtypes of CHSs, such as dedifferentiated, mesenchymal, and clear cell CHSs are also presented. In addition, we introduce updated cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings to expand our understanding of CHS biology. New markers of cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell signaling might offer important therapeutic and prognostic information in near future.

  3. Cybertherapy in practice: the VEPSY updated project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Botella, Cristina; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Molinari, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Rapid and far-reaching technological advances are changing the ways in which people relate, communicate, and live. Technologies that were hardly used ten years ago, such as the Internet, e-mail, and video teleconferencing are becoming familiar methods for diagnosis, therapy, education and training. This is producing an emerging field (cybertherapy) whose focus is the use of communication and information technologies to improve the health care processes. To exploit and understand this potential was the aim of the Telemedicine and Portable Virtual Environment in Clinical Psychology, VEPSY UPDATED, an European Community funded research project (IST-2000-25323, http://www.cybertherapy.info). The chapter describes the clinical and technical rationale behind the cybertherapy applications developed by the project. Further, the actual role of virtual reality in the cybertherapy field is discussed, focusing on the advantages provided by its three different faces: technological, experiential and communicative.

  4. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    of historical discharge data. For the few VS where in-situ data was available for comparison, the discharge estimates were found to be within 4.1 to 13.8% of mean annual gauged amplitude. One of the main obstacles to the use of RA in hydrological applications is the low temporal resolution of the data which has...... suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... studies: the Brahmaputra and Zambezi River basins. In the Brahmaputra, data from 6 Envisat VS located along the main reach was assimilated. The assimilation improved model performance with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency increasing from 0.78 to 0.84 at the outlet of the basin. In the Zambezi River basin...

  5. THE MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: OVERVIEW AND STATUS UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeter, K.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, Alexander; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, Matthew P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; O' Shaughnessy, Mark D.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, Aleksandr; Strain, J.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Swift, Gary; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2013-04-12

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is being constructed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD by the MAJORANA Collaboration to demonstrate the feasibility of a tonne-scale neutrinoless double beta decay experiment based on 76Ge. The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would indicate that neutrinos can serve as their own antiparticles, thus proving neutrinos to be Majorana particles, and would give information on neutrino masses. Attaining sensitivities for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy region requires large tonne-scale detectors with extremely low backgrounds. The DEMONSTRATOR project will show that sufficiently low backgrounds are achievable. A brief description of the detector and a status update on the construction will be given, including the work done at BHSU on acid-etching of Pb shielding bricks.

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  9. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  10. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryadi, Suharyono

    1996-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  12. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  13. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Warthog code was developed to couple codes that are developed in both the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SHARP from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The initial phase of this work, focused on coupling the neutronics code PROTEUS with the fuel performance code BISON. The main technical challenge involves mapping the power density solution determined by PROTEUS to the fuel in BISON. This presents a challenge since PROTEUS uses the MOAB mesh format, but BISON, like all other MOOSE codes, uses the libMesh format. When coupling the different codes, one must consider that Warthog is a light-weight MOOSE-based program that uses the Data Transfer Kit (DTK) to transfer data between the various mesh types. Users set up inputs for the codes they want to run, and then Warthog transfers the data between them. Currently Warthog supports XSProc from SCALE or the Sub-Group Application Programming Interface (SGAPI) in PROTEUS for generating cross sections. It supports arbitrary geometries using PROTEUS and BISON. DTK will transfer power densities and temperatures between the codes where the domains overlap. In the past fiscal year (FY), much work has gone into demonstrating two-way coupling for simple pin cells of various materials. XSProc was used to calculate the cross sections, which were then passed to PROTEUS in an external file. PROTEUS calculates the fission/power density, and Warthog uses DTK to pass this information to BISON, where it is used as the heat source. BISON then calculates the temperature profile of the pin cell and sends it back to XSProc to obtain the temperature corrected cross sections. This process is repeated until the convergence criteria (tolerance on BISON solve, or number of time steps) is reached. Models have been constructed and run for both uranium oxide and uranium silicide fuels. These models demonstrate a clear difference in power shape that is not accounted for in a

  14. RELAP-7 Development Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, Mark David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, and is the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 development began in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. The code is being developed based on Idaho National Laboratory’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The initial development goal of the RELAP-7 approach focused primarily on the development of an implicit algorithm capable of strong (nonlinear) coupling of the dependent hydrodynamic variables contained in the 1-D/2-D flow models with the various 0-D system reactor components that compose various boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, the RELAP-7 code has been further improved with expanded capability to support boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor NPPs analysis. The accumulator model has been developed. The code has also been coupled with other MOOSE-based applications such as neutronics code RattleSnake and fuel performance code BISON to perform multiphysics analysis. A major design requirement for the implicit algorithm in RELAP-7 is that it is capable of second-order discretization accuracy in both space and time, which eliminates the traditional first-order approximation errors. The second-order temporal is achieved by a second-order backward temporal difference, and the one-dimensional second-order accurate spatial discretization

  15. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  16. Neuraminidase as an enzymatic marker for detecting airborne Influenza virus and other viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Toulouse, Marie-Josée; Ho, Jim; Li, Dongqing; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    Little information is available regarding the effectiveness of air samplers to collect viruses and regarding the effects of sampling processes on viral integrity. The neuraminidase enzyme is present on the surface of viruses that are of agricultural and medical importance. It has been demonstrated that viruses carrying this enzyme can be detected using commercial substrates without having to process the sample by methods such as RNA extraction. This project aims at evaluating the effects of 3 aerosol-sampling devices on the neuraminidase enzyme activity of airborne viruses. The purified neuraminidase enzymes from Clostridium perfringens, a strain of Influenza A (H1N1) virus, the FluMist influenza vaccine, and the Newcastle disease virus were used as models. The neuraminidase models were aerosolized in aerosol chambers and sampled with 3 different air samplers (SKC BioSampler, 3-piece cassettes with polycarbonate filters, and Coriolis μ) to assess the effect on neuraminidase enzyme activity. Our results demonstrated that Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus neuraminidase enzymes are resistant to aerosolization and sampling with all air samplers tested. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enzymatic neuraminidase assay is as sensitive as RT-qPCR for detecting low concentrations of Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. Therefore, given the sensitivity of the assay and its compatibility with air sampling methods, viruses carrying the neuraminidase enzyme can be rapidly detected from air samples using neuraminidase activity assay without having to preprocess the samples.

  17. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  18. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  20. Efficient Synthesis of Network Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-17

    specialized hardware. Because the con- troller has global visibility and full control over the entire network, SDN makes it possible to implement a wide...Pavol Černý CU Boulder pavol.cerny@colorado.edu Nate Foster Cornell University jnfoster@cs.cornell.edu Abstract Software-defined networking ( SDN ...is revolutionizing the net- working industry, but current SDN programming platforms do not provide automated mechanisms for updating global