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Sample records for virus infection hospitalized

  1. Symptoms of influenza virus infection in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dool, C; Hak, E; Wallinga, J; van Loon, A M; Lammers, J W J; Bonten, M J M

    BACKGROUND: During influenza outbreaks, fever and cough are the most accurate symptoms in predicting influenza virus infection in the community. OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of fever, cough, and other symptoms for diagnosing influenza virus infection in hospitalized patients. DESIGN:

  2. Wheeze after Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Simonsen, Jacob; Breindahl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prior studies found associations between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, wheezing, and asthma. The present study aimed to examine the risk of wheezing after RSV, by the history of wheezing. Methods We included 39 children hospitalized for RSV infection (cases) and 23...

  3. Caesarean Section and Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

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    Kristensen, Kim; Fisker, Niels; Haerskjold, Ann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:: Hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and asthma share common determinants, and meta-analyses indicate that children delivered by caesarean section (CS) are at increased risk of asthma. We aimed to investigate whether birth by CS is associated...... regression with adjustment for prematurity, asphyxia, birth weight, multiple births, single parenthood, maternal smoking during pregnancy, older siblings, and asthma diagnoses up to 2 weeks before hospitalization for RSV infection, to compare the effects of acute or elective CS versus vaginal delivery...... infection in children born by acute CS and by elective CS were 1.09 (1.01 - 1.17) and 1.27 (1.19 - 1.36), respectively. The effect of elective CS remained unchanged throughout the first two years of life (p = 0.53), whereas the effect of acute CS was only present in the second year of life (p = 0...

  4. Risk Factors for Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Kristensen, Kim; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    groups based on gestational age (23-32, 33-35, 36, 37-41 and 42-45 weeks). RESULTS: In adjusted Cox regression models, chronic disease, asthma hospitalization before the RSV infection and siblings were associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for RSV infection in all children independent...

  5. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical

  6. Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection among hospitalized children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections.

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    Gupta, Soham; Shamsundar, Ranjani; Shet, Anita; Chawan, Rashmi; Srinivasa, Hiresave

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized young children presenting with ALRI in Bangalore, India. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen detection was performed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining on 77 nasopharyngeal wash samples collected from hospitalized children below 2 years of age with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). Out of 77 samples tested for RSV with DFA, 17 (22.1%) were found RSV-positive with a mean age of 8.24 ± 7.21 months (M:F = 1.8:1). Three children had congenital cardiac disease and one child had a history of prematurity. One child had re-infection within one month of primary infection. RSV-infected children were more likely to have a diagnosis of bronchiolitis than RSV-negative children (p infection is a significant cause of morbidity among children presenting with ALRI in southern India. In resource-limited settings, DFA can be used as an important tool for rapid detection of RSV and can potentially eliminate prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  7. Prevalence of respiratory viruses among children hospitalized from respiratory infections in Shenzhen, China.

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    Wang, Heping; Zheng, Yuejie; Deng, Jikui; Wang, Wenjian; Liu, Ping; Yang, Fanghua; Jiang, Hanfang

    2016-03-08

    The prevalence of local dominant viral etiologies is important for clinical management and prevention of common viral respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, there is limited large-scale data about common viral respiratory infection in south China. To survey dominant viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children, a 4-year consecutive study was conducted in Shenzhen, China. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were obtained from 30,443 hospitalized children younger than 14 years with respiratory tract diseases in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2012 to December 2015. Nasopharyngeal swabs were routinely examined by direct immunofluorescence assay to detect respiratory agents including seven respiratory viruses. Data were analyzed to describe the frequency and seasonality. Of the 30,443 children enrolled in the study, 4428 (14.55 %) were positive for at least one viral pathogen, among whom 4110 (92.82 %) were ≤3 years of age. The predominant viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 68.11 %), adenovirus (ADV, 16.01 %) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3, 11.0 %). The common respiratory viruses detected peaked in the spring (17.69 %), and were minimal in autumn (9.73 %), but PIVs detection peaked in November. The common virus detection rate in male subjects (15.40 %) was significantly higher than in female subjects (13.02 %). PIVs detection rates were complementary with RSV in autumn in each year. This study demonstrated common respiratory viruses were the major cause of hospitalized acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in Shenzhen, China. RSV was the most common detected infection, while ADV was the predominant pathogen in hospitalized children. These findings provide a better understanding of virus distribution among children of different ages, infection stratification by gender, and seasonality, all of which will contribute to modification of therapeutic approaches and development of effective prevention

  8. Bacteremia in Children Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

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    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia-Grande, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Pinnock, Elli; Salas, Antonio; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of bacteremia is considered low in children with acute bronchiolitis. However the rate of occult bacteremia in infants with RSV infection is not well established. The aim was to determine the actual rate and predictive factors of bacteremia in children admitted to hospital due to confirmed RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI), using both conventional culture and molecular techniques. Methods A prospective multicenter study (GENDRES-network) was conducted between 2011–2013 in children under the age of two admitted to hospital because of an ARI. Among those RSV-positive, bacterial presence in blood was assessed using PCR for Meningococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to conventional cultures. Results 66 children with positive RSV respiratory illness were included. In 10.6% patients, bacterial presence was detected: H. influenzae (n = 4) and S. pneumoniae (n = 2). In those patients with bacteremia, there was a previous suspicion of bacterial superinfection and had received empirical antibiotic treatment 6 out of 7 (85.7%) patients. There were significant differences in terms of severity between children with positive bacterial PCR and those with negative results: PICU admission (100% vs. 50%, P-value = 0.015); respiratory support necessity (100% vs. 18.6%, P-value < 0.001); Wood-Downes score (mean = 8.7 vs. 4.8 points, P-value < 0.001); GENVIP scale (mean = 17 vs. 10.1, P-value < 0.001); and length of hospitalization (mean = 12.1 vs. 7.5 days, P-value = 0.007). Conclusion Bacteremia is not frequent in infants hospitalized with RSV respiratory infection, however, it should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:26872131

  9. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

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    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  10. A Model of the Costs of Community and Nosocomial Pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Canadian Hospitals

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    Philip Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately one in 10 hospitalized patients will acquire a nosocomial infection (NI after admission to hospital, of which 71% are due to respiratory viruses, including the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. NIs are concerning and lead to prolonged hospitalizations. The economics of NIs are typically described in generalized terms and specific cost data are lacking.

  11. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

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    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus shedding by children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection.

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    Takeyama, Aya; Hashimoto, Koichi; Sato, Masatoki; Kawashima, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection shed virus for variable periods. The aim of this study was to quantify the viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with RSV throughout their hospitalization. This study included 37 children who were admitted with a diagnosis of RSV infection based on a positive rapid diagnostic test. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients every day, from admission to discharge. Viral detection and quantification were performed using quantitative real-time PCR. Of the 37 patients, RSV-A was detected in 29 and RSV-B in 6. Two patients were PCR-negative for any type of RSV. RSV-A was detected in 12 of 16 patients (75%) 6 days after admission. These patients shed detectable virus from days 1 to 12, and for a significantly longer period (mean 5.7 days) than RSV-B (mean 3.8 days) patients. Half of the RSV-A patients were also positive on day 14 following onset. RSV-A was detected in patients infection. To prevent nosocomial RSV infections in hospital wards, healthcare workers must take appropriate infection control measures and provide adequate guidance on hand washing to the family of the patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Parainfluenza virus as a cause of acute respiratory infection in hospitalized children.

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    Pecchini, Rogério; Berezin, Eitan Naaman; Souza, Maria Cândida; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes de Andrade; Sato, Neuza; Salgado, Maristela; Ueda, Mirthes; Passos, Saulo Duarte; Rangel, Raphael; Catebelota, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses account for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children. To assess the prevalence of Human parainfluenza viruses as a cause of acute respiratory infection and to compare clinical data for this infection against those of the human respiratory syncytial virus. A prospective study in children younger than five years with acute respiratory infection was conducted. Detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate samples was performed using the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. Length of hospital stay, age, clinical history and physical exam, clinical diagnoses, and evolution (admission to Intensive Care Unit or general ward, discharge or death) were assessed. Past personal (premature birth and cardiopathy) as well as family (smoking and atopy) medical factors were also assessed. A total of 585 patients were included with a median age of 7.9 months and median hospital stay of six days. No difference between the HRSV+ and HPIV+ groups was found in terms of age, gender or length of hospital stay. The HRSV+ group had more fever and cough. Need for admission to the Intensive Care Unit was similar for both groups but more deaths were recorded in the HPIV+ group. The occurrence of parainfluenza peaked during the autumn in the first two years of the study. Parainfluenza was responsible for significant morbidity, proving to be the second-most prevalent viral agent in this population after respiratory syncytial virus. No difference in clinical presentation was found between the two groups, but mortality was higher in the HPIV+ group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Parainfluenza virus as a cause of acute respiratory infection in hospitalized childrens

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    Rogério Pecchini

    Full Text Available Background: Human parainfluenza viruses account for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children.Objective: To assess the prevalence of Human parainfluenza viruses as a cause of acute respiratory infection and to compare clinical data for this infection against those of the human respiratory syncytial virus.Methods: A prospective study in children younger than five years with acute respiratory infection was conducted. Detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirate samples was performed using the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. Length of hospital stay, age, clinical history and physical exam, clinical diagnoses, and evolution (admission to Intensive Care Unit or general ward, discharge or death were assessed. Past personal (premature birth and cardiopathy as well as family (smoking and atopy medical factors were also assessed.Results: A total of 585 patients were included with a median age of 7.9 months and median hospital stay of six days. No difference between the HRSV+ and HPIV+ groups was found in terms of age, gender or length of hospital stay. The HRSV+ group had more fever and cough. Need for admission to the Intensive Care Unit was similar for both groups but more deaths were recorded in the HPIV+ group. The occurrence of parainfluenza peaked during the autumn in the first two years of the study.Conclusion: Parainfluenza was responsible for significant morbidity, proving to be the second-most prevalent viral agent in this population after respiratory syncytial virus. No difference in clinical presentation was found between the two groups, but mortality was higher in the HPIV+ group.

  15. Eight Year Prospective Study of Adenoviruses Infections in Hospitalized Children. Comparison with Other Respiratory Viruses.

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    Cristina Calvo

    Full Text Available Human adenovirus (HAdV cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. However, there are few large prospective studies focused on HAdVs acute infections requiring hospitalization. From 2005 to 2013 a prospective study was conducted on children admitted with acute respiratory infections. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virological study by PCR and clinical data was recorded. HAdV specimens were genotyped. Frequency and clinical course of HAdV infections were compared with RSV, rhinovirus (RV, human bocavirus (HBoV and influenza in the same population. HAdV was detected in 403 cases of 2371 confirmed viral infections (17.2% , of which 154 were single virus infections (38%. We genotyped 154 HAdVs. The most frequent genotypes were HAdV-3 (24%, HAdV-6 (21%, and HAdV-5 (20%. A total of 262 children had fever (64.9%; 194 suffered hypoxia (48%, and 147 presented infiltrate in chest x-rays (36.4%. The most frequent diagnoses were recurrent wheezing or asthma (51.7%, bronchiolitis (18.3 %, and pneumonia (11.9%, and 46 (11.4% episodes required prolonged hospitalization (>7 days due to the severity. Adenovirus single infections were compared with single infections of 598 RSV, 494 RV, 83 influenza and 78 HBoV. Significant clinical differences were found between HAdV, RSV and RV infections.

  16. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

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    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  17. Zika virus infection.

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    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  18. Profile of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis d virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections in hemodialysis patients of a tertiary care hospital in uttarakhand.

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    Mittal, Garima; Gupta, Pratima; Thakuria, Bhaskar; Mukhiya, Gulshan K; Mittal, Manish

    2013-03-01

    Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and HIV infections in hemodialysis patients of a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand. All patients undergoing maintenance HD at our center were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HCV (anti-HCV), antibody to HDV (anti-HDV) and HIV antibody by ELISA. Detailed history regarding age, sex, duration of dialysis, blood transfusions, number of dialysis centers, dialyzer reuse and laboratory data was recorded. A total of 118 patients (79 males and 39 females) were followed for 18 months with screening for the presence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections. At baseline, 12 (10.2%) patients were positive for HBsAg, 19 (16.1%) for anti-HCV and 2 (1.7%) for HIV antibody. Over 18 months, one additional patient became HBsAg positive and an additional 17 became anti-HCV-positive to give a total of 36 HCV-positive patients. Dual HBV and HCV infection was seen in 5 (4.2%) and anti-HDV antibodies were found in 1 (0.9%) patient. History of blood transfusions, duration of HD, dialyzer reuse and dialysis at multiple centers were found to be important risk factors for anti-HCV positivity. Implementation and adherence to universal work precautions by dialysis staff is imperative to prevent transmission of these infections.

  19. Reduction in Rate of Nosocomial Respiratory Virus Infections in a Children's Hospital Associated With Enhanced Isolation Precautions.

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    Rubin, Lorry G; Kohn, Nina; Nullet, Susan; Hill, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital. INTERVENTION During years 1 and 2 (July 2012 through June 2014), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee's recommended isolation precautions for inpatients with selected respiratory virus infections were in effect. Enhanced isolation precautions were in effect during years 3 and 4 (July, 2014 through June, 2016), except for influenza, for which enhanced precautions were in effect during year 4 only. RESULTS During the period of enhanced isolation precautions, the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections with any of 4 virus categories decreased 39% from 0.827 per 1,000 hospital days prior to enhanced precautions to 0.508 per 1,000 hospital days (Pinfections, the rates decreased 58% from 0.317 per 1,000 hospital days to 0.134 per 1,000 hospital days during enhanced precautions (Pnosocomial C. difficile infection. CONCLUSIONS Enhanced isolation precautions for inpatients with respiratory virus infections were associated with a reduction in the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:152-156.

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis B virus infection involving two hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-02-01

    The routes of nosocomial hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission have changed over the years. Initiatives to prevent transfusion-associated HBV and healthcare worker-to-patient transmission have had a positive impact on these transmission routes. Recent reports of outbreaks of nosocomial HBV have implicated breaches in standard precautions as important causes of HBV transmission. This report describes a nosocomial outbreak of HBV infection in the Republic of Ireland, which occurred between January 2005 and March 2006. The outbreak was detected following identification of a case of acute HBV infection in a patient whose only risk factor was a recent surgical procedure. The extensive multi-agency investigation that followed revealed that the patient was one of five cases of acute HBV infection and that four separate transmission events between infectious cases had occurred in two different hospitals over a 15-month period. A definitive cause for each transmission event was not identified, although lapses in adherence to standard precautions, safe injection and phlebotomy practices could not be ruled out. Two secondary cases of acute HBV infection in community contacts of two of the nosocomial cases were identified. Phylogenetic analysis proved a useful tool in confirming infection with a pre-core HBV mutant and viral transmission between the seven patients. A patient notification exercise involving 1028 potentially exposed patients found no evidence of additional cases of nosocomial HBV infection. These findings highlight the importance of consistent application of standard precautions.

  1. Human metapnuemovirus infections in hospitalized children and comparison with other respiratory viruses. 2005-2014 prospective study.

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    María Luz García-García

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, rhinovirus (HRV, adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population.A prospective study performed on all children less than 14 years of age with a respiratory tract disease admitted to a secondary hospital between September 2005- June 2014. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken at admission for viral study with polymerase chain reaction for 16 respiratory viruses. A total of 3,906 children were included. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 75.2% of them. The most common identified virus was HRSV, followed by HRV. HMPV was detected in 214 cases (5.5%; 133 (62% were single infections and the remaining were detected in coinfection with other viruses. 90.7% cases were detected between February and May. Children's mean age was 13.83 ± 18 months. Fever was frequent (69%, and bronchiolitis (27%, and recurrent wheezing (63% were the main clinical diagnosis. Hypoxia was present in 65% of the patients and 47% of them had an infiltrate in X-ray. Only 6 (2.8% children were admitted to the intensive care unit. Only the duration of the hospitalization was different, being longer in the coinfections group (p <0.05. There were many differences in seasonality and clinical characteristics between HMPV and other respiratory viruses being more similar to HRSV.HMPV infections accounted for 5.5% of total viral infections in hospitalized children. The clinical characteristics were similar to HRSV infections, but seasonality and clinical data were different from other viral

  2. Right and left ventricular function in hospitalized children with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

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    Horter, Thorsten; Nakstad, Britt; Ashtari, Omid; Solevåg, Anne Lee

    2017-01-01

    Extrapulmonary manifestations including cardiac dysfunction have been demonstrated in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring intensive care. The aim of this study was to examine cardiac function in hospitalized children with moderate RSV infection admitted to a regular pediatric ward. We used echocardiography to determine cardiac output, and right and left ventricular function in 26 patients (aged 2 weeks to 24 months) with RSV infection. The echocardiographic results were compared with s-troponin, the need for supplementary oxygen or noninvasive respiratory support, and capillary refill time. The number of measured s-troponins (ten [38%] of the included children) was too low to assess differences between children with elevated levels and those with normal levels. There were no differences in cardiac function between patients receiving oxygen treatment or respiratory support and those who did not. Capillary refill time did not correlate with any of the echocardiographic parameters. Both left and right ventricular output (mL/kg/min) was higher than published reference values. All other echocardiographic parameters were within the reference range. Children with moderate RSV infection had an increased left and right ventricular output, and cardiac function was well maintained. We conclude that routine cardiac ultrasound is not warranted in children with moderate RSV infection. The role of an elevated s-troponin in these patients remains to be determined.

  3. [Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants].

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    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Lijuan; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Gaoli; Jia, Pin; Wang, Chuankai; Wang, Libo; Qian, Liling

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1st, 2011 to February 29th, 2012, were enrolled in this study. Patient information included demographic characteristics, feeding history, family status, clinical presentation, accessory examination, treatment and prognosis. According to the etiology of ALRI infants, we compared the seasonal distribution, demographic characteristics, household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients. Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection. Among 1 726 ALRI infants, there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%). The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation, with a peak in winter (59.1%). The median (P25, P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days. The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ± 0.66) kg, respectively. The male/female ratio among these was 1.9: 1. RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members, crowded living conditions, history of atopic mother. Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs. 54.2%, P infection were: GAinfection (OR = 1.351, 95%CI: 1.024-1.783; OR = 1.713, 95%CI: 1.332-2.204). Multivariate logistic regression determined the factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were: underlying CHD (OR = 1.298, 95%CI: 1.002-1.681), mother with atopic diseases (OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.237-2.520), autumn or winter infection (OR = 1.481, 95%CI: 1.105-1.985; OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.358-2.296). The prevalence of RSV infection was the highest in winter, while

  4. Unexpectedly Higher Morbidity and Mortality of Hospitalized Elderly Patients Associated with Rhinovirus Compared with Influenza Virus Respiratory Tract Infection.

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    Hung, Ivan F N; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Zhu, Shawn H S; Zhang, Ricky; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-26

    Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period. All recruited patients were followed up for at least 3 months up to 15 months. Independent risk factors associated with mortality for rhinovirus infection were identified. Between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015, a total of 1946 patients were consecutively included for analysis. Of these, 728 patients were hospitalized for rhinovirus infection and 1218 patients were hospitalized for influenza infection. Significantly more rhinovirus patients were elderly home residents and had chronic lung diseases (p respiratory tract symptoms of cough and sore throat (p infection. Rhinovirus infection in the adults was associated with significantly higher mortality and longer hospitalization when compared with influenza virus infection. Institutionalized older adults were particularly at risk. More stringent infection control among health care workers in elderly homes could lower the infection rate before an effective vaccine and antiviral become available.

  5. Nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis B virus infection involving two hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

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    Burns, K; Heslin, J; Crowley, B; Thornton, L; Laoi, B Ni; Kelly, E; Ward, E; Doody, B; Hickey, M M

    2011-08-01

    The routes of nosocomial hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission have changed over the years. Initiatives to prevent transfusion-associated HBV and healthcare worker-to-patient transmission have had a positive impact on these transmission routes. Recent reports of outbreaks of nosocomial HBV have implicated breaches in standard precautions as important causes of HBV transmission. This report describes a nosocomial outbreak of HBV infection in the Republic of Ireland, which occurred between January 2005 and March 2006. The outbreak was detected following identification of a case of acute HBV infection in a patient whose only risk factor was a recent surgical procedure. The extensive multi-agency investigation that followed revealed that the patient was one of five cases of acute HBV infection and that four separate transmission events between infectious cases had occurred in two different hospitals over a 15-month period. A definitive cause for each transmission event was not identified, although lapses in adherence to standard precautions, safe injection and phlebotomy practices could not be ruled out. Two secondary cases of acute HBV infection in community contacts of two of the nosocomial cases were identified. Phylogenetic analysis proved a useful tool in confirming infection with a pre-core HBV mutant and viral transmission between the seven patients. A patient notification exercise involving 1028 potentially exposed patients found no evidence of additional cases of nosocomial HBV infection. These findings highlight the importance of consistent application of standard precautions. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human parainfluenza virus types 1-4 in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ni-Guang; Duan, Zhao-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Zhong, Li-Li; Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Huang, Han; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). HPIV-4, a newly identified virus, has been associated with severe ALRTIs recently. A total of 771 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from hospitalized children between March 2010 and February 2011. HPIVs were detected by Nest-PCR, and other known respiratory viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR. All amplification products were sequenced. HPIVs were detected in 151 (19.58%) patients, of whom 28 (3.63%) were positive for HPIV-4, 12(1.55%) for HPIV-1, 4 (0.51%) for HPIV-2, and 107 (13.87%) for HPIV-3. Only three were found to be co-infected with different types of HPIVs. All HPIV-positive children were under 5 years of age, with the majority being less than 1 year. Only the detection rate of HPIV-3 had a significant statistical difference (χ 2  = 29.648, P = 0.000) between ages. HPIV-3 and HPIV-4 were detected during the summer. Sixty (39.74%) were co-infected with other respiratory viruses, and human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common co-infecting virus. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia, and all patients had cough; some patients who were infected with HPIV-3 and HPIV-4 had polypnea and cyanosis. No significant difference was found in clinical manifestations between those who were infected with HPIV-4 and HPIV-3. Two genotypes for HPIV-4 were prevalent, although HPIV-4a dominated. HPIV-4 is an important virus for children hospitalized with ALRTIs in China. HRV was the most common co-infecting virus. Two genotypes for HPIV-4 are prevalent, HPIV-4a dominated. J. Med. Virol. 88:2085-2091, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Unexpectedly Higher Morbidity and Mortality of Hospitalized Elderly Patients Associated with Rhinovirus Compared with Influenza Virus Respiratory Tract Infection

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    Ivan F. N. Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period. All recruited patients were followed up for at least 3 months up to 15 months. Independent risk factors associated with mortality for rhinovirus infection were identified. Between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015, a total of 1946 patients were consecutively included for analysis. Of these, 728 patients were hospitalized for rhinovirus infection and 1218 patients were hospitalized for influenza infection. Significantly more rhinovirus patients were elderly home residents and had chronic lung diseases (p < 0.001, whereas more influenza patients had previous stroke (p = 0.02; otherwise, there were no differences in the Charlson comorbidity indexes between the two groups. More patients in the rhinovirus group developed pneumonia complications (p = 0.03, required oxygen therapy, and had a longer hospitalization period (p < 0.001, whereas more patients in the influenza virus group presented with fever (p < 0.001 and upper respiratory tract symptoms of cough and sore throat (p < 0.001, and developed cardiovascular complications (p < 0.001. The 30-day (p < 0.05, 90-day (p < 0.01, and 1-year (p < 0.01 mortality rate was significantly higher in the rhinovirus group than the influenza virus group. Intensive care unit admission (odds ratio (OR: 9.56; 95% confidence interval (C.I. 2.17–42.18, elderly home residents (OR: 2.60; 95% C.I. 1.56–4.33, requirement of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (OR: 2.62; 95% C.I. 1.62–4.24, and hemoglobin

  8. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Walaza, Sibongile; Haffejee, Sumayya; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-15

    There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Children aged infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

  9. Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study

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    Afessa Bekele

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective observational study was done to describe nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate. Results Patient age (mean ± SD was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/μL. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85 in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51 in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40 in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11 in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10 in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10 in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3 in 3, fungus ball (2 in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1, herpes simplex virus (1, Histoplasma capsulatum (1, lymphoma (3 in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2 in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1. The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications. Conclusion Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.

  10. Elevated Serum Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Severe Dengue Virus Infection at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali - Indonesia

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    Dewi Dian Sukmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus - infected dendritic cells along with cytokines overproduction trigger endothelial barrier dysfunction and plasma leakage through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 over production. The event is responsible for more severe dengue virus infection’s manifestation. The study objective is to measure the association of MMP-9 serum level with disease severity of dengue virus infection. Prospective study of 70 participants hospitalized in Internal Medicine ward of Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during 1 July 2011 – 31 December 2011 and diagnosed as dengue virus infection were followed during their hospital stay. Baseline demographic were obtained on admission, serum level of MMP-9 was measured once at third – fifth day from fever onset. Independent-samples t test was used to compare the MMP 9 levels among diagnosis groups and exploration of variables were using logistic regression analysis.  There was significant higher level of MMP-9 serum level on DHF (median [range] compared to DF (367.78 ng/mL [81.16 – 797.79] vs. 128.67 ng/mL [41.79 – 327.32]; p < 0.0001. After adjusted with baseline hematocrit, for every 10 ng/mL elevation of MMP-9 serum contributes to 1.159 increased risk of DHF with optimal threshold MMP-9 level is 330 ng/mL (100 % sensitivity, 64% specificity.MMP-9 level is associated with dengue severity. The measurement was able to predict the DHF among those infected with dengue virus infection. This may lead to a novel marker of dengue hemorrhagic fever predictor.

  11. Virus Infection

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    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  12. Clinical characteristics and outcome of respiratory syncytial virus infection among adults hospitalized with influenza-like illness in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, P; Lenzi, N; Valette, M; Foulongne, V; Krivine, A; Houhou, N; Lagathu, G; Rogez, S; Alain, S; Duval, X; Galtier, F; Postil, D; Tattevin, P; Vanhems, P; Carrat, F; Lina, B; Launay, O

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse characteristics and outcome of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in adults hospitalized with influenza-like illness (ILI). Patients hospitalized with ILI were included in this prospective, multicentre study carried out in six French hospitals during three consecutive influenza seasons (2012-2015). RSV and other respiratory viruses were detected by multiplex PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. Risk factors for RSV infection were identified by backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. A total of 1452 patients hospitalized with ILI were included, of whom 59% (861/1452) were >65 years and 83% (1211/1452) had underlying chronic illnesses. RSV was detected in 4% (59/1452), and influenza virus in 39% (566/1452). Risk factors for RSV infection were cancer (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1, p 0.04), and immunosuppressive treatment (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8, p 0.03). Patients with RSV had a median length of stay of 9 days (6-25), and 57% of them (30/53) had complications, including pneumonia (23/53, 44%) and respiratory failure (15/53, 28%). Fifteen per cent (8/53) were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 8% (4/53). Pneumonia was more likely to occur in patients with RSV than in patients with RSV-negative ILI (44% (23/53) versus 26% (362/1393), p 0.006) or with influenza virus infection (44% versus 28% (157/560), p 0.02). RSV is an infrequent cause of ILI during periods of influenza virus circulation but can cause severe complications in hospitalized adults. Risk factors for RSV detection in adults hospitalized with ILI include cancer and immunosuppressive treatment. Specific immunization and antiviral therapy might benefit patients at risk. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health care professionals at risk of infection with Borna disease virus - evidence from a large hospital in China (Chongqing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Bode, Liv; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Siwen; Zhang, Lujun; Huang, Rongzhong; Wang, Mingju; Yang, Liu; Chen, Shigang; Li, Qi; Zhu, Dan; Ludwig, Hanns; Xie, Peng

    2015-03-12

    Human Borna disease virus (BDV) infections have recently been reported in China. BDV causes cognitive and behavioural disturbances in animals. The impact on human mental disorders is subject to debate, but previous studies worldwide have found neuropsychiatric patients more frequently infected than healthy controls. A few isolates were recovered from severely depressed patients, but contagiousness of BDV strain remains unknown. We addressed the risk of infection in health care settings at the first affiliated hospital of Chongqing Medical University (CQMU), located in downtown Chongqing, a megacity in Southwest China. Between February 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled 1529 participants, of whom 534 were outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 615 were hospital personnel, and 380 were healthy controls who underwent a health check. Infection was determined through BDV-specific circulating immune complexes (CIC), RNA, and selective antibodies (blood). One-fifth of the hospital staff (21.8%) were found to be infected (CIC positive), with the highest prevalence among psychiatry and oncology personnel, which is twice as many as were detected in the healthy control group (11.1%), and exceeds the prevalence detected in MDD patients (18.2%). BDV circulates unnoticed in hospital settings in China, putting medical staff at risk and warranting clarification of infection modes and introduction of prevention measures.

  14. The burden of hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in rural Thailand.

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    Alicia M Fry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the epidemiology of hospitalized RSV infections for all age groups from population-based surveillance in two rural provinces in Thailand. METHODS: From September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007, we enrolled hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness, who had a chest radiograph ordered by the physician, from all hospitals in SaKaeo and Nakhom Phanom Provinces. We tested nasopharyngeal specimens for RSV with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and paired-sera from a subset of patients with IgG enzyme immunoassay. Rates were adjusted for enrollment. RESULTS: Among 11,097 enrolled patients, 987 (8.9% had RSV infection. Rates of hospitalized RSV infection overall (and radiographically-confirmed pneumonia were highest among children aged<1 year: 1,067/100,000 (534/100,000 radiographically-confirmed pneumonia and 1-4 year: 403/100,000 (222/100,000, but low among enrolled adults aged≥65 years: 42/100,000. Age<1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=13.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7, 22.5 and 1-4 year (aOR=8.3, 95% CI 5.0, 13.9 were independent predictors of hospitalized RSV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hospitalized RSV lower respiratory tract illness among children<5 years was high in rural Thailand. Efforts to prevent RSV infection could substantially reduce the pneumonia burden in children aged<5 years.

  15. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings in Danish children hospitalized with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Sofie Kathrine; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a common disease in adolescents. However, IM is often considered a rare disease in early childhood. We aimed to describe the classical presentation of adolescent EBV-associated IM compared to EBV infection at younger age...

  16. Outcome of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus related acute lower respiratory tract infection among hospitalized newborns: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Akduman, Hasan; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Tunc, Turan; Gokmen, Zeynel; Ates, Can; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) including morbidity, nosocomial infection and mortality among newborn infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in newborns who were hospitalized with community acquired or nosocomial RSV infection in 44 NICUs throughout Turkey. Newborns with ALRI were screened for RSV infection by Respi-Strip®-test. Main outcome measures were the incidence of RSV-associated admissions in the NICUs and morbidity, mortality and epidemics results related to these admissions. The incidence of RSV infection was 1.24% (n: 250) and RSV infection constituted 19.6% of all ALRI hospitalizations, 226 newborns (90.4%) had community-acquired whereas 24 (9.6%) patients had nosocomial RSV infection in the NICUs. Of the 250 newborns, 171 (68.4%) were full-term infants, 183 (73.2%) had a BW >2500 g. RSV-related mortality rate was 1.2%. Four NICUs reported seven outbreaks on different months, which could be eliminated by palivizumab prophylaxis in one NICU. RSV-associated ALRI both in preterm and term infants accounts an important percent of hospitalizations in the season, and may threat other high-risk patients in the NICU.

  17. [Infection control in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeyuki

    2010-01-01

    Infection control committee as the central decision-making and infection control team (ICT) for carrying out all aspects of infection control are important for hospital infection control. Standard precautions are used for all patients and apply to all body fluids except for sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. Transmission-based precautions involve airborne, droplet, contact vector-borne and common vehicle precautions. Airborne precautions are for tuberculosis, varicella and measles. Small particles (precautions are for influenza, rubella, pertussis, and so on. Transmission via large droplet (transmissions are for blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C virus and HIV, bacterial infections via percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure, and so on. Vaccinations for measles, rubella, varicella, mumps, influenza and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers are important. Influenza virus is mainly transmitted via droplet and contact, but also via airborne transmission in the aerosol-generating procedures such as intubation and suctioning. WHO declared a public health emergency in April 2009. A novel influenza has spread rapidly across the globe, and it will be necessary to prepare for the outbreak in this autumn and winter.

  18. Association of clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and virus serotypes with the presence of meningitis in hospitalized infants with enterovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Jenista, J A; Menegus, M A

    1988-12-01

    One hundred eight hospitalized infants with enteroviral infections were studied to determine the association of clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and virus serotypes with the presence of meningitis. Of 108 infants, 55 (51%) had meningitis. Clinical manifestations on admission did not distinguish between infants with and those without meningitis. Echoviruses 30 and 11 and coxsackie virus B were frequently associated with meningitis (34/38; 90%) whereas echoviruses 18, 24, and 25 were not (5/35; 4%). The virus isolation rate was directly proportional to the number of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid: 5 of 58 (9%) when up to 9 cells/mm3 were found, 10 of 21 (48%) when 10 to 99/mm3 cells were found, and 25 of 29 (86%) when greater than equal to 100 cells/mm3 were found. Meningitis is often unsuspected in children hospitalized with enterovirus infection. The frequency of meningitis among hospitalized infants is serotype dependent and is most frequently, but not exclusively, found with pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid.

  19. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infection as a cause of hospitalization: a case-series in a General Hospital in Peru

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    Germán Valenzuela-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection has become a major clinical concern in recent years. In the current report we assess hospitalizations due to cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus patients in a Social Security reference hospital in Peru.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out between January 1996 and December 2012 in a General Hospital in Lima, Peru.Results: We included 26 patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular disease. Mean age was 46.3 years (SD 12.5, predominantly male (57.7%. Ten patients (38.4% were in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome stages. Seventeen (65.4% received high-active-antiretroviral therapy. Eleven (42.3% had cardiac involvement and 15 (57.7% had non-cardiac vascular involvement. The most frequent causes of cardiac involvement were pericardial effusion and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, deep vein thrombosis and stroke were the most frequent for non-cardiac vascular involvement.Conclusions: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of hospitalization in Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus patients, with differences between immunosuppression stages. Further studies analyzing associated factors are warranted.

  20. Comparison of the prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infections at different hospital settings in North China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Xie, Zhengde; Zhang, Tiegang; Lu, Yanqin; Fan, Hongwei; Yang, Donghong; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe; Shen, Kunling; Huang, Fang; Han, Jinxiang; Li, Taisheng; Gao, Zhancheng; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei

    2018-02-08

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays. The prevalence of respiratory viruses was determined and compared between patients at different hospital settings. A total of 3487 hospitalized cases and 6437 outpatients/Emergency Department (ED) patients were enrolled. The most commonly detected viruses in the hospitalized cases were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 33.3%) in children less than two years old, adenoviruses (13.0%) in patients 15-34 years old, and influenza viruses (IFVs, 9.6%) in patients ≥65 years. IFVs were the most common virus in outpatient/ED patients across all age groups (22.7%). After controlling for the confounders caused by other viruses and covariates, adenoviruses (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 99% confidence interval [99% CI]: 2.19-7.20) and RSV (aOR: 2.04, 99% CI: 1.34-3.11) were independently associated with increased hospitalization in children, as well as adenoviruses in adults (aOR: 2.14, 99% CI: 1.19-3.85). Additionally, co-infection of RSV with IFVs was associated with increased hospitalization in children (aOR: 12.20, 99% CI: 2.65-56.18). A substantial proportion of ARIs was associated with respiratory viruses in North China. RSV, adenoviruses, and co-infection of RSV and IFVs were more frequent in hospitalized children (or adenoviruses in adults), which might predict the severity of ARIs. Attending clinicians should be more vigilant of these infections.

  1. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    .6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  2. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo Yugbaré, S O; Ouédraogo, R; Nenebi, A; Traoré, B; Congo, L; Yonli, F; Kima, D; Bonané, P; Yé, D; Plantier, J-C; Vabret, A; Marguet, C; Gueudin, M

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are little known in Burkina Faso. The objective of our work is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of RSV infections in infants in the Pediatric Teaching Hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou. Between July 1(st) 2010 and June 30(th) 2011, we analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR nasopharyngeal swabs from children from 0 to 36 months old. All in all, 210 patients among whom 74 from the external consultation (35.2%) and 136 hospitalized (64.7%) benefited from a nasopharyngeal aspiration. The motives for consultation were cough (91.7%), rhinitis (79.2%), fever (79.2%) and respiratory distress syndrome (66.7%). The evoked diagnoses were predominantly the acute bronchiolitis in 14 cases (58.3%) followed by the acute pulmonary disease in 7 patients (26.2%) then flue in 1 patient (16.7%). We detected by direct immunofluorescence the antigens of the respiratory viruses in 21 nasopharyngeal aspirations with 10 cases of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (47.6%). The PCR realized on 208 samples allowed to identify 153 positive samples (73.2%) with 24 RSV, i.e. a global prevalence of 16.1% with a peak of 18 cases (75%). In October, all the patients benefited from an often multiple antibiotic treatment of at least 10 days which was not still necessary. The evolution was favorable for all patients. This study confirms the important place of the viruses which are detected in 70% of the cases. The PCR multiplex, certainly expensive but effective and successful, deserves to be used in our developing countries to avoid the irrational prescription of antibiotic.

  3. Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection during pregnancy at Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gamal K; Ahmed, Mohammed Ahmed A; Ali, AbdelAziem A

    2016-10-01

    This was a prospective study conducted on all pregnant and parturient women attending Gadarif Maternity Hospital, Sudan from January 2009 to December 2013 to investigate the maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes and estimate of maternal to child transmission of HIV among HIV infected women. During the study period, there were 26 HIV positive mothers among 6420 tested women yielding an incidence rate of 0.4%. The majority of these 26 infected women were of urban residence (69.2%), presented with normal CD4+ T cell count; ? 350\\cu. mm3 (96.2%), had less than secondary education (57.7%) and housewives (84.6%). The mean age (SD) was significantly varied between the sero-positive and sero-negative women, 25.9 (5.7) vs. 36.1 (5.7), p = HIV infected until the age of 96 weeks. It is thus HIV infected women in eastern Sudan were young and likely desire more children.

  4. [Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized children at a children's hospital and effects of climate change on the prevalence in Suzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jia; Guo, Wan-Liang; Zhang, Xue-Lan

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized children and the relationship between the prevalence and the climate change in Suzhou, China. A total of 42 664 nasopharyngeal secretions from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection at the Suzhou Children's Hospital were screened for RSV antigens using direct immunofluorescence. Monthly meteorological data (mean monthly air temperature, monthly relative humidity, monthly rainfall, total monthly sunshine duration, and mean monthly wind velocity) in Suzhou between 2001 and 2011 were collected. The correlations between RSV detection rate and climatic factors were evaluated using correlation and stepwise regression analysis. The annual RSV infection rate in hospitalized children with respiratory infection in the Suzhou Children's Hospital varied between 11.85% and 27.30% from 2001 to 2011. In the 9 epidemic seasons, each spanning from November to April of the next year, from 2001 to 2010, the RSV detection rates were 40.75%, 22.72%, 39.93%, 27.37%, 42.71%, 21.28%, 38.57%, 19.86%, and 29.73%, respectively; there were significant differences in the detection rate between the epidemic seasons. The monthly RSV detection rate was negatively correlated with mean monthly air temperature, total monthly sunshine duration, monthly rainfall, monthly relative humidity, and mean monthly wind velocity (Pinfection in Suzhou was predominantly prevalent between November and April of the next year. As a whole, the infection rate of RSV reached a peak every other year. Air temperature played an important role in the epidemics of RSV infection in Suzhou.

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus subtype ON1/NA1/BA9 predominates in hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruyan; Fan, Chuping; Zhang, Jian; Wen, Bo; Lei, Yefei; Liu, Chan; Chen, Lijuan; Liu, Wenpei; Wang, Chuan; Qu, Xiaowang

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in children less than 5 years old. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular properties and clinical characteristics of RSV infection. The study sample included 238 patients respiratory tract infection (URTI or LRTI) in the Pediatric Department at the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, South China in 2014. We subjected nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) or nasal swab (NS) samples from the patients to indirect fluorescence assay screens. RSV G genes were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequenced. Of the 238 patients screened, 64 (26.8%) were confirmed to have RSV infections. Of those 64 confirmed RSV infection cases, 39 (60.9%) had subtype BA9, 13 (20.3%) had the recently identified subtype ON1, 11 (17.2%) had subtype NA1, and 1 (1.6%) had subtype GB2. The predominant presentation was LRTI with coughing, sputum production, fever, and wheezing. RSV subtype NA1 and BA9 infections were found mostly in infants, whereas the age distribution of subtype ON1 infections was more uniform across the age bands. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, compared with the prototype strain A2, all ON1 and most NA1 isolates had lost one potential N-glycosylation site at amino acid 251 and 249 due to T251K and N249Y substitution, respectively. These findings suggest that NA1, BA9, and ON1 are the dominant RSV subtypes causing respiratory tract infections in young children presenting to the hospital in South China. J. Med. Virol. 89:213-221, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 and influenza B virus co-infection in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients during the 2015-2016 epidemic season in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Rakefet; Drori, Yaron; Friedman, Nehemya; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Sefty, Hanna; Shohat, Tamar; Mendelson, Ella; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Influenza A and B viruses co-infections are rare events and mainly occurred in immunocompromised patients. In this study we report an unusually high occurrence of influenza A (H1N1)pdm 2009 and influenza B virus co-infections during the epidemic year 2015-2016. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 1919 patients visiting 26 outpatient clinics distributed throughout Israel and presenting with influenza-like illness. In addition, hospitalized patient tested for influenza viruses were also included in the study. Patients samples collected between October 2015 and April 2016 were tested for the presence of influenza viruses by real-time PCR. Of the 1919 patient samples tested, 11 (0.6%) were co-infected with both influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 and influenza B/Victoria viruses. Similar observation was noted in four hospitalized patients during the same period. Patients at ages 1-72 years, and their clinical symptoms were similar to that of patients infected with either influenza A or B viruses. Of all patients, only one hospitalized patient was immunocompromised. Co-infection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 and influenza B viruses is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. This co-infection can occur not only in immunocompromised individuals, but also in immunocompetent patients. Although co-infection appears to be a rare event, it may still play a role in the epidemiology, pathogenicity and evolution of influenza viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000449.htm Staph infections - hospital To use the sharing features on ... can also spread from one person to another. Staph Infections in the Hospital Staph germs are mostly ...

  8. Genomic Loads and Genotypes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Viral Factors during Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Chilean Hospitalized Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Yazmín; San Martín, Camila; Torres, Alejandro A; Farfán, Mauricio J; Torres, Juan P; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Piedra, Pedro A; Tapia, Lorena I

    2017-03-21

    The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity. A total of 86 patients were included: 49 moderate and 37 severe cases. During 2013, RSV-A was dominant (86%). RSV-B predominated in 2014 (92%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed circulation of GA2, Buenos Aires (BA), and Ontario (ON) genotypes. No association was observed between severity of infection and RSV group (p = 0.69) or genotype (p = 0.87). After a clinical categorization of duration of illness, higher RSV genomic loads were detected in infants evaluated earlier in their disease (p < 0.001) and also in infants evaluated later, but coursing a more severe infection (p = 0.04). Although types and genotypes did not associate with severity in our children, higher RSV genomic loads and delayed viral clearance in severe patients define a group that might benefit from new antiviral therapies.

  9. Detection of influenza C viruses among outpatients and patients hospitalized for severe acute respiratory infection, Minnesota, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Beth K; Friedlander, Hannah; Bistodeau, Sarah; Shu, Bo; Lynch, Brian; Martin, Karen; Bye, Erica; Como-Sabetti, Kathyrn; Boxrud, David; Strain, Anna K; Chaves, Sandra S; Steffens, Andrea; Fowlkes, Ashley L; Lindstrom, Stephen; Lynfield, Ruth

    2017-10-23

    Existing literature suggests that influenza C typically causes mild respiratory tract disease. However, clinical and epidemiological data are limited. Four outpatient clinics and three hospitals submitted clinical data and respiratory specimens through a surveillance network for acute respiratory infection (ARI) during May 2013 through December 2016. Specimens were tested using multi-target nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for 19-22 respiratory pathogens, including influenza C. Influenza C virus was detected among 59 of 10,202 (0.58%) hospitalized SARI cases and 11 of 2,282 (0.48%) outpatients. Most detections occurred from December to March, with 73% during the 2014-2015 season. Influenza C detections occurred among patients of all ages, with similar rates between inpatients and outpatients. The highest rate of detection occurred among children aged 6 to 24 months (1.2%). Among hospitalized cases, seven required intensive care. Medical co-morbidities were reported in 58% of hospitalized cases and all who required intensive care. At least one other respiratory pathogen was detected in 40 (66%) cases, most commonly rhinovirus/enterovirus (25%) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (20%). The hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) gene was sequenced in 37 specimens, and both C/Kanagawa and C/Sao Paulo lineages were detected in inpatients and outpatients. We found seasonal circulation of influenza C with year-to-year variability. Detection was most frequent among young children, but occurred in all ages. Some cases positive for influenza C, particularly those with co-morbid conditions, had severe disease, suggesting a need for further study of the role of influenza C virus in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease.

  10. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  11. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  12. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  13. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlleron Helen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68, respectively, admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression. Results The children received a mean rifampin dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58 body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8 at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.25 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children, respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.59 after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8

  14. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infection as a cause of hospitalization: a case-series in a General Hospital in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Valenzuela-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of hospitalization in Peruvian human immunodeficiency virus patients, with differences between immunosuppression stages. Further studies analyzing associated factors are warranted.

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children under one year of age hospitalized for acute respiratory diseases in Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Silvia Elaine Cardozo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory diseases (ARDs are a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The present case-controlled study investigated the hospitalizations by ARDs in children under one year of age and the association with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV in za Pelotas, RS. METHODS: All children under one year of age hospitalized due to ARDs from August 1997 to July of 1998 were followed-up in the four hospitals of the city. A standardized questionnaire was applied to the children's mother regarding symptoms of the actual illness in addition to social and demographic variables, nutrition, and previous morbidity. The final diagnosis of ARDs was performed by an arbiter (a pediatrician based on the hospital records of the children and the data on the questionnaire. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected for RSV detection by direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The study included 650 children and the annual incidence rate of hospital admissions for ARDs was 13.9%. Admissions showed a seasonal pattern with most of the hospitalizations occurring from July to October. The main causes of admission were: pneumonia (43.7%, bronchiolitis (31.0%, asthma (20.3%, influenza (3.5%, otitis media (0.8% and laryngitis (0.6%. The overall prevalence of RSV was 30.7%, with 40.2% in bronchiolitis, 28.6% in influenza, 27.4% in asthma, 26.3% in pneumonia, and 25% in otitis media. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study confirm the high morbidity of ARDs in childhood and the seasonal pattern of ARDs hospitalizations and their association with RSV infection.

  16. [Lower respiratory tract infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses in hospitalized elderly patients during the 2005-2006 winter season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Nicole; Dekimeche, Siham; Cantet, Cyrille; Marquand, Dominique; Szekely, Carol; Lebon, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    To assess the proportion of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) attributable to influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during the 2005-2006 winter period, among hospitalized elderly in a geriatric unit of a French hospital near Paris and and describe the characteristics of these infections. In a geriatric unit with 115 beds, distributed as 14 in acute care (ACF), 21 in rehabilitation and intermediate-care (RICF) and 80 in long-term-care-facilities (LTCF), all patients over age 65 with LRTI were enrolled during a winter. Clinical and biological parameters were recorded including paired serology for influenza virus and RSV. 54 LRTI concerned 47 patients were recorded. 50 paired serums were analysed. Influenza virus or RSV were found in 17 cases (34%). The distribution of the cases was as follows: Influenza A in 5 cases, Influenza B in 3 cases, a co-infection with influenza A and B in 4 cases, RSV in 3 cases and co-infections with influenza and RSV in 2 cases (influenza A and RSV in one case and influenza A and B and RSV in the other case). 7 cases concerned patients in ACF, in 3 cases patients were in RICF and in 7 cases patients were in LTCF. 15 cases were nosocomial infections. 11 patients infected by influenza virus were vaccined. It was concluded as bronchitis in 8 cases, interstitial pneumonia in 6 cases and alveolar pneumonia in 3 cases. Antibiotics were prescribed in 11 cases. In one case the evolution was unfavourable with death. Patients with influenza or RSV infections had significantly more rales and rhonchi compared with patients non infected by these virus (pelderly during the winter months, influenza infections can occurring among vaccinated elderly. It seems necessary to achieve further clinical studies about LRTI in elderly and to study the impact of rapid diagnostic tests to improve the management of these infections.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus Infections and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Deder Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umare, Abdi; Seyoum, Berhanu; Gobena, Tesfaye; Haile Mariyam, Tamirat

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be 6.9%. Interestingly, the history of abortion (AOR 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-53.9), nose piercing (AOR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.34-61.79), surgical procedure (AOR 12.8; 95% CI: 1.68-97.06) and history of multiple sexual partners (AOR 16.8; 95% CI: 3.18-89.06) were significant predictors of HBV infection. This study determined that the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was 6.9%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. It is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection and vaccination status among health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a global public health challenge. Health care workers (HCWs have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of HBV infection and vaccination compliance among HCWs in a tertiary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from a stratified survey conducted in a tertiary care hospital Chittagong, Bangladesh among HCWs in the year 2012. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per HCWs category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors. With 10 ml collected venous blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA techniques were used to test sera for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs, and total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc. Descriptive models were used for analysis with the software SPSS-20. Results: Among the 113 participants, the overall seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc was 8%, 30.1%, and 48.7%, respectively. Fifty-four (47% subjects were vaccinated. A significantly higher prevalence of vaccination compliance rates was observed among doctors (100% and nurses (44.4% than technicians (45% and assistants (47.8%. Among the 113 subjects, 2 (22.8% doctors were anti-HBc-positive though all of them were vaccinated and 19 (52.8% nurses, 7 (17.5% technicians, and 6 (30.0% assistants were anti-HBc-positive. Among all the participants, 30.7% HCWs were susceptible to infection of HBV and could potentially be protected through vaccination. Conclusions: A significant numbers of HCWs are unvaccinated even at health care center of tertiary care level suggesting a need for early implementation of HBV vaccination program.

  19. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namale Alice

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a global public health challenge. Prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection in the general population in Uganda is about 10%. Health care workers (HCW have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace and yet they are not routinely vaccinated against HBV infection. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated risk factors among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Methods Data were obtained from a cross sectional survey conducted in Mulago, a national referral and teaching hospital in Uganda among health care workers in 2003. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per health care worker category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HBsAg, anti-HBs and total anti-HBc. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results Among the 370 participants, the sero-prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection was 8.1%; while prevalence of life time exposure to hepatitis B virus infection was 48.1%. Prevalence of needle stick injuries and exposure to mucous membranes was 67.8% and 41.0% respectively. Cuts were also common with 31.7% of doctors reporting a cut in a period of one year preceding the survey. Consistent use of gloves was reported by 55.4% of respondents. The laboratory technicians (18.0% of respondents were the least likely to consistently use gloves. Only 6.2% of respondents were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection and 48.9% were susceptible and could potentially be protected through vaccination. Longer duration in service was associated with a lower risk of current infection (OR = 0.13; p value = 0.048. Being a nursing assistant (OR = 17.78; p value = 0.007 or a laboratory technician (OR = 12.23; p value = 0.009 were associated with a higher risk of current

  20. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Bwogi, Josephine; Namale, Alice; Wainaina, Caroline W; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2010-06-29

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge. Prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection in the general population in Uganda is about 10%. Health care workers (HCW) have an extra risk of getting infected from their workplace and yet they are not routinely vaccinated against HBV infection. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated risk factors among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Uganda. Data were obtained from a cross sectional survey conducted in Mulago, a national referral and teaching hospital in Uganda among health care workers in 2003. A proportionate to size random sample was drawn per health care worker category. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors. ELISA was used to test sera for HBsAg, anti-HBs and total anti-HBc. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used for analysis. Among the 370 participants, the sero-prevalence of current hepatitis B virus infection was 8.1%; while prevalence of life time exposure to hepatitis B virus infection was 48.1%. Prevalence of needle stick injuries and exposure to mucous membranes was 67.8% and 41.0% respectively. Cuts were also common with 31.7% of doctors reporting a cut in a period of one year preceding the survey. Consistent use of gloves was reported by 55.4% of respondents. The laboratory technicians (18.0% of respondents) were the least likely to consistently use gloves. Only 6.2% of respondents were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection and 48.9% were susceptible and could potentially be protected through vaccination. Longer duration in service was associated with a lower risk of current infection (OR = 0.13; p value = 0.048). Being a nursing assistant (OR = 17.78; p value = 0.007) or a laboratory technician (OR = 12.23; p value = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of current hepatitis B virus infection. Laboratory technicians (OR

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk factors in health-care workers at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okasha, O; Munier, A; Delarocque-Astagneau, E; El Houssinie, M; Rafik, M; Bassim, H; Hamid, M Abdel; Mohamed, M K; Fontanet, A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the background prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among HCWs in Ain Shams University Hospitals in Cairo and analyse the risk factors for HCV infection...

  2. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Eastern China between 2009 and 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dawei; Feng, Luzhao; Chen, Yu; Lai, Shengjie; Zhang, Zike; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Shufa; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in children aged acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs). However, few studies regarding the epidemiology of hospitalizations for RSV infection have been performed previously in China. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed RSV infection in eastern China. Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients using a broad case definition based on symptoms was performed from 2009-2013 in 12 sentinel hospitals in eastern China. Clinical and epidemiologic data pertaining to hospitalized patients of all ages with laboratory-confirmed RSV infection by PCR assay were collected and analyzed in this study. From 2009 to 2013, 1046 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed RSV infection were enrolled in this study, and 14.7% of patients had subtype A, 24.2% of patients had subtype B, 23.8% of patients with subtype not performed, and 37.3% of patients had RSV coinfections with other viruses. RSV and influenza coinfections (33.3%) were the most common coinfections noted in this study. Moreover, young children aged infections. In contrast, older adults aged ≥60 years (1.1%, 12/1046) represented the lowest proportion of patients with RSV infections among enrolled patients. The peak RSV infection period occurred mainly during autumn and winter, and 57% and 66% of patients exhibited symptoms such as fever (body temperature ≥38°C) and cough separately. Additionally, only a small number of patients were treated with broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, and most of patients were treated with antimicrobial drugs that were not appropriate for RSV infection. RSV is a leading viral pathogen and a common cause of viral infection in young children aged <5 years with ALRIs in eastern China. Effective vaccines and antiviral agents targeting RSV are needed to mitigate its large public health impact.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis D virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection attending the three main tertiary hospitals in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouki, Abdel-Naser; Bashir, Saleh M; Elahmer, Omar; Elzouki, Islam; Alkhattali, Fathi

    2017-12-11

    Globally, More than 350 million individuals are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and >20 million of them are co-infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of HDV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B in three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. This cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 162 patients with chronic hepatitis B positive for more than six months) who were followed up at hepatitis clinics of the three main tertiary hospitals in Tripoli city (88 patients from Tripoli Medical Centre and Tripoli Central Hospital) and Benghazi city (74 patients from Aljomhoria Hospital) during the period from January 2010 to June 2012. HBV and HDV markers were detected by enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and HBV-DNA was quantified by real-time PCR techniques. The mean age of patients was 36,92 ± 15,35. One hundred and three (63.6%) of them were males and 59 (36,4%) were females. Four patients (2,5%) were tested positive for anti-HD antibodies, all of them have had clinical and/or histological diagnosis of cirrhosis. In multivariable regression analysis, age (p = .04), elevation of serum ALT (p = .03), elevation of serum AST (p = .04), and presence of cirrhosis (p = .003) were significantly related to HDV seropositivity. Although the study demonstrated that Libya has low to moderate prevalence of HDV (2,5%), it is important for policy makers and health care providers to continue the preventive measures for HDV spread, and HBV prevention program including utilization of HBV vaccine. Furthermore, it is imperative to screen chronic HBV patients for HDV for close observation for early diagnosis of subsequent development of liver cirrhosis. Moreover, further epidemiologic and genetic studies are needed to explore the trend for HDV infection in Libya. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology

  4. Sociodemographic Factors and Clinical Conditions Associated to Hospitalization in Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infected Patients in Spain, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Sáez, Marc; Soldevila, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Domínguez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1) virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27), hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71), chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16) and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds) were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88) and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43). The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08) or for three or more (OR 4.86) risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population. PMID:22412995

  5. Sociodemographic factors and clinical conditions associated to hospitalization in influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infected patients in Spain, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González-Candelas

    Full Text Available The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1 virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27, hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71, chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16 and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88 and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43. The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08 or for three or more (OR 4.86 risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population.

  6. Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernike, K.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Beer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects

  7. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  8. Viruses are frequently present as the infecting agent in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients presenting to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, E; Fennell, M; Rawlinson, W; Thomas, P S

    2016-10-01

    Viral causes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are well recognised but only recently have rapid tests become available. To identify respiratory viruses in the general population and those associated with hospitalisation in AECOPD using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), and the relationship between symptoms, viral detection and inflammatory markers. A review of viruses detected in the general population in a health district between August 2014 and July 2015, using multiplex PCR for viruses from NPA samples. In addition, a single hospital, retrospective audit of patients admitted with suspected AECOPD was conducted. Of the 8811 NPA tested, 5599 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and 2069 of these were obtained from adults. In adults, the most common viruses identified were Influenza A (31%), Rhinovirus (27%) and respiratory syncytial virus A/B (10%). Most patients with AECOPD (102 of 153) had NPA sent for viral PCR testing and 59 (58%) were positive. The most common viruses identified were Influenza A (31%), Rhinovirus (24%) and respiratory syncytial virus A/B (17%) with co-infecting bacteria cultured in 22 sputum samples. Patients with influenza-like symptoms were more likely to have a positive viral PCR than those without symptoms (P < 0.004). The median C-reactive protein on admission was lower in the virus-infected than uninfected AECOPD (28 vs 60 mg/L, P < 0.026). The spectrum of viruses detected in patients with AECOPD is similar to that of the general population. Viruses are more likely to be identified in patients with AECOPD who present with influenza-like symptoms and a low C-reactive protein. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

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    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  11. Characterization of hospital and community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus in children with severe lower respiratory tract infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Tran Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hai, Nguyen thi Thanh; Tinh, Le Binh Bao; Kim, Le thi Ngoc; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Chinh B'Krong, Nguyen thi Thuy; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy; Thuong, Tang Chi; de Jong, Menno D; Schultsz, Constance; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-05-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial pathogen in developed countries but data regarding the importance of RSV in developing countries are relatively scarce. During a 1-year surveillance study in 2010, we took serial samples from children admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Respiratory Ward of Children's Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. RSV was detected within 72 hours of admission to the ward in 26% (376/1439; RSV A: n = 320; RSV B: n = 54; and RSV A and B: n = 2). Among those negative in the first 72 hours after admission, 6.6% (25/377) acquired nosocomial RSV infection during hospitalization (RSV A: n = 22; and RSV B: n = 3). Children with nosocomial RSV infection were younger (P = 0.001) and had a longer duration of hospitalization (P infection was significantly higher than among those without (P respiratory infection leading to hospitalization in young children and as a nosocomial pathogen, data from this study extend our knowledge on the genetic diversity of RSV circulating in Vietnam. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus-infected patients at a tertiary public hospital in Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Vieira, Jessyka Thaiza Menezes; Isaac, Luiza Bellintani; Portelinha Filho, Alexandre Martins

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have addressed the primary characteristics of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population, especially those living in small- and medium-sized cities in Brazil. We aimed to determine the clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HBV who were followed up at an infectious diseases clinic of a public hospital in State of São Paulo, Brazil. Medical records of patients aged >18 years and diagnosed with HBV infection between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed. Seventy-five patients were enrolled with male-female main infection-associated risk factors; 9 (12%) were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 5 (6.7%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 3 (4%) were co-infected with both HIV and HCV. Antiviral HBV therapy was applied in 21 (28%) patients and tenofovir monotherapy was the most prescribed medication. After approximately 2 years of antiviral treatment, the HBV-DNA viral load was undetectable in 12 (92.3%) patients and lower levels of alanine aminotransferase were found in these patients. Over a 13-year interval, very few individuals infected with HBV were identified, highlighting the barriers for caring for patients with HBV in developing countries. New measures need to be implemented to complement curative practices.

  13. Clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus-infected patients at a tertiary public hospital in Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have addressed the primary characteristics of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV in the general population, especially those living in small- and medium-sized cities in Brazil. We aimed to determine the clinical, demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HBV who were followed up at an infectious diseases clinic of a public hospital in State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of patients aged >18 years and diagnosed with HBV infection between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled with male-female main infection-associated risk factors; 9 (12% were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, 5 (6.7% with hepatitis C virus (HCV, and 3 (4% were co-infected with both HIV and HCV. Antiviral HBV therapy was applied in 21 (28% patients and tenofovir monotherapy was the most prescribed medication. After approximately 2 years of antiviral treatment, the HBV-DNA viral load was undetectable in 12 (92.3% patients and lower levels of alanine aminotransferase were found in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 13-year interval, very few individuals infected with HBV were identified, highlighting the barriers for caring for patients with HBV in developing countries. New measures need to be implemented to complement curative practices.

  14. Viruses causing severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in children ≤5 years of age at a tertiary care hospital in Rajasthan, India.

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    Malhotra, Bharti; Swamy, M Anjaneya; Janardhan Reddy, P V; Gupta, M L

    2016-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. As different respiratory viruses exhibit similar symptoms, simultaneous detection of these viruses in a single reaction mixture can save time and cost. The present study was done in a tertiary care children's hospital for rapid identification of viruses causing SARI among children less than or equal to five years of age using multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit. A total of 155 throat swabs were collected from equal number of children suspected to have SARI and processed for extraction of nucleic acids using automated extraction system. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR was done to identify the viruses in the samples. The overall positivity for viruses in the study was found to be 72.9 per cent with a co-infection rate of 19.5 per cent. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was the predominant virus detected in 25.7 per cent children followed by influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, human rhinovirus (HRV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in 19.9, 11.0 and 8.8 per cent children, respectively. The HMPV was at its peak in February 2013, HAdV showed two peaks in March-April, 2012 and November 2012-March 2013 while HRV was detected throughout the year. Multiplex real-time PCR helped in rapid identification of viruses. Seventeen viruses were detected in SARI cases with overall positivity of 72.9 per cent. HMPV was the most predominant virus. However, for better clinico-virological correlation, studies are required with complete work up of all the aetiological agents, clinical profile of patients and treatment outcome.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus attending the paediatric HIV care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

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    Munubhi Emmanuel K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased availability of antibiotics and antifungal agents hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are becoming a cause for significant concern in HIV infected children. We determined the seroprevalence and risk factors for HBV and HCV among HIV infected children aged 18 months to 17 years, attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Investigations included; interviews, physical examination and serology for HBsAg, IgG antibodies to HCV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. HIV serostatus and CD4 counts were obtained from patient records. Results 167 HIV infected children, 88(52.7% males and 79(47.3% females were enrolled. The overall prevalence of hepatitis co-infection was 15%, with the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV being 1.2% and 13.8%, respectively. Hepatitis virus co-infection was not associated with any of the investigated risk factors and there was no association between HBV and HCV. Elevated ALT was associated with hepatitis viral co-infection but not with ART usage or immune status. Conclusion The high seroprevalence (15% of hepatitis co-infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatrics HIV CTC at the MNH calls for routine screening of hepatitis viral co-infection and modification in the management of HIV infected children.

  16. Functionality of Dengue Virus Specific Memory T Cell Responses in Individuals Who Were Hospitalized or Who Had Mild or Subclinical Dengue Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Adikari, Thiruni N.; Gomes, Laksiri; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Perera, M. K. T.; Ariyaratne, Dinuka; Kamaladasa, Achala; Salimi, Maryam; Prathapan, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Background Although antibody responses to dengue virus (DENV) in naturally infected individuals have been extensively studied, the functionality of DENV specific memory T cell responses in relation to clinical disease severity is incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal findings Using ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays, and by determining cytokines produced in ELISpot supernatants, we investigated the functionality of DENV-specific memory T cell responses in a large cohort of individuals from Sri Lanka (n=338), who were naturally infected and were either hospitalized due to dengue or had mild or sub clinical dengue infection. We found that T cells of individuals with both past mild or sub clinical dengue infection and who were hospitalized produced multiple cytokines when stimulated with DENV-NS3 peptides. However, while DENV-NS3 specific T cells of those with mild/sub clinical dengue infection were more likely to produce only granzyme B (p=0.02), those who were hospitalized were more likely to produce both TNFα and IFNγ (p=0.03) or TNFα alone. We have also investigated the usefulness of a novel T cell based assay, which can be used to determine the past infecting DENV serotype. 92.4% of DENV seropositive individuals responded to at least one DENV serotype of this assay and none of the seronegatives responded. Individuals who were seronegative, but had received the Japanese encephalitis vaccine too made no responses, suggesting that the peptides used in this assay did not cross react with the Japanese encephalitis virus. Conclusions/significance The types of cytokines produced by DENV-specific memory T cells appear to influence the outcome of clinical disease severity. The novel T cell based assay, is likely to be useful in determining the past infecting DENV serotype in immune-epidemiological studies and also in dengue vaccine trials. PMID:25875020

  17. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Hospitalization Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Taiwanese Children Between 2004 and 2007

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    Hsin Chi

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: RSV infection occurs biennially with peaks in spring and fall in Taiwan. Patients with underlying diseases need longer hospital and ICU stays and incur higher medical costs. Younger age, prematurity, congenital heart disease and cerebral palsy are predictors of ICU care.

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients which human papilloma virus infection: a case control study in Muwardi Hospital Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

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    SUHARTONO TAAT PUTRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prayitno A, Aznar E, Poernomo, Putra ST. 2011. Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients which human papilloma virus infection: a case control study in Muwardi Hospital Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 64-67. Annual incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer are estimated at 25 cases per 100,000 in developing countries. Human papilloma virus (HPV was implicated in pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Aims of this research were to know the incidence of OSSC patient which realized HPV infection. Women OSCC (15 and Benign Oral Squamous Cells (BOSC (40 tissue biopsy frozen sections were from Departement of Oral and Dental, Muwardi Hospital in Surakarta from January to December 2007. Tissue was cut into two parts. To ascertain the type of neoplasm was subsequently stains with HE. To amplify the L1-HPV gene for 450bp long. The collected data was analyzed by Chi Square Test. The result of this experiment showed nine patients from 40 patients BOSC identified have HPV infections (9/40 = 23%. Eleven patient from 15 patient OSCC identified have HPV infections (11/15 = 73%. From Chi Square analysis have significant differences between BOSC and OSCC. HPV is a factor for OSCC pathogenesis.

  1. A Seroprevalence Study of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections in a Hospitalized Population in Romania, an Opportunity for a Better National Prevention and Control Strategy.

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    Popovici, Odette; Molnar, Geza B; Popovici, Florin; Janţă, Denisa; Pistol, Adriana; Azoicăi, Doina

    2016-03-01

    The most recent prevalence data for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Romania came from an ESEN 2 study (2002), and from a Romanian population-based study performed in 2008. Most of the previous studies were regional and performed in specific groups (blood donors, pregnant women, institutionalized people, etc) and had limited representativeness at the national level, both for HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The scarcity of prevalence data for HBV and HCV infection coming from the routine surveillance was also considered. The aim of our study was to obtain overall and age group specific estimates of the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections markers in Romania, in order to recommend evidence-based public health interventions. The main outcome was the proportion of persons with HBV, HCV and HBV+HCV infection markers, overall and by age group and gender. Our seroprevalence study ensured national representativeness for the targeted hospitalized population. A prospective collection of serum samples in hospital laboratories was completed between September and November 2013, using a systematic sampling. The study respected the confidentiality of personal data. We calculated the sample size using EpiInfo7 and used Z test - Two-tailed probability for statistical significance. The overall prevalence data estimated in our study were HBc Ab 28%, HBs Ag 4.2%, HBs Ab regardless of titer 64.1%, HBs Ab in titer of at least 10 mUI/ml and negative HBc Ab 17.5%; HCV Ab 5.6%; HBc Ab and HCV Ab 2.8%, as markers of double infection. The overall prevalence data estimated in our study for HBs Ag (4.2%) and HCV Ab (5.6%) correspond to a medium endemicity based on the WHO criteria. The estimated prevalence of HBV and HCV infection markers in the study population should represent an opportunity for a better national prevention and control strategy.

  2. Varicella zoster virus infection of the central nervous system – 10 year experience from a tertiary hospital in South India

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    Ronald Albert Benton Carey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we looked at the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of patients who were admitted with varicella zoster of the CNS from 2005 to 2014. Results: There were 17 patients. Fever was present in 13 patients, seizures in 9 patients and headache and vomiting in 4 patients each. A generalized varicella rash was present in 8 out of 17 patients. A single dermatomal herpes zoster was present in seven patients. Two patients had no rash. Varicella zoster polymerase chain reaction (PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was done in 5 patients of which 4 were positive and 1 was negative. Nine patients had diabetes with an average glycated hemoglobin of 8.6%. Total number of deaths was five. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes who develop varicella or herpes zoster may be at risk for CNS complications. The diagnosis of varicella encephalitis has to rest on a combination of clinical findings and CSF PCR, as neither the rash nor the PCR is sensitive enough to diagnose all the cases with varicella encephalitis.

  3. Zika virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Scholler, Amalie Skak; Buus, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has drawn worldwide attention due to its association to neurologic complications, particularly severe congenital malformations. While ZIKV can replicate efficiently and cause disease in human hosts, it fails to replicate to substantial titers...... mice by introducing the virus directly in the brain via intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation. In this way, the antigen is precisely placed at the site of interest, evading the first line of defense, and thus rendering the mice susceptible to infection. We found that, while intravenous (i.v.) inoculation...... of two different strains of WT mice with low doses of ZIKV does not result in viremia, it is nevertheless able to induce both cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as clinical protection against subsequent i.c challenge with lethal doses of the virus. In order to determine the contribution of key...

  4. RT-PCR identification and typing of astroviruses and Norwalk-like viruses in hospitalized patients with gastroenteritis: evidence of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, O; Belliot, G; Mollat, C; Piloquet, H; Chamoux, C; Laveran, H; Monroe, S S; Billaudel, S

    2000-09-01

    Astroviruses (HAstVs) and 'Norwalk-like viruses' (NLV) are frequent causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, though no data on the strains in circulation or their prevalence is available for France. We applied molecular methods to detect HAstVs and NLVs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in fecal samples collected during a 2-year period from children and adults hospitalized with gastroenteritis. All samples negative for rotavirus and adenovirus by latex agglutination which contained small (25-40 nm) viral particles observed by electron microscopy (EM) were examined by RT-PCR. RT-PCR products were sequenced to characterize the HAstV and NLV strains present. A total of 75 samples were analyzed by RT-PCR, of which 15 were positive for HAstV and 24 for NLV. Several distinct strains of serotype 1 HAstV, the predominant serotype, circulated during the period. Nineteen of the 24 NLVs were of the G2 genogroup including Mexico-like (n=10), Bristol-like (n=8), and Hawaii-like viruses (n=1); two were genogroup 1. Overall, seven (47%) of the 15 HAstV infections and nine (37.5%) of the 24 NLV infections appeared to be nosocomially acquired based on the date of admission in hospital and the date of illness. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of nosocomial infections caused by NLV and HAstV.

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk factors in health-care workers at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, O; Munier, A; Delarocque-Astagneau, E; El Houssinie, M; Rafik, M; Bassim, H; Hamid, M Abdel; Mohamed, M K; Fontanet, A

    2015-05-19

    The objectives of this study were to document the background prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among HCWs in Ain Shams University Hospitals in Cairo and analyse the risk factors for HCV infection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2008 among 1770 HCWs. Anti-HCV prevalence was age-standardized using the Cairo population. A prospective cohort was followed for a period of 18 months to estimate HCV incidence. The crude anti-HCV prevalence was 8.0% and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 8.1%. Risk factors independently associated with HCV seropositivity were: age, manual worker, history of blood transfusions and history of parenteral anti-schistosomiasis treatment. The estimated incidence of HCV infection was 7.3 per 1000 person-years. HCWs in this setting had a similar high HCV seroprevalence as the general population of greater Cairo.

  6. Clinical and epidemiological aspects related to the detection of adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection

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    Eduardo A. Ferone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.

  7. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

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    ... Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  8. High Prevalence of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Monoinfection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hepatitis-B Co-infection as Assessed by Shear Wave Elastography: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

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    Samuel Nguku Gitau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV monoinfection versus those with HIV hepatitis-B virus (HBV co-infection as assessed with shear wave elastography (SWE in a tertiary sub-Saharan Africa hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 consecutive patients, 70 with HIV monoinfection and 35 with HIV-HBV co-infection, had liver elastography obtained using SWE to assess for the presence of liver fibrosis the cutoff of which was 5.6 kPa. Assessment of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI score (a noninvasive serum biomarker of liver fibrosis in these patients was also done. Results: The prevalence of liver fibrosis was significantly higher (P < 0.0001 in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, 25.7%, compared to those with HIV monoinfection, 7.1%. APRI score was greater in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection than those with HIV monoinfection. HIV co-infection with HBV accelerates progression to liver fibrosis. Association of a low cluster of differentiation 4 (CD-4 count with advanced fibrosis supports earlier starting of antiretroviral therapy to prevent rapid progression of liver disease in HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, regular monitoring of the disease progression is recommended.

  9. High Prevalence of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Monoinfection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hepatitis-B Co-infection as Assessed by Shear Wave Elastography: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Samuel Nguku; Vinayak, Sudhir; Silaba, Micah; Adam, Rodney; Shah, Reena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection versus those with HIV hepatitis-B virus (HBV) co-infection as assessed with shear wave elastography (SWE) in a tertiary sub-Saharan Africa hospital. A total of 105 consecutive patients, 70 with HIV monoinfection and 35 with HIV-HBV co-infection, had liver elastography obtained using SWE to assess for the presence of liver fibrosis the cutoff of which was 5.6 kPa. Assessment of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score (a noninvasive serum biomarker of liver fibrosis) in these patients was also done. The prevalence of liver fibrosis was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, 25.7%, compared to those with HIV monoinfection, 7.1%. APRI score was greater in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection than those with HIV monoinfection. HIV co-infection with HBV accelerates progression to liver fibrosis. Association of a low cluster of differentiation 4 (CD-4) count with advanced fibrosis supports earlier starting of antiretroviral therapy to prevent rapid progression of liver disease in HIV-positive patients. In view of the high prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, regular monitoring of the disease progression is recommended.

  10. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of tuberculosis patients at Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a 3 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekegne, Daniel; Jemal, Muhabaw; Atanaw, Tadesse; Ebabu, Ashenafi; Endris, Mengistu; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Deressa, Tekalign

    2016-03-29

    Ethiopia is one of the countries that are highly affected by dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). HIV infection is a known risk factor for the development of active TB and it challenges in diagnosis and treatment of TB. Thus, it is essential to determine the epidemiology of HIV infection among TB patients to guide clinical actions and inform the policy makers. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients and to describe the associated risk factors for HIV seropositivity. A retrospective study was conducted on TB registries at Metema Hospital directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of HIV seropositivity among TB patients. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 2096 patients, 2005 (95.7%) were tested for HIV. The overall HIV-TB co-infection rate was 20.1% (404), 12.3% (246) in males and 7.9% (158) in females. The highest proportion of co-infection rate was observed among the patients in the age group of 25-34 years (32.4%) and smear negative pulmonary TB patients (59.7%). A declining trend of HIV-TB co-infection was observed during the study period, from 22.1% (185) in 2009/10 to 12.8% (52) in 2011/12 (X(2) = 17.07, P < 0.001). This study found that HIV-TB co-infection is still high in the Metema area; and occurs more frequently in males than females, and among patients in age group of 25-34 years. Thus, concerted efforts and interventions methods that target these at risk groups are recommended.

  11. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Yohanes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2–6.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538–39.301 and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039–49.755 were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion.

  12. [Peripheral arterial disease and cardiovascular risk factors among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a comparison between hospital out-patients and patients in a prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri Pont, Marta; Borrallo Almansa, Rosa Maria; Almada Rivas, Guido; Carbó Díez, Miriam; Solé Arnau, Rosa; García Restoy, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients is more frequent than in the general population. Peripheral arterial disease measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) is not well known in all groups of HIV-infected patients. Transversal study of HIV-infected patients >45 years, seen as outpatients in hospital (HO) in 2008 and patients institutionalized in a prison in 2009. Cardiovascular risk factors, information on the HIV infection and healthy lifestyles were evaluated. ABI was measured at rest and was considered pathological when a value ≤ 0.9 or ≥ 1.3 was obtained. We included 71 patients (mean age of 50.6 ± 6.9 years, 86% male), 32 HO and 39 in prison. The most prevalent CVRF was smoking (80.2%) followed by an altered lipid profile (63.3%). The evolution time of HIV infection was 13.1 ± 7.1 years. 74.6% of patients didn't follow a heart-healthy diet and 25% were sedentary. The ABI was low in 7 cases (9.8%) and ≥ 1.3 in one. Patients in prison were younger, the rate of smokers and of individuals with low HDL were higher, the time of evolution of the HIV infections was longer and they were less adherent to a heart-healthy diet than in HO, reaching in all cases statistical significance (P<.05). In our study there is a high prevalence of altered ABI. The most common CVRF is smoking, followed by the alteration of lipids. Patients in prison are more likely to be smokers, to have low HDL and they are less adherence to a heart-healthy diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis B virus (HBV status of children born to HIV/HBV co-infected women in a French hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sellier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART. Materials and Methods: HIV/HBV co-infected pregnant women attending the Obstetrics Department from 1st January 2000 to 1st January 2012 could be included in the study (NCT02044068. Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, injection of immunoglobulin and/or vaccine to newborns was retrospectively recorded. We assessed HBV status of children at least as old as two years. Results: Forty nine (9.2% from 530 HIV-infected women followed in the hospital were HIV/HBV co-infected. 34 (69.4% had given birth to 57 children in the hospital. 13 of these women (22 children were lost-to-follow-up, 21 women (35 children could be studied. Twenty six children (74.3% had HBs Ab at a protective level, 22 of them had received immunoglobulin at birth; 24 had received a complete vaccine schedule during the first six months of life (with immunoglobulin in 21 cases. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during eight and nine pregnancies respectively. Eight children (22.8% were tested negative for HBs Ag, HBs Ab and HBc Ab: 4 (11.4% had received immunoglobulin and a complete vaccine schedule; in two children, immunoglobulin was uncertain; in one child, the vaccine schedule was incomplete; in the last one, data about immunoglobulin and the vaccine schedule were lacking. The women had been given lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine during five and two pregnancies respectively. One child had HBc Ab and HBs Ab, immunoglobulin was uncertain and the vaccine schedule was incomplete. The woman had been given lamivudine

  14. Viruses infecting maize

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Branka; Stanković, Ivana; Bulajić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 plant viruses has been known to cause diseases of maize, but economically the most important yield looses, which in certain years can be total, are caused by viruses from Potyvirus genera, known to be aphid-transmitted in a non-persistant maner. The most important viruses, pathogens of maize, sugar cane and sorghum are considered to be Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). In Serbia, the prese...

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women at the antenatal booking clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbesan-Omilabu, M A; Okunade, K S; Gbadegesin, A; Olowoselu, O F; Oluwole, A A; Omilabu, S A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the major risk factors among Nigerian pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among pregnant women at the antenatal clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A total number of 150 consenting pregnant women were selected for the study. A structured pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Sera were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Of the 150 women screened during the study, 11 (7.3%) were seropositive for HBsAg. Of these 11 women, 4 (36.4%) were also positive for HBeAg. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean ages of participants who were seropositive for HBsAg and those who were negative for the virus (P=0.888). There were statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence of HBsAg recorded among respondents with previous surgery (odd ratio [OR]-2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]-1.08-16.67; P=0.046), previously affected sibling or spouse (OR-5.03; 95% CI-1.11-25.27; P=0.001) and those with two or more lifetime sexual partners (OR-4.11; 95% CI-2.85-9.22; P=0.024). The sero-prevalence rate of HBV infection and also its infectivity is high in Lagos, Nigeria. These findings thus support the need for a nationwide policy of routine and widespread HBV screening among pregnant women.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkh, Alex Panizza; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Hurtado-Guerreiro, Jose Camilo; Ramos, Lorena Angelica Castano; Figliuolo, Guiseppe; Maia, Jussimara; Costa, Cintia Mara; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and to identify the demographic, behavioural and clinical factors associated with C. trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus infected men. This was a cross-sectional study of C. trachomatis prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men enrolled at the Outpatient clinic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. C. trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid from urethral samples was purified and submitted to real time polymerase chain reaction to identify the presence of C. trachomatis. A total of 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men were included in the study. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 12% (95% confidence interval 8.1%-15.7%). The mean age of the participants was 34.63 (standard deviation 10.80) years. Of the 276 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men, 93 (56.2%) had more than one sexual partner in the past year and 105 (38.0%) reported having their first sexual intercourse under the age of 15 years. Men having sex with men and bisexuals amounted to 61.2% of the studied population. A total of 71.7% had received human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis in the last three years and 55.1% were using antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with C. trachomatis infection in the logistic model were being single (p<0.034), men having sex with men (p<0.021), and having previous sexually transmitted diseases (p<0.001). The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Caswell, Marin; Muncie, Herbert L

    2011-01-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory tract infections in children. In the North- ern Hemisphere, the peak infection season is November through April. By two years of age, most children will have had an RSV infection. Bronchiolitis, a lower respiratory tract infection, is often caused by RSV. An RSV infection is diagnosed based on patient history and physical examination. Children typically present with cough, coryza, and wheezing. Laboratory testing and chest radiography are not necessary to make the diagnosis. Serious concur- rent bacterial infections are rare. Treatment of an RSV infection is supportive, with particular attention to maintaining hydration and oxygenation. Children younger than 60 days and those with severe symptoms may require hospitalization. Neither antibiotics nor corticosteroids are helpful for bronchiolitis. A bronchodilator trial is appropriate for children with wheezing, but should not be continued unless there is a prompt favorable response. Frequent hand washing and contact isolation may prevent the spread of RSV infections. Children younger than two years at high risk of severe illness, including those born before 35 weeks of gestation and those with chronic lung or cardiac problems, may be candidates for palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV infection during the peak infection season. Most children recover uneventfully with supportive care.

  18. Occupational hazards in hospitals: risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    In this review of the risk of infection to hospital staff, attention is drawn to the continuing risk presented by hepatitis B and pulmonary tuberculosis, which are more common than diseases such as typhoid fever, brucellosis, histoplasmosis, whooping cough, infectious gastroenteritis, measles, and parotiditis. Other items considered include the susceptibility of female hospital staff to rubella and the importance of their undergoing screening and vaccination; the risks currently presented by epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and by herpes viruses (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and cytomegalovirus); and the risk of contracting the new infectious diseases (Legionnaires' disease, Marburg disease, Lassa fever, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome). PMID:3304395

  19. Epidemiological and Virological Characterization of Influenza B Virus Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sharabi

    Full Text Available While influenza A viruses comprise a heterogeneous group of clinically relevant influenza viruses, influenza B viruses form a more homogeneous cluster, divided mainly into two lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. This divergence has complicated seasonal influenza vaccine design, which traditionally contained two seasonal influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. We examined the distribution of the two influenza B virus lineages in Israel, between 2011-2014, in hospitalized and in non-hospitalized (community influenza B virus-infected patients. We showed that influenza B virus infections can lead to hospitalization and demonstrated that during some winter seasons, both influenza B virus lineages circulated simultaneously in Israel. We further show that the influenza B virus Yamagata lineage was dominant, circulating in the county in the last few years of the study period, consistent with the anti-Yamagata influenza B virus antibodies detected in the serum samples of affected individuals residing in Israel in the year 2014. Interestingly, we found that elderly people were particularly vulnerable to Yamagata lineage influenza B virus infections.

  20. [Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection in Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey: a five-year evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlik, İmran; Mutlu, Derya; Öngut, Gözde; İnan, Dilara; Öğünç, Dilara; Can Sarinoğlu, Rabia; Özhak Baysan, Betil; Gültekin, Meral; Çolak, Dilek

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of chronic hepatitis. It is important to know the genotypes of HCV in the decision of the HCV related chronic hepatitis therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HCV genotypes determined at the Microbiology Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, and to evaluate the changes in the distribution of the genotypes within the last five years. A total of 422 blood samples from HCV-RNA positive chronic hepatitis C patients (219 male, 203 female; age range: 8-79 yrs, mean age 46.3 ± 15.5 yrs) which were sent to our laboratory for genotyping between 2009-2013 period, were analyzed retrospectively. HCV-RNA extractions were performed in an automated system (EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0, Qiagen, Germany), and a commercial reverse hybridization line probe-based assay (LIPA; GEN-C RT-PCR, Italy) was carried out for genotyping, For viral load determinations, a real-time PCR method (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany) was used. Demographic data of the patients were obtained from the hospital information systems and electronic patients' files. Out of the 422 patients, genotype 1b was detected in 63.3% (n= 267), genotype 1a in 14.7% (n= 62), genotype 3a in 11.1% (n= 47), genotype 2b in 0.9% (n= 4), genotype 4e in 0.2% (n= 1). The subtypes couldn't be determined for 5.4% (n= 23), 2.6% (n= 11) and 1.4% (n= 6) of the patients infected with genotype 1, 2 and 4, respectively. One (0.2%) patient, was coinfected with genotype 1 and 4. Of the patients, 40 were foreign-born (16 cases from Russia; 4 of each from Ukraine and Georgia; 3 of each from Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany; one of each from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Chechnya, Moldova, Switzerland and Romania) and among these patients genotype 3a (19/40; 47.5%) was the most common genotype followed by genotype 1b (17/40; 42.5%). Median values of HCV viral load were 668.500 IU/ml (range: 2.000-9.630.000) in the whole group; while it was 732.000 IU

  1. The clinical course of hepatitis E virus infection in patients of a tertiary Dutch hospital over a 5-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; van Son, Willem J.; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Brugemann, Johan; Blokzijl, Hans; Niesters, Hubert G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has long been known as a major cause of acute hepatitis in developing countries with occasional travel-related cases in developed countries, most of them belonging to genotype 1. Currently, genotype 3 HEV is recognized as an emerging public health issue in

  2. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  3. Dermatological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infected / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in a referral hospital of Central Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criton S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of skin diseases are described in association with HIV infection/AIDS. In the present study the frequency of various skin manifestations among HIV infected / AIDS patients are noted. Generalised pruritus and dry skin were the common manifestations encountered. There was a significant absence of Kaposi′s sarcoma, multi-dermatomal herpes zoster and oral hairy leukoplakia. A prominent hyperpigmented band on finger nails was seen.

  4. Chronic arthritis in chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Lourdes; Roure, Silvia

    2017-07-24

    Chikungunya virus infection causes arthralgia and arthritis in the acute phase of the disease but, in more than half of the cases, musculoskeletal manifestations can be prolonged over time and, in some cases, become chronic. Although polyarthralgia is the most frequent chronic manifestation, forms with polyarthritis, tenosynovitis and enthesopathy are also common. To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent articular manifestations after infection with the Chikungunya virus. Report of 3 cases of chronic arthritis after infection with chikungunya virus diagnosed at outpatient care in a university hospital of Catalonia, all of them imported after exposure in areas of epidemic infection between 2013-2015. All three patients had inflammatory joint pain for more than one year after acute disease (3, 2 and 1 years, respectively). In all cases, it appeared as polyarthritis with involvement of small joints of hands and feet (pseudorheumatoid arthritis-like). Laboratory tests showed a slight elevation of acute phase reactants, and analyses for immune markers were negative. Two of the patients required treatment with glucocorticoids and hydroxychloroquine. The course led to slow clinical improvement, but only one of them came to be completely asymptomatic. In the differential diagnosis of chronic polyarthritis, Chikungunya virus disease should also be considered in areas in which it is not endemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. [Factors determining irregular attendance to follow-up visits among human immunodeficiency virus patients: results of the hospital survey of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Asuncion; Ten, Alicia; Marcos, Henar; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; González-García, Juan; Moreno, Santiago; Barrios, Ana María; Arponen, Sari; Portillo, Álvaro; Serrano, Regino; García, Maria Teresa; Pérez, José Luis; Toledo, Javier; Royo, Maria Carmen; González, Gustavo; Izquierdo, Ana; Viloria, Luis Javier; López, Irene; Elizalde, Lázaro; Martínez, Eva; Castrillejo, Daniel; Aranguren, Rosa; Redondo, Caridad; Diez, Mercedes

    2015-05-01

    To describe the occurrence of non-regular attendance to follow-up visits among HIV patients and to analyze the determining factors. One-day survey carried out annually (2002-2012) in public hospitals. Epidemiological, clinical and behavioral data are collected in all HIV-infected inpatients and outpatients receiving HIV-related care on the day of the survey. "Non-regular attendance to a follow-up visit" was defined as sporadic attendance to the medical appointments, according to the judgment of the attending physician. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed, and factors associated to non-regular attendance to follow-up visits were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 7,304 subjects were included, of whom 13.7% did not attend medical appointments regularly. Factors directly associated with non-regular attendance were: age between 25-49 years; birth in Sub-Saharan Africa or Latin-America; low educational level; being homeless or in prison; living alone or in closed institutions; being unemployed or retired; being an intravenous drug user; not using a condom at last sexual encounter, and injecting drugs in the last 30 days. Conversely, HIV diagnosis within the last year and being men who have sex with men were factors inversely associated with non-regular attendance to follow-up visits. In spite of health care beings free of charge for everyone in Spain, social factors can act as barriers to regular attendance to medical appointments, which, in turn, can endanger treatment effectiveness in some population groups. This should be taken into account when planning HIV policies in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are major health problems worldwide. HCV/HIV co-infection has been shown to increase the frequency of liver disease and also maternal-fetal transmission of HCV. Little data exist on the prevalence of co-infection of these viruses in ...

  8. Dengue Virus Coinfection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Patients on the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Valle-Reyes, Salvador; Ochoa-Jiménez, Rodolfo; Arechiga-Ramírez, Conrado; Gámez-Arroyo, José L; Vázquez-Campuzano, Roberto; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Vásquez, Clemente; López-Lemus, Uriel A

    2017-09-01

    Dengue virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is not well studied. Previous reports suggest a transitory inhibition of the HIV-1 viral load, as well as a benign clinical progression of dengue. The follow-up of six HIV-1-infected patients, diagnosed and hospitalized with dengue virus infection in the State of Colima, Mexico, was carried out to analyze the progression of this viral coinfection. The presence of dengue virus serotype 1 was confirmed through molecular tests. No severe complications were observed in any of the patients during dengue virus infection. Significant alteration of the HIV-1 viral loads was not observed during dengue virus infection and 6 months after coinfection. Further studies are required to understand the pathology, as well as the clinical course, of these viral coinfections.

  9. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Gómez, Roberto S; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is by far the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) worldwide in infants and children younger than 2 years. The overwhelming number of hospitalizations due to hRSV-induced ALRTI each year is due, at least in part, to the lack of licensed vaccines against this virus. Thus, hRSV infection is considered a major public health problem and economic burden in most countries. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected individuals is characterized by an exacerbated proinflammatory and unbalanced Th2-type immune response. In addition to the adverse effects in airway tissues, hRSV infection can also cause neurologic manifestations in the host, such as seizures and encephalopathy. Although the origins of these extrapulmonary symptoms remain unclear, studies with patients suffering from neurological alterations suggest an involvement of the inflammatory response against hRSV. Furthermore, hRSV has evolved numerous mechanisms to modulate and evade the immune response in the host. Several studies have focused on elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system, to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus. Here, we discuss about the infection, pathology, and immune response triggered by hRSV in the host. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  11. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

  12. Natural history and epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the Middle East: Hospital surveillance for children under age two in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Natasha; Williams, John; Faouri, Samir; Shehabi, Asem; Vermund, Sten H; Wang, Li; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa

    2015-11-25

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in infants and young children worldwide. In the Middle East and Arab countries, the burden of RSV-associated hospitalizations is not well characterized. We sought to determine the burden and clinical/epidemiological characteristics of RSV hospitalization in young children in Amman, Jordan. We investigated risk factors for severity including vitamin D levels. We conducted viral surveillance with clinical and demographic data in children respiratory symptoms and/or fever at the Al-Bashir Government Hospital from March16, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Nasal/throat swabs were obtained and placed into lysis buffer, and frozen at -80°C until testing by real-time RT-PCR for 11 respiratory viruses. Heel stick blood or sera samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained and sent to a central laboratory for mass spectrometry. Of the 3168 children, >80% testing positive for one virus, with RSV the most common virus detected (44%). The RSV-associated hospitalization rate was highest in children vitamin D levels. Risk factors for oxygen use in RSV-positive children included underlying medical conditions, lack of breastfeeding, younger age, and higher viral load. RSV is a major cause of illness in hospitalized Jordanian children and is associated with increased severity compared to other respiratory viruses. Children with RSV in the Middle East would benefit from future RSV vaccines and antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  14. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A syphilis co-infection study in human papilloma virus patients attended in the sexually transmitted infection ambulatory clinic, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lúcia Maria de Sena; Miller, William Meihack; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Andrade, Arnaldo Feitosa Braga de; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2009-06-01

    Despite the prevalence of syphilis worldwide, little is known about its manifestations when associated with other sexually transmitted infections (STI), specifically the human papilloma virus (HPV). Current epidemiological studies show that there is a high incidence of both diseases in ambulatory clinics all over Brazil. This study aims to estimate the incidence of syphilis-HPV co-infections, among patients from the STI ambulatory clinic at the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two-hundred and seven patients were seen in the clinic between March and December 2005, of which 113 (54.6%) sought care for an HPV infection. Blood samples were taken from all patients to check syphilis serology using the flocculation and the non-treponemic test or VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) and the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay) treponemic and confirmatory method. Of the 207 patients, 113 (54.6%) consulted referring to HPV as their primary complaint, and of these, 18 (15.9%) also presented with positive syphilis serology, demonstrating a high incidence of coinfection. The average age of the patients varied between 20 and 25 years, 203 (98.1%) were male and 4 (1.9%) were female. The predominance of the male sex in this sample confirms the profile usually treated in STI clinics across the country, and the age range is that of typically high sexually activity. The results demonstrated the need for a differentiated examination of all STD patients.

  16. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...

  17. 1 Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. SABRIA RASHID1*, CHARLES KILEWO2 and SAID ABOUD3. 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Muhimbili National Hospital, P.O. Box 65000, Dar es Salaam,. Tanzania. 2Department ...

  18. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  19. Respiratory viruses and torque teno virus in adults with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Desyardi, Martinus Nuherwan; Tanamas, Jimmy; Suradi; Reviono; Harsini; Kageyama, Seiji; Chikumi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    To define the molecular epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in adult patients. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from all adult patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), acute respiratory infection (ARI), or severe ARI (SARI) admitted to a tertiary hospital in Surakarta, Indonesia, between March 2010 and April 2011 and analyzed for 19 respiratory viruses and for torque teno virus (TTV) and human gyrovirus (HGyV). Respiratory viruses were detected in 61.3% of the subjects, most of whom had ARI (90.8%, OR = 11.39), were hospitalized (96.9%, OR = 22.31), had asthma exacerbation (90.9%, OR = 8.67), and/or had pneumonia (80%, OR = 4.0). Human rhinovirus (HRV) A43 predominated. Influenza A H3N2, human metapneumovirus (HMPV) subtypes A1 and A2, the influenza B virus, human adenovirus B, and human coronavirus OC43 were also detected. All respiratory viruses were detected in the transition month between the rainy and dry seasons. No mixed respiratory virus infection was found. Coinfections of the influenza A H3N2 virus with TTV, HMPV with TTV, HRV with TTV, and human parainfluenza virus-3 with TTV were found in 4.7, 2.8, 19.8, and 0.9% of the samples, respectively. This study highlights the need to perform routine detection of respiratory viruses in adults hospitalized with ARI, asthma exacerbation, and/or pneumonia. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Antiviral therapy in herpes- virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    pesviruses — herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV) ... virus infections. Herpesviruses are commonly seen in clinical practice. This article discusses their management in some detail. MAIN TOPIC. 332 C M E June 2003 Vol.21 No.6. After primary infection, ... A typical primary attack lasts about 10 - 14 days.

  1. Aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, S; Räsänen, S; Rämet, M; Vesikari, T

    2010-08-01

    Aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. In addition to several Asian countries, South America and Africa, Aichi virus has also recently been found in Europe. Our objective was to study the causative role of Aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland. We analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of acute gastroenteritis. The screening was done by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 519-bp segment and a 223-bp segment in the 3CD junction region of non-structural proteins. Aichi virus was detected in five stool samples (0.5%), of which four were co-infections with other gastroenteritis viruses. Two Aichi virus genotypes, A and B, were found. Aichi virus appears to be rare in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

  2. [Zika virus infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society. The viral infection increases the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is an acute autoimmune disease which causes demyelination and, in the worst cases, it can also be fatal. Yet we do not possess adequate and specific vaccination nor antiviral therapy, although, since July 2016, the effectiveness of a DNA based vaccine is being tested on humans. More than half of the world's population lives in areas contaminated by infected mosquitoes so there is a great need for the development of an effective method against the vector mosquitoes. Sadly, even the vector control strategies aren't effective enough to push back the epidemic. Pregnant or fertile women must take the highest precautions against mosquito bites, especially if they travel to regions ravaged by the epidemic. The safest solution would be to postpone both the trip and the childbearing. In Europe, the vectors aren't spread enough to cause major threat, except maybe the warmer regions bordered by the Mediterranean Sea. However, it is possible that in the near future other viruses spread by Aedes mosquitoes could appear. Naturally, the travellers and immigrants, who came from endemic regions can also contribute to the spread of the epidemic. Thanks to the changes in global weather, there were reported findings of mosquitoes of the Aedes albopictus species in Hungary, which are slowly invading the continent, although

  3. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-11-11

    To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Cross-sectional observational study. Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Of 397 pregnant women aged 13-43 years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20 years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20 years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D W; Treanor, J J; Menegus, M A

    2000-03-01

    Influenza epidemics account for more than 20,000 deaths in the United States each year, as well as substantial morbidity, medical costs, and time away from work and school. Since the 1950s, the principal weapon against these seasonal epidemics has been killed virus vaccine formulations. Despite massive efforts to immunize at-risk individuals against influenza, not everyone receives the vaccine. In addition, use of some drugs, such as amantadine and rimantadine, can lead to the development of drug resistant viruses in infected individuals and to transmission of these viruses to susceptible individuals. The many factors that contribute to the high annual incidence of influenza virus infections mandate prompt clinical recognition and appropriate patient management. Rapid diagnostic tests have been developed that may make it possible to avoid the use of antibacterial drugs, quickly decide whether isolation of infected patients is needed, and discharge hospitalized patients sooner.

  5. Hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection among pregnant women in makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among three hundred (300) pregnant women in Makurdi were determined through random anonymous testing of volunteers attending antenatal clinics of different Hospitals within the metropolis. HBV carriage status was determined by the presence of ...

  6. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  7. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.......The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection....

  8. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  9. Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections and Their Association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Cross-Sectional Study among Blood Donors in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Hassen, Alima

    2011-03-01

    Since the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy and the dramatic improvement in the prognosis of individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, liver disease due to chronic viral hepatitis has become as important cause of morbidity and mortality in co-infected individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the association of the virus with Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus infection. As Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus infections are highly prevalent and they are among the major public health concern in developing countries including Ethiopia investigating this problem is of paramount benefit. Although studies on co-infection of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus have clearly identified adverse effects of co-infection, the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus infection and the association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in developing countries including Ethiopia has not been know for sure. A cross sectional study was conducted from January 1 to 31, 2010, in Jimma University specialized hospital Blood Bank. The inclusion criteria of the study was adult who donated blood to Jimma University specialized hospital blood bank any time from establishment of the unit until January 2010 and whose record was retrieved. Accordingly 9,204 adults were included of which 6,063 were selected by lottery method. Data on socio-demographic variables (age and sex), laboratory test result for Hepatitis B surface Antigen, anti-Hepatitis C Virus antibody, anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 antibody, and Rapid Plasma Reagin tests were collected using structured questionnaire. After the data were collected, they were entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS -16 for windows. P-Value of Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and syphilis infection were 2.1%, 0.2%, 2.1% and 0.7%, respectively. Sex and age had

  10. Hospital Infections in Neonatal Intensive Therapy Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cancio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are the most frequent and important complications occurring in hospitalized patients. The concern is greater when the affected hospital infection are neonates admitted to intensive care units where the risk increases due to factors such as prematurity, low birth weight, types of procedures adopted and susceptibility due to their immature immune system. The prevention and control measures involve detection of hospital infection, development of norms of standardization, collaboration with the training of all health professionals, achieving control of antibiotic prescription and technical support for hospital administration. 

  11. Rota virus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Irfan; Kazi, Sayyeda Ghazala; Ahmed Khan, Khalid Mehmood; Zia, Nukhba

    2014-02-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional, observational study. National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Kostadinović

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 sorts of viruses are capable of causing diseases of the respiratory ways. The virus infections have become the cost to be paid for urbanization and industrialization. The acute virus infections jeopardize mankind by their complications with numerous consequences. They open up the way to super infections, they provoke endogenous infections and lead to insufficiency of the vital organs. The viruses penetrate the organism mainly through the respiratory ways, digestive and urinary-sexual organs and skin. Some viruses immediately at the place of their entrance into the organism find receptive cells in which they can multiply (herpes virus and etc.. Some viruses must get through the blood, through the lymph or the nerve fibers to the target organs that they have affinity for.The changes that primarily occur in the mouth with manifest lymphadenopathy of the surrounding area emerge with respect to the type of the acute infection dis-ease.The human herpes viruses are responsible for a great number of diseases in people; that is why it can be said that the infections they induce are a very frequent cause of people's diseases in the world. Man is natural and the only host for the types I and II of the herpes simplex virus (HSV; that is why the infected person is regarded as the source of infection. The infection transmission can be by direct contact or over the contaminated secretions during the sexual intercourse. The age and the socioeconomic status (living conditions, level of medical culture, habits, etc. affect to agreat extent epidemiology of the HSV infection. The HSV distribution in the region of Niš in the five-year period (from 1987 to 1992 was the highest in the early and late summer (June and September.

  13. Nosocomial infections by respiratory syncytial virus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Karina Machado Echeverría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lower respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality in children. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most prevalent agent. Some viruses cause serious nosocomial infections. In Uruguay, there is no knowledge about the morbidity and mortality of nosocomial infections by RSV. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of RSV nosocomial infections. Methodology: A descriptive study of acute lower respiratory infections caused by RSV in patients younger than two years, between 1/1/2005 and 31/12/2008 at the Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, was made. Results: Were identified 59 patients who represented an annual rate lower than 2/1000 discharges. The monthly distribution of cases was similar to the respiratory infections. No outbreaks were reported. The age of the patients had an average of 8.9 months, 39 were younger than one year, 23 had one or more risk factors for severe disease. Six patients required admission to intensive care unit, all required invasive ventilation, 3 died, none had chronic respiratory failure following the RSV nosocomial infection. Conclusions: During the study period, the RSV nosocomial infections showed a low prevalence, despite it highly contagiousness. They mainly affected young children, carriers of risk factors for severe ALRI. Their evolution was similar to that reported for RSV respiratory infections community acquired. It is important to maintain standards for the control of nosocomial infections, to prevent nosocomial transmission of RSV and prevent the onset of severe disease in hospitalized patients.

  14. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... in the myocardium, lung tissue and blood of one child and was accompanied by histopathological inflammation in the heart and lungs, which was supportive of a viral infection. These findings suggest that cardioviruses may be associated with myocarditis in humans....

  15. Virus infection speeds: Theory versus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2010-12-01

    In order to explain the speed of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infections, we develop a simple model that improves previous approaches to the propagation of virus infections. For VSV infections, we find that the delay time elapsed between the adsorption of a viral particle into a cell and the release of its progeny has a very important effect. Moreover, this delay time makes the adsorption rate essentially irrelevant in order to predict VSV infection speeds. Numerical simulations are in agreement with the analytical results. Our model satisfactorily explains the experimentally measured speeds of VSV infections.

  16. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impaired liver function tests and co-infection with hepatitis viruses in AIDS patients are common in western countries. Objective: To assess liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A prospective study.

  17. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and liver function in aids patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and C virus infection and liver function in aids patients: research. ... in aids patients: research. H Lodenyo, B Schoub, R Ally, S Kairu, L Segal ... Objective: To asses liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A ...

  18. Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-09-01

    Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  20. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  1. Virus infections in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P D

    1990-01-01

    Virus infections are common in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Viruses can have two distinct relationships with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); they can be opportunists if the second virus takes advantage of decreased immune function in the host or they can act as co-factors to accelerate the rate at which AIDS develops. Viruses acting as opportunists may cause no symptoms or may be life-threatening. Several, including herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, can be treated with antiviral agents. Before concluding that a virus can act as a co-factor for HIV, several other possible relationships must be excluded including opportunism, co-parameters of lifestyle and prognostic markers. Studies in vitro may suggest which viruses are potential co-factors but clear evidence can come only from carefully defined cohorts of patients. Recent evidence showing that cytomegalovirus can meet these criteria is presented.

  2. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  3. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.

  4. Immune responses to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2011-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of respiratory tract infection with attack rates of 5-10%. This means that humans are infected repeatedly with intervals of, on average, 10-20 years. Upon each infection subjects develop innate and adaptive immune responses which aim at clearing the infection. Strain-specific antibody responses are induced, which exert selective pressure on circulating influenza viruses and which drive antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, especially in the hemagglutinin molecule. This antigenic drift necessitates updating of seasonal influenza vaccines regularly in order to match the circulating strains. Upon infection also virus-specific T cell responses are induced, including CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cells are mainly directed to conserved proteins and therefore display cross-reactivity with a variety of influenza A viruses of different subtypes. T cell mediated immunity therefore may contribute to so-called heterosubtypic immunity and may afford protection against antigenically distinct, potentially pandemic influenza viruses. At present, novel viral targets are identified that may help to develop broad-protective vaccines. Here we review the various arms of the immune response to influenza virus infections and their viral targets and discuss the possibility of developing universal vaccines. The development of such novel vaccines would imply that also new immune correlates of protection need to be established in order to facilitate assessment of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  6. Cost analysis of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens for managing human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients according to clinical practice in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Antonella Castagna,3 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Laura Galli,3 Giacomo Bruno,2 Andrea Poli,3 Stefania Salpietro,3 Alessia Carbone,3 Adriano Lazzarin3,41Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pavia, Italy; 2Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche (S.A.V.E., Milan, 3Infectious Diseases Department, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, 4Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, ItalyObjective: In the study reported here, single-tablet regimen (STR versus (vs multi-tablet regimen (MTR strategies were evaluated through a cost analysis in a large cohort of patients starting their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1-naïve patients, followed at the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, starting their first-line regimen from June 2008 to April 2012 were included in the analysis.Methods: The most frequently used first-line HAART regimens (>10% were grouped into two classes: 1 STR of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF + emtricitabine (FTC + efavirenz (EFV and 2 MTR including TDF + FTC + EFV, TDF + FTC + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r, TDF + FTC + darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r, and TDF + FTC + lopinavir/ritoavir (LPV/r. Data were analyzed from the point of view of the Lombardy Regional Health Service. HAART, hospitalizations, visits, medical examinations, and other concomitant non-HAART drug costs were evaluated and price variations included. Descriptive statistics were calculated for baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; associations between categorical variables and type of antiretroviral strategy (STR vs MTR were examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. At multivariate analysis, the generalized linear model was used to identify the predictive factors of the overall costs of the first-line HAART regimens.Results: A total of 474 naïve patients (90% male, mean age 42.2 years, mean baseline HIV-RNA 4.50 log10 copies/mL, and cluster of

  7. [Imported Zika virus infection in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eije, Karin J; Schinkel, Janke; van den Kerkhof, J H C T Hans; Schreuder, Imke; de Jong, Menno D; Grobusch, Martin P; Goorhuis, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Since mid-2015, a rapidly expanding outbreak of Zika virus infection is spreading across Latin America and the Caribbean. Although Zika virus infection usually causes only mild disease, the World Health Organization has declared the epidemiological association with the occurrence of congenital microcephaly and neurological complications a 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' and urged the international community to mount a coordinated international response aimed to protect people at risk, especially pregnant women. In December 2015, the first case of imported Zika virus infection in the Netherlands was diagnosed in a returned traveler from Surinam. To date, more than 20 cases have been reported in The Netherlands, all imported from Surinam. We describe the epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnostic challenges and the existing evidence to date that link Zika virus infection to complications.

  8. Dengue virus infection perturbs lipid homeostasis in infected mosquito cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushika Perera

    Full Text Available Dengue virus causes ∼50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  9. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  10. Functional RNA during Zika virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, Giel P.; Abbo, Sandra R.; Fros, Jelke J.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Occupational Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    potentially infected body fluids so that they can present themselves rapidly for risk assessment and commencement of ART if necessary in the event of an occupational exposure to HIV. INTRODUCTION. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (AIDS). It can be ...

  12. Virus infection and human cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    It is now estimated that approximately 10 % of worldwide cancers are attributable to viral infection, with the vast majority (>85 %) occurring in the developing world. Oncogenic viruses include various classes of DNA and RNA viruses and induce cancer by a variety of mechanisms. A unifying theme is that cancer develops in a minority of infected individuals and only after chronic infection of many years duration. The viruses associated with the greatest number of cancer cases are the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which cause cervical cancer and several other epithelial malignancies, and the hepatitis viruses HBV and HCV, which are responsible for the majority of hepatocellular cancer. Other oncoviruses include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Identification of the infectious cause has led to several interventions that may reduce the risk of developing these tumors. These include preventive vaccines against HBV and HPV, HPV-based testing for cervical cancer screening, anti-virals for the treatment of chronic HBV and HCV infection, and screening the blood supply for the presence of HBV and HCV. Successful efforts to identify additional oncogenic viruses in human cancer may lead to further insight into etiology and pathogenesis as well as to new approaches for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention.

  13. Clinical features in adult patients with in-hospital cardiovascular events with confirmed 2009 Influenza A (H1N1 virus infection: Comparison with those without in-hospital cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Gun Song

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the CV group had higher in-hospital and cardiac mortality rates than the NCV group. A meticulous therapeutic approach should be considered for elderly patients with 2009 H1N1 infections having coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hypertension, and high levels of leukocyte count, hs-CRP, glucose, and NT-proBNP at the time of admission.

  14. Clinical significance of different virus load of human bocavirus in patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wujun; Yin, Fang; Zhou, Weifang; Yan, Yongdong; Ji, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact of human bocavirus (HBoV) virus load on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Clinical records of a total of 654 patients with HBoV infection during January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with high HBoV virus load infection had a similar age distribution with the total HBoV infection, which had a peak age group of 6-24 months. Patients with high virus load are significantly younger (P infection was found significantly more frequently among patients with low virus load than those with high virus load (57.0% vs 38.9%; P infections are found in an important proportion of the hospitalized children with respiratory illnesses (8.85% in our series). A high HBoV virus load could be an etiologic agent for LRTI, which may lead to more severe lower respiratory tract symptom and severe disease.

  15. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  16. Virus infections of honeybees Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp. and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and wellbeing of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV and Kakugo virus (KV; Sacbrood virus (SBV; Black Queen cell virus (BQCV; Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV; Kashmir bee virus (KBV; Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV; Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV. The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research.

  17. Atypical Presentations of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection; Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Al-Maskari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV usually causes a lower respiratory tract infection in affected patients. RSV has also been infrequently linked to extrapulmonary diseases in children. We report four children who had unusually severe clinical manifestations of RSV infections requiring critical care admission. These patients presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in December 2013 with acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE, acute fulminant hepatic failure with encephalopathy, pneumatoceles and croup. A unique presentation of ANE has not previously been reported in association with an RSV infection. All patients had a positive outcome and recovered fully with supportive management.

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus in HIV infected persons in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV/AIDS patients in a tertiary hospital inNigeria. All infected persons confirmed by Elisa and aged 15 years and above seen at theUniversity of Benin Teaching Hospital were included in the study. The subjects were recruited over a period of one year.

  19. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  20. Epidemiology of virus infection and human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chien, Yin-Chu; You, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has comprehensively assessed the human carcinogenicity of biological agents. Seven viruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus, type-1 (HIV-1), human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type-1 (HTLV-1), and human papillomavirus (HPV) have been classified as Group 1 human carcinogens by IARC. The conclusions are based on the findings of epidemiological and mechanistic studies. EBV, HPV, HTLV-1, and KSHV are direct carcinogens; HBV and HCV are indirect carcinogens through chronic inflammation; HIV-1 is an indirect carcinogen through immune suppression. Some viruses may cause more than one cancer, while some cancers may be caused by more than one virus. However, only a proportion of persons infected by these oncogenic viruses will develop specific cancers. A series of studies have been carried out to assess the viral, host, and environmental cofactors of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HBV/HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, and HPV-associated cervical carcinoma. Persistent infection and high viral load are important risk predictors of these virus-caused cancers. Risk calculators incorporating host and viral factors have also been developed for the prediction of long-term risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. These risk calculators are useful for the triage and clinical management of infected patients. Both clinical trials and national programs of immunization or antiviral therapy have demonstrated a significant reduction in the incidence of cancers caused by HBV, HCV, and HPV. Future researches on gene-gene and gene-environment interaction of oncogenic viruses and human host are in urgent need.

  1. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  2. Lectin switching during dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Webb, Andrew I; Chan, Vera; Jumnainsong, Amonrat; Davidson, Andrew; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin

    2011-06-15

    Dengue virus receptors are relatively poorly characterized, but there has been recent interest in 2 C-type lectin molecules, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and its close homologue liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-3-grabbing integrin (L-SIGN), which can both bind dengue and promote infection. In this report we have studied the interaction of dengue viruses produced in insect cells, tumor cell lines, and primary human dendritic cells (DCs) with DC-SIGN and L-SIGN. Virus produced in primary DCs is unable to interact with DC-SIGN but remains infectious for L-SIGN-expressing cells. Skin-resident DCs may thus be a site of initial infection by insect-produced virus, but DCs will likely not participate in large-scale virus replication during dengue infection. These results reveal that differential glycosylation of dengue virus envelope protein is highly dependent on cell state and suggest that studies of virus tropism using virus prepared in insect cells or tumor cell lines should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the process involving various immune cells and molecules and is the result of homeostasis maintenance in antiviral immune response. The immune homeostasis maintained during persistent infections with hepatitis viruses is analyzed by the cellular and molecular mechanisms.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  5. Atypical bacterial infections explained by a concomitant virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Menegus, M A

    1985-09-01

    Because both viral and bacterial infections are common during early childhood, dual infections are not unexpected. However, the clinical manifestation of such combined infections may be, difficult to interpret, and they are often misdiagnosed as "atypical bacterial infection." Five patients with concomitant viral-bacterial infections are described. In all five cases, virus detection enabled the physicians to better understand an otherwise puzzling clinical presentation. In view of the recent progress in rapid viral diagnoses and the potential of antiviral drugs, the possibility of dual infection should be investigated more often.

  6. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric patients are considered high risked group for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This has been found to be as a result of poor judgment and irrationality associated with some of the disorders. However, there is dearth of literature on the prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric ...

  8. Antiviral therapy in herpes- virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Herpesviruses are large, enveloped DNA viruses.There are currently 8 known human herpesviruses and 1 primate species that is a rare human pathogen. Most people have been infected with sev- eral human herpesviruses. In immuno- competent individuals primary infections with herpesviruses are generally mild, self-.

  9. Diabetic foot infection in hospitalized adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, David E; Friedman, N Deborah; Ostrovski, Evgenia; Ravid, Dor; Amrami, Nadav; Avivi, Dori; Mengesha, Bethlehem; Zaidenstein, Ronit; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Dadon, Mor; Marchaim, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Acute infections of the diabetic foot (DFI) are a common and complex condition. Patients are generally managed in the ambulatory setting and epidemiological data pertaining to hospitalized patients is lacking...

  10. Prevalence and prognostic significance of infection with TT virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JK; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Sørensen, M

    2000-01-01

    No clear association between human disease and TT virus (TTV) has been documented. A possible pathogenic role of TTV was investigated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TTV serum concentrations were estimated in 185 HIV-infected patients by dilution polymerase chain rea...... TTV viremia (Psuspected to be an opportunistic pathogen with an independent influence on HIV progression....

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians | Ejiofor | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus is a chronic life long infection in the majority of patients who are infected with the virus. Not much is known and written/published about this virus in Nigeria. Objective: To asses the status of hepatitis C virus infection in Nigeria. Materials and method: Sources of information were mainly from ...

  12. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to as...

  13. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Harris; Simona Zompi

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe deng...

  14. Hospital Acquired Infection in Obafemi Awolowo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities for proper hand washing are suboptimal. We recommend the introduction of hand washing policy for the hospital and the provision of an environment conducive for its implementation by the hospital management as well as adequate support for the infection control committee in the discharge of her duties.

  15. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J; Bidle, Kay D; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-05-26

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host-virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host-virus "arms race" during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean.

  16. infected subjects attending three selected hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... and Infectious Diseases Hospital. HIV infection was confirmed using indirect ... HIV infection affects the serum levels of iron, vitamin A and β-carotene by reducing their levels; hence, dietary supplementation with ... include vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K, B and C and minerals such as Iron, iodine, zinc, ...

  17. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, SunHwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase c...

  18. Parainfluenza virus 5 expressing the G protein of rabies virus protects mice after rabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua; Fu, ZhenFang; He, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. [Cerebral infarction in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D

    1995-06-03

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors.

  20. Drug Targets in Infections With Ebola and Marburg Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus -like replicon (VRP), adenovirus 5 (AdS), vesicular stomatitis virus ( VSV )-based vaccines, and virus -like... virus itself may prove to be a very effective way to clear or prevent virus infection, an inherent flaw in this method does exist for several viruses ...immunofluorescence and ELISA. Rab9 siRNA also decreased replication of HIV and measles virus . This was not observed in non~enveloped viruses , which

  1. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinical signs, diagnosis and hospital admissions were documented. During this study period, 365 young infants (51.5% male, 48.5% female with respiratory tract infection were visited in 6 hospitals. The median age of patients was 24 months (range: 1 month to 5 years.RSV infection was found in 70 out of 365 patients (19.18%.Among the 70 children with RSV infection, 29 patients (41.42% were under 12 months of age.The main clinical manifestations of RSV infection were cough (88.57% and coryza (78.57%. There were no significant differences between patients who were tested positive for RSV and those who were tested negative with regard to demographic variables and clinical diagnoses. This study indicates that RSV is an important cause of respiratory tract infection in infants and young children .Distinguishing RSV from other respiratory infection is difficult because of the similarity in clinical presentation among children.

  2. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections in mothers and newborns in a Havana maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festary, Aimée; Kourí, Vivian; Correa, Consuelo B; Verdasquera, Denis; Roig, Tania; Couret, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus are associated with congenital or perinatal infection, causing potential damage to the newborn. Determine the prevalence of active or latent infection by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in a population of mothers, congenital infection by these agents in their infants, and association between prevalence of virus infection in mothers and in their newborns. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in a population of 95 pregnant women admitted to the Dr Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital during the third trimester of pregnancy, and their infants (98). Patients were tested for antibodies specific to these viruses; vaginal swabs and urine from the women and serum and urine from the newborns were tested for viral genome. The Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval was used for comparisons. Of the women studied, 89.5% tested positive for cytomegalovirus and 83.2% for herpes simplex. Active infection from cytomegalovirus was detected in 16.7%, and from herpes simplex in 3.2%. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection was detected in 4.1% of newborns; no herpes simplex virus infection was found in this group. Two newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection were congenitally infected. Serology demonstrated that most of the women were immune to both viruses. Active cytomegalovirus infections are common in this population, and newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of congenital infection.

  3. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.

  4. Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntziora Fotinie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and

  5. Borna disease virus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael

    2014-08-01

    Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russier, Marion; Pannetier, Delphine; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23202504

  7. Viral Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and adults in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ti; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Shengyang; Song, Shaoxia; Julong, Wu; Lin, Yi; Guo, Nongjian; Xing, Chunyan; Xu, Aiqiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xianjun

    2015-10-14

    The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized patients. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of ARIs. Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 607 patients from 2011 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR (SeeplexTM RV detection, Seegene) was performed to detected 12 respiratory viral pathogens. A total of 607 hospitalized patients were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Viruses were identified in 35.75 % (217/607) of cases, including 78 influenza virus A and B (IVA and IVB), 47 para-influenza viruses (PIVs), 41 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and 38 adenovirus (ADV). For the children under 15 year old, the common detected viruses were influenza viruses, RSV, PIVS and ADV, while the principal respiratory viruses were human coronaviruses (HCoV), PIVs, influenza viruses for the old adults. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 15.67 % of patients. Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ARI. The peak of ARI caused by the respiratory viruses occurred in winter. This study demonstrated respiratory viruses were the major cause of hospitalized ARI patients in Shandong Province, influenza virus was the most common detected, RSV was the highest incidence among the young children (≤5 years). These findings also gave a better understand of virus distribution among different age and seasons, which help to consider potential therapeutic approaches and develop effective prevention strategies for respiratory virus infection.

  8. Infection control in Indonesian Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, Daphne Offra

    2009-01-01

    The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    CMV), Epstein-. Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C virus,. Mycoplasma. Pneumoniae,. Haemophilus influenzae and Campylobacter jejuni have all been implicated in. GBS.[6]. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ...

  10. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-09-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum.

  11. Surveillance for Hospitalized Acute Respiratory Infection in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R.; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  12. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and

  13. Marine Viruses that infect Eukaryotic Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Marine microalgae, in general, explain large amount of the primary productions on the planet. Their huge biomass through photosynthetic activities is significant to understand the global geochemical cycles. Many researchers are, therefore, focused on studies of marine microalgae, i.e. phytoplankton. Since the first report of high abundance of viruses in the sea at late 1980's, the marine viruses have recognized as an important decreasing factor of its host populations. They seem to be composed of diverse viruses infectious to different organism groups; most of them are considered to be phages infectious to prokaryotes, and viruses infecting microalgae might be ranked in second level. Over the last quarter of a century, the knowledge on marine microalgal viruses has been accumulated in many aspects. Until today, ca. 40 species of marine microalgal viruses have been discovered, including dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA and ssRNA viruses. Their features are unique and comprise new ideas and discoveries, indicating that the marine microalgal virus research is still an intriguing unexplored field. In this review, we summarize their basic biology and ecology, and discuss how and what we should research in this area for further progress.

  14. Seasonal variations of respiratory viruses and etiology of human rhinovirus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Saeko; Kohdera, Urara; Hosaka, Taisuke; Ishii, Kousuke; Akagawa, Shohei; Hiroi, Satoshi; Kase, Tetsuo

    2015-12-01

    Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method it is possible to detect uncultivable viruses and discover multiple viral infections. However, the clinical importance of these findings in relation to symptoms is not known. The seasonal fluctuations of respiratory viruses and the clinical outcomes of single infections and dual infections were investigated. Nasal aspirate samples were obtained from outpatients and inpatients of a children's hospital and these samples were subjected to real-time PCR to detect 16 respiratory viruses. Seasonal variations of the 16 viruses and the clinical outcomes such as wheezing, the need for oxygenation and prolonged hospitalization of patients with single viral infections and multiple infections were determined for the 5 most often detected viruses. Among 512 specimens analyzed, one or more viruses were detected in 424 (83%) specimens. Two or more viruses were detected in 160 samples (31% of all samples). The epidemic peaks of the viruses did not coincide with each other. Rhinoviruses were the most frequently detected viruses and their coinfection rates were also higher. However, the disease severity in the lower respiratory tract did not differ in most respiratory viral infections regardless of whether there was single infection or dual infection with a rhinovirus and other respiratory virus. Seasonal distribution was seen for each virus. There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms in the children studied. Because the infection of rhinoviruses is the common occurrence in children, it is hypothesized that the factors related to disease severity are mainly the underlying conditions of the children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. USEFULNESS OF THE GRAPEVINE VIRUS-INFECTED COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Cocuţa Buciumeanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the virus-infected material as reference in various studies, a grapevine virus collection was established at NRDIBH Ştefănşti-Argeş. The vines are infected with 1-3 of the main specific viruses of this crop: fanleaf virus, leafroll associated virus serotypes 1+3, fleck virus and virus A. Different lots of plants belonging to the same cultivar are infected with different viruses. The own rooted or grafted potted plants are maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. The main goals of the study of grapevine under the influence of virus infection had in view: symptoms, in vitro behaviour of virus infected grapevine, virus elimination, plant positive control in the diagnostic process. The symptoms produced by viral infection can affect the whole plant (systemic symptoms or they are visible on certain parts of the plant (local symptoms. In vitro studies of virus infected grapevines comparatively with the healthy material aimed with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the culture: multiplication and rooting rates, shoots elongation, abnormal cuttings and vitrification phenomena. Infected grapevine cultivars and clones were subjected to virus elimination through thermotherapy, chemotherapy or electrotherapy, combined with in vitro culture. The diagnosis of leafroll, fleck, vein necrosis and corky bark diseases have been done by in vitro micrografting, as rapid biological method of virus detection. Samples collected from infected vines were used as material testing for virus detection by ELISA in inter-laboratory comparisons and Iaboratory-performed validation.

  16. Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Michael K; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Abrahams, Vikki M; Fikrig, Erol; Guller, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have linked antenatal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) with major adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, including microcephaly. There is a growing consensus for the existence of a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Previous studies have indicated that non-placental macrophages play a key role in the replication of dengue virus (DENV), a closely related flavivirus. As the placenta provides the conduit for vertical transmission of certain viruses, and placental Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal-placental macrophages located adjacent to fetal capillaries, it is not surprising that several recent studies have examined infection of HBCs by ZIKV. In this review, we describe congenital abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection, the role of HBCs in the placental response to infection, and evidence for the susceptibility of HBCs to ZIKV infection. We conclude that HBCs may contribute to the spread of ZIKV in placenta and promote vertical transmission of ZIKV, ultimately compromising fetal and neonatal development and function. Current evidence strongly suggests that further studies are warranted to dissect the specific molecular mechanism through which ZIKV infects HBCs and its potential impact on the development of CZS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hospital design for better infection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical design and infrastructure of a hospital or institution is an essential component of its infection control measure. Thus is must be a prerequisite to take these into consideration from the initial conception and planning stages of the building. The balance between designing a hospital to be an open, accessible and public place and the control to reduce the spread of infections diseases is a necessity. At Singapore General Hospital, many lessons were learnt during the SARS outbreak pertaining to this. During and subsequent to the SARS outbreak, many changes evolved in the hospital to enable us to handle and face any emerging infectious situation with calm, confidence and the knowledge that staff and patients will be in good stead. This paper will share some of our experiences as well as challenges

  18. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and

  19. Profile of HIV infected children: A hospital based study at Eastern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Poudel; Rita Pokharel; Mohit Chitlangia; Shipra Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical, laboratory, epidemiological profiles and outcome in human immunodeficiency virus infected Nepalese children. Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study. Human immunodeficiency virusinfected children presenting to pediatric immunology clinic at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled and followed up. Results: Median age at diagnosis among 39 enrolled children was 58 months. All children acquired infection vertically...

  20. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-12-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Infection In Nigerianswith Diabetesmellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aims: Studies from mainly Caucasian populations have shown epidemiological evidence of an association between diabetes mellitus and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether any such association exists in a black African population with diabetes mellitus. Method: ...

  2. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B

    1993-01-01

    to predict the later development of AIDS. The increased neopterin concentrations show that the immune system is activated in HIV infection and demonstrate the presence of an interaction between the virus and the immune system. The most important future use of neopterin measurements may be in fast evaluation...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among migrant fishermen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People migrate from place to place for diverse reasons chief among which is economic. Migrant fishermen like other migrant population lead high risk sexual lifestyle and are therefore, predisposed to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV among migrant ...

  4. Mechanisms underlying Cowpea mosaic virus systemic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Silva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic virus infection of plants involves; intracellularreplication, cell-to-cell movement within the inoculated leaf, and subsequently, long-distance spread to other plant parts via the vasculature (vascular movement).Cell-to-cell movement

  5. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  6. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  7. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic liver disease, as well as hepatocellular cancer. Persons at risk of acquisition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are also at risk of acquisition of infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ...

  8. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  9. West Nile Virus Infection in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, G; Mete, A; Adaska, J M; Anderson, M L; Symmes, K P; Diab, S

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been detected in many species of birds and mammals, but scant information is available about the disease in small ruminants. West Nile virus was diagnosed in 6 sheep with neurological signs and encephalitis, in California between 2002 and 2014. All sheep had severe lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis. Lymphoplasmacytic myelitis was also detected in 2 sheep where the spinal cord was examined. Brain tissue was positive for WNV detected by polymerase chain reaction in 6 of 6 sheep and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 5 of 6 sheep. Viral antigen was not detected by IHC in extraneural tissues in the 3 sheep examined. West Nile virus RNA was sequenced from 2 of 6 sheep, and each one clusters closely with WNV isolated from mosquito pools from nearby locations at similar times. West Nile virus was the most common cause of viral encephalitis in sheep diagnosed at this laboratory between 2002 and 2014, accounting for 6 of 9 sheep.

  10. Immunobiology of Ebola and Lassa virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph B; Marzi, Andrea; Safronetz, David; Robertson, Shelly J; Feldmann, Heinz; Best, Sonja M

    2017-03-01

    Two of the most important contemporary emerging viruses that affect human health in Africa are Ebola virus (EBOV) and Lassa virus (LASV). The 2013-2016 West African outbreak of EBOV was responsible for more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. LASV is constantly emerging in these and surrounding West African countries, with an estimate of more than 500,000 cases of Lassa fever, and approximately 5,000 deaths, annually. Both EBOV and LASV are zoonotic, and human infection often results in a severe haemorrhagic fever in both cases. However, the contribution of specific immune responses to disease differs between EBOV and LASV. This Review examines innate and adaptive immune responses to these viruses with the goal of delineating responses that are associated with protective versus pathogenic outcomes.

  11. Simultaneous influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinky, Lubna Jahan Rashid; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that simultaneous infection of the respiratory tract with at least two viruses is not uncommon in hospitalized patients, although it is not clear whether these infections are more or less severe than single infections. We use mathematical models to study the dynamics of simultaneous influenza (flu) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, two of the more common respiratory viruses, in an effort to understand simultaneous infections. We examine the roles of initial viral inoculum, relative starting time, and cell regeneration on the severity of the infection. We also study the effect of antiviral treatment on the course of the infection. This study shows that, unless treated with antivirals, flu always takes over the infection no matter how small the initial dose and how delayed it starts with respect to RSV.

  12. Hematologic manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G H; Linenberger, M L; Grant, C K; Abkowitz, J L

    1990-09-15

    Studies were done on 53 cats with community-acquired infection with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) to determine if hematologic abnormalities were comparable with those observed in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine cats were asymptomatic, 24 had clinical symptoms equivalent to AIDS-related complex (ARC), and 20 had AIDS-like disease. Hematologic abnormalities were detected in 75% (40 of 53) of FIV-seropositive cats, and multiple concurrent cytopenias were common. Anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 36%, 53%, 34%, and 8% of FIV-seropositive cats, respectively. Cytopenias were seen only in symptomatic (ARC or AIDS) cats. The occurrence of cytopenias and the distribution of clinical stages were similar in cats with concurrent feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection and those with FIV alone, suggesting that these abnormalities were a direct consequence of FIV infection. In addition, abnormalities were noted in 72% of marrows from symptomatic cats and included hyperplasia of individual cell lineages and dysmorphic features. Our results demonstrate that the hematologic manifestations of FIV infection are strikingly similar to those reported in HIV-seropositive patients. Thus, FIV infection in cats is an excellent animal model to study the pathogenesis of blood and marrow abnormalities in AIDS, as well as to evaluate the hematologic toxicities of drug therapies.

  13. Dengue Virus-Specific Antibodies Enhance Brazilian Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, Priscila M S; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga, Cynthia; Cordeiro, Marli T; de Carvalho, Otávio V; de Mendonça, Leila R; Azevedo, Elisa A N; França, Rafael F O; Dhalia, Rafael; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2017-03-01

    Anti-Flavivirus antibodies are highly cross-reactive and may facilitate Zika virus (ZIKV) infection through the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism. We demonstrate that dengue-specific antibodies enhance the infection of a primary Brazilian ZIKV isolate in a FcγRII-expressing K562 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that serum samples from dengue-immune pregnant women enhanced ZIKV infection. These findings highlight the need for epidemiological studies and animal models to further confirm the role of ADE in the development of congenital and neurological complications associated with ZIKV infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. West Nile virus infection and diplopia: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Udip Dahal,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Dikshya Sharma,2 Bandana Pathak11Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, NepalAbstract: West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito bite. The increase in the incidences and fatalities of West Nile virus disease has made West Nile virus an important pathogen. Here we describe a case of a 65-year-old man with fever and diplopia presenting to the emergency department during a fall season and who was later diagnosed with West Nile virus infection. Diplopia is an uncommon manifestation of West Nile virus and recognition of the different modes of presentation, especially the uncommon ones like diplopia, will aid in the diagnosis of this emerging infectious disease.Keywords: West Nile virus, diplopia, ocular manifestations, infectious disease, Flaviviridae

  15. [Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which establishes latency after primary infection, does not cause any symptomatic diseases as long as cellular immunity is intact. In apparently immunocompetent individuals, a chronic infection can develop, and this has been called as chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). CAEBV is characterized by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, extensive lymphadenopathy, and, hepatosplenomegaly. This disease is rare but severe with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, its pathophysiology is not an infection but a clonal expansion of EBV-infected T or natural killer NK cells. In this review, I discuss our current understanding of the pathogenesis of CAEBV and summarize its clinical features, therapies, and prognosis.

  16. Bluetongue virus infection of bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Maclachlan, N J; Gebhard, D H; Heidner, H W; Moore, P F

    1989-07-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine blood mononuclear cells were infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Production of BTV proteins in mononuclear cell cultures was detected by immune precipitation of viral proteins from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of these cells, by immunofluorescence staining of cells using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV proteins VP7 and NS2, and by flow cytometry with MAbs to VP2, VP7, NS1 and NS2. BTV-infected cells were most numerous in cultures of adherent mononuclear cells; infected cells were initially identified as monocytes on the basis of their morphology, and size and scatter characteristics as determined by analysis with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The majority of adherent mononuclear cells with these scatter characteristics were confirmed to be monocytes by FACS analysis with a MAb specific for bovine monocytes. Identification of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells as monocytes was further established by double immunofluorescent labelling, as infected adherent cells reacted with the MAb specific for bovine monocytes, and with another MAb specific for class II antigen. Infection of adherent mononuclear cells was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as BTV virions and tubules were present in lysates of cultures of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells and within the cytoplasm of adherent cells. In contrast, BTV proteins were detected in few cells identified as lymphocytes on the basis of their scatter characteristics, and mean fluorescence of such cells was considerably less than that of BTV-infected monocytes. Viraemia persisted until 35 days after inoculation of a colostrum-deprived calf inoculated with BTV. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells at 1 week after infection of the calf, but not thereafter. BTV infection of blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated until 9 days after inoculation by indirect immunofluorescence staining of mononuclear cells. In

  17. Respiratory viruses in children admitted to hospital intensive care units: evaluating the CLART® Pneumovir DNA array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobert, Emilie; Escuret, V; Javouhey, E; Casalegno, J S; Bouscambert-Duchamp, M; Moulinier, C; Gillet, Y; Lina, B; Floret, D; Morfin, F

    2011-01-01

    Viruses play a significant part in children's respiratory infections, sometimes leading to hospitalization in cases of severe respiratory distress. The aim of this study was to investigate respiratory infections in children treated in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Assays were performed using the CLART® Pneumovir DNA array assay (Genomica, Coslada, Madrid, Spain), which makes it possible to detect 11 genus of respiratory viruses simultaneously. During the winter of 2008-2009, 73 respiratory specimens collected from 53 children under 2 years of age and admitted to an ICU were tested. At least one virus was detected in 78% (57/73) of the samples. The virological diagnosis was based on single infections in 65% (37/57) and on multiple infections in 35% (20/57) of cases. The array assay revealed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 73.6% (42/57) of the samples and rhinovirus in 24.6% (14/57), either on their own or in co-infections. All viruses identified in single and multiple infections were tested, taking into account clinical features, risk factors, and severity criteria. Children with no risk factors presented more multiple infections, up to 42% of cases, than children with at least one risk factor. RSV seemed to induce severe symptoms by itself as no difference in intubation needs was observed when RSV was detected on its own or in co-infection. The CLART® Pneumovir DNA array was useful for examining severe viral respiratory infections, when other viruses than those detected by conventional methods could be involved, particularly in an ICU. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in cord blood, respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization, and recurrent wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization is associated with wheeze. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies in cord blood on RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze in infancy. METHODS: Among children from the Danish National Birth...

  19. Demographic profile, host, disease & viral predictive factors of response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Genotype 3 was the commonest HCV genotype. The commonest source of infection was previous transfusion and surgery. SVR rates for genotypes 3 were better than genotype 1 patients. Predictors of non-response were high BMI, insulin resistance, significant fibrosis and inadequate compliance.

  20. The adenoviral infections in children admitted to hospital with pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or respiratory viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecu, Cristina; Mihai, Maria E; Alexandrescu, Viorel I; Orăşanu, Dumitru; Zapucioiu, Carmen; Matei, Dumitru; Craiu, M; Cochino, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the percent of infections with adenovirus (ADV) in children who had pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or viral respiratory infections and were admitted to two pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest (Grigore Alexandrescu Hospital and Alfred Rusescu Hospital). 70 children aged one month - five years, admitted to the above mentioned pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest, who were negative for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and the human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) by Reverse Transcription -Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). 48 of them presented pneumonia upon admission to hospital, 6--acute bronchiolitis and 16 respiratory viral infections. Samples (nasal swabs) were taken from patients and introduced in viral transport medium. RT-PCR for RSV and hMPV, Multiplex PCR by seeplex multi-detection system with Seeplex RV/PB 18 ASE Detection for detection of 5 pneumonial bacteria and Real-Time PCR, Duplica Real Time Adenovirus Detection for ADV. Of the total 70 patients negative for RSV, hMPV and 5 pneumonial bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila), 10 were ADV positive; none of the children < 6 months (N = 16) presented ADV infection. In the 6 months - 2 years group (N = 35), 6 were ADV positive. In the 2 - 5 years group (N = 19), 4 were ADV positive. The percent of ADV infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) caused by neither RSV or hMPV is 14.2%. ADV is most frequently encountered in the 6 months - 2 years and then 2 - 5 years groups, but the most severe pneumonia forms can be seen in the 6 months - 2 years group. In children < 6 months with acute bronchiolitis ADV was not found to be an etiologic agent.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Karin; Tryc, Anita B; Heeren, Meike; Worthmann, Hans; Pflugrad, Henning; Berding, Georg; Bokemeyer, Martin; Tillmann, Hans L; Goldbecker, Annemarie

    2009-03-01

    There is growing evidence that hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection may affect the brain. About half of the HCV-infected patients complain of chronic fatigue irrespective of their stage of liver disease or virus replication rate. Even after successful antiviral therapy fatigue persists in about one third of the patients. Many patients, in addition, report of deficits in attention, concentration and memory, some also of depression. Psychometric testing revealed deficits in attention and verbal learning ability as characteristic for HCV-afflicted patients with normal liver function. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed alterations of the cerebral choline, N-acetyl-aspartate, and creatine content in the basal ganglia, white matter and frontal cortex, respectively. Recently, pathologic cerebral serotonin and dopamine transporter binding and regional alterations of the cerebral glucose utilisation compatible with alterations of the dopaminergic attentional system were observed. Several studies detected HCV in brain samples or cerebro-spinal fluid. Interestingly, viral sequences in the brain often differed from those in the liver, but were closely related to those found in lymphoid tissue. Therefore, the Trojan horse hypothesis emerged: HCV-infected mononuclear blood cells enter the brain, enabling the virus to reside within the brain (probably in microglia) and to infect brain cells, especially astrocytes.

  2. Virus infection, antiviral immunity, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getts, Daniel R; Chastain, Emily M L; Terry, Rachael L; Miller, Stephen D

    2013-09-01

    As a group of disorders, autoimmunity ranks as the third most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. However, the etiology of most autoimmune diseases remains unknown. Although genetic linkage studies support a critical underlying role for genetics, the geographic distribution of these disorders as well as the low concordance rates in monozygotic twins suggest that a combination of other factors including environmental ones are involved. Virus infection is a primary factor that has been implicated in the initiation of autoimmune disease. Infection triggers a robust and usually well-coordinated immune response that is critical for viral clearance. However, in some instances, immune regulatory mechanisms may falter, culminating in the breakdown of self-tolerance, resulting in immune-mediated attack directed against both viral and self-antigens. Traditionally, cross-reactive T-cell recognition, known as molecular mimicry, as well as bystander T-cell activation, culminating in epitope spreading, have been the predominant mechanisms elucidated through which infection may culminate in an T-cell-mediated autoimmune response. However, other hypotheses including virus-induced decoy of the immune system also warrant discussion in regard to their potential for triggering autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which virus infection and antiviral immunity contribute to the development of autoimmunity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  4. Common and cerebrospinal immunity in pantropic virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Dubov, A.

    2009-01-01

    We are offering and developing a hypothesis on common and transbarrier (hystohematogenous barriers) cerebrospinal immunity in pantropic virus infections. Common humoral and cellular immunity does not make improbable the penetration of virulent neurotropic viruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis pathogen, through hematoencephalitic barrier and the development of acute virus infection or virus persistence with the formation of chronic or slow infection process. Makers of specific antivirus vac...

  5. Detection of viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection of children in Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P acute respiratory infection among children in Hubei of China were mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  8. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  9. Rota virus infections: prevalence, diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Vidya,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of infant mortality. Various diagnostic methods are available and there is a need to select an ideal one. The use of Vaccines, its efficacy needs to be studied. Methods: A pubmed search, pubchem assay journal of epidemiology and infection, Google search generated results were included for review, out of 900 articles generated 111 articles are studied and were included for review. Conclusion: Molecular typing methods for viruses should aim to provide clinically and biologically useful information about field viruses, particularly with regard to virulence, viral epidemiology, and virus serotype identification. These data may be important for assessing the need for introducing rotavirus surveillance and vaccines into immunization programs in India particularly Tamilnadu.

  10. Myeloradiculopathy associated with chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Batra, Ayush; Colorado, Rene A; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is endemic to parts of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and more recently the Caribbean. Patients typically present with fever, rash, and arthralgias, though neurologic symptoms, primarily encephalitis, have been described. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who was clinically diagnosed with CHIKV while traveling in the Dominican Republic and presented 10 days later with left lower extremity weakness, a corresponding enhancing thoracic spinal cord lesion, and positive CHIKV serologies. She initially responded to corticosteroids, followed by relapsing symptoms and gradual clinical improvement. The time lapse between acute CHIKV infection and the onset of myelopathic sequelae suggests an immune-mediated phenomenon rather than direct activity of the virus itself. Chikungunya virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in endemic areas. The progression of symptoms despite corticosteroid administration suggests more aggressive immunomodulatory therapies may be warranted at disease onset.

  11. Down syndrome as risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization: A prospective multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Medrano, Constancio; Lirio, Julián

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood, particularly in premature infants, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To compare the hospitalization rates due to RSV infection and severity of disease between infants with and without Down syndrome (DS) born at term and without other associated risk factors for severe RSV infection. In a prospective multicentre epidemiological study, 93 infants were included in the DS cohort and 68 matched by sex and data of birth (±1 week) and were followed up to 1 year of age and during a complete RSV season. The hospitalization rate for all acute respiratory infection was significantly higher in the DS cohort than in the non-DS cohort (44.1% vs 7.7%, P<.0001). Hospitalizations due to RSV were significantly more frequent in the DH cohort than in the non-DS cohort (9.7% vs 1.5%, P=.03). RSV prophylaxis was recorded in 33 (35.5%) infants with DS. The rate of hospitalization according to presence or absence of RSV immunoprophylaxis was 3.0% vs 15%, respectively. Infants with DS showed a higher rate of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infection and RSV infection compared to non-DS infants. Including DS infants in recommendations for immunoprophylaxis of RSV disease should be considered. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia P; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management.

  13. Increased concordance of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in identical twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Skytthe, Axel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We estimated differences in the severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection attributable to genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: Record linkage data on hospitalizations attributable to respiratory syncytial virus infection were gathered on all twins (12,346 pairs) born...... in Denmark between 1994 and 2003. Latent-factor models of genetic and environmental effects were fitted to the observed data by using maximal likelihood methods. RESULTS: Identical twins resembled each other significantly more than did fraternal twins for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization...... (concordance rate: 0.66 vs 0.53), which suggests genetic influences on disease severity. Genetic factors accounted for 16%, family environment for 73%, and nonshared environment for 11% of the individual susceptibility to develop severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The severity...

  14. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Baize

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis.

  15. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, Sn; Samaddar, D P; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-03-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.

  16. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  17. Pharmacological intervention for dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jenn-Haung; Lin, Yi-Ling; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2017-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has a considerable health impact in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Escalation of infection rates greatly increases morbidity and mortality, most commonly from deaths due to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Although the development of an effective, long-lasting vaccine has been a major aim for control and prevention of DENV infection, the currently licensed vaccine has limitations and is less than satisfactory. Thus, there remains an important need to identify effective and tolerable medications for treatment of DENV-infected patients both in the early phase, to prevent progression to fatal outcomes, and to minimize deaths after patients develop severe complications. This review will address several specific points, including (1) approaches to identify anti-DENV medications, (2) recent advances in the development of potential compounds targeting DENV infection, (3) experience with clinical trials of regimens for DENV infection, (4) some available medications of potential for clinical trials against DENV infection, (5) reasons for unsuccessful outcomes and challenges of anti-DENV treatments, and (6) directions for developing or selecting better anti-DENV strategies. This review provides useful guidance for clinicians selecting drugs for DENV-infected patients with severe manifestations or potential fatal disease progression, and for basic researchers seeking to develop effective anti-DENV regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are uncl...

  20. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  2. Low Retinol-Binding Protein and Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Severe Outcomes in Children Hospitalized with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Respiratory Syncytial Virus or Human Metapneumovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L; Jones, Bart G; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Gansebom, Shane; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Bramley, Anna M; Jain, Seema; McCullers, Jonathan A; Arnold, Sandra R

    2017-08-01

    Retinol binding protein and vitamin D were measured in children aged respiratory tract infection and respiratory syncytial virus and/or human metapneumovirus detections. Low vitamin levels were observed in 50% of the children and were associated with significantly elevated risk of the need for intensive care unit admission and invasive mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  4. West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time. This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease. PMID:23034323

  5. Cytokine responses in primary and secondary respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Douros, Konstantinos; Bingle, Colin D; Everard, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    Primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are characterized by high levels of IL-8 and an intense neutrophilia. Little is known about the cytokine responses in secondary infections. Preschool children experiencing RSV secondary infections were recruited from the siblings of infants admitted to hospital with RSV acute bronchiolitis. Fifty-one infants with acute bronchiolitis (39 RSV positive, 12 RSV negative) and 20 age-matched control infants were recruited. In addition, seven older siblings of infants from the RSV-positive cohort and confirmed RSV infection were recruited. Samples of nasal secretions were obtained using a flocked swab, and secretions extracted using centrifugation. Cytokine bead array was used to obtain levels of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-8, IL-6, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Levels of IL-8 and IL-6 were significantly lower in the RSV-positive siblings compared with the RSV-positive infants. There were no significant differences between levels of the other cytokines in the primary and secondary infections. The very high levels of IL-8 and IL-6 response characteristic of the primary RSV infection was not observed in secondary RSV-positive infections and this did not appear to be due to a global reduction in cytokine production.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise; St George, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited. Furthermore, Zika cross-reacts serologically with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Current or past infection, or even vaccination with another flavivirus, will often cause false-positive or uninterpretable Zika serology results. Detection of viral RNA during acute infection using nucleic acid amplification tests provides more specific results, and a number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests have received emergency use authorization. In addition to serum, testing of whole blood and urine is recommended because of the higher vial loads and longer duration of shedding. However, nucleic acid amplification testing has limited utility because many patients are asymptomatic or present for testing after the brief period of Zika shedding has passed. Thus, the greatest need and most difficult challenge is development of accurate antibody tests for the diagnosis of recent Zika infection. Research is urgently needed to identify Zika virus epitopes that do not cross-react with other flavivirus antigens. New information is emerging at a rapid pace and, with ongoing public-private and international collaborations and government support, it is hoped that rapid progress will be made in developing robust and widely applicable diagnostic tools.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  8. [Etiological analysis and establishment of a discriminant model for lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y S; Lin, X H; Li, H R; Hua, Z D; Lin, M Q; Huang, W S; Yu, T; Lyu, H Y; Mao, W P; Liang, Y Q; Peng, X R; Chen, S J; Zheng, H; Lian, S Q; Hu, X L; Yao, X Q

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses. Finally, a discriminant model was established by using the discriminant analysis methods to help to predict bacterial, viral and mixed infections. Results: Pathogens were detected in 53.9% (131/243) of the 243 cases.Bacteria accounted for 23.5%(57/243, of which 17 cases with the virus, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and virus), mainly Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumonia. Atypical pathogens for 4.9% (12/243, of which 3 cases with the virus, 1 case of bacteria and viruses), all were mycoplasma pneumonia. Viruses for 34.6% (84/243, of which 17 cases of bacteria, 3 cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and bacteria) of the cases, mainly Influenza A virus and Human Cytomegalovirus, and other virus like adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human boca virus were also detected fewly. Seven parameters including mental status, using antibiotics prior to admission, complications, abnormal breath sounds, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score, pneumonia severity index (PSI) score and CRUB-65 score were enrolled after univariate analysis, and discriminant analysis was used to establish the discriminant model by applying the identified pathogens as the

  9. [Medical students' knowledge about hospital infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Denić, Ljiljana; Maksimović, Jadranka; Sbutega-Milosević, Gorica; Sbutega, Isidora; Maksimović, Milos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the differences in the knowledge level about hospital infections between medical students having studied according to the old and new education programs. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, Serbia. The anonymous self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to all third year students. In 2000, the students followed the "old" system of education, and in 2007 they followed the new curriculum according to the Bologna Process. The questionnaires were answered and returned by 79.8% of students who had the "old" education program and by 71.9% of students having a "new" curriculum. The latter students knew more about the definition of hospital infections (p importance of endogenous reservoirs (p students studying according to the new program recognized that the contact was the most frequent mode of transmission (p students with the new program of studies knew more about hospital infections. This difference may be attributed to the previous course in epidemiology and earlier clinical practice that covered these topics. Although all of the students stated they knew which mode of transmission was the most frequent, when asked in specific terms about the hand hygiene, the "new" curriculum students stated to have intermediate knowledge, and the "old" curriculum students showed a substantial lack of knowledge. It is important to increase their knowledge level and compliance with the hand hygiene. The knowledge about hospital infections seems to have been improved by theoretical and practical sessions during early clinical training by the Bologna curriculum.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  11. The epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African' or 'children' and 'respiratory syncytial virus' or 'acute respiratory tract infections' as text words were retrieved. We analysed the data on respiratory virus activity from January 1990 to June 1996. Data were obtained from the National ...

  12. Cancer risk in patients with hepatitis C virus infection: a?population?based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangdong; Chen, Yanqing; Wang, Youxin; Dong, Xiaohua; Wang, Junming; Tang, Jianhua; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increased risks of certain cancers have been observed in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, data on other cancer sites/types are lacking. We analyzed systematically the risk of developing 35 common cancers in patients with HCV infection using a nationwide Swedish database. Patients with HCV infection were identified from the Swedish Hospital Inpatient and Outpatient Register and Primary Health Care Database, and followed until the diagnosis of cancer. Standardi...

  13. Different outcomes of nosocomial infection with hepatitis C virus from the same origin

    OpenAIRE

    Kakizaki, Satoru; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sohara, Naondo; Sato, Ken; Nagamine, Takeaki; Mori, Masatomo

    2006-01-01

    The outcome of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies substantially from self-limiting infection to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma among the individuals. The mechanisms that determine the clearance or the persistence of HCV have not yet been clarified. Here, we experienced two cases of hospital-related infection with HCV from the same origin but with quite different outcomes. One case resolved after an episode of acute hepatitis, while the other case d...

  14. Blood donor screening for West Nile virus (WNV) revealed acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection, Germany, September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadar, Daniel; Maier, Philipp; Müller, Susanne; Kress, Julia; Chudy, Michael; Bialonski, Alexandra; Schlaphof, Alexander; Jansen, Stephanie; Jöst, Hanna; Tannich, Egbert; Runkel, Stefan; Hitzler, Walter E; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wessiepe, Martina; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-04-06

    Between 1 June and 31 December 2016, 13,023 blood donations from the University Hospital Aachen in Germany were routinely screened for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA using the cobas TaqScreen WNV Test. On 28 September 2016, one blood donor was tested positive. Subsequent analysis revealed an acute Usutu virus (USUV) infection. During the ongoing USUV epizootics in Germany, blood transfusion services, public health authorities and clinicians should be aware of increased human USUV infections. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  15. Clustering of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations in childcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....

  16. Clinical studies on hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. This thesis describes clinical aspects of hepatitis B, C, and E virus infection. Part I focuses on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This part describes immune responses of patients with acute HBV-infection,

  17. KINETIC PROFILE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THREE RAT STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractInfluenza infection is a respiratory disease of viral origin that can cause major epidemics in man. The influenza virus infects and damages epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and causes pneumonia. Lung lesions of mice infected with influenza virus resembl...

  18. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  19. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  20. Demand for care and nosocomial infection rate during the first influenza AH1N1 2009 virus outbreak at a referral hospital in Mexico City Demanda asistencial y tasa de infección nosocomial durante el primer brote de influenza AH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Comparison of routine hospital indicators (consults at the Emergency Room (ER and hospital admissions during the 2009 pandemic of the influenza AH1N1 virus at the national referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outbreak was from April to mid-May 2009 and two control periods were used:2009 (before and after the outbreak,and during April-May from 2007 and 2008. RESULTS: During the outbreak total consultation at the ER increased six times compared with the 2007-2008 control period and 11 times compared with the 2009 control period. Pneumonia- or influenza-related ER consultations increased 23.2 and 15.3%, respectively. The rate of nosocomial infection during the outbreak was 13.6 and that of nosocomial pneumonia was 6 per/100 hospital discharges, a two-fold and three-fold increase compared to the control periods respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak,mean severity of admitted patients increased,with a rise in in-hospital mortality and nosocomial infections rate, including nosocomial pneumonia.OBJETIVO: Comparación de indicadores hospitalarios de rutina (consultas de urgencia, admisiones hospitalarias etc. durante la pandemia de influenzaAH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia para enfermedades respiratorias de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El brote se consideró de abril a la mitad de mayo de 2009 y se comparó con dos periodos control: el de 2009 (antes y después del brote, y durante abril y mayo de 2007 y 2008. RESULTADOS: Durante el brote las consultas de urgencia crecieron seis veces comparadas con el periodo control 2007-2008 y 11 veces contra el periodo control de 2009. Las consultas por neumonía o influenza incrementaron 23.2 y 15.3% comparadas contra los periodos control, respectivamente. La tasa de infección nosocomial durante el brote fue de 13.6 y la de neumonía nosocomial de 6.0 por 100 egresos hospitalarios, el doble y el triple de la documentada en los

  1. Congenital Zika Virus Infection: Beyond Neonatal Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Aguiar, Renato Santana; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Arruda, Monica B; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Suelem Taís Clementino; Batista, Alba Gean Medeiros; Ferreira, Thales; Dos Santos, Mayra Pereira; Sampaio, Virgínia Vilar; Moura, Sarah Rogéria Martins; Rabello, Luciana Portela; Gonzaga, Clarissa Emanuelle; Malinger, Gustavo; Ximenes, Renato; de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Patricia Soares; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Chimelli, Leila; Silveira, Paola Paz; Delvechio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza; Campanati, Loraine; Nogueira, Rita M R; Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Voloch, Carolina Moreira; Ferreira, Orlando C; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil. We observed 11 infants with congenital ZIKV infection from gestation to 6 months in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Ten of 11 women included in this study presented with symptoms of ZIKV infection during the first half of pregnancy, and all 11 had laboratory evidence of the infection in several tissues by serology or polymerase chain reaction. Brain damage was confirmed through intrauterine ultrasonography and was complemented by magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological analysis was performed on the placenta and brain tissue from infants who died. The ZIKV genome was investigated in several tissues and sequenced for further phylogenetic analysis. Description of the major lesions caused by ZIKV congenital infection. Of the 11 infants, 7 (63.6%) were female, and the median (SD) maternal age at delivery was 25 (6) years. Three of 11 neonates died, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 27.3%. The median (SD) cephalic perimeter at birth was 31 (3) cm, a value lower than the limit to consider a microcephaly case. In all patients, neurological impairments were identified, including microcephaly, a reduction in cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, lissencephaly with hydrocephalus, and fetal akinesia deformation sequence (ie, arthrogryposis). Results of limited testing for other causes of microcephaly, such as genetic disorders and viral and bacterial infections, were negative, and the ZIKV genome was found in both maternal and neonatal tissues (eg, amniotic fluid, cord blood, placenta, and

  2. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    ... infections and 635,000 CHIKV infections were reported in this region in 2015 (4,5). However, details of the frequency of co-infection are lacking (1), although a recent study involving 173 samples from Nicaragua that were positive for either virus found a co-infection rate of 22% (6). Co-infections might be frequently missed by surveillance ...

  3. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imade Yolanda Nsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar White and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu76. The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV, genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP. The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar White was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods and seeds. CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures.

  4. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  5. Rota virus infections: prevalence, diagnosis and prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vidya, Padmanabhan; Ponnambalam, Arun; Gunasekeran, Palani; Arunagiri, Kavitha; Sambasivam, Mohana; Krishnasami, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    ...: Molecular typing methods for viruses should aim to provide clinically and biologically useful information about field viruses, particularly with regard to virulence, viral epidemiology, and virus...

  6. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  7. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  8. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  10. Animal models of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zompi, Simona; Harris, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the 'vascular-leak' syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  11. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Geraldine

    2017-01-11

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success. This is, at least in part, due to the lack of animal models that fully recapitulate the pathogenesis of hRSV infection in humans. This review summarises the strengths and limitations of animal models of hRSV, which include those in which hRSV is used to infect non-human mammalian hosts, and those in which non-human pneumoviruses, such as bovine (b)RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) are studied in their natural host. Apart from chimpanzees, other non-human primates (NHP) are only semi-permissive for hRSV replication and experimental infection with large doses of virus result in little or no clinical signs of disease, and generally only mild pulmonary pathology. Other animal models such as cotton rats, mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, hamsters, chinchillas, and neonatal lambs are also only semi-permissive for hRSV. Nevertheless, mice and cotton rats have been of value in the development of monoclonal antibody prophylaxis for infants at high risk of severe hRSV infection and have provided insights into mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of hRSV. However, the extent to which they predict hRSV vaccine efficacy and safety is unclear and several hRSV vaccine candidates that are completely protective in rodent models are poorly effective in chimpanzees and other NHP, such as African Green monkeys. Furthermore

  12. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  13. Rota virus infections: prevalence, diagnosis and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan Vidya,; Arun Ponnambalam,; Palani Gunasekeran,; Kavitha Arunagiri,; Mohana Sambasivam; Kaveri Krishnasami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of infant mortality. Various diagnostic methods are available and there is a need to select an ideal one. The use of Vaccines, its efficacy needs to be studied. Methods: A pubmed search, pubchem assay journal of epidemiology and infection, Google search generated results were included for review, out of 900 articles generated 111 articles are studied and were included for review. Conclusion: Molecular typing methods for viruses should aim to ...

  14. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  15. Psychiatric barriers to readiness for treatment for hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users: clinical experience of an addiction psychiatrist in the HIV-HCV coinfection clinic of a public health hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheft, Harriet; Fontenette, Dominique C

    2005-04-15

    Among injection drug users, psychological and psychiatric barriers to readiness for treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection include mood and anxiety disorders, cognitive deficits, temperament disorders, and personality vulnerabilities, as well as ongoing drug use. Many aspects of these barriers can be overcome with direct treatment or social support. To establish effective treatment for HCV infection in this population of patients, it is essential that the patient and providers develop a rapport that allows for active communication. It is also important that the patient make an effort to adhere to the treatment requirements and that the patient receive the appropriate evaluation and management of treatable barriers.

  16. Transmission of HCV infection among long-term hospitalized onco-haematological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, D; Wysocki, J; Rembowska, J; Pernak, M; Lewandowski, K; Nowak, T; Nowicka-Kujawska, K; Nowak, J

    2003-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is becoming a substantial problem in long-term hospitalized patients. Onco-haematological patients undergoing chemotherapy are especially prone to HCV infection. These patients are usually immunosuppressed and therefore antibodies to HCV are not produced despite the presence of HCV RNA in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to see how often long-term hospitalized patients acquired HCV infection, and what were the possible sources and routes of virus transmission. The study involved 129 children with lymphoproliferative diseases, 36 patients with solid tumours, and 61 healthcare workers from onco-haematological wards. All were HCV RNA and anti-HCV negative at the time of first hospitalization. During a two and a half-year follow-up study among 165 onco-haematological patients, HCV RNA appeared in 87 in subsequent hospitalizations. The majority of infections were (82/87) were 1a genotype, 2 were 1b, 1 was 1a + 1b and 1 was 1a + 3a. In an attempt to establish the origin of HCV infection, healthcare workers were screened for HCV genotyping. All HCV-infected staff working on wards had the same genotype (1a). None of the staff was infected with 1b genotype. As the most prevalent genotype in Polish blood donors is 1b, HCV infection in onco-haematological patients is most likely due to horizontal transmission, probably involving genotype 1a, and potential horizontal transmission of HCV is implied by the presence of 1a genotype of HCV in saliva and urine of selected patients. Spread of hospital HCV infection among children may be facilitated by micro-injury of the skin and mucosa. Early detection of HCV RNA is important in such immunosuppressed patients, as they are not able to produce anti-HCV antibodies. This may enable the introduction of prophylactic steps to prevent the spread of HCV infection by horizontal transmission. Copyright 2003 The Hospital Infection Society

  17. Viremia in hospitalized children with enterovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Jenista, J A; Prather, S L; Powell, K R; Menegus, M A

    1985-03-01

    In a prospective study during the summer and fall of 1982, enterovirus was isolated from 48 hospitalized children; in 29 (60%) enterovirus was isolated from CSF or blood, and in 19 (40%) only a presumptive diagnosis was established. Blood was positive in 21 (44%) and was the only positive specimen in two children. A presumptive diagnosis was provided within 4 days of admission in 38 (80%) and within 48 hours in 19 (40%) of the children from whom enterovirus was isolated. Viremia was most often detected in febrile infants younger than 3 months of age with a clinical picture simulating bacterial sepsis. The presence of viremia was inversely related to the presence of CSF pleocytosis and to virus isolation from CSF. The diagnosis of diseases caused by enterovirus is more accurate when blood culture is added to CSF stool and throat cultures.

  18. Zika virus infections in pregnancy: epidemics and case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih sahiner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, and is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Only a small number of cases had been described until 2007 when the first major Zika virus outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia. Approximately 80% of people infected with Zika virus do not exhibit any symptoms. Symptomatic infections are generally moderate and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. The virus has recently attracted a broad interest due to the emerging cases of microcephaly that are possibly associated with mothers infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy, and the regional increases in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome during the epidemic periods. Although the relationship between Zika virus infection and these abnormalities is not obviously understood yet, Zika virus testing is recommended for infants with microcephaly or intracranial calcifications whose mothers were potentially infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy. Every day, new reports are being published about the outbreaks associated with this virus; nevertheless, no new cases of this virus have been reported in Turkey. Despite this, we cannot currently exclude the possibility of the encounter with the virus because of the presence of Aedes mosquitoes, which are responsible for the spread of the virus, are prevalent in Turkey, and an increasing number of travel-related cases are being reported from different countries. In the light of the current knowledge on this virus, this review aims to discuss the course of Zika virus infections in detail, especially congenital infection, and presenting current information about the case management and preventive measures. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 143-151

  19. Oxidative stress in Mayaro virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camini, Fernanda Caetano; da Silva Caetano, Camila Carla; Almeida, Letícia Trindade; da Costa Guerra, Joyce Ferreira; de Mello Silva, Breno; de Queiroz Silva, Silvana; de Magalhães, José Carlos; de Brito Magalhães, Cintia Lopes

    2017-05-15

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a neglected tropical arbovirus that causes a febrile syndrome that is sometimes accompanied by incapacitating arthritis/arthralgia. The pathogenesis of MAYV has not been completely defined and oxidative stress mediated by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or depletion of antioxidant defences has been found to contribute to several aspects of viral disease. To investigate whether MAYV induced oxidative stress in host cells, we monitored ROS production, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defences at different time points after infection. Our results show that MAYV induced significant oxidative stress in infected HepG2 cells, as indicated by the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels, and by a significant decrease of the reduced versus oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Generally, MAYV-infected HepG2 cells also showed an increase in antioxidant defences. We observed an increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the total glutathione content. To determine whether similar effects occurred in other cell types, we evaluated the ROS, MDA and SOD activity levels in J774 cells after MAYV infection. Similar to our observations in HepG2 cells, the J774 cells showed an increase in ROS, MDA and total SOD activity following MAYV infection. Thus, since the cellular redox environment is influenced by the production and removal of ROS, we hypothesize that the overproduction of ROS was responsible for the oxidative stress in response to the MAYV infection despite the increase in the antioxidant status. This study is the first report on the involvement of oxidative stress during MAYV infection. Collectively, our data shed light on some mechanisms that are operational in host cells following exposure to MAYV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polysulfonate suramin inhibits Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Sam, I-Ching; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log 10  PFU viral reduction with IC 50 value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  2. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  3. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascotto Ernesto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV infection epidemic involving fifteen primates occurred between October 2006 and February 2007 at the Natura Viva Zoo. This large open-field zoo park located near Lake Garda in Northern Italy hosts one thousand animals belonging to one hundred and fifty different species, including various lemur species. This lemur collection is the most relevant and rich in Italy. A second outbreak between September and November 2008 involved three lemurs. In all cases, the clinical signs were sudden deaths generally without any evident symptoms or only with mild unspecific clinical signs. Gross pathologic changes were characterized by myocarditis (diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium, pulmonary congestion, emphysema, oedema and thoracic fluid. The EMCV was isolated and recognized as the causative agent of both outbreaks. The first outbreak in particular was associated with a rodent plague, confirming that rats are an important risk factor for the occurrence of the EMCV infection.

  4. Can intersectional innovations reduce hospital infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, S

    2017-02-01

    Preventing healthcare-associated infection remains an international priority given the clinical and economic consequences of this largely preventable patient safety harm. Whereas important strides have been made in preventing hospital infections over the past several decades, thorny issues remain, including how to consistently improve hand hygiene rates and further reduce device-related complications such as catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Rather than relying solely on directional innovations - incremental changes that continue to serve as the bedrock of scientific advancement - perhaps we should also search for 'intersectional innovations', which represent breakthrough discoveries that emanate from the intersection of often widely divergent disciplines. Several intersectional innovations that have the potential to greatly impact infection prevention efforts include human factors engineering, sociology, and engaging the senses. Indeed, Professor Edward Joseph Lister Lowbury, the namesake of this lecture, exemplified intersectional thinking in his own life, having been both an accomplished bacteriologist and poet. By incorporating approaches outside of traditional biomedical science we may hope to provide patients with the safe care they expect and deserve. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseng, Zian H; Secemsky, Eric A; Dowdy, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Moyers, Brian; Wong, Joseph K; Havlir, Diane V; Hsue, Priscilla Y

    2012-01-01

    ...) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As the HIV-infected population ages, cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality are increasing, but the incidence and features of SCD have not yet been described...

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis and Management of Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Infection. ... Without accurate diagnosis and follow up, these children cannot be offered optimal care, and are at risk ... Keywords:Acute infective hepatitis;Catalase; LiverFunction Tests ...

  7. Hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections among infants in the Canadian Arctic: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Anna; Panzov, Val; Young, Michael; Robinson, Joan; Lee, Bonita; Moraes, Theo; Mamdani, Muhammad; Giles, B Louise; Jiang, Depeng; Bisson, Danny; Dennis, Marguerite; Morel, Johanne; Hall, Judith; Hui, Charles; Paes, Bosco; Mahony, James B

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether this burden of disease of lower respiratory tract infections is comparable across the Canadian Arctic. The objectives of this surveillance study were to compare the rates of hospital admission for lower respiratory tract infection and the severity of infection across Arctic Canada, and to describe the responsible viruses. We performed a prospective multicentre surveillance study of infants less than 1 year of age admitted in 2009 with lower respiratory tract infection to all hospitals (5 regional, 4 tertiary) in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Nunavik to assess for regional differences. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were processed by means of a polymerase chain reaction respiratory viral panel, testing for 20 respiratory viruses and influenza A (H1N1). The role of coinfection was assessed by means of regression analysis for length of stay (short: 14 d). Outcomes compared included rates of lower respiratory tract infection, respiratory syncytial virus infection, transfer to tertiary hospital and severe lower respiratory tract infection (respiratory failure, intubation and mechanical ventilation, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation). There were 348 admissions for lower respiratory tract infection in the population of interest in 2009. Rates of admission per 1000 live births varied significantly, from 39 in the Northwest Territories to 456 in Nunavik (p respiratory tract infection per 1000 live births in the Northwest Territories were 5.6 and 1.4, respectively, compared to 55.9 and 17.1, respectively, in Nunavut and 52.0 and 20.0, respectively, in Nunavik (p ≤ 0.001). Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus identified (124 cases [41.6% of those tested]), and coinfection was detected in 51 cases (41.1%) of infection with this virus. Longer length of stay was associated with coinfection (odds ratio [OR] 2.64) and underlying risk factors (OR 4.39). Length of stay decreased by 32.2% for every 30-day increase in age (OR 0

  8. Response of cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus to bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Westcott, D

    1988-03-26

    Six cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and seronegative, and two control, virus negative seropositive cattle were inoculated with lymphocytes infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The two controls produced a normal immune response to BLV, developing antibodies at four and five weeks after inoculation. Two of the six cattle persistently infected with BVDV developed a strong antibody response by six weeks after inoculation with BLV. Four developed a depressed response to BLV, characterised in three by a 'hooking' reaction in the immunodiffusion test which persisted in successive bleedings but was interspersed occasionally by a weak positive reaction. In one of these animals, a series of 'hooking' reactions was followed by a number of negative results. The fourth animal remained serologically negative until 16 weeks after inoculation when a 'hooking' reaction was observed followed by a series of negative results. BLV was isolated from all the cattle persistently infected with BVDV at 42 or 58 weeks after inoculation regardless of whether the serum samples gave negative, 'hooking', weak positive or positive reactions in the immunodiffusion test. BLV was consistently isolated from the nasal secretions of a steer which was BVDV negative but seropositive. The possibility of decreased immune responsiveness to BLV in animals persistently infected with BVDV should be considered when formulating regulations governing the testing of animals for freedom from BLV.

  9. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  10. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Virus Infection Spreading in Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhans, Andreas; Bessonov, Nickolai; Trofimchuk, Sergei; Volpert, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Virus spreading in tissues is determined by virus transport, virus multiplication in host cells and the virus-induced immune response. Cytotoxic T cells remove infected cells with a rate determined by the infection level. The intensity of the immune response has a bell-shaped dependence on the concentration of virus, i.e., it increases at low and decays at high infection levels. A combination of these effects and a time delay in the immune response determine the development of virus infection in tissues like spleen or lymph nodes. The mathematical model described in this work consists of reaction-diffusion equations with a delay. It shows that the different regimes of infection spreading like the establishment of a low level infection, a high level infection or a transition between both are determined by the initial virus load and by the intensity of the immune response. The dynamics of the model solutions include simple and composed waves, and periodic and aperiodic oscillations. The results of analytical and numerical studies of the model provide a systematic basis for a quantitative understanding and interpretation of the determinants of the infection process in target organs and tissues from the image-derived data as well as of the spatiotemporal mechanisms of viral disease pathogenesis, and have direct implications for a biopsy-based medical testing of the chronic infection processes caused by viruses, e.g. HIV, HCV and HBV. PMID:27997613

  12. Encephalomyocarditis virus infections in an Australian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddacliff, L A; Kirkland, P D; Hartley, W J; Reece, R L

    1997-06-01

    Fatal encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infections in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), three mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis), and two Goodfellows tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) occurred at Taronga Zoo. This is the first description of EMCV in a zoological collection outside of the United States. Regardless of species, the most common clinical presentation was sudden death. The gross pathologic changes were diffuse or focal pallor of the myocardium with occasional marked pulmonary congestion. Necrotizing nonsuppurative myocarditis was consistently present. EMCV was isolated from only one of 54 feral rodents examined. No antibodies to EMCV were detected with a serum neutralization test in 79 stored sera from a wide variety of zoo mammals. Titers of 1:16, 1:16, and 1:4 were recorded for a spider monkey (Aeteles geoffroyi), a lion (Panthera leo), and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), respectively. Of seven mandrills tested in 1988, six had measurable virus titers. Later testing indicated that these titers did not persist, and one mandrill with a titer > 1:128 in 1988 subsequently succumbed to EMCV infection in 1991.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus infection in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezaa, Ons; Bahri, Olfa; Alaya Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Triki, Henda; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) by an ELISA test and to determine the extent of its circulation in Tunisia. An indirect ELISA test was performed to detect anti-TOSV IgG. The results were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The survey tested 494 healthy people from various regions of Tunisia by ELISA for anti-TOSV IgG; 47 people (9.5%) were found to be positive. Seroprevalence varied by bioclimatic region and gender. Two hundred and twelve samples, randomly chosen from the same selected population and tested with ELISA, were retested using an IFA for IgG antibodies. An 85% concordance between the IFA and ELISA was obtained (kappa=0.650). These serological data confirm the circulation of TOSV in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia where the vector sand flies are found. The detection of IgG against TOSV suggests that the diagnosis of TOSV infection is often neglected, as this virus often causes asymptomatic infections, with only a few patients developing severe illnesses involving neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  15. Hair Loss after Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara El Hayderi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV cutaneous infection occurs predominantly in epidermal and infundibular keratinocytes and accessorily in dermal dendritic cells. These latter cells play a role in cicatricial processes. Two patients are presented with localized alopecia after VZV infection. A 4-year-old girl presented localized hair loss affecting about 20% of her upper right eyelash immediately following the resolution of the varicella skin lesions. No regrowth was observed after 3 months. An 80-year-old woman with a prior history of localized alopecia areata of the left occipital area presented severe left herpes zoster affecting the V1 and V2 dermatomes. At precisely the same site of the previous episode, a localized plaque of alopecia areata recurred. After topical corticosteroid therapy, a progressive hair regrowth occurred after about 3 months. These case reports are the first relating cutaneous VZV infection as the origin for permanent cicatricial alopecia and transitory alopecia areata. Localized hair loss should be added to the cutaneous complications of VZV skin infection.

  16. Stability of RNA silencing-based traits after virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bodil; Albrechtsen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    engineered virus resistance based on either a simple sense or an inverted repeat construct. We decided to use genetically engineered virus resistance in potato as a model system for further studies of the effect of virus infection on genetically engineered traits. We present for the first time a comparison...

  17. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

  18. Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ozden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells, and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus infections among visitors to an STD clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.T.H.P. van Duynhoven; M.J.W. van de Laar; W.A. Schop; Ph.H. Rothbarth (Philip); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); A.M. van Loon (Anton); M.J.W. Sprenger (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among individuals attending an STD clinic in a low endemic region. Study design: A total of 1228 women and 1648 men attending the STD clinic at the University Hospital Rotterdam, Netherlands,

  20. Neutrophils in respiratory syncytial virus infection : A target for asthma prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Ruben J.; Pillay, Janesh; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, LJ

    2015-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the foremost cause of infant hospitalization and are implicated in lasting pulmonary impairment and the development of asthma. Neutrophils infiltrate the airways of pediatric patients with RSV-induced bronchiolitis in vast

  1. Mechanisms involved with immune hyperresponsiveness in newborns infected with respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoppelenburg, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) generally occurs during the first year of life. Approximately 1% of all infants is hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis, of which 10% requires intensive care. RSV bronchiolitis is hallmarked by exaggerated mucus production and neutrophil

  2. Rhabdomyolysis in a hepatitis C virus infected patient treated with telaprevir and simvastatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, C.T.M.M. de; Luin, M. van; Solas, C.; Burger, D.M.; Vrolijk, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year old man with a chronic hepatitis C virus infection received triple therapy with ribavirin, pegylated interferon and telaprevir. The patient also received simvastatin. One month after starting the antiviral therapy, the patient was admitted to the hospital because he developed

  3. Radiological findings in children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: Relationship to clinical and bacteriological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.; Nordshus, T.; Westvik, J.; Carlsen, K.H.; Oerstadvik, I.; Eng, J.

    1986-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of bronchiolitis leading to acute admission to hospital in the winter months. A wide range of findings accompanies this disease and the appearances are seldom completely diagnostic. Associated bacterial co-infections are common and we have shown an association with atelectasis among patients with pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx. (orig.).

  4. Persistent, triple-virus co-infections in mosquito cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malasit Prida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that insects and crustaceans can carry simultaneous, active infections of two or more viruses without showing signs of disease, but it was not clear whether co-infecting viruses occupied the same cells or different cells in common target tissues. Our previous work showed that successive challenge of mosquito cell cultures followed by serial, split-passage resulted in stabilized cultures with 100% of the cells co-infected with Dengue virus (DEN and an insect parvovirus (densovirus (DNV. By addition of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE, we tested our hypothesis that stable, persistent, triple-virus co-infections could be obtained by the same process. Results Using immunocytochemistry by confocal microscopy, we found that JE super-challenge of cells dually infected with DEN and DNV resulted in stable cultures without signs of cytopathology, and with 99% of the cells producing antigens of the 3 viruses. Location of antigens for all 3 viruses in the triple co-infections was dominant in the cell nuclei. Except for DNV, this differed from the distribution in cells persistently infected with the individual viruses or co-infected with DNV and DEN. The dependence of viral antigen distribution on single infection or co-infection status suggested that host cells underwent an adaptive process to accommodate 2 or more viruses. Conclusions Individual mosquito cells can accommodate at least 3 viruses simultaneously in an adaptive manner. The phenomenon provides an opportunity for genetic exchange between diverse viruses and it may have important medical and veterinary implications for arboviruses.

  5. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...... disease (CAD)....

  7. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Objectives: The objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and assess the major risk factors among ... Key words: Hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B virus, infectivity, Lagos, Nigeria, seroprevalence .... Z is the unit normal deviate corresponding to the desired.

  8. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Infection among Females in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is life long with manifestation in a small proportion of those infected. It has presented public health concern because of its progressively increasing prevalence which some authorities say is of epidemic proportion in developing countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 has ...

  10. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R

    2016-11-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  11. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Chris; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis; Adams, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse. Hendrik Simon Schaaf. Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall transmission of HIV infection to. childrenY However, with both CSA'·' and HIV infection on the increase, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through ...

  13. Hospital Contacts With Infection and Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-01-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence...... a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact...... of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families....

  14. Impact and seasonality of human rhinovirus infection in hospitalized patients for two consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotte, Jaqueline; Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Almeida, Bernardo M; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Raboni, Sonia M

    To report epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in comparison with other community acquired respiratory virus (CRV) infections in patients hospitalized for two consecutive years. This was a cross-sectional study. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory syndrome in a tertiary care hospital from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. HRV was the most common CRV observed (36%, 162/444) and was present in the majority of viral co-detections (69%, 88/128), mainly in association with human enterovirus (45%). Most HRV-infected patients were younger than 2 years (57%). Overall, patients infected with HRV had a lower frequency of severe acute respiratory infection than those infected with other CRVs (60% and 84%, respectively, p=0.006), but had more comorbidities (40% and 27%, respectively; p=0.043). However, in the adjusted analysis this association was not significant. The mortality rate within the HRV group was 3%. Detection of HRV was more prevalent during autumn and winter, with a moderately negative correlation between viral infection frequency and temperature (r=-0.636, p<0.001) but no correlation with rainfall (r=-0.036, p=0.866). HRV is usually detected in hospitalized children with respiratory infections and is often present in viral co-detections. Comorbidities are closely associated with HRV infections. These infections show seasonal variation, with predominance during colder seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Mononucleosis and Epstein–Barr virus infection: treatment and medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valachis A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis2, Diamantis P Kofteridis11Departments of Internal Medicine-Infectious Disease Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Department of Oncology, Mälarsjukhuset, Eskilstuna, SwedenAbstract: Epstein–Barr virus is a member of the human herpes virus family. Primary infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood; in adolescents and young adults, however, it leads to infectious mononucleosis with symptoms including fever, fatigue, and sore throat that can persist for months. The disease is usually self-limited and resolves over a period of weeks or months but may occasionally be complicated by a wide variety of complications. Symptomatic treatment, the cornerstone of therapy, includes adequate hydration, analgesics, antipyretics, and limitations of contact sports and activities. The role of antiviral treatment and corticosteroids is debatable and not recommended in general, while the development of vaccination is under investigation. This review concentrates on the diagnosis, the potential complications, and the therapeutic strategies in patients with infectious mononucleosis.Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, infectious mononucleosis, EBV

  16. [Surveillance of nosocomial infections in a cardiology hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Gamboa, J D; Garza-Moreno, H

    1999-01-01

    To describe a nosocomial infection surveillance in a cardiology and thoracic diseases hospital in Northern Mexico during its initial months of activity. Retrospective report of nosocomial infection surveillance performed by the infection control team with patient visits, clinical records, microbiology reports, and direct information obtained by health personnel. General and specific infection rates were analyzed by the chi 2 test and the Student t test. General infection rate was 4.99 during the 17 month period. Monthly infection rates changed significantly during infection control team vacations. By site of infection, surgical wound infection were the most common (1.14), followed by urinary tract infections (1.08), and bacteremia (0.72). However, when we grouped bacteremias and other catheter related infections, this intravascular access related infections were the most frequent (1.73). Gram positive organisms were most commonly isolated in nosocomial infections, except in pneumonias (gram negative organism) and urinary tract infections (Candida spp.). Mortality related to nosocomial infection was high (21.7%), and at least one third of those deaths was directly related to the infection. In hospital stay and cost were also increase with nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infection is common in interventional cardiology hospitals, producing high mortality and rising costs and length of stay. We need a more effective nosocomial infections surveillance system to eliminate changes in monthly case detection produced by the infection control team vacations, since this under-registry could result in lost of control of nosocomial infections and epidemic outbreak emergence.

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Coinfections With Rhinovirus and Human Bocavirus in Hospitalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Cristina; García-García, María Luz; Pozo, Francisco; Paula, Gallardo; Molinero, Mar; Calderón, Ana; González-Esguevillas, Mónica; Casas, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is not clearly established if coinfections are more severe than single viral respiratory infections. The aim of the study was to study and to compare simple infections and viral coinfections of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children. From September 2005 to August 2013, a prospective study was conducted on children younger than 14 years of age, admitted with respiratory infection to the Pediatric Department of the Severo Ochoa Hospital, in Spain. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were taken for virological study by using polymerase chain reaction, and clinical data were recorded. Simple RSV infections were selected and compared with double infections of RSV with rhinovirus (RV) or with human bocavirus (HBoV). In this study, 2993 episodes corresponding to 2525 children were analyzed. At least 1 virus was detected in 77% (2312) of the episodes. Single infections (599 RSV, 513 RV, and 81 HBoV) were compared with 120 RSV-RV and 60 RSV-HBoV double infections. The RSV-RV coinfections had fever (63% vs 43%; P < 0.001) and hypoxia (70% vs 43%; P < 0.001) more often than RV infections. Hypoxia was similar between single or dual infections (71%). Bronchiolitis was more frequent in the RSV simple group (P < 0.001). Pediatric intensive care unit admission was more common in RSV simple or RSV-RV groups than in the RV monoinfection (P = 0.042). Hospitalization was longer for both RSV simple group and RSV-HBoV coinfection, lasting about 1 day (4.7 vs 3.8 days; P < 0.001) longer than in simple HBoV infections. There were no differences in PICU admission. RSV single group was of a younger age than the other groups. Coinfections between RSV-RV and RSV-HBoV are frequent. Overall viral coinfections do not present greater severity, but have mixed clinical features. PMID:26496310

  18. Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Rockx, Barry

    2013-04-17

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Henipaviruses can infect a wide range of species and human-to-human transmission has been observed for NiV. While the exact route of transmission in humans is not known, experimental infection in different animal species suggests that infection can be efficiently initiated after respiratory challenge. The limited data on histopathological changes in fatal human cases of HeV and NiV suggest that endothelial cells are an important target during the terminal stage of infection; however, it is unknown where these viruses initially establish infection and how the virus disseminates from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system and other organs. Here we review the current concepts in henipavirus pathogenesis in humans.

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis: comparative study of RSV groups A and B infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M. Straliotto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The grouping characteristics of 29 respiratory syncitial virus (RSV present in nasopharyngeal cells collectedfrom hospitalized children with bronchiolitis during the 1990RSVseason in Porto Alegre, RS, were analysed. Twenty-two were grouped as belonging to group A and 7 to group B. Cyanosis, oxigen therapy, cough, lenght of hospitalization and atelectasis were observed to be more frequently found within group B infected children. Other clinical signs and symptoms were similarly found in both groups.

  20. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  1. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some w...

  2. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  3. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, C S

    2012-02-01

    Recent increases in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prompted us to characterize HBV-infected children in Ireland and to audit management, by reviewing prospectively gathered data. Of 46 children (29 [63%] male), median age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 0.6-17.6), monitoring duration was 22.5 months (range 1-101), 23\\/46 (50%) were European (including 9 [19.6%] Irish), 15 (32.6%) African and 9 (19.6%) Asian. Acquisition was vertical (25\\/46 [54.3%]), horizontal (5\\/46 [10.9%]), unknown (16\\/46 [34.8%]). HBV-DNA was >100,000,000 cpm in 20\\/32 (62.5%) with chronic infection. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 32\\/44 (72.7%). We estimate that universal neonatal vaccination (UNV-HBV) could have prevented 22% of cases, and could limit further horizontal HBV spread. This supports the recent introduction of UNV-HBV.

  5. Human papilloma virus infection prior to coitarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Daniela; Bernhaus, Astrid; Kottmel, Andrea; Sam, Christine; Koelle, Dieter; Joura, Elmar A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and the natural course of anogenital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in girls prior to coitarche attending an outpatient gynecological unit. Specimens were taken from the anogenital region of 114 unselected 4-15 year old girls who were referred consecutively for various gynecological problems. Four girls were excluded because of sexual abuse. Low-risk HPV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 4 girls (3.6%) and high-risk HPV DNA in 15 children (13.6%). Two girls testing positive for HPV DNA had clinical apparent warts. After 1 year, 2 children had persistent high-risk HPV DNA, and in 1 case we found a switch from high-risk to low-risk HPV DNA. Subclinical genital low- and high-risk HPV infections are common in girls without any history of sexual abuse or sexual activity. We found persistence of genital HPV infection in children, which could be a reservoir for HPV-associated diseases later in life.

  6. Molecular viral epidemiology and clinical characterization of acute febrile respiratory infections in hospitalized children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chang, Yu-Fen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Wu, Meng-Che; Ho, Chi-Lin; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Yu-Jiun

    2015-11-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and hospitalization in children. To profile the viruses causing ARI in children admitted to a community-based hospital in central Taiwan, a cross-sectional study was conducted on children under 14 years of age that were hospitalized with febrile ARI. Viral etiology was determined using conventional cell culture and a commercial respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP), capable of detecting 19 different respiratory viruses and subtype targets. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded and analyzed. The RVP fast assay identified at least one respiratory virus in 130 of the 216 specimens examined (60.2%) and rose to 137 (63.4%) by combining the results of cell culture and RVP fast assay. In order of frequency, the etiological agents identified were, rhinovirus/enterovirus (24.6%), respiratory syncytial virus (13.8%), adenovirus (11.5%), parainfluenza virus (9.2%), influenza B (8.4%), influenza A (5.4%), human metapneumovirus (4.6%), human coronavirus (2%), and human bocavirus (2%). Co-infection did not result in an increase in clinical severity. The RVP assay detected more positive specimens, but failed to detect 6 viruses identified by culture. The viral detection rate for the RVP assay was affected by how many days after admission the samples were taken (P = 0.03). In conclusion, Rhinovirus/enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were prevalent in this study by adopting RVP assay. The viral detection rate is influenced by sampling time, especially if the tests are performed during the first three days of hospitalization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  8. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection in dentistry: a forgotten topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, N; Agha-Hosseini, F; Mahboobi, N; Safari, S; Lavanchy, D; Alavian, S-M

    2010-05-01

    More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Globally, 350-400 million suffer from chronic HBV infection. It is postulated that dentists and dental staff are infected and transmit the virus to their patients more than any other occupation. The aim of this article is to review the HBV incidence in dental society, the points of view of dentists and their patients regarding transmission of the virus during dental procedures, the occurrence of HBV outbreaks in dental clinics and the importance of methods of preventing HBV infection in dentistry.

  10. Effect of acute Zika virus infection on sperm and virus clearance in body fluids: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joguet, Guillaume; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Matusali, Giulia; Hamdi, Safouane; Walschaerts, Marie; Pavili, Lynda; Guyomard, Stefanie; Prisant, Nadia; Lamarre, Pierre; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Pasquier, Christophe; Bujan, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Evidence of human sexual transmission during Zika virus emergence is a matter of concern, particularly in procreation, but to date, kinetics of seminal shedding and the effects of infection on human reproductive function have not been described. To investigate the effects of Zika virus infection on semen and clearance of Zika virus from semen and body fluids, we aimed to study a cohort of Zika virus-infected men. This prospective observational study recruited men presenting with acute Zika virus infection at Pointe-à-Pitre University Hospital in Guadeloupe, French Caribbean, where a Zika virus outbreak occurred between April and November, 2016. Blood, urine, and semen were collected at days 7, 11, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 after symptom onset, and semen characteristics, such as total sperm count, sperm motility, vitality, and morphology, and reproductive hormone concentrations, such as testosterone, inhibin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinising hormone, were assessed. At days 7, 11, and 20, semen was processed to isolate motile spermatozoa. Zika virus RNA was detected by RT-PCR using whole blood, serum, urine, seminal plasma, semen cells, and motile spermatozoa fractions. Zika virus was isolated from different sperm fractions on Vero E6 cultures. 15 male volunteers (mean age 35 years [SD 5; range 25-44) with acute Zika virus infection and positive Zika virus RNA detection in blood or urine were enrolled. Total sperm count was decreased from median 119 × 10 6 spermatozoa (IQR 22-234) at day 7 to 45·2 × 10 6 (16·5-89·6) at day 30 and 70 × 10 6 (28·5-81·4) at day 60, respectively, after Zika virus infection. Inhibin values increased from 93·5 pg/mL (IQR 55-162) at day 7 to 150 pg/mL (78-209) at day 120 when total sperm count recovered. In motile spermatozoa obtained after density gradient separation, Zika virus RNA was found in three of 14 patients at day 7, four of 15 at day 11, and four of 15 at day 20, and replication-competent virus was

  11. Diagnosis of Zika virus infection on a nanotechnology platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Zhao, Su; Arulkumar, Shylaja; Wan, Hao; Sahoo, Malaya K; Abeynayake, Janaki; Waggoner, Jesse J; Hopes, Clay; Tang, Meijie; Dai, Hongjie

    2017-05-01

    We developed a multiplexed assay on a plasmonic-gold platform for measuring IgG and IgA antibodies and IgG avidity against both Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections. In contrast to IgM cross-reactivity, IgG and IgA antibodies against ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen were specific to ZIKV infection, and IgG avidity revealed recent ZIKV infection and past DENV-2 infection in patients in dengue-endemic regions. This assay could enable specific diagnosis of ZIKV infection over other flaviviral infections.

  12. Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Hills, Susan L; Williams, Charnetta; Galang, Romeo R; Iyengar, Preetha; Hennenfent, Andrew K; Rabe, Ingrid B; Panella, Amanda; Oduyebo, Titilope; Honein, Margaret A; Zaki, Sherif; Lindsey, Nicole; Lehman, Jennifer A; Kwit, Natalie; Bertolli, Jeanne; Ellington, Sascha; Igbinosa, Irogue; Minta, Anna A; Petersen, Emily E; Mead, Paul; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-04

    After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area, and an update was released on February 5. As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management. Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

  13. Nosocomial viral infections: IV. Guidelines for cohort isolation, the communicable disease survey, collection, and transport of specimens for virus isolation, and considerations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, W M; Menegus, M A

    1981-01-01

    Virus transmission within the hospital is related to transmissibility of the virus and susceptibility of the population at risk. General guidelines for the use of cohort isolation, for the control of virus transmission in the hospital, and for the use of the communicable disease survey for pediatric patients and visitors to the hospital are out-lined. We also present a brief review of how to collect and transport specimens for virus isolation to assist the infection control practitioner and the clinician and conclude with recommendations for further investigations in the areas of virology and infection control.

  14. Estimating infectivity rates and attack windows for two viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Noe, D A; Wu, J; Bailer, A J; Wright, S E

    2012-12-01

    Cells exist in an environment in which they are simultaneously exposed to a number of viral challenges. In some cases, infection by one virus may preclude infection by other viruses. Under the assumption of independent times until infection by two viruses, a procedure is presented to estimate the infectivity rates along with the time window during which a cell might be susceptible to infection by multiple viruses. A test for equal infectivity rates is proposed and interval estimates of parameters are derived. Additional hypothesis tests of potential interest are also presented. The operating characteristics of these tests and the estimation procedure are explored in simulation studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus: co-infection and paediatric lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Le, Minh Nhat; Dinh Vu, Thiem; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Ai; Le, Huu Tho; Morimoto, Konosuke; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Dang, Duc Anh; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive population-based data on the role of respiratory viruses in the development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain unclear. We investigated the incidence and effect of single and multiple infections with respiratory viruses on the risk of LRTIs in Vietnam. Population-based prospective surveillance and a case-control study of hospitalised paediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were conducted from April 2007 through to March 2010. Healthy controls were randomly recruited from the same community. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested for 13 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCRs. 1992 hospitalised ARI episodes, including 397 (19.9%) with LRTIs, were enrolled. Incidence of hospitalised LRTIs among children aged respiratory syncytial virus (20.1%) and influenza A virus (12.0%) were the most common and 9.5% had multiple-viral infections. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections independently increased the risk of LRTIs. Respiratory syncytial virus further increased the risk, when co-infected with human rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus-3 but not with influenza A virus. The case-control analysis revealed that respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus increased the risk of ARI hospitalisation but not human rhinovirus. Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading pathogen associated with risk of ARI hospitalisation and LRTIs in Vietnam.

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis D virus (HDV and hepatitis E virus (HEV as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Subjects and Methods: Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher′s exact test was used and a P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Of the 267 viral hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22% patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96% was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%, HBV (16.10% and HCV (11.98%. Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  18. The Use of Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Lanari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease at high risk of severe and potentially lethal course of the infection. This drug was reported to be safe, well tolerated and effective to decrease the hospitalization rate and mortality in these groups of infants by several clinical trials. In the present paper we report the development and the current use of monoclonal antibodies for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus.

  19. Perspectives and control of hepatitis B virus infection in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lin Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Taiwan. After the implementation of universal hepatitis B vaccination, there was a significant reduction of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC incidence in children, teenagers, and young adults. However, the incidence of HBV-related HCC in adults remains high. Through several community- and hospital-based cohort studies, the viral factors affecting the prognosis of HBV carriers have been illustrated. Serum HBV DNA level > 2000 IU/mL at study entry starts to increase the risks of cirrhosis and HCC in adult patients with chronic HBV infection. In addition, serum HBsAg level > 1000 IU/mL is associated with a higher risk of HCC in HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load. Virologically, HBV genotype C/D and core promote/pre-S mutations correlate with an increased HCC risk. Recently, a risk calculator has been developed to predict HCC in noncirrhotic patients with external validation. Therapeutically, hospital-based cohort and population-based nationwide studies indicated that interferon and nucleos(tide analogue treatments could reduce the incidence of HCC over time. Towards the ultimate goal of HBV eradication, several novel agents aiming at viral and host targets are under development. In addition, the immune therapy may play a key role in HBV cure in the foreseeable future.

  20. A SURVEY OF HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS IN OBAFEMI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A well-structured infection control programme plays a vital role in reducing mortality, morbidity and cost resulting from nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. However infection-control activities in developing countries is severely constrained by lack of infection control infrastructure and lack of strong commitment by ...

  1. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  2. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  3. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  4. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Wan eChan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR, a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR.

  5. Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Emily

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.

  6. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  8. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Ljungan and orthopoxvirus seroconversions in patients hospitalized due to acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevola, Cristina; Forbes, Kristian M; Mäkelä, Satu; Putkuri, Niina; Hauffe, Heidi C; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Mustonen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Vaheri, Antti

    2016-11-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases are increasing in Europe. Prominent rodent-borne zoonotic viruses include Puumala hantavirus (PUUV; the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, NE), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and orthopoxviruses (OPV). In addition, Ljungan virus (LV) is considered a potentially zoonotic virus. The aim of this study was to compare clinical picture between acute PUUV patients with and without additional rodent-borne viral infections, to investigate if concurrent infections influence disease severity. We evaluated seroprevalence of and seroconversions to LCMV, LV and OPV in 116 patients hospitalized for NE. Clinical and laboratory variables were closely monitored during hospital care. A total of five LCMV, 15 LV, and one OPV seroconversions occurred. NE patients with LCMV seroconversions were younger, and had lower plasma creatinine concentrations and platelet counts than patients without LCMV seroconversions. No differences occurred in clinical or laboratory findings between patients with and without seroconversions to LV and OPV. We report, for the first time, LCMV seroprevalence in Finland, with 8.5% of NE patients seropositive for this virus. Seroprevalences for LV and OPV were 47.8% and 32.4%, respectively. Cases with LCMV seroconversions were statistically younger, had milder acute kidney injury and more severe thrombocytopenia than patients without LCMV. However, the low number of seroconversion cases precludes firm conclusions. Concurrent LV or OPV infections do not appear to influence clinical picture for NE patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune regulation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Nielsen, Nick Schou

    2016-01-01

    The immunological result of infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on the delicate balance between a vigorous immune response that may clear the infection, but with a risk of unspecific inflammation and, or a less inflammatory response that leads to chronic infection. In general, exhaustion...... of epigenetic changes in chronic HCV infection. A vast amount of studies have revealed the complexity of immune regulation in chronic HCV infection, but the interplay between immune regulation in virus and host remains incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of regulatory functions of HCV...

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst parturients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Nigeria and indeed the whole of Sub-Saharan Africa. The Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria (SOGHIN) recommends HBV screening for all Nigerians to pave way for early detection and treatment of the infection in those who are infected and ...

  12. Influenza virus infection during pregnancy and in specific populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, WJ

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection causes approximately 1 billion infections worldwide each year. These infections are usually self-limiting, but serious complications may occur, in particular in adults aged 65 years or older, patients with cardiovascular disease, asthma or autoimmune disorders and pregnant

  13. [Prevalence and genotype distribution changes in hepatitis C virus co-infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Celia; Mancebo-Hernández, María; Pérez-Navarro, Elisabet; Recio, Eva; Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Valiente, Adoración; Pineda, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of hepatitisC is decreasing among new diagnoses of HIV/HCV coinfection in Spain. The increasing use of the HCV treatment could have changed the HCV genotype distribution. The aim of this study is to analyze changes in the prevalence of HCV coinfection and in HCV genotype distribution among HIV-infected patients. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted that included all HIV-infected patients who attended the Outpatient Clinic of a hospital in Andalusia, between September 2008 and February 2009 (first period), and between January 2013 and June 2013 (second period). A total of 520 and 651 patients were included in the first and second period, respectively. The risk factors of HCV infection in the first vs. second period were: IDU, 319 (61%) vs. 348 (53%); heterosexual contact, 111 (21%) vs. 135 (21%); homosexual men, 76 (15%) vs. 114 (22%) (P=.006). The prevalence of HCV antibody per period was: 358 (69%) vs. 380 (58%) (P=<.001), and for the HCV-RNA was 255 (49%) vs. 240 (37%) (P=<.001). In both periods, the HCV genotype distribution was: 1, 137 (60%) vs. 138 (59%); 3, 45 (20%) vs. 42 (18%); 4, 42 (18%) vs. 47 (20%) (P=.881). The prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients has decreased in our area, including overall exposure to HCV virus and active infection during the last 5 years. However, the HCV genotype distribution has not changed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Human rhinovirus infections in hospitalized children: clinical, epidemiological and virological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Pham, T M H; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Shimizu, H; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of human rhinovirus (HRV) are not well documented in tropical regions. This study compared the clinical characteristics of HRV to other common viral infections and investigated the molecular epidemiology of HRV in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Vietnam. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1082 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for respiratory viruses by PCR. VP4/VP2 sequences of HRV were further characterized. HRV was the most commonly detected virus (30%), in which 70% were diagnosed as either pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Children with single HRV infections presented with significantly higher rate of hypoxia than those infected with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (12·4% vs. 3·8% and 0%, respectively, P < 0·05), higher rate of chest retraction than PIV-1 (57·3% vs. 34·5%, P = 0·028), higher rate of wheezing than influenza A (63·2% vs. 42·3%, P = 0·038). HRV-C did not differ to HRV-A clinically. The genetic diversity and changes of types over time were observed and may explain the year-round circulation of HRV. One novel HRV-A type was discovered which circulated locally for several years. In conclusion, HRV showed high genetic diversity and was associated with significant morbidity and severe ARIs in hospitalized children.

  15. Dynamics of viral spread in bluetongue virus infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; MacLachlan, N J

    1994-06-01

    The kinetics of viremia and sites of viral replication in bluetongue virus (BTV) infected calves were characterized by virus isolation, serology and immunofluorescence staining procedures. In addition, the role of the regional lymph node and lymphatics draining inoculated skin in the pathogenesis of BTV infection was determined by analyzing efferent lymph collected from indwelling cannulas. Viremia persisted for 35 to 42 days after inoculation (DAI) and virus co-circulated with neutralizing antibodies for 23 to 26 days. Virus was first isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells at 3 DAI, after stimulation of PBM cells with interleukin 2 and mitogen. BTV was frequently isolated from erythrocytes, platelets and stimulated PBM cells but never from granulocytes and rarely from plasma during viremia. Virus was consistently isolated from erythrocytes late in the course of viremia. Interruption of efferent lymph flow by cannulation delayed the onset of viremia to 7 DAI. BTV was infrequently isolated from lymph cells, and few fluorescence positive cells were observed after lymph and PBM cells were labelled with a BTV-specific monoclonal antibody. Virus was isolated from spleen by 4 DAI and most tissues by 6 DAI, whereas virus was isolated from bone marrow only at 10 DAI. Virus was not isolated from any tissue after termination of viremia. It is concluded that primary viral replication occurred in the local lymph node and BTV then was transported in low titer to secondary sites of replication via infected lymph and PBM cells. We speculate that virus replication in spleen resulted in release of virus into the circulation and non-selective infection of blood cells which disseminated BTV to other tissues. Virus association with erythrocytes likely was responsible for prolonged viremia, although infected erythrocytes eventually were cleared from the circulation and persistent BTV infection of calves did not occur.

  16. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  17. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  18. Influenza A virus infection of human Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joshua; Buchman, Craig A; Fregien, Nevis

    2003-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular neuronitis, vocal fold paralysis and Bell's palsy have been associated with a viral etiology, due to the infection of nerve cells. The goal of this research was to ascertain whether Schwann cells can support infection with human influenza A virus and thereby represent a plausible alternative site for virus-host interaction. Viral infection of Schwann cells may lead to secretion of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte recruitment, demyelination and nerve damage. Cultured human Schwann cells were exposed to human influenza A virus. Infection was assayed at various times post-inoculation (0, 24, 48 and 72 h) using light microscopy, immunocytochemistry and influenza A virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A group of unexposed cells served as controls. Following exposure to the virus, vacuolization, cellular expansion and detachment from the dish were seen as early as 24 h post-inoculation. The exposed cells demonstrated positive immunocytochemical staining for influenza A virus antigen at 24, 48 and 72 h. Using RT-PCR, a sharp rise in influenza A virus-specific mRNA was detected. Human Schwann cells can be infected with human influenza A virus. Further studies will assess the inflammatory response in this model.

  19. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. PMID:28335562

  20. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Moumita; Bose, Sujoy; Saikia, Anjan; Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab

    2015-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen the molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Northeast India (NEI) who are ethnically distinct, tribal dominated and of lower socio-economic status with almost no information available from NEI on these aspects. Briefly, 3 ml blood was collected from 324 random liver disease cases with jaundice, receiving care at Central Hospital, N.F. Railway, Guwahati, Assam with informed consent. The patients detected with HAV-IgM positive status were included and were stratified as acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatitis (FHF) based on clinical profile. Viral RNA was isolated and HAV-RNA was detected by Real-time PCR using primers for the VP3-VP1 region. HAV genotyping was studied by PCR-direct sequencing-phylogenetic analysis approach using the VP1/2A region of HAV isolates. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 software. A total of 69 cases were HAV infected with two HBV co-infected cases (n = 69 + 2 = 71), 62 cases and two co-infected cases were AVH and others were FHF cases. HAV infection was predominant in especially in the young and adult age group. HAV-RNA was detected in 28 cases, out of which 19 cases could be genotyped (12 AVH, 7 FHF); which showed the prevalence of genotype IIIA or IA only. Although HAV genotype IIIA was the major genotype in both the AVH (10/12, 83.33%) and FHF (5/7, 71.43%) group, but the difference in distribution of genotypes in AVH and FHF cases was statistically non-significant (P = 0.550). HAV genotype IIIA is associated with the majority of HAV infected cases and severity in NEI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Seroprevalence of human parainfluenza virus type 2 infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological survey was carried out to determine the level of Human Parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) IgG antibodies in children aged 1-5 years. Blood samples were collected from 379 children who met the selection criteria in selected hospitals in Zaria. Serum IgG antibody level for. Human Parainfluenza virus type 2 was ...

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in chronic liver disease in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this cross-sectional seroprevalence study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) (anti-HCV) in patients with cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic active hepatitis (CAH) attending a referral hospital in a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-endemic area in South Africa One ...

  4. Demand for care and nosocomial infection rate during the first influenza AH1N1 2009 virus outbreak at a referral hospital in Mexico City Demanda asistencial y tasa de infección nosocomial durante el primer brote de influenza AH1N1 2009 en un hospital de referencia en la Ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Pérez-Padilla; Rosario Fernández; Cecilia García-Sancho; Francisco Franco-Marina; Edgar Mondragón; Patricia Volkow

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of routine hospital indicators (consults at the Emergency Room (ER) and hospital admissions) during the 2009 pandemic of the influenza AH1N1 virus at the national referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outbreak was from April to mid-May 2009 and two control periods were used:2009 (before and after the outbreak),and during April-May from 2007 and 2008. RESULTS: During the outbreak total consultation at the ER increased six tim...

  5. Simeprevir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laure Izquierdo,1 François Helle,1 Catherine François,1,2 Sandrine Castelain,1,2 Gilles Duverlie,1,2 Etienne Brochot1,2 1Virology Research Unit, Jules Verne University of Picardie, 2Department of Virology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens, France Abstract: Simeprevir (TMC435, Olysio™, a second-generation hepatitis C virus (HCV protease inhibitor, has been recently approved for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This molecule has very different characteristics from first-generation protease inhibitors. Results from trials show that simeprevir is highly effective and safe, with few adverse events. We discuss the specific features of this new treatment option for HCV infection, in terms of in vitro data, pharmacological data, and clinical trials. We also discuss the impact of Q80K polymorphism at baseline. Studies evaluating interferon-free regimens with simeprevir are ongoing. Future combinations of two or more direct-acting antiviral agents, targeting different viral enzymes and with synergistic antiviral effects, will be approved, allowing treatment of pan-genotypic HCV with optimized sustained virologic responses. Simeprevir will undoubtedly be part of future treatment strategies. Keywords: simeprevir, protease inhibitor, direct-acting antiviral agent, hepatitis C virus

  6. A Cost Analysis of Hospitalizations for Infections Related to Injection Drug Use at a County Safety-Net Hospital in Miami, Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansel Tookes

    Full Text Available Infections related to injection drug use are common. Harm reduction strategies such as syringe exchange programs and skin care clinics aim to prevent these infections in injection drug users (IDUs. Syringe exchange programs are currently prohibited by law in Florida. The goal of this study was to estimate the mortality and cost of injection drug use-related bacterial infections over a 12-month period to the county safety-net hospital in Miami, Florida. Additionally, the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus among this cohort of hospitalized IDUs was estimated.IDUs discharged from Jackson Memorial Hospital were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for illicit drug abuse and endocarditis, bacteremia or sepsis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. 349 IDUs were identified for chart abstraction and 92% were either uninsured or had publicly funded insurance. SSTIs, the most common infection, were reported in 64% of IDUs. HIV seroprevalence was 17%. Seventeen patients (4.9% died during their hospitalization. The total cost for treatment for injection drug use-related infections to Jackson Memorial Hospital over the 12-month period was $11.4 million.Injection drug use-related bacterial infections represent a significant morbidity for IDUs in Miami-Dade County and a substantial financial cost to the county hospital. Strategies aimed at reducing risk of infections associated with injection drug use could decrease morbidity and the cost associated with these common, yet preventable infections.

  7. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Aichi virus strains in stool samples from community and hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambert-Balay, K; Lorrot, M; Bon, F; Giraudon, H; Kaplon, J; Wolfer, M; Lebon, P; Gendrel, D; Pothier, P

    2008-04-01

    Aichi virus has been proposed as a causative agent of gastroenteritis. A total of 457 stool specimens from children hospitalized with acute diarrhea and 566 stool specimens from adults and children involved in 110 gastroenteritis outbreaks were screened for the presence of Aichi virus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of the genomic region of the 3C and 3D (3CD) nonstructural proteins. Our results show a low incidence of Aichi virus in pediatric samples and the existence of mixed infections with other microbiological agents in some cases. From the outbreak survey, it appears that the presence of Aichi virus is an indicator of mixed infections causing gastroenteritis outbreaks and that it could be involved in half of the oyster-associated outbreaks. A second RT-PCR was developed to amplify a part of the VP1 gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed a good correlation between the two classifications based on 3CD and VP1 gene sequences and revealed the prevalence of genotype A in France. It also allowed us to partially describe an Aichi virus strain that could represent a new genotype, thus suggesting the existence of a certain diversity.

  8. Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody-Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Oka, Shinichi

    2016-09-07

    Serological evidence of the epidemiological trends in Entamoeba histolytica infection is scarce, especially in nonendemic countries. We aimed to determine the antibody-positive rates over a 10-year period, and compare the trends between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -noninfected patients. We reviewed 3,514 patients who underwent antibody testing during the study periods, which were divided into five annual categories: 2004-2005, 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011, and 2012-2013. Anti-E. histolytica antibody was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antibody-positive rate increased yearly from 2004-2005 to 2012-2013 (P histolytica antibody rates increased over 10 years, even though the annual number of antibody tests remained constant. Moreover, this trend was identified in non-high-risk patients (females and non-HIV-infected patients) as well as in high-risk patients. The proportion of patients with high antibody titers significantly increased among the antibody-positive patients. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Awareness of students graduation classes about how HPV infection viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Martina

    2013-01-01

    v anglickém jazyce The thesis is dedicated to the awareness of students about the possibilities of graduation classes have HPV viruses. Introduction is devoted to the description of the theoretical and empirical chapters and a brief explanation of the issue of HPV viruses. In the beginning of the theoretical part presents brief characteristics of HPV viruses along with the history of HPV research, the incidence of disease caused due to HPV infection and disease transmission. In other chapters...

  10. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  11. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of infection with viral and bacterial pathogens in infants hospitalized for suspected sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, R; Hall, C B; Powell, K R; Menegus, M A

    1989-09-01

    A prospective study was conducted to determine the frequency and distribution of bacterial and viral pathogens in infants hospitalized with suspected sepsis and to evaluate the potential of virus detection for improving patient management. A causative organism was detected in 157 (67%) of 233 previously healthy infants less than 3 months of age, who had been hospitalized for suspected sepsis: 19 (8%) had bacterial infections, 135 (58%) had viral infections, and 3 (1%) had mixed viral-bacterial infections. Viral infections occurred in a seasonal pattern: enteroviruses were responsible for most of the hospitalizations during summer and fall (65/110; 63%) and respiratory syncytial and influenza A viruses were responsible for most of the infections during winter (44/81; 55%). In contrast, bacterial infections were not seasonally distributed. Virus was detected in 33% of the 138 infected infants within 24 hours, and in 64% within 3 days. We conclude that viral infections are prevalent among infants hospitalized for suspected sepsis, and most can be detected early enough to influence patient management.

  12. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute respiratory virus infections in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Vu, M P; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2016-02-01

    Information about viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) is essential for prevention, diagnosis and treatment, but it is limited in tropical developing countries. This study described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ARIs in children hospitalized in Vietnam. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children with ARIs at Ho Chi Minh City Children's Hospital 2 between April 2010 and May 2011 in order to detect respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Viruses were found in 64% of 1082 patients, with 12% being co-infections. The leading detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV; 30%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 23·8%), and human bocavirus (HBoV; 7·2%). HRV was detected all year round, while RSV epidemics occurred mainly in the rainy season. Influenza A (FluA) was found in both seasons. The other viruses were predominant in the dry season. HRV was identified in children of all age groups. RSV, parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, PIV3 and HBoV, and FluA were detected predominantly in children aged 24 months, respectively. Significant associations were found between PIV1 with croup (P < 0·005) and RSV with bronchiolitis (P < 0·005). HBoV and HRV were associated with hypoxia (P < 0·05) and RSV with retraction (P < 0·05). HRV, RSV, and HBoV were detected most frequently and they may increase the severity of ARIs in children.

  13. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk...

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled ... Infants Multimedia References & Resources Infographic Related Links Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks Red Book® Online RSV Transmission Recommend ...

  15. Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claine F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available François Claine, Damien Coupeau, Laetitia Wiggers, Benoît Muylkens, Nathalie Kirschvink Veterinary Department, Faculty of Sciences, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur (UNamur, Namur, Belgium Abstract: In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp. and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants. Keywords: Schmallenberg virus, Europe, ruminants, review

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Cryptosporidiosis to Dengue virus infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  17. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Nicola F.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Jennings, Elliott; Osburn, William; Lissauer, Samantha; Wilson, Garrick K.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Baumert, Thomas F.; Balfe, Peter; Afford, Simon; McKeating, Jane A.

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects the liver and hepatocytes are the major cell type supporting viral replication. Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes derive from a common hepatic progenitor cell that proliferates during inflammatory conditions, raising the possibility that cholangiocytes may support HCV

  19. Infection of Avian Pox Virus in Oriental Turtle-Doves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yeon Eo1, Young-Hoan Kim2, Kwang-Hyun Cho3, Jong-Sik Jang4, Tae-Hwan Kim5, Dongmi Kwak5 and Oh-Deog Kwon5*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Three Oriental Turtle-doves (Streptopelia orientalis exhibiting lethargy, dyspnea, poor physical condition, and poor flight endurance, were rescued and referred to the Animal Health Center, Seoul Zoo, Korea. The doves had wart-like lesions on the legs and head. All of them died the following day after arrival, with the exception of one that survived for 6 days. Diphtheritic membranes on the tongue and oral mucosa were apparent at necropsy. Avian pox virus infection was suspected based on the proliferative skin lesions and oral diphtheritic lesions. Infection of the avian pox virus was confirmed by PCR using primers specific to the 4b core protein gene of avian pox virus. All cases were diagnosed with avian pox virus infection. This is believed to be the first description on natural infection of avian pox in Oriental Turtle-doves in Korea.

  20. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Shibahara, Nona; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kishikawa, Akiko; Fukushima, Keijo; Takano, Maiko; Suzuki, Fumie; Wada, Hirohisa; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs) of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases) depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac), was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study), even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  1. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  2. Prevalence of viruses infecting cowpea in Uganda and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main areas for cowpea cultivation in Uganda were surveyed in June and October 2006 for viruses affecting the crop. Seed and leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected from farmers' fields and analysed for infecting viruses using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...

  3. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among tuberculosis suspect patients in Accra, Ghana, ... man immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. (TB) is well known. A previous study showed a 16,8 % .... HIV~1 and HIV-(Z; Fujirebio Inc, TokyoJapan) and con-- firmed with the synthetic peptide based ...

  4. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The study described here concerns the proteins, synthesized as a result of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) multiplication in tobacco protoplasts and in cowpea protoplasts. The identification of proteins involved in the TMV infection, for instance in the virus RNA replication, helps to elucidate

  5. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to the situation concerning bacterial and, to a lesser extent, animal RNA viruses, little is known about the biochemical processes occurring in plant cells due to plant RNA virus infection. Such processes are difficult to study using intact plants or leaves. Great effort has

  6. Update on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2011-03-15

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

  7. Viral microRNAs targeting virus genes promote virus infection in shrimp in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaodong; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Viral microRNAs (miRNAs), most of which are characterized in cell lines, have been found to play important roles in the virus life cycle to avoid attack by the host immune system or to keep virus in the latency state. Viral miRNAs targeting virus genes can inhibit virus infection. In this study, in vivo findings in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp revealed that the viral miRNAs could target virus genes and further promote the virus infection. The results showed that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-encoded miRNAs WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 were transcribed at the early stage of WSSV infection. When the expression of WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 was silenced with sequence-specific anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs), the number of copies of WSSV and the WSSV-infected shrimp mortality were significantly decreased, indicating that the two viral miRNAs had a great effect on virus infection. It was revealed that the WSSV wsv094 and wsv177 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-66 and that the wsv248 and wsv309 genes were the targets of WSSV-miR-68. The data demonstrate that the four target genes play negative roles in the WSSV infection. The targeting of the four virus genes by WSSV-miR-66 and WSSV-miR-68 led to the promotion of virus infection. Therefore, our in vivo findings show a novel aspect of viral miRNAs in virus-host interactions.

  8. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-08-01

    To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs.

  9. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Parpia, Alyssa S; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-10-18

    Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious neurologic conditions, and fetal death, health ministries across the region have advised women to delay pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of this policy in reducing prenatal Zika virus infection has yet to be quantified. To evaluate the effectiveness of pregnancy-delay policies on the incidence and prevalence of prenatal Zika virus infection. Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. Colombia, August 2015 to July 2017. Population of Colombia, stratified by sex, age, and pregnancy status. Recommendations to delay pregnancy by 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 months, at different levels of adherence. Weekly and cumulative incidence of prenatal infections and microcephaly cases. With 50% adherence to recommendations to delay pregnancy by 9 to 24 months, the cumulative incidence of prenatal Zika virus infections is likely to decrease by 17% to 44%, whereas recommendations to delay pregnancy by 6 or fewer months are likely to increase prenatal infections by 2% to 7%. This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. Sexual transmission was not explicitly accounted for in the model because of limited data but was implicitly subsumed within the overall transmission rate, which was calibrated to observed incidence. Pregnancy delays can have a substantial effect on reducing cases of microcephaly but risks exacerbating the Zika virus outbreak if the duration is not sufficient. Duration of the delay, population adherence, and the timing of initiation of the intervention must be carefully considered. National Institutes of Health.

  11. Seroprevalence and Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus and the cause of the majority of the cases of the formerly called. “transfusion – related non-A, non-B hepatitis” with profound effect in the liver.[1,2] HCV infection is one of the leading public health challenges globally accounting for about 115 million infections; 11 million of whom ...

  12. Varicella-zoster virus infections – antiviral therapy and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus is an important human pathogen that causes varicella after primary infection and zoster after recurrence. Following primary infection, the virus remains latently for life in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia. Varicella and zoster are worldwide widespread diseases and may be associated with significant complications. This manuscript presents a short overview about the fundamental knowledge including the most important clinical signs, the capabilities for antiviral treatment and the spectrum of methods for laboratory diagnosis.

  13. Hepatitis A virus infection: Epidemiology and genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Báez Triana, Paula Andrea; Navas Navas, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus infection is a global public health problem. The virus has a wide range of distribution and it is the main cause of acute hepatitis transmitted by the enteric route in Latin America. The viral particle is stable under environmental conditions and conserves its infectivity for several weeks, enabling its transmission by contaminated water and food. Worldwide, different epidemiological patterns have been identified, which may change over time by modification of social and e...

  14. Hepatitis delta virus infection: open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, Grazia Anna; Gioffreda, Domenica; Fontana, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) consists of a circular single-stranded RNA genome which assembles two viral proteins and acquires a lipid envelope in which the hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) are embedded. HDV does not encode its own polymerase, but exploits a cellular enzyme for its replication. A better understanding of the mechanisms of HDV replication mechanism would provide new insights for antiviral strategies. Based on genomic variability, eight major genotypes of HDV have been identified, which differ as much as 40% in the nucleotide sequence. The cloning of HDV-RNA has provided genetic probes for the measurement of HDV-RNA in serum and liver; the sensitivity of HDV-RNA detection improved significantly when the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was introduced. As no commercial test is standardized for viral load detection, home-made assays have been developed in the different referral centers, which may not be comparable. Quantification of HDV in serum by real-time PCR has been recently proposed in the management of chronically infected patients. No specific inhibitors of HDV are available at present and, in spite of the crucial relationship between HDV and HBV, drugs that block HBV have only a theoretical but no sound effect on HDV replication. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhalational Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eBarnewall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV, and a nonhuman primate (NHP inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomologus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 µm, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 x 104 to 9.28 x 105 plaque forming units (pfu inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD50 was determined to be approximately 7.8 x 104 pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data.

  16. Cognitive dysfunction and hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, Antonio; Piras, Maria Rita; Deplano, Angelo

    2015-05-08

    Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a distinct form of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In fact, the majority of HCV-positive patients, irrespective of the grading of liver fibrosis, display alterations of verbal learning, attention, executive function, and memory when they are evaluated by suitable neuropsychological tests. Similarities between the cognitive dysfunction of HCV patients and MHE of patients with different etiologies are unclear. It is also unknown how the metabolic alterations of advanced liver diseases interact with the HCV-induced cognitive dysfunction, and whether these alterations are reversed by antiviral therapies. HCV replication in the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. HCV-related brain dysfunction may be associated with white matter neuronal loss, alterations of association tracts and perfusion. It is unclear to what extent, in patients with cirrhosis, HCV triggers an irreversible neurodegenerative brain damage. New insights on this issue will be provided by longitudinal studies using the protocols established by the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition for cognitive disorders. The domains to be evaluated are complex attention; executive functions; learning and memory; perceptual motor functions; social cognition. These evaluations should be associated with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for major cognitive disorders including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance perfusion, and functional MRI. Also, the characteristics of portal hypertension, including the extent of liver blood flow and the type of portal shunts, should be evaluated.

  17. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been expos...

  18. Arterial Disease in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, James H.; Currier, Judith S.; HSUE, Priscilla Y

    2014-01-01

    With advances in antiretroviral therapy, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are living longer and increasingly die of non-HIV related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several observational studies suggest that HIV-infected patients on ART are at increased CVD risk; however, the precise mechanisms underlying the association between HIV infection and CVD risk are uncertain. Atherosclerosis and arterial disease in HIV-infected individuals is a multifactor...

  19. MG-132 reduces virus release in Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Filomena; Iovane, Valentina; Cantiello, Antonietta; Marullo, Annarosaria; Martino, Luisa De; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) can provoke conjunctivitis, abortions and shipping fever. BoHV-1 infection can also cause immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, leading to pneumonia and occasionally to death. Herein, we investigated the influence of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, on BoHV-1 infection in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induces apoptotic cell death that enhances virus release. Whereas, MG-132 inhibited vir...

  20. Linking hepatitis C virus infection to pre-1994 blood transfusions in female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Flores, Christian; Echeagaray, Ernesto; Castañeda, Guadalupe; Vargas, Maria de Lourdes; Montes-González, Raúl; Luna, Susana; Díaz, Laura; Torres, Oscar

    2017-03-15

    Most blood transfusions occur in female patients. The introduction of serologic screening practices by blood banks reduced the transfusion-related rate of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In Mexico patients with pre-1994 transfusion history are at high risk of being detected with HCV infection. We aimed at establishing an interrelationship between two variables: pre-1994 transfusion history and rate of infection in women treated in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area hospitals, in Mexico. Analytical observational case-control study which included both non-infected women and patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus infection, in whom the pre-1994 transfusion history was determined. The cases were 150 women with confirmed hepatitis C virus serologic diagnosis. The controls were 150 women whose hepatitis C virus-detection serologic tests had yielded negative results. An odds ratio of 9.07 (95% CI: 5.37 – 15.3; p< 0.001) was found where the rate of infection for the case group was 0.72 while the control group had a ratio of 0.22; population attributable risk (PAR) was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.53 – 0.73), while etiologic fraction was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.81 – 0.93). Among women, having been exposed to pre-1994 blood transfusion means a risk 9.07 times higher than not being exposed to blood transfusion in the same time frame.

  1. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-10-21

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces.

  2. Physician use of updated anti-virus software in a tertiary Nigerian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabes, E P; Nyango, D D; Ayedima, M M; Ladep, N G

    2010-01-01

    While physicians are becoming increasingly dependent on computers and the internet, highly lethal malware continue to be loaded into cyberspace. We sought to assess the proportion of physicians with updated anti-virus software in Jos University Teaching Hospital Nigeria and to determine perceived barriers to getting updates. We used a pre-tested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire to conduct a cross-sectional survey among 118 physicians. The mean age (+/- SD) of subjects was 34 (+/- 4) years, with 94 male and 24 female physicians. Forty-two (36.5%) of 115 physicians with anti-virus software used an updated program (95% Cl: 27, 45). The top-three antivirus software were: McAfee 40 (33.9%), AVG 37 (31.4%) and Norton 17 (14.4%). Common infections were: Trojan horse 22 (29.7%), Brontok worm 8 (10.8%), and Ravmonlog.exe 5 (6.8%). Internet browsing with a firewall was an independent determinant for use of updated anti-virus software [OR 4.3, 95% CI, 1.86, 10.02; P virus software is sub-optimal among physicians implying vulnerability to computer viruses. Physicians should be careful with flash drives and should avoid being victims of the raging arms race between malware producers and anti-virus software developers.

  3. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  4. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Switzer

    Full Text Available Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs. While simian foamy virus (SFV and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%, two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%, 8/858 (0.93%, and 18/858 (2.1% were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1 or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7. We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  5. Neutralizing Antibodies after Infection with Dengue 1 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mayling; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Bernardo, Lídice; Montes, Tibaire; Vazquez, Susana; Morier, Luis; Alvarez, Angel; Gould, Ernest A; Halstead, Scott B

    2007-01-01

    Severity of disease is markedly increased when infection with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) follows infection with DENV-1. Studies have shown that heterologous neutralizing antibody titers are inversely correlated with severity of a second infection. If this mechanism controlled disease severity in Cuba, heterotypic antibody titers should have declined over time. To determine whether phenotypic changes in dengue antibodies occur over time, we analyzed serum samples collected 4–8 and 20–22 years after DENV-1 infection. We found a significant increase in mean titer of homologous DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies and a significant decrease in heterologous antibodies to 1 of 2 genotypes of DENV-2 virus (the American genotype). Asian DENV-2 viruses were not neutralized during either interval; however, the American genotype underwent phenotypic changes in heterotypic viral neutralizing antibodies in the predicted direction. This finding may be related to the time-dependent changes in severity of disease found with secondary dengue infection. PMID:17479892

  6. Clinical correlates of tuberculosis co-infection in HIV-infected children hospitalized in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Cardich, María E; Kawai, Vivian; Oberhelman, Richard A; Bautista, Christian T; Castillo, María E; Gilman, Robert H

    2006-07-01

    In developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for almost 250,000 deaths among children yearly. Active TB in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is difficult to diagnose and progresses rapidly to death. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of TB-related illness among HIV-infected children admitted to an infectious diseases ward in Peru, a country where TB is highly endemic. Forty-seven HIV-infected children admitted for a suspected infectious process in a Peruvian hospital were investigated for evidence of clinical tuberculosis by auramine stain, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of clinical specimens. Eight children (17%) had evidence of tuberculosis, including five with positive cultures and three with positive PCR tests only. Weight loss was the only feature associated with a positive test for tuberculosis. Radiological changes were very common in both TB-positive and TB-negative groups and these changes were not useful to identify TB-positive cases. Weight loss may be used to identify high-risk HIV positive children who require more aggressive evaluation for tuberculosis. Radiological changes were common in both TB-positive and TB-negative groups.

  7. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  8. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 and since then it has been reported in 31 countries and territories in America. The epidemiological and clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa and Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting and last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions and Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta and amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly and in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, and serological tests (IgM ELISA and neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue and chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus and its long-term consequences in adults and newborn infants is still limited.

  9. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  10. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, Ronald F; Sobel, Jack D; Carrington, D

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Lamont R, Sobel J, Carrington D, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic J, Vaisbuch E, Romero R. Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) infection in pregnancy. BJOG 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02983.x. Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella-zoster virus pneumonia...... and neonatal varicella infection are associated with serious fetomaternal morbidity and, not infrequently, mortality. Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus can prevent the disease, and outbreak control limits the exposure of pregnant women to the infectious agent. Maternal varicella-zoster immunoglobulin...

  11. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus infection associated with purpuric skin lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagioli Daniele

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The influenza virus infection may be severe in non-immune people. Common complications of influenza virus include upper and lower respiratory tract infections, otitis media, myocarditis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure. There have been cases of vasculitis following influenza vaccination, and rash and acute purpura may occur in certain viral infections. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports concerning cases of systemic vasculitis associated with pandemic 2009 (H1N1 infection. Case presentation A 23-year-old Caucasian woman was hospitalized at the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, Italy. Clinical and radiological features including laboratory findings of this case are illustrated. Notably, the patient had fever, severe abdominal pain, hematuria, arthritis, and purpuric manifestations associated with a normal platelet count. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs revealed pandemic 2009 (H1N1 virus by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Routine laboratory analyses showed elevated inflammatory parameters. The autoimmune panel tests were normal. Steroid therapy associated with oseltamivir achieved an evident and rapid improvement. On day seven the patient chose to leave the hospital against medical advice. Conclusion Complications related to influenza infection can be life threatening, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura triggered by the novel influenza virus infection could be an attractive pathogenetic hypothesis. We have discussed both the diagnosis and the challenge of therapy protocols. Steroid therapy is part of the management of severe vasculitis. Our case suggests that steroid therapy associated with antivirals can prevent the risk of further complications such as hemorrhage and multi-organ failure during severe vasculitis, without enhancing the virulence of the influenza virus. The possible role of

  13. Can quality circles improve hospital-acquired infection control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, D H; Krause, G; Gastmeier, P; Ebner, W; Rath, A; Wischnewski, N; Lacour, M; Rüden, H; Daschner, F D

    2000-08-01

    It is a fundamental principle of continuous quality improvement (CQI) that processes should be the objects of quality improvement. The objective of this study was to improve process quality concerning the prevention of hospital-acquired infections in surgical departments and intensive care units by a continuous quality improvement (CQI) approach based mainly on quality circles. This approach was evaluated in a prospective controlled intervention study in medium-size acute care hospitals (four intervention and four control hospitals). During two intervention periods (each 10 months) four external physicians with training in hospital epidemiology and infection control introduced and supervised quality circles in the intervention hospitals. Process quality was assessed by interviewing senior staff members before the first and after the second intervention period using standardized questionnaires. The gold standard process quality was defined on the basis of the CDC/HICPAC-guidelines for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Most of the evaluated aspects of process quality belonged to the HICPAC-categories IA and IB respectively, the CDC category I. Fifty quality circle sessions were performed in the four intervention hospitals of which 28 were dealing directly with key subjects in infection control. In the intervention hospitals, 19.8% of evaluated aspects of process quality which concerned the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were improved compared to only 6.9% in the control hospitals (Pquality were initiated by the results of the quality circles. Our study demonstrates that a CQI approach based on infection control quality circles can lead to a substantial improvement of process quality regarding the prevention of hospital-acquired infections.

  14. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  15. Factors associated with hospitalization of children with acute odontogenic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klačar Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical features of odontogenic infections between hospitalized and nonhospitalized children and to show what were the risk factors in children that could predict the course of odontogenic infection and indicate the need for hospital treatment. The design of our study was of the case-control type. The two study groups consisted of 70 inpatients and 35 outpatients with odontogenic infections who were treated at Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected retrospectively from patients' hospital records. The following characteristics were significantly associated with hospital treatment of children with acute odontogenic infection: living in a village (OR =7.26,[1.43-36.96], multi-spatial infection (OR =0.04, [0.00-0.91], and affection of upper face (OR = 0.01, [0.00-0.86]. Tooth extraction was important intervention in the treatment regimen and reduced frequency of hospitalization (OR=0.07, [0.01-0.70]. The differences between hospitalized and non-hospitalized children were not significant in regard to: ethnicity, employment of parents, anatomical region of infection, side of the facial infection, source of infection (posterior or anterior deciduous or permanent teeth, and treatment (drainage and incision, oral or parenteral antibiotics. In children with acute odontogenic infection it is necessary to do tooth extraction in timely manner, especially if the source of infection is tooth from upper jaw and if it is multi-spatial infection.

  16. Embryo transfer from cattle infected with bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, R A; Howard, T H; Elsden, R P; Seidel, G E

    1983-09-01

    Embryos recovered nonsurgically from donor cattle during the peak of bluetongue viremia were surgically transferred to seronegative recipients 7 to 8 or 10 to 11 days after the onset of donor estrus. Virus was isolated from the uterine flushing medium recovered from 11 of the 20 donors. Bluetongue virus was not isolated from the blood of any of 39 recipients, nor did any recipient seroconvert to the virus following transfer. The number of recipients that became pregnant after transfer of embryos from infected donors (21 of 39) was not significantly different from contemporary controls. Virus antigen was not detected by immunofluorescence in any of 63 embryos and oocytes recovered from viremic donors. These results indicate that under standard embryo transfer conditions, transmission of bluetongue virus from infected donors to uninfected recipients is unlikely to occur.

  17. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory......-confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study...

  18. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus NL63 infection in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhao, Xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhou, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human coronavirus NL63 infection in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 1185 hospitalized children with ALRTI at the People's Hospital of Hunan province, between September 2008 and October 2010. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to screen for coronavirus NL63, which is a 255 bp fragment of a part of N gene. All positive amplification products were confirmed by sequencing and compared with those in GenBank. The overall frequency of coronavirus NL63 infection was 0.8%, 6 (60%) out of the coronavirus NL63 positive patients were detected in summer, 2 in autumn, 1 in spring and winter, respectively. The patients were from 2 months to two and a half years old. The clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia (60%), bronchiolitis (30%), and acute laryngotracheal bronchitis (10%). Four of the 10 cases had critical illness, 4 cases had underlying diseases, and 7 cases had mixed infection with other viruses. The homogeneity of coronavirus NL63 with those published in the GenBank at nucleotide levels was 97%-100%. Coronavirus NL63 infection exists in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 infections are common in children under 3 years of age. There is significant difference in the infection rate between the boys and the girls: the boys had higher rate than the girls. The peak of prevalence of the coronavirus NL63 was in summer. A single genetic lineage of coronavirus NL63 was revealed in human subjects in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 may also be one of the lower respiratory pathogen in China.

  19. Direct cost of dengue hospitalization in Zhongshan, China: Associations with demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Hua; Yuan, Juan; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province (China) is a key provincial and national level area for dengue fever prevention and control. The aim of this study is to analyze how the direct hospitalization costs and the length of stay of dengue hospitalization cases vary according to associated factors such as the demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation. This study is based on retrospective census data from the Chinese National Disease Surveillance Reporting System. Totally, the hospital administrative data of 1432 confirmed dengue inpatients during 2013-2014 was obtained. A quantile regression model was applied to analyze how the direct cost of Dengue hospitalization varies with the patient demographics and hospital accreditation across the data distribution. The Length of Stay (LOS) was also examined. The average direct hospitalization cost of a dengue case in this study is US$ 499.64 during 2013, which corresponded to about 3.71% of the gross domestic product per capita in Zhongshan that year. The mean of the Length of Stay (LOS) is 7.2 days. The multivariate quantile regression results suggest that, after controlling potential compounding variables, the median hospitalization costs of male dengue patients were significantly higher than female ones by about US$ 18.23 (pcost difference between the pediatric and the adult patients is estimated to be about US$ 75.25 at the median (pcosts. The direct hospitalization costs of dengue cases vary widely according to the associated demographics factors, virus types and hospital accreditations. The findings in this study provide information for adopting hospitalization strategy, cost containment and patient allocation in dengue prevention and control. Also the results can be used as the cost-effective reference for future dengue vaccine adoption strategy in China.

  20. Common variable immunodeficiency following Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, G; Della Bella, S; Polizzi, B; Vanoli, M; Scorza, R

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of a patient who developed recurrent bacterial upper respiratory and pulmonary infections and marked hypogammaglobulinemia with a gradual decrease of serum IgG, IgA and IgM some months after acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. Test for identification of lymphocyte subpopulation showed increased CD8+ T-cells with a surface phenotype (CD8+, CD57+, HLA-DR+) characteristic of virus-induced, activated cytotoxic cells. Viral investigations showed a positive anti-EBNA titer, an IgG titer anti-VCA of 1:40, a negative IgG titer anti-EA and human immunodeficiency virus negativity. The authors conclude that these clinical features are indicative of possible common variable immunodeficiency following Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  1. [Clinical and Epidemiological Study of Complicated Infection by Varicella-Zoster Virus in the Pediatric Age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Catarina; Fonseca, Jacinta; Carvalho, Isabel; Santos, Helena; Moreira, Diana

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, the incidence of complicated infection by varicella-zoster virus is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of complicated infection by varicella-zoster virus in children. Retrospective review of the clinical files of patients admitted between January 1999 and July 2013, with a diagnosis of complicated varicella-zoster virus infection. Ninety-four patients were hospitalized with complicated varicella-zoster virus infection, two of them by reactivation of latent infection. The median age was 38 (IQR 18 - 65) months. The most frequent types of complications were bacterial overinfection of the skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue (37.2%) and respiratory complications (24.5%). Other complications were neurologic complications (19.1%), gastrointestinal (9.6%), hematologic (5.3%) and osteoarticular (4.3%). In 38 patients invasive bacterial infections were diagnosed, with bacteremia in 6 patients. The median age was highest in the immunological complications compared with infectious complications. Neurological complications occurred mainly in healthy children, while infectious complications, including the invasive bacterial infections were more frequent in patients treated with ibuprofen and/or corticosteroids. The evolution was favorable in most cases. The complications of varicella-zoster virus infection occurred mainly in pre-school age and in healthy children. Infectious complications, particularly respiratory complications and bacterial overinfection of the skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue, were the most frequent. There was association between infectious complications and previous therapy with ibuprofen and / or corticosteroids. Multicenter studies should be planned in order to optimize and adjust the vaccine strategies to our reality.

  2. Infection control practices related to Clostridium difficile infection in acute care hospitals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Gardam, Michael; Taylor, Geoffrey; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-02-01

    We carried out a survey to identify the infection prevention and control practices in place in Canadian hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP). An infection prevention and control practices survey was sent to CNISP hospitals at the beginning of November 2004, the same time that CNISP started a 6-month prospective surveillance for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) to evaluate their infection prevention and control measures and laboratory methods for C difficile. A total of 33 hospitals completed and returned the survey. Infection control precautions were initiated in 18 hospitals (55%) due to the presence of a symptomatic patient before the C difficile laboratory tests were available. All of the hospitals used gloves and gowns as additional precautions. Twenty-three hospitals (70%) tested liquid stools based on a clinician's order, and 8 (24%) tested all liquid stools submitted whether of not C difficile testing was requested. The hospitals used 1 of 3 different products as a standard hospital-wide disinfectant; 24 (73%) used a quaternary ammonium compound, 8 (24%) used accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 1 (3%) used a hypochlorite solution (1:10 bleach solution). Although the hospitals used contact precautions quite uniformly, considerable variation was seen among hospitals in terms of testing strategies, cleaning and disinfection protocols and products, and isolation practices. The timing for the initiation of infection control precautions is important to prevent secondary transmission of CDI. Most of the hospitals implemented precautions while waiting for the toxin assay results.

  3. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  4. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients.

  5. Drug Repurposing: New Treatments for Zika Virus Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Murray, James L; Rubin, Donald H

    2016-11-01

    To date, no antiviral agents have been approved for treating Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Two recent drug-repurposing studies published in Cell Host & Microbe and Nature Medicine demonstrated that screening FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity is a promising strategy for identifying therapeutics with novel activity against ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  7. Distribution of hepatitis B virus infection in Namibia | Mhata | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate ...

  8. Dengue virus life cycle : viral and host factors modulating infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Dengue virus (DENV 1-4) represents a major emerging arthropod-borne pathogen. All four DENV serotypes are prevalent in the (sub) tropical regions of the world and infect 50-100 million individuals annually. Whereas the majority of DENV infections proceed asymptomatically or result in self-limited

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Makerere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Medical students in the course of their clinical work are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or transmitting it to their patients. ... Risk factors associated HBV infection included having a sexual relationship, accidental needlestick injuries, and unprotected exposure to patients' body fluids.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with ...

  11. Experimental infection of squirrel monkeys with nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianneau, Philippe; Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, Thong; Badmanathan, Munisamy; Looi, Ren Yih; Murri, Severine; Loth, Philippe; Tordo, Noel; Wild, Fabian; Horvat, Branka; Contamin, Hugues

    2010-03-01

    We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys' suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA and antigen production.

  12. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major global health problem of public health importance. In a bid to control the infection, the Nigerian government in 2004 introduced hepatitis B vaccine into the National Program on Immunization. There are no studies on the prevalence of hepatitis B in adolescent prior to 2004.

  13. Case Report: Varicella zoster virus infection causing urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 11-year-old boy receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and antibacterial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented with urinary retention due to varicella zoster virus infection involving the sacral nerves, confirmed on serological testing. The perineum over dermatomes S2 - S4 on the left was involved with a ...

  14. Fracture risk in hepatitis C virus infected persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection and fracture risk is not well characterized. We compared fracture risk between HCV-seropositive (HCV-exposed) patients and the general population and between patients with cleared and chronic HCV-infection. METHODS...

  15. Alpha-Fetoprotein in Asymptomatic Hepatitis B Virus Infected Subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in sub-Saharan Africa. A great number of the infected individuals are asymptomatic and are commonly diagnosed by chance. Alpha-fetoprotein and liver function tests were evaluated in asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive subjects to ascertain ...

  16. Therapy for respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J.; Kimpen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infancy and young children. No effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-LRTI) exists. Ribavirin initially proved to be an effective anti-viral drug for RSV-LTRI.

  17. Therapy for respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J; Kimpen, J

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infancy and young children. No effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-LRTI) exists. Ribavirin initially proved to be an effective anti-viral drug for RSV-LTRI.

  18. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabian recipients of renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conclusions in regard to the clinical impact of hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection. ... HCV infection and assessed its effect on patient and graft survival and occurrence of chronic hepatitis in renal transplant ... at the time of censorship was compared with the rates in 99 hemodialyzed patients, 400 healthy volunteers and 113

  20. Hepatitis E virus co-infection in HIV-infected patients in Foggia and Naples in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano; Grisorio, Benvenuto; Filippini, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Massa, Salvatore; Bulla, Fabio; Martini, Salvatore; Filippini, Alberico; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazio, Vincenzina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection represents an emerging infection in developed countries and is thought to be a zoonotic infection. It has recently been described as a new causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed subjects, including HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the sero-virological prevalence of HEV in HIV patients and in the general population as control group. A prospective and observational cohort study was carried out in two hospitals in southern Italy. The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in a cohort of 959 subjects, 509 (53%) of whom were HIV-positive patients and 450 were from the general population. Serum samples were tested for anti-HEV antibodies; repeatedly positive results were confirmed by a Western blot assay. In positive patients HEV RNA and genotypes were also determined. A total of 46 (4.8%) of the 959 serum samples examined were reactive to anti-HEV Ig and confirmed by Western blotting. The prevalence of HEV antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) was 2.7% in the control group and 6.7% in HIV-infected patients. Anti-HEV IgM was found in 6/46 (13.0%) of the anti-HEV Ig-positive serum samples, in 5/34 HIV patients and in 1/12 of the general population. No HIV-infected patient presented chronic hepatitis with HEV infection alone. This study indicates a higher circulation of HEV in HIV-infected patients, whereas a low prevalence of HEV antibodies in the general Italian population was shown. Chronic hepatitis with HEV alone was absent, while it was present in subjects with HIV-HEV, co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  1. Outbreak of Zika virus infection in Singapore: an epidemiological, entomological, virological, and clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus infection was detected in Singapore in August, 2016. We report the first comprehensive analysis of a national response to an outbreak of Zika virus infection in Asia. In the first phase of the outbreak, patients with suspected Zika virus infection were isolated in two national referral hospitals until their serum tested negative for the virus. Enhanced vector control and community engagement measures were deployed in disease clusters, including stepped-up mosquito larvicide and adulticide use, community participation in source reduction (destruction of mosquito breeding sites), and work with the local media to promote awareness of the outbreak. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients with confirmed Zika virus infection during the first phase. In the second phase, admission into hospitals for isolation was stopped but vector control efforts continued. Mosquitoes were captured from areas with Zika disease clusters to assess which species were present, their breeding numbers, and to test for Zika virus. Mosquito virus strains were compared with human strains through phylogenetic analysis after full genome sequencing. Reproductive numbers and inferred dates of strain diversification were estimated through Bayesian analyses. From Aug 27 to Nov 30, 2016, 455 cases of Zika virus infection were confirmed in Singapore. Of 163 patients with confirmed Zika virus infection who presented to national referral hospitals during the first phase of the outbreak, Zika virus was detected in the blood samples of 97 (60%) patients and the urine samples of 157 (96%) patients. There were 15 disease clusters, 12 of which had high Aedes aegypti breeding percentages. Captured mosquitoes were pooled into 517 pools for Zika virus screening; nine abdomen pools (2%) were positive for Zika virus, of which seven head and thorax pools were Zika-virus positive. In the phylogenetic analysis, all mosquito sequences clustered within the outbreak lineage

  2. Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dejnirattisai, W; Supasa, P; Wongwiwat, W.; Rouvinski, A.; Barba-Spaeth, G.; Duangchinda, T; Sakuntabhai, A; Cao-Lormeau, VM; Malasit, P; REY, FA; Mongkolsapaya, J; Screaton, GR

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 and was thought to lead to relatively mild disease. The recent explosive outbreak of ZIKV in South America has led to widespread concern, with reports of neurological sequelae ranging from Guillain Barr? syndrome to microcephaly. ZIKV infection has occurred in areas previously exposed to dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV. Here we investigated the serological cross-reaction between the two viruses. Plasma immune to DENV showed su...

  3. Human Hendra virus infection causes acute and relapsing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Robertson, T; Ong, B B; Chong, J W; Yaiw, K C; Wang, L F; Ansford, A J; Tannenberg, A

    2009-06-01

    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis. Autopsy tissues were investigated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the patient with acute pulmonary syndrome but not clinical acute encephalitis, vasculitis was found in the brain, lung, heart and kidney. Occasionally, viral antigens were demonstrated in vascular walls but multinucleated endothelial syncytia were absent. In the lung, there was severe inflammation, necrosis and viral antigens in type II pneumocytes and macrophages. The rare kidney glomerulus showed inflammation and viral antigens in capillary walls and podocytes. Discrete necrotic/vacuolar plaques in the brain parenchyma were associated with antigens and viral RNA. Brain inflammation was mild although CD68(+) microglia/macrophages were significantly increased. Cytoplasmic viral inclusions and antigens and viral RNA in neurones and ependyma suggested viral replication. In the case of relapsing encephalitis, there was severe widespread meningoencephalitis characterized by neuronal loss, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, reactive blood vessels and perivascular cuffing. Antigens and viral RNA were mainly found in neurones. Vasculitis was absent in all the tissues examined. The case of acute Hendra virus infection demonstrated evidence of systemic infection and acute encephalitis. The case of relapsing Hendra virus encephalitis showed no signs of extraneural infection but in the brain, extensive inflammation and infected neurones were observed. Hendra virus can cause acute and relapsing encephalitis and the findings suggest that the pathology and pathogenesis are similar to Nipah virus infection.

  4. Zika Virus Infects Human Fetal Brain Microglia and Induces Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Fok-Moon; Low, Donovan K S; Fan, Yiping; Tan, Jeslin J L; Lee, Bernett; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rénia, Laurent; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-04-01

    The unprecedented reemergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) has startled the world with reports of increased microcephaly in Brazil. ZIKV can infect human neural progenitors and impair brain growth. However, direct evidence of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissues remains elusive. Investigations were performed with brain cell preparations obtained from 9 donors. Virus infectivity was assessed by detection of virus antigen by flow cytometry together with various hematopoietic cell surface markers. Virus replication was determined by viral RNA quantification. Cytokine levels in supernatant obtained from virus-infected fetal brain cells were measured simultaneously in microbead-based immunoassays. We also show that ZIKV infection was particularly evident in hematopoietic cells with microglia, the brain-resident macrophage population being one of the main targets. Infection induces high levels of proinflammatory immune mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Our results highlight an important role for microglia and neuroinflammation during congenital ZIKV pathogenesis.

  5. Epstein Barr virus: Diseases linked to Infection and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Chandra Jha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies.

  6. Epstein–Barr Virus: Diseases Linked to Infection and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem C.; Pei, Yonggang; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation, and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation, and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here, we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies. PMID:27826287

  7. Analysis of VSV pseudotype virus infection mediated by rubella virus envelope proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masafumi Sakata; Hideki Tani; Masaki Anraku; Michiyo Kataoka; Noriyo Nagata; Fumio Seki; Maino Tahara; Noriyuki Otsuki; Kiyoko Okamoto; Makoto Takeda; Yoshio Mori

    2017-01-01

    .... To establish an infection the host cells must be susceptible and permissible. To assess the susceptibility of individual cell lines, we generated a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus bearing RV envelope proteins (VSV-RV/CE2E1...

  8. Cystic encephalomalacia and intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P H; Tudehope, D I; Masel, J

    1992-01-01

    Cystic encephalomalacia occurred in two preterm infants who had proven intrauterine herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Calcification was evident in the basal ganglia. Follow-up scans indicated that the cysts had resolved over a period of two months in one infant, while in the case of the other, the cysts became progressively larger with significant ventricular dilatation developing. While cystic changes in the brain of preterm infants are usually due to periventricular leukomalacia, intrauterine infection needs to be considered as a possible cause. Antiviral treatment may be of benefit to infants with herpes simplex virus infection.

  9. Estimating the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on respiratory hospital admissions in children less than five years of age in England, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Rachel Melanie; Hardelid, Pia; Gilbert, Ruth; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Pebody, Richard G

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children aged respiratory pathogens including RSV in children respiratory tract infection (LRTI), bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). On average, 33 561 (95% confidence interval 30 429-38 489) RSV-associated hospital admissions in children Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY ASPECTS OF HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTION MORBIDITY IN HEALTH SURGERY HOSPITALS IN PRIMORSKY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Martynova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prophylaxis and treatment of the hospital-acquired infections caused remains actual and urgent and stubborn in modern medicine. Appearance of antimicrobial agents resistant and high virulent strains adapting also to desinfectants. Development of innovative hi-tech diagnostic methods and treatment at wide circulation of microorganisms with multiple antimicrobial agents resistance defines need of continuous improvement of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring of this group of infections. Aim of project: to carry out the epidemiological analysis of a case rate of hospital-acquired infections in Primorsky Krai and to determine the specific role of hospital-acquired infections which arose in surgical hospitals and units. Material and methods: In work there were used statistical forms, e.g. No. 2 «The information on infectious and parasitic diseases» in Primorsky Krai. A research method — the retrospective epidemiological analysis. Results of a research: In 2015 in Primorsky Krai there were registered 159 cases of hospitalacquired infections, the indicator of a case rate made 0.05 per 1000 treated patients. In comparison with 2014 the case rate decreased, rate of depression made — 28%. According to the statistical reporting the greatest number of cases of hospital-acquired infections was registered in obstetrical institutions — 60 cases (38% of all hospital-acquired infections, in children’s hospitals — 46 (29% and in surgical hospitals and units — 33 (21%. Other hospital-acquired infections are registered in out-patient and polyclinic institutions and in institutions of a therapeutic profile. In structure of hospitalacquired infections in the territory of Primorsky Krai in 2015, as well as in previous years, acute intestinal infections dominated (35 cases — 22% and it is purulent — septic infections at newborns (34 cases — 21%. Conclusions: In the territory of Primorsky Krai the hospital

  11. Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) share similar properties such as modes of transmission. This study was therefore designed to find out the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection in Zawan village. Three hundred subjects were recruited into the study through simple random sampling method ...

  12. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  13. Virus and host factors affecting the clinical outcome of Bluetongue Virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caporale, M.; Gialleonorado, L.; Janowicz, A.; Wilkie, G.; Shaw, A.; Savini, G.; Rijn, van P.A.; Mertens, P.; Ventura, M.; Palmarini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host

  14. Immune Modulation in Primary Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Assis Silva Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the WHO celebrated the 30th anniversary of the smallpox eradication. Ironically, infections caused by viruses related to smallpox are being increasingly reported worldwide, including Monkeypox, Cowpox, and Vaccinia virus (VACV. Little is known about the human immunological responses elicited during acute infections caused by orthopoxviruses. We have followed VACV zoonotic outbreaks taking place in Brazil and analyzed cellular immune responses in patients acutely infected by VACV. Results indicated that these patients show a biased immune modulation when compared to noninfected controls. Amounts of B cells are low and less activated in infected patients. Although present, T CD4+ cells are also less activated when compared to noninfected individuals, and so are monocytes/macrophages. Similar results were obtained when Balb/C mice were experimentally infected with a VACV sample isolated during the zoonotic outbreaks. Taking together, the data suggest that zoonotic VACVs modulate specific immune cell compartments during an acute infection in humans.

  15. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  16. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  17. Active Epstein-Barr virus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation : re-infection or reactivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E; Spijkers, S; Moschatsis, S; Boland, GJ; Thijsen, SFT; van Loon, AM; Verdonck, LF

    Recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) often show active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which may progress to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. It is not known whether these EBV infections are true reactivations of the endogenous EBV strain or re-infections with an

  18. Chronic Ulcerative Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Vulva

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Griffith-Bauer; Mary O’Hearn; Benjamin D. Ehst

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections in HIV-infected individuals can be clinically unusual and difficult to treat due to underlying problems with cell-mediated immunity and the occurrence of antiviral resistance. Additionally, partial or incomplete restoration of immune function may result in chronic ulcerations that require rotational treatments. In this report, we describe the case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman who developed the ulcerative form of chronic herpes simplex infection despite h...

  19. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection, a new cardiovascular risk factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Domont, Fanny; Cacoub, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Among the large scope of extrahepatic manifestations related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, many studies recently evaluated the frequency and characteristics of cardiovascular involvement. To assess the current published data on HCV infection and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies on cardiovascular disease, i.e. cerebrovascular accident and ischaemic heart disease in subjects with HCV infection were analysed from literature databases. Subjects with HCV c...

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ayten Kadanali; Ahmet Ozbek; Leyla Saglam; Serpill Erol

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patie...

  1. Enhanced infectivity of bluetongue virus in cell culture by centrifugation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, D R; Mecham, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation of the infection of cell culture with bluetongue virus (BTV) were investigated. Baby hamster kidney cells were infected with BTV with or without centrifugation. Viral antigen was detected by immunofluorescence at 24 h in both centrifuged and noncentrifuged cultures. However, after 24 h of infection, the production of PFU in centrifuged cell cultures was 10- to 20-fold greater than that seen in cultures not centrifuged. In addition, centrifugation enhanced the dir...

  2. Reye's syndrome associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, N; Keeling, J W; Tomlinson, A H

    1979-01-01

    An upper respiratory tract infection in a 22-month-old boy was followed by rapid loss of consciousness, hypoglycaemia, uraemia, and death. Necropsy examination showed fatty change of liver and kidneys, severe cerebral oedema, bronchiolitis, and endocardial fibroelastosis affecting the left ventricle. Immunofluorescence staining showed infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The clinical and pathological findings were those of Reye's syndrome, not previously reported accompanying RSV infection. Images Figure PMID:420528

  3. Experimental Hendra virus infection of dogs: virus replication, shedding and potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J; Riddell, S; Klein, R; Arkinstall, R; Haining, J; Frazer, L; Mottley, C; Evans, R; Johnson, D; Pallister, J

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood. Dogs were reliably infected with HeV and were generally asymptomatic. HeV was re-isolated from the oral cavity and virus clearance was associated with development of virus neutralising antibody. Major sites of HeV replication in dogs were the tonsils, lower respiratory tract and associated lymph nodes. Virus replication was documented in canine kidney and spleen, confirming a viraemic phase for canine HeV infection and suggesting that urine may be a source of infectious virus. Infection was transmitted to ferrets via canine oral secretions, with copy numbers for the HeV N gene in canine oral swabs comparable to those reported for nasal swabs of experimentally infected horses. HeV is not highly pathogenic for dogs, but their oral secretions pose a potential transmission risk to people. The time-window for transmission risk is circumscribed and corresponds to the period of acute infection before establishment of an adaptive immune response. The likelihood of central nervous system involvement in canine HeV infection is unclear, as is any long-term consequence. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Adaptive Architecture and the Prevention of Infections in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Tran van

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches has shown that climate change may spark global epidemics. The objectives of hospital design consistent with a high standard of sustainable architecture must not only be the tropicalization of buildings but also a system to confront the impact of infectious diseases which arise from climate change. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the hospital building, including prevention, monitoring and management measures. As the application of new technologies such as the Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA has application range within stamina, the study suggests the need to adopt an integrated adaptive hospital design strategy to prevent infection.

  5. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  6. Direct cost of dengue hospitalization in Zhongshan, China: Associations with demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hua Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province (China is a key provincial and national level area for dengue fever prevention and control. The aim of this study is to analyze how the direct hospitalization costs and the length of stay of dengue hospitalization cases vary according to associated factors such as the demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.This study is based on retrospective census data from the Chinese National Disease Surveillance Reporting System. Totally, the hospital administrative data of 1432 confirmed dengue inpatients during 2013-2014 was obtained. A quantile regression model was applied to analyze how the direct cost of Dengue hospitalization varies with the patient demographics and hospital accreditation across the data distribution. The Length of Stay (LOS was also examined.The average direct hospitalization cost of a dengue case in this study is US$ 499.64 during 2013, which corresponded to about 3.71% of the gross domestic product per capita in Zhongshan that year. The mean of the Length of Stay (LOS is 7.2 days. The multivariate quantile regression results suggest that, after controlling potential compounding variables, the median hospitalization costs of male dengue patients were significantly higher than female ones by about US$ 18.23 (p<0.1. The hospitalization cost difference between the pediatric and the adult patients is estimated to be about US$ 75.25 at the median (p<0.01, but it increases sharply among the top 25 percentiles and reaches US$ 329 at the 90th percentile (p<0.01. The difference between the senior (older than 64 years old and the adult patients increases steadily across percentiles, especially sharply among the top quartiles too. The LOS of the city-level hospitals is significantly shorter than that in the township-level hospitals by one day at the median (p<0.05, but no significant differences in their hospitalization costs.The direct hospitalization costs of dengue cases vary widely

  7. Infectivity of Deinbollia mosaic virus, a novel weed-infecting begomovirus in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyallo, Martina; Ateka, Elijah Miinda; Sseruwagi, Peter; Ascencio-Ibáñez, José Trinidad; Ssemakula, Mildred-Ochwo; Skilton, Robert; Ndunguru, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Weed-infecting begomoviruses play an important role in the epidemiology of crop diseases because they can potentially infect crops and contribute to the genetic diversity of crop-infecting begomoviruses. Despite the important epidemiological role that weed-infecting begomoviruses play, they remain insufficiently studied in Africa. Recently, we identified Deinbollia mosaic virus (DMV), a distinct begomovirus found naturally infecting the weed host Deinbollia borbonica (Sapindaceae) in Kenya and Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the capacity of DMV to infect a restricted host range of Solanaceae and Euphorbiaceae species. Biolistic inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with concatemeric DNAs resulted in systemic infection associated with yellow mosaic symptoms, while DNA partial dimers caused asymptomatic systemic infection. DMV was not infectious to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), suggesting host resistance to the virus. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental infectivity analysis of DMV in N. benthamiana and cassava.

  8. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Soo Sung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130–170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  9. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Taiwan: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors for mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Fang, Chi-Tai; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2004-10-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infection (NBSI) is common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study evaluated the incidence, causative pathogens, and outcome of NBSIs in hospitalized HIV-infected patients at a university hospital in Taiwan. The medical records of all HIV-infected patients who developed NBSIs from June 1994 to June 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. A standardized case record form was used to collect demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiologic data. During the study period, 57 episodes of NBSIs occurred in 51 HIV-infected patients whose median age was 37 years (range, 23 to 60 years). All of the patients were at HIV infection stage C. The incidence of NBSIs was 2.3 per 1000 person-days of hospitalization (41.4 per 1000 discharges). More than three-fourths of the 57 episodes (77.2%) were classified as primary NBSIs. Other infection foci included respiratory tract (6 episodes), urinary tract (3), surgical site (2), and skin (2). Staphylococcus species were the leading pathogens (42.1%). The crude and attributable mortality rates in patients with NBSIs during the study period were 38.6% and 26.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model revealed that shock and hypoalbuminemia at the onset of NBSIs were the 2 factors predictive of mortality. NBSIs in hospitalized patients in the late stage of HIV infection were associated with a high attributable mortality rate. Staphylococcus species were the leading pathogen responsible for NBSIs. Presentations of shock and hypoalbuminemia were predictive of mortality.

  10. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  11. Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Andrea A; Tsui, Irena; Rossetto, Julia; Vasconcelos, Zilton; Adachi, Kristina; Valderramos, Stephanie; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Pone, Marcos Vinicius da Silva; Pone, Sheila Moura; Silveira Filho, Joel Carlos Barros; Aibe, Mitsue S; da Costa, Ana Carolina C; Zin, Olivia A; Belfort, Rubens; Brasil, Patricia; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mother-infant pairs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who presented with suspected Zika virus infection during pregnancy were referred to our institution and had serum, urine, amniotic fluid, or placenta samples tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus. Description of eye findings, presence of microcephaly or other central nervous system abnormalities, and timing of infection in infants with confirmed Zika virus during pregnancy. Eye abnormalities were correlated with central nervous system findings, microcephaly, and the timing of maternal infection. Of the 112 with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection in maternal specimens, 24 infants (21.4%) examined had eye abnormalities (median age at first eye examination, 31 days; range, 0-305 days). Ten infants (41.7%) with eye abnormalities did not have microcephaly, and 8 (33.3%) did not have any central nervous system findings. Fourteen infants with eye abnormalities (58.3%) were born to women infected in the first trimester, 8 (33.3%) in the second trimester, and 2 (8.3%) in the third trimester. Optic nerve and retinal abnormalities were the most frequent findings. Eye abnormalities were statistically associated with microcephaly (odds ratio [OR], 19.1; 95% CI, 6.0-61.0), other central

  12. The training curriculum in hospital infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.; Allerberger, F.; Bouza, E.; Cookson, B.; Daschner, F.; Dettenkofer, M.; Gastmeier, P.; Gordts, B.; Heczko, P.B.; Jovanovic, B.; Koller, W.; Mittermeyer, H.; Nagy, E.; Richet, H.; Unal, S.; Widmer, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Standardised training curricula for infection control nurses (ICNs) and recognition of the specialty exist in many European countries, but infection control physician (ICP) is not a specialty recognised by the UEMS. To gather information on curricula for ICPs, members of the ESCMID Study Group on

  13. NK Cell Responses to Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Kim; Braun, Monika; Pakalniene, Jolita; Lunemann, Sebastian; Enqvist, Monika; Dailidyte, Laura; Schaffer, Marie; Lindquist, Lars; Mickiene, Aukse; Michaëlsson, Jakob; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Gredmark-Russ, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus that is transferred to humans by infected ticks. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis, a severe infection of the CNS with a high risk for long-lasting sequelae. Currently, no treatment exists for the disease. Understanding the cellular immune response to this infection is important to gain further understanding into the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. NK cells are known to participate in the control of viral infections. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the human NK cell response to TBEV infection in a cohort of infected individuals from the onset of severe clinical symptoms to the convalescence phase. NK cell activation, as measured by expression of Ki67, was apparent at the time of hospitalization. By 3 wk after hospitalization, it decreased to levels seen in healthy controls. Concomitant with the increase in NK cell activation, augmented levels of IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF were detected in patient plasma. This TBEV-induced NK cell activation was restricted predominantly to differentiated CD57(+)CD56(dim) NK cells. Functionally, CD56(dim) NK cells responded poorly to target cells at the time of hospitalization, but they recovered functional capacity to control levels during the convalescent phase. In contrast, the responsiveness of NK cells to cytokine stimulation remained intact throughout the disease. These findings demonstrate that NK cells respond to TBEV infection with characteristics that are distinct from those of other human viral infections and provide insights into the NK cell response to clinical TBEV infection. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Establishment of a Vero cell line persistently infected with African swine fever virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J; Viñuela, E

    1986-01-01

    A Vero cell line persistently infected with African swine fever virus was established by infecting the cells in the presence of 10 mM NH4Cl (Vero-P cell line). The virus derived from the Vero-P cultures infected Vero cells, and virus titers were comparable to those obtained in Vero cells acutely infected with African swine fever virus. The structural proteins of the virus from Vero-P cells were similar to those of the virus produced in lytic infections. Virus production was low when the Vero-...

  15. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with Negative Status Early in the Index Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaire, Binyerem C; Agboghoroma, Chris O; Durojaiye, Korede W

    2015-09-01

    Rapid HIV test in labour provide an opportunity for the identification of HIV positive pregnant women who should benefit from interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Between November 2013 and June 2014 we conducted rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in labour at the National Hospital Abuja to determine the HIV seroconversion rate in pregnancy and the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in labour with previously unknown status. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) was acceptable to 224 (99.6%) of the pregnant women who met the study criteria. The mean 'turnaround' time for test result was 288 minutes and 16.2 minutes for tests performed in the hospital laboratory and those performed at the point-of-care (labour ward) respectively. HIV seroconversion was detected in 2(1.2%) of the 165 parturients with initial HIV negative result early in the index pregnancy. HIV infection was detected in four (2.7%) of the 59 parturients with unknown HIV status. Secondary school level education was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion in pregnancy P labour using rapid testing strategy is feasible and acceptable in our setting. The introduction of HCT will lead to the diagnosis of HIV positive women in labour, appropriate interventions and prevention of MTCT of HIV.

  16. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  17. Hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in a paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. A retrospective case control chart review of children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Grey's Hospital between July 2003 and December 2010, who developed a hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, was undertaken to describe the trend in HAI in a newly commissioned PICU and ...

  18. Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by RNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  19. SAMJ Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  20. Dengue Infection in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Positive Patient Chronically Infected with Hepatitis B Virus in Western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco; Ochoa-Jiménez, Rodolfo; Valle-Reyes, Salvador; Vásquez, Clemente; López-Lemus, Uriel A

    2017-01-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and dengue coinfection has not been extensively studied. We report herein a case of dengue serotype 1 infection in an HIV-1-positive patient coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Colima State, Mexico. CD4+ cells and HIV-1 viremia remained at normal levels, and no severe complications were observed during this multiple viral infection. The alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values were elevated before and during dengue infection. Surprisingly, these parameters were significantly reduced 2 months later. Because of the lack of evidence regarding this multiple viral interaction, further research is required to understand the biologic and clinical course of dengue infection in HIV-1/HBV coinfected patients, especially in tropical regions where dengue virus transmission is highly active. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever virus infection: I. Susceptibility of mice to recombinant Lassa Gp/LCMV chimeric virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew M; Cruite, Justin; Welch, Megan J; Sullivan, Brian; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2013-08-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is a BSL-4 restricted agent. To allow study of infection by LASV under BSL-2 conditions, we generated a recombinant virus in which the LASV glycoprotein (Gp) was placed on the backbone of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Cl13 nucleoprotein, Z and polymerase genes (rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp). The recombinant virus displayed high tropism for dendritic cells following in vitro or in vivo infection. Inoculation of immunocompetent adults resulted in an acute infection, generation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and clearance of the infection. Inoculation of newborn mice with rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp resulted in a life-long persistent infection. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp immune memory cells into such persistently infected mice failed to purge virus but, in contrast, cleared virus from mice persistently infected with wt LCMV Cl13. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Iván O; Ochoa, Theresa J; Mosquito, Susan; Barletta, Francesca; Hernández, Roger; Medina, María del Pilar; Stiglich, María Luisa; Ugarte, Claudia; Guillén, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the presence of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 97 patients were included, out of which 69 % had acute encephalitis and 31 % acute meningitis. Enteroviruses were identified in 52,6% of all acute non-bacterial central nervous system infections; corresponding to 83,3 % of meningitis and 38,8 % of encephalitis. There were no cases of infection due to HSV-1, HSV-2 or VZV. Enterovirus infections reached 82,9 % in the warm months (November-January) and 28,6 % in the colder months (May-July). Enteroviruses are the principal etiologic agents in acute aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Enteroviruses have a seasonal epidemiological pattern with a clear increase in the number of cases during the summer months. It is useful to have this rapid diagnostic method available as an aid in the management of acute central nervous system infections.

  3. Treatment Effectiveness of Amantadine Against Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ching

    2016-12-05

    BACKGROUND About 400 million cases of dengue, a mosquito-borne disease, are reported annually, but no drug is yet available for treatment. In 1988, at Feng Lin Clinic, Taiwan, we encountered about 10,000 cases and tested various drugs before confirming an antiviral effect of amantadine against dengue virus in vitro. After we administered amantadine to patients for 1-2 days, most achieved full remission. None experienced potentially life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Herein, we present 34 cases from recent clinical experience that show amantadine's unusual effect against dengue virus infection. CASE REPORT We divided 34 patients with symptoms of dengue fever, confirmed by a screening test, into 3 groups: 6 Category 1 patients received amantadine at onset, 21 Category 2 patients received amantadine within 2-6 days, and 7 Contrast group patients received no amantadine because they visited other clinics or were admitted to a large hospital. When Category 1 patients were treated with amantadine 100 mg 3 times per day, all symptoms dramatically subsided within 1-2 days. In Category 2 patients, most symptoms diminished within 1-2 days after starting the same regimen. In the Contrast group, all symptoms persisted 7 days after onset. White blood cell and platelet counts in Category 1 and 2 patients recovered to normal range, but remained below low normal in the Contrast group. CONCLUSIONS Amantadine is effective and should be given as soon as possible to stop the disease course if dengue fever is confirmed through screening or clinical signs and symptoms. A well-designed larger sample study is warranted to test this effectiveness.

  4. CARCINOMA OF THE LARYNX AND HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi N. Nikolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common form of head and neck cancer. During the last two decades, it has been recognized that this cancer is causally related to human papillomavirus (HPV. Objective: We presented a study on prevalence of human papilloma viruses (HPV in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Methods: This study consists of 43 patients with laryngeal carcinoma who were diagnosed and treated with surgical techniques in Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria. Immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a and Ki-67 were used to prove the relationship between high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV and carcinogenesis. Results: Papilloma virus infection with high-risk oncogenic types of HPV was determined in more than 39.5% of surgically treated patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. HPV-induced carcinogenesis was assumed in 17 (13.9% of all patients whose spouses were operated from cervical cancer. The patients with HPV-positive laryngeal carcinoma were younger than the others in the group (8 years on average. Risk factors for development of HPV-associated laryngeal carcinoma were related to higher number of sexual partners and the practice of oral sex. Frequently, in patients with HPV-associated laryngeal carcinoma we find data for so-called “family’s carcinogenesis”. The possibility of appearance (either preceding or following the treatment of a second carcinoma and/or tumour recurrence is higher in HPV-positive laryngeal carcinomas. Conclusion: It is recommended to extend the diagnostic methods for laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancer with a routine search for high-risk oncogenic HPV strains.

  5. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Mexican human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Gutierrez-Escolano, Fernanda; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Gomez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier; Lira, Rosalia

    2014-10-07

    To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico. We investigated the presence of OHBI in 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was analyzed using nested PCR to amplify the Core (C) region and by real-time PCR to amplify a region of the S and X genes. The possible associations between the variables and OHBI were investigated using Pearson's χ(2) and/or Fisher's exact test. We found that the frequency of OHBI was 49% among the group of 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients studied. The presence of OHBI was significantly associated with the HIV-1 RNA viral load [odds ratio (OR) = 8.75; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 2.26-33.79] and with HIV-antiretroviral treatment with drugs that interfere with HBV replication (lamivudine, tenofovir or emtricitabine) (OR = 0.25; P = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.08-1.05). The OHBI frequency is high among 49 Mexican HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients and it was more frequent in patients with detectable HIV RNA, and less frequent in patients who are undergoing HIV-ARV treatment with drugs active against HBV.

  6. Prevalência ambulatorial em um hospital geral de marcadores para hepatites B e C em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Ambulatorial prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Valle Tovo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Os vírus das hepatites B (VHB e C (VHC e da imunodeficiência humana (HIV utilizam a mesma rota de transmissão, sendo a prevalência de VHB e VHC em pacientes infectados pelo HIV maior do que aquela encontrada na população em geral. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de marcadores para hepatites B e C em uma população de pacientes com HIV, bem como os fatores de risco envolvidos. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Dentre os 5 870 prontuários de pacientes com HIV em acompanhamento no Serviço de Infectologia do Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, RS, foram aleatoriamente selecionados 587 prontuários. Destes, foram considerados para análise retrospectiva aqueles em que havia sido pesquisado algum marcador para hepatites B (HBsAg, anti-HBc ou anti-HBs ou C (anti-VHC, perfazendo o total de 343 pacientes. RESULTADOS: O HBsAg foi positivo em 14 de 306 (4,6% pacientes, anticorpo anti-HBs, em 40 de 154 (26,0% pacientes, e anti-HBc em 79 de 205 (38,5% pacientes. Dentre aqueles que realizaram anti-VHC, 126 de 330 (38,2% tinham-no positivo. Co-infecção por vírus B e C foi observada em 7 dentre os 296 pacientes que realizaram tanto o HBsAg, quanto o anti-VHC (2,4%. Dentre aqueles HBsAg positivos, a principal categoria de exposição foi o relacionamento homossexual masculino (50,0%. Dentre aqueles anti-VHC positivos, a principal categoria de exposição foi o uso de drogas ilícitas injetáveis (75,3%. Naqueles monoinfectados com HIV (185 pacientes, o fator de risco mais prevalente foi relacionamento heterossexual promíscuo ou com cônjuge infectado por HIV em 83 pacientes (44,9%. CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso meio, as co-infecções VHB-HIV e VHC-HIV são freqüentes, sendo observado maior impacto na associação do VHC com o HIV.BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share the same route of transmission, and the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in patients infected with HIV is greater than it is in the

  7. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  8. Mathematical modelling : a tool for hospital infection control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, H; Hellriegel, B

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  9. Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under five years of age in Jos Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Acute respiratory infections are the commonest cause of acute morbidity in children especially those under five in the developing countries. ... prevalence of 43.5/1000 person per year (39/897).

  10. Mathematical modelling: a tool for hospital infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Hellriegel, B

    2006-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens have become a menace in hospitals worldwide and infection control measures have lead to vastly different outcomes in different countries. During the past 6 years, a theoretical framework based on mathematical models has

  11. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, D.; Göbels, K.; Niedrig, M.; Sim-Brandenburg, J.-W.; Làge-Stehr, J.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period

  12. Genotyping of the human papilloma virus in a group of Mexican women treated in a highly specialist hospital: Multiple infections and their potential transcendence in the current vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Uribe-Jiménez, Arizbett; Bandala, Cindy; Poot-Vélez, Albros; Ornelas-Corral, Nora; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2017-10-11

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. It has been reported that HPV16 and 18 types cover approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide; however, significant variation in percentages of HPV infections could be related to specific populations. Purified DNA of 67 cervical samples were analyzed by Linear Array® HPV genotyping kit. These analyzed samples correspond to 19 cervical tumors, 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 20 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 13 cervical samples without injury were studied, all of them previously diagnosed. In general, 16 different HPV types were found with differences in their frequencies, cervical invasive cancer being the richest in HPV sequences, followed by the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and then high-grade lesions. HPV16 was the most frequently distributed type in neoplastic lesions of the cervix, followed by the HPV52, suggesting viral type variability, probably associated to the geographical region studied. The results could indicate variability in HPV presence in Mexico, underlining the important role for HPV52 among others in the Mexican population. This would also potentially have an impact on the current anti-HPV vaccination schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous infection and hospital's civil liability - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsik, D; Wąsik, N; Sygit, B; Dubiel, M

    2014-01-01

    The subject matter of this publication is the legal assessment of endogenous infection - the specific type of hospital infections. The main aim of the publication is to answer the question of whether medical and legal grounds exist for civil liability for endogenous infections and for treating those infections as cases of medical malpractice or medical events. The research method adopted is a case study. The authors have analysed a civil lawsuit for compensation instituted by an infected patient against a Polish hospital, adjudicated in 2013. The main conclusion of the publication is to postulate distinguishing medical malpractice from complications resulting from the reactions of the human body to treatment. The authors argue that endogenous infections should be treated as the latter-mentioned of these two cases.

  14. Towards antiviral therapies for treating dengue virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Suzanne Jf; Neyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus is an emerging human pathogen that poses a huge public health burden by infecting annually about 390 million individuals of which a quarter report with clinical manifestations. Although progress has been made in understanding dengue pathogenesis, a licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy against this virus is still lacking. Treatment of patients is confined to symptomatic alleviation and supportive care. The development of dengue therapeutics thus remains of utmost importance. This review focuses on the few molecules that were evaluated in dengue virus-infected patients: balapiravir, chloroquine, lovastatin, prednisolone and celgosivir. The lessons learned from these clinical trials can be very helpful for the design of future trials for the next generation of dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One...... of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization outcomes and costs of full-term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, K K; Farr, A M; Wade, S W; Diakun, D R; Stewart, D L

    2016-11-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which causes lower respiratory tract infections, is the leading cause of hospitalization among children preterm and full-term infants without chronic lung disease or other high-risk conditions. This analysis used Truven Health Market Scan Multi-State Medicaid and Commercial Claims and Encounters databases, which contain a combined 4 million births from 2003 to 2013. Infants with comorbid conditions associated with increased risk for RSV infection were excluded. Infants were classified as preterm (position. Costs of RSV hospitalizations were captured and reported in 2014 USD. Inpatient claims for RSV hospitalizations were evaluated for the presence of codes indicating admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation (MV) and length of stay. These three measures were used to describe hospital severity. Chronologic age at the time of RSV hospitalization was also captured. Data were summarized and no statistical comparisons were conducted. There were 1 683 188 infants insured through Medicaid and 1 663 832 infants insured through commercial plans born from 1 July 2003 to 30 June 2013. Of those, 10.8 and 8.8% in each database, respectively, were born prematurely. There were 29 967 Medicaid-insured infants and 16 310 commercially insured infants with an RSV hospitalization during their first year of life. Mean first-year RSV hospitalization costs were higher for preterm infants, ranging from $8324 and $10 570 for full-term infants to $15 839 and $19 931 for preterm infants 33-34 wGA, and to $39 354 and $40 813 for preterm infants preterm infants, with longer lengths of stay, a higher proportion of infants admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and increased use of MV compared with full-term infants. Mean costs of RSV hospitalizations with a PICU admission ranged from approximately $35 000 to $89 000. In both Medicaid and commercial groups, costs were greater for

  17. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  19. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chee-Sieng; Sam, I-Ching; Hooi, Poh-Sim; Quek, Kia-Fatt; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2012-03-20

    Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children ≤ 5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus) and virus isolation were performed. The yearly hospitalization rates and annual patterns of laboratory-confirmed viral RTIs were determined. Univariate ANOVA was used to analyse the demographic parameters of cases. Multiple regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to analyse the correlation between RSV cases and meteorological parameters. A total of 2708 cases were laboratory-confirmed using immunofluorescence assays and viral cultures, with the most commonly detected being RSV (1913, 70.6%), parainfluenza viruses (357, 13.2%), influenza viruses (297, 11.0%), and adenovirus (141, 5.2%). Children infected with RSV were significantly younger, and children infected with influenza viruses were significantly older. The four main viruses caused disease throughout the year, with a seasonal peak observed for RSV in September-December. Monthly RSV cases were directly correlated with rain days, and inversely correlated with relative humidity and temperature. Viral RTIs, particularly due to RSV, are commonly detected in respiratory samples from hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. As in temperate countries, RSV infection in

  20. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a retrospective study of 27 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Chee-Sieng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A total of 10269 respiratory samples from all children ≤ 5 years old received at the hospital's diagnostic virology laboratory between 1982-2008 were included in the study. Immunofluorescence staining (for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-3, and adenovirus and virus isolation were performed.