Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...
Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.
A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents 'had contracted the. 'disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully .recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiff- ness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent resi- dual joint stiffness but ...
Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus (family Togaviridae) and is the causative agent of chikungunya fever. This disease is characterised by the sudden onset of high fever and long-lasting arthritic disease. First identified in Tanzania in 1952,
Johnson, Douglas F; Druce, Julian D; Chapman, Scott; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Wolf, Josh; Richards, Jack S; Korman, Tony; Birch, Chris; Richards, Michael J
We report eight recent cases of Chikungunya virus infection in travellers to Australia. Patients presented with fevers, rigors, headaches, arthralgia, and rash. The current Indian Ocean epidemic and Italian outbreak have featured prominently on Internet infectious disease bulletins, and Chikungunya virus infection had been anticipated in travellers from the outbreak areas. Diagnosis was by a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with confirmatory sequencing. Prompt diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infections is of public health significance as the mosquito vectors for transmission exist in Australia. There is potential for this infection to spread in the largely naïve Australian population.
Full Text Available An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts and, to a lesser extent, monocyte-derived macrophages, were susceptible to infection and allowed viral production. In contrast, CHIKV did not replicate in lymphoid and monocytoid cell lines, primary lymphocytes and monocytes, or monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CHIKV replication was cytopathic and associated with an induction of apoptosis in infected cells. Chloroquine, bafilomycin-A1, and short hairpin RNAs against dynamin-2 inhibited viral production, indicating that viral entry occurs through pH-dependent endocytosis. CHIKV was highly sensitive to the antiviral activity of type I and II interferons. These results provide a general insight into the interaction between CHIKV and its mammalian host.
da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo F; Leoncini, Giovanni O; Rodrigues, Érica E S; Aquino, Thiago M; Araújo-Júnior, João X
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. Among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus species. The focus of this review will be on the medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus, including synthetic and natural products, as well as rationally designed compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive visualization: http://www.cdc.gov/chikungunya/modeling/index.html. This dataset contains monthly predictions for the spread of chikungunya virus...
Phitchayapak Wintachai; Parveen Kaur; Regina Ching Hua Lee; Suwipa Ramphan; Atichat Kuadkitkan; Nitwara Wikan; Sukathida Ubol; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Justin Jang Hann Chu; Duncan R. Smith
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This stud...
McSweegan, Edward; Weaver, Scott C; Lecuit, Marc; Frieman, Matthew; Morrison, Thomas E; Hrynkow, Sharon
The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection and management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources and expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses and international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, and advocates for funding and evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps and opportunities, including models of infection and disease, candidate vaccines and antivirals, epidemiology and vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, and policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra
In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is becoming a global concern due to the increasing number of outbreaks throughout the world and the absence of any CHIKV-specific vaccine or treatment. Virus-like particles (VLPs are multistructured proteins that mimic the organization and conformation of native viruses but lack the viral genome. They are noninfectious and potentially safer vaccine candidates. Recent studies demonstrated that the yield of CHIKV VLPs varies depending on the strains, despite the 95% amino acid similarity of the strains. This might be due to the codon usage, since protein expression is differently controlled by different organisms. We optimized the region encoding CHIKV structural proteins, C-E3-E2-6k-E1, inserted it into a mammalian expression vector, and used the resulting construct to transfect 293 cells. We detected 50-kDa proteins corresponding to E1 and/or E2 in the cell lysate and the supernatant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical particles with a 50- to 60-nm diameter in the supernatant that resembled the native CHIKV virions. The buoyant density of the VLPs was 1.23 g/mL, and the yield was 20 µg purified VLPs per 108 cells. The VLPs aggregated when mixed with convalescent sera from chikungunya patients, indicating that their antigenicity is similar to that of native CHIKV. Antibodies elicited with the VLPs were capable of detecting native CHIKV, demonstrating that the VLPs retain immunogenicity similar to that of the native virion. These results indicated that CHIKV VLPs are morphologically, antigenically, and immunologically similar to the native CHIKV, suggesting that they have potential for use in chikungunya vaccines.
Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.
In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...
Edwards, Thomas; Signor, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E; Adams, Emily R
We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections.
... Small Bites, Big Threats Vectors: Integrated Management and Public Health Entomology Chikungunya Number of reported cases: December 22, ... mosquito-borne diseases during outbreaks 2017-05-18 Brazil’s Health Minister Outlines Health Challenges in PAHO Visit 2017- ...
May 1, 2014 ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by. Aedes mosquitoes .... Knockdown of HSP70 (NM_005346, X70684) and STAT-2 ... Large scale endotoxin free plasmids were ... Biosystems, USA) using power SYBR Green I technology .... At 12 h p.i., pre-incubation with higher concentration of.
Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo
Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia. Peak virus titers in serum of up to 4.5, 4.7, and 5.1 log 10 plaque-forming units per milliliter were observed for garter snakes, ball pythons, and Texas toads, respectively. These results add to those of other studies that have suggested a possible role for ectothermic vertebrates in the ecology of arbovirus maintenance and transmission in nature.
Full Text Available Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral infection of humans that previously was confined to regions in central Africa. However, during this century, the virus has shown surprising potential for geographic expansion as it invaded other countries including more temperate regions. With no vaccine and no specific treatment, the main control strategy for Chikungunya remains preventive control of mosquito populations. In consideration for the risk of Chikungunya introduction to the US, we developed a model for disease introduction based on virus introduction by one individual. Our study combines a climate-based mosquito population dynamics stochastic model with an epidemiological model to identify temporal windows that have epidemic risk. We ran this model with temperature data from different locations to study the geographic sensitivity of epidemic potential. We found that in locations with marked seasonal variation in temperature there also was a season of epidemic risk matching the period of the year in which mosquito populations survive and grow. In these locations controlling mosquito population sizes might be an efficient strategy. But, in other locations where the temperature supports mosquito development all year the epidemic risk is high and (practically constant. In these locations, mosquito population control alone might not be an efficient disease control strategy and other approaches should be implemented to complement it. Our results strongly suggest that, in the event of an introduction and establishment of Chikungunya in the US, endemic and epidemic regions would emerge initially, primarily defined by environmental factors controlling annual mosquito population cycles. These regions should be identified to plan different intervention measures. In addition, reducing vector: human ratios can lower the probability and magnitude of outbreaks for regions with strong seasonal temperature patterns. This is the first model to consider
Wang, Danher; Suhrbier, Andreas; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Gardner, Joy; Luo, Min; Le, Thuy T.; Anraku, Itaru; Sakalian, Michael; Einfeld, David; Dong, John Y.
Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, recently caused the largest epidemic ever seen for this virus. Chikungunya disease primarily manifests as a painful and debilitating arthralgia/arthritis, and no effective drug or vaccine is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant chikungunya virus vaccine comprising a non-replicating complex adenovirus vector encoding the structural polyprotein cassette of chikungunya virus. A single immunisation with this vaccine consistently induced high titres of anti-chikungunya virus antibodies that neutralised both an old Asian isolate and a Réunion Island isolate from the recent epidemic. The vaccine also completely protected mice against viraemia and arthritic disease caused by both virus isolates. PMID:21320541
Hidajat, Rachmat; Nickols, Brian [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Forrester, Naomi [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, GNL, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Tretyakova, Irina [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Weaver, Scott [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, GNL, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a pandemic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared and compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3′ untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 and E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 and E2-82 were 0.064% and 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% and 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety. - Highlights: • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pandemic threat. • In vivo DNA-launched attenuated CHIKV is a novel vaccine technology. • DNA-launched virus was sequenced using HiSeq2000 and compared to the 181/25 virus. • DNA-launched virus has lower frequency of SNPs at E2-12 and E2-82 attenuation loci.
Hidajat, Rachmat; Nickols, Brian; Forrester, Naomi; Tretyakova, Irina; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a pandemic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared and compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3′ untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 and E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 and E2-82 were 0.064% and 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% and 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety. - Highlights: • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging pandemic threat. • In vivo DNA-launched attenuated CHIKV is a novel vaccine technology. • DNA-launched virus was sequenced using HiSeq2000 and compared to the 181/25 virus. • DNA-launched virus has lower frequency of SNPs at E2-12 and E2-82 attenuation loci.
... by the same kinds of mosquitoes that spread dengue and Zika virus. Rarely, it can spread from ... virus. There are no vaccines or medicines to treat it. Drinking lots of fluids, resting, and taking ...
Martínez-Sánchez, Abisai; Martínez-Ramos, Ericay Berenice; Chávez-Angeles, Manuel Gerardo
Recent outbreaks of emerging diseases emphasize the vulnerability of health systems, as is the case of chikungunya fever. The wide geographical incidence of the virus in the last years requires alerting systems for the prevention, diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease. Given the ecological, epidemiological and socio-economic characteristic of Mexico, this disease affects directly or indirectly the health of the population and development of agricultural, livestock, industrial, fishing, oil and tourism activities in the country. Due to this situation it is essential to make a brief analysis on the main clinical data, epidemiological and preventive measures with which our country counts with to confront the situation.
Full Text Available Trigocherrierin A (1 and trigocherriolide E (2, two new daphnane diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs, and six chlorinated analogues, trigocherrins A, B, F and trigocherriolides A–C, were isolated from the leaves of Trigonostemon cherrieri. Their structures were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. These compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV replication. Among the DDOs isolated, compound 1 exhibited the strongest anti-CHIKV activity (EC50 = 0.6 ± 0.1 µM, SI = 71.7.
Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General
Full Text Available The advent of sophisticated diagnostics has enabled the discovery of previously unknown arthropod-borne viruses like Chikungunya. This infection has become increasingly prevalent in the last 10 years across the Indian Ocean and has been brought to media attention by a recent outbreak in the Caribbean. The outbreak has been aided by a drastic rise in air travel, allowing infected individuals to transport the virus to previously unaffected regions. In addition, a recently documented viral mutation has allowed its transmission by the Aedes albopictus mosquito, therefore facilitating outbreaks in Southern Europe and the USA. The duration and extent of the arthritis seen peri- and post infection has become a topic of academic interest. Although published data are largely observational, there has been a definite increase in original research focusing on this. Symptoms can persist for years, particularly in older patients with pre-existing medical conditions. The etiology is still not fully understood, but viral persistence and immune activation within synovial fluid have been shown in mouse models. There have been no prospective clinical trials of treatment in humans; however, animal trials are in process. The mainstay of treatment remains anti-inflammatories and steroids where necessary. The clinical presentation seems to mimic common rheumatological conditions like rheumatoid arthritis; therefore recent recommendations suggest the use disease-modifying agents as a common practice for the specific syndrome. This review uses recent published data and draws on our own clinical experience to provide an overview of joint complications of Chikungunya infection.
Narendran Pradeep Kumar
Full Text Available India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002. Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019 and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016 years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. Case presentation We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression of inflammatory mediators and persistence of specific IgM antibodies over 24 months following infection. Conclusions Understanding the specific features of chikungunya virus as well as how the virus interacts with its host are essential for the prevention, treatment or cure of chikungunya disease.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.
Full Text Available Several arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV, Zika virus (ZIKV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, circulate in northeast Brazil. Diseases caused by these viruses are of great public health relevance, however, their epidemiological features in areas where the three viruses co-circulate are scarce. Here, we present analyses of molecular and serological diagnostics in a prospective study of acute febrile patients recruited from May 2015 to May 2016 in Recife, Brazil.Two hundred sixty-three acute febrile patients with symptoms suggestive of an arboviral disease who attended an urgent heath care clinic in the Recife Metropolitan Region in northeast Brazil were enrolled. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays for infection with DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV.Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRTPCR performed on acute phase sera detected no patients positive for DENV, but 26 (9.9% positive for ZIKV and 132 (50.2% positive for CHIKV. There were a few suspected and only one confirmed dengue case. Specific serological assays for ZIKV and CHIKV confirmed the qRTPCR data. Analyses of DENV IgM and IgG ELISAs in the context of qRTPCR results suggested high levels of cross reactive antibodies in ZIKV-positive samples. Results from neutralization assays highly corroborated those from qRTPCR and ZIKV ELISA, indicating very few positive DENV cases. ZIKV infections were temporally clustered in the first months of the study and started to decrease concomitantly with an increase in CHIKV infections in August 2015. The proportion of CHIKV infections increased significantly in September 2015 and remained high until the end of the study period, with an average of 84.7% of recruited patients being diagnosed from August 2015 to May 2016. ZIKV infections exhibited a female bias and the cases were spread over the study site, while CHIKV cases had a
Magalhaes, Tereza; Braga, Cynthia; Cordeiro, Marli T; Oliveira, Andre L S; Castanha, Priscila M S; Maciel, Ana Paula R; Amancio, Nathalia M L; Gouveia, Pollyanne N; Peixoto-da-Silva, Valter J; Peixoto, Thaciana F L; Britto, Helena; Lima, Priscilla V; Lima, Andreza R S; Rosenberger, Kerstin D; Jaenisch, Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A
Several arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, circulate in northeast Brazil. Diseases caused by these viruses are of great public health relevance, however, their epidemiological features in areas where the three viruses co-circulate are scarce. Here, we present analyses of molecular and serological diagnostics in a prospective study of acute febrile patients recruited from May 2015 to May 2016 in Recife, Brazil. Two hundred sixty-three acute febrile patients with symptoms suggestive of an arboviral disease who attended an urgent heath care clinic in the Recife Metropolitan Region in northeast Brazil were enrolled. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays for infection with DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRTPCR) performed on acute phase sera detected no patients positive for DENV, but 26 (9.9%) positive for ZIKV and 132 (50.2%) positive for CHIKV. There were a few suspected and only one confirmed dengue case. Specific serological assays for ZIKV and CHIKV confirmed the qRTPCR data. Analyses of DENV IgM and IgG ELISAs in the context of qRTPCR results suggested high levels of cross reactive antibodies in ZIKV-positive samples. Results from neutralization assays highly corroborated those from qRTPCR and ZIKV ELISA, indicating very few positive DENV cases. ZIKV infections were temporally clustered in the first months of the study and started to decrease concomitantly with an increase in CHIKV infections in August 2015. The proportion of CHIKV infections increased significantly in September 2015 and remained high until the end of the study period, with an average of 84.7% of recruited patients being diagnosed from August 2015 to May 2016. ZIKV infections exhibited a female bias and the cases were spread over the study site, while CHIKV cases had a male bias and
Ramsauer, Katrin; Tangy, Frédéric
In 2013, a major chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic reached the Americas. In the past 2 years, >1.7 million people have been infected. In light of the current epidemic, with millions of people in North and South America at risk, efforts to rapidly develop effective vaccines have increased. Here, we focus on CHIKV vaccines that use viral-vector technologies. This group of vaccine candidates shares an ability to potently induce humoral and cellular immune responses by use of highly attenuated and safe vaccine backbones. So far, well-described vectors such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara, complex adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, alphavirus-based chimeras, and measles vaccine Schwarz strain (MV/Schw) have been described as potential vaccines. We summarize here the recent data on these experimental vaccines, with a focus on the preclinical and clinical activities on the MV/Schw-based candidate, which is the first CHIKV-vectored vaccine that has completed a clinical trial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Agarwal, Ayush; Vibha, Deepti; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Prasad, Kameshwar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses. We describe two cases of severe GBS which presented with rapidly progressive flaccid quadriparesis progressing to difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Both required mechanical ventilation and improved partly with plasmapharesis. The cases emphasize on (1) description of the rare complication in a setting of outbreak with CHIKV, (2) acute axonal as well as demyelinating neuropathy may occur with CHIKV, (3) accurate identification of this entity during outbreaks with dengue, both of which are vector borne and may present with similar complications.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV emerged in Aruba for the first time in 2014. We studied the clinical presentation of acute CHIKV infection and the contribution of serologic and molecular assays to its diagnosis. In a cohort of confirmed CHIKV cases, we analysed the frequency, duration and predictors of post-chikungunya chronic polyarthralgia (pCHIK-CPA, defined as joint pains lasting longer than 6 weeks or longer than 1 year.Patient sera obtained within 10 days of symptom onset were tested for CHIKV, using an indirect immunofluorescence test for the detection of CHIKV-specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM and post-hoc, by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. CHIKV was isolated from selected samples and genotyped. For confirmed CHIKV cases, clinical data from chart review were complemented by a Telephone survey, conducted 18-24 months after diagnosis. When joint pain was reported, the duration, presence of inflammatory signs, type and number of joints affected, were recorded. Joint involvement was scored according to the 2010 'American College of Rheumatology/ European League Against Rheumatism' criteria for seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (ACR-score. Risk factors for pCHIK-CPA were identified by logistic regression.Acute CHIKV infection was diagnosed in 269 of 498 sera, by detection of IgM (n = 105, by RT-PCR (n = 59, or by both methods (n = 105. Asian genotype was confirmed in 7 samples. Clinical data were complete for 171 of 248 (69.0% patients, aged 15 years or older (median 49.4 [35.0-59.6]. The female-to-male ratio was 2.2. The main acute symptoms were arthralgia (94%, fever (85%, myalgia (85%, headache (73% and rash (63%. In patients with arthralgia (n = 160, pCHIK-CPA longer than 6 weeks was reported by 44% and longer than 1 year by 26% of cases. Inflammatory signs, stiffness, edema and redness were frequent (71%, 39% and 21%, respectively. Joints involved were knees (66%, ankles (50%, fingers (52%, feet (46%, shoulders (36
Samra, José A; Hagood, Nancy L; Summer, Andrea; Medina, Marco T; Holden, Kenton R
The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of 235 children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis. Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system.
Rezza, Giovanni; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lista, Florigio
We investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in Al Hudaydah, Yemen, in 2012. Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen.
Martínez-Landeros, Erik; Delgado-Gallegos, Juan L.; Caballero-Sosa, Sandra; Malo-García, Iliana R.
Chikungunya fever is an arthropod-borne infection caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Even though clinical features of Chikungunya fever in the Mexican population have been described before, there is no detailed information. The aim of this study was to perform a full description of the clinical features in confirmed Chikungunya-infected patients and describe the molecular epidemiology of CHIKV. We evaluated febrile patients who sought medical assistance in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, from June through July 2015. Infection was confirmed with molecular and serological methods. Viruses were isolated and the E1 gene was sequenced. Phylogeny reconstruction was inferred using maximum-likelihood and maximum clade credibility approaches. We studied 52 patients with confirmed CHIKV infection. They were more likely to have wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and knee arthralgia. Two combinations of clinical features were obtained to differentiate between Chikungunya fever and acute undifferentiated febrile illness. We obtained 10 CHIKV E1 sequences that grouped with the Asian lineage. Seven strains diverged from the formerly reported. Patients infected with the divergent CHIKV strains showed a broader spectrum of clinical manifestations. We defined the complete clinical features of Chikungunya fever in patients from Southeastern Mexico. Our results demonstrate co-circulation of different CHIKV strains in the state of Chiapas. PMID:29747416
Kame A. Galán-Huerta
Full Text Available Chikungunya fever is an arthropod-borne infection caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Even though clinical features of Chikungunya fever in the Mexican population have been described before, there is no detailed information. The aim of this study was to perform a full description of the clinical features in confirmed Chikungunya-infected patients and describe the molecular epidemiology of CHIKV. We evaluated febrile patients who sought medical assistance in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, from June through July 2015. Infection was confirmed with molecular and serological methods. Viruses were isolated and the E1 gene was sequenced. Phylogeny reconstruction was inferred using maximum-likelihood and maximum clade credibility approaches. We studied 52 patients with confirmed CHIKV infection. They were more likely to have wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and knee arthralgia. Two combinations of clinical features were obtained to differentiate between Chikungunya fever and acute undifferentiated febrile illness. We obtained 10 CHIKV E1 sequences that grouped with the Asian lineage. Seven strains diverged from the formerly reported. Patients infected with the divergent CHIKV strains showed a broader spectrum of clinical manifestations. We defined the complete clinical features of Chikungunya fever in patients from Southeastern Mexico. Our results demonstrate co-circulation of different CHIKV strains in the state of Chiapas.
Christina Li-Ping Thio
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.
Mercado, Marcela; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Guzmán, Luis; Beltrán, Mauricio; Gasque, Philippe; Mejía-García, Carlos; Viasus, Diego
Information regarding physiopathology and complications in fatal cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and severity of renal complications in fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection based on the clinical and histopathological features from post-mortem tissue biopsies. This retrospective study included fatal cases associated with CHIKV infection occurring from September 2014 through October 2015, reported to National System for Public Health Surveillance (SIVIGILA) and laboratory-confirmed by the National Institute of Health of Colombia. Medical records from 13 patients were available. Information was collected on history, physical examination, and haematological, biochemical, radiological, and virologic investigation reports. Diagnosis of CHIKV infection was performed by positive CHIKV-PCR on post-mortem tissue in 10 cases, positive CHIKV-PCR in serum in 6 cases and anti-CHIKV virus IgM in 2 cases. Only 3 cases were children (≤5 years old). Four cases had underlying diseases, mainly systemic arterial hypertension. The median value of creatinine at admission was 2.8 mg/dL (interquartile range 1.52-4.51). During hospitalization, 9 cases required ICU admission, 8 vasopressor support and 6 mechanical ventilation. Kidney histopathological findings were mainly acute interstitial nephritis (11 cases), congestion/oedema glomerular (10 cases) and acute tubular necrosis (5 cases). Renal impairment in fatal cases of CHIKV infection is frequent and related mainly to acute interstitial nephritis. These data demonstrate evidence of acquired kidney injuries during CHIKV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This report describes the outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV in Sint Maarten, a constituent country of Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising the southern part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, from 22 December 2013 (first reported case through 5 December 2014. The outbreak was first reported by the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin in the northern part of the island—the first site in the Americas to report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. By 5 December 2014, Sint Maarten had reported a total of 658 cases—an overall attack rate of 1.76%. Actual prevalence may have been higher, as some cases may have been misdiagnosed as dengue. Fever and arthralgia affected 71% and 69% of reported cases respectively. Of the 390 laboratory-confirmed cases, 61% were female and the majority were 20–59 years old (mean: 42; range: 4–92. The spread of CHIKV to Sint Maarten was inevitable given the ease of movement of people, and the vector, island-wide. Continuing their history of collaboration, the French and Dutch parts of the island coordinated efforts for prevention and control of the disease. These included a formal agreement to exchange epidemiological information on a regular basis and provide alerts in a timely manner; collaboration among personnel through joint island-wide planning of mosquito control activities, especially along borders; notification of all island visitors, upon their arrival at airports and seaports, of preventative measures to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes; dissemination of educational materials to the public; and island-wide public awareness campaigns, particularly in densely populated areas, for both residents and visitors. The information provided in this report could help increase understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of CHIKV and guide other countries dealing with vector-borne epidemics.
Silva, Mariana Ruiz; Briseno, Jose A. Aguilar; Upasani, Vinit; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.
Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most prevalent arboviral disease. During the last decade chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Full Text Available To the Editor, The article of Krutikov and Manson1 was interesting. However, no comment was made on the impact and related clinical epidemiology of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection during the 2014–2015 epidemics in Latin America, the most recent area affected by CHIKV. ...
Isabella Gomes Cavalcanti de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.
van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K. S.; Blijleven, Jelle S.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Smit, Jolanda M.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash and debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines and antiviral drugs, it is imperative to understand the
Metz, S.W.H.; Geertsema, C.; Martina, Byron E.; Andrade, Paulina; Heldens, J.; Oers, van M.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.
Background - Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of
S.W. Metz (Stefan); C. Geertsema (Corinne); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. Andrade (Paulina); J.G.M. Heldens; M.M. van Oers (Monique); J.M. Vlak (Just); G.P. Pijlman (Gorben)
textabstractBackground: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the
Kautz, Tiffany F.; Díaz-González, Esteban E.; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Malo-García, Iliana R.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Patterson, Edward I.; Auguste, Dawn I.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa Maria; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso
Since chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. Of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern Mexico, 79% were positive for CHIKV or IgM against CHIKV. Sequencing results confirmed CHIKV strains closely related to Caribbean isolates. PMID:26488312
Norman, Francesca F; Chamorro, Sandra; Vázquez, Ana; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Pérez-Molina, José-Antonio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Vivancos, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Dominguez, Mario; Galán, Juan-Carlos; de Ory, Fernando; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are currently circulating in overlapping areas in the American continents and may both be transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The first documented case, to the authors' knowledge, of sequential CHIKV and ZIKV infections diagnosed in a nonendemic area in a returning traveler is reported. The implications for heightened clinical surveillance for these infections and specific patient recommendations are emphasized. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
C. Fraisier (Christophe); P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Belghazi (Maya); M. Bakli (Mahfoud); S. Granjeaud (Samuel); M. Pophillat (Matthieu); S.M. Lim (Stephanie); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); L. Camoin (Luc); L. Almeras (Lionel)
textabstractRecent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been characterized by an increasing number of severe cases with atypical manifestations including neurological complications. In parallel, the risk map of CHIKV outbreaks has expanded because of improved vector competence.
Full Text Available La infección por el virus de Chikungunya presenta manifestaciones clínicas típicas: fiebre, erupción cutánea y artralgia. La enfermedad es generalmente autolimitada y de evolución benigna. Las complicaciones graves y la muerte ocurren en raras ocasiones y en pacientes con factores de riesgo, principalmente en aquellos con comorbilidades o que se encuentran en edades extremas de la vida. En este artículo describimos un paciente, sin comorbilidades previas conocidas, con infección por el virus de Chickungunya que progresó rápidamente a disfunción orgánica múltiple y murió luego de 36 horas de su ingreso. Este caso ilustra la dificultad del diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la infección grave por el virus de Chikungunya.
Full Text Available Ann M PowersArboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USAAbstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne virus that is associated with severe and prolonged arthralgia. Starting in 2004, CHIKV reemerged in a series of outbreaks along the east coast of Africa and on several islands of the Indian Ocean. Over the subsequent 10 years, the virus spread throughout the globe and caused over three million cases. Molecular characterization of the genomes over time revealed changes that were associated with changes in epidemiology and transmission patterns. Monitoring and exploitation of these changes may lead to better understanding of viral movement and potential options for prevention and control.Keywords: chikungunya, alphaviral evolution, molecular epidemiology, transmission, outbreaks
Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella
At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.
Full Text Available Abstract Since 2004, several million indigenous cases of Chikungunya virus disease occurred in Africa, the Indian Ocean, India, Asia and, recently, Europe. The virus, usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has now repeatedly been associated with a new vector, Ae. Albopictus. Analysis of full-length viral sequences reveals three independent events of virus exposure to Ae. Albopictus, each followed by the acquisition of a single adaptive mutation providing selective advantage for transmission by this mosquito. This disconcerting and current unique example of "evolutionary convergence" occurring in nature illustrates rapid pathogen adaptation to ecological perturbation, driven directly as a consequence of human activities.
Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.
Göertz, Giel P.; Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Geertsema, Corinne; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the Americas, and elsewhere in the world. ZIKV and CHIKV co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by Aedes
Mounce, Bryan C; Cesaro, Teresa; Carrau, Lucia; Vallet, Thomas; Vignuzzi, Marco
Several compounds extracted from spices and herbs exhibit antiviral effects in vitro, suggesting potential pharmacological uses. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been used as a food additive and herbal supplement due to its potential medicinal properties. Previously, curcumin exhibited antiviral properties against several viruses, including dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, among others. Here, we describe the antiviral effect of curcumin on Zika and chikungunya viruses, two mosquito-borne outbreak viruses. Both viruses responded to treatment of cells with up to 5 μM curumin without impacting cellular viability. We observed that direct treatment of virus with curcumin reduced infectivity of virus in a dose- and time-dependent manner for these enveloped viruses, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. In contrast, we found no change in infectivity for Coxsackievirus B3, a non-enveloped virus. Derivatives of curcumin also exhibited antiviral activity against enveloped viruses. Further examination revealed that curcumin interfered with the binding of the enveloped viruses to cells in a dose-dependent manner, though the integrity of the viral RNA was maintained. Together, these results expand the family of viruses sensitive to curcumin and provide a mechanism of action for curcumin's effect on these enveloped viruses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015. Moreover, to understand this paucity of confirmed CHIKV cases, a vectorial analysis in the counties where these cases were reported was performed.Chikungunya cases were identified at medical centers and notified to health authorities. Sera samples were analyzed at Gorgas Memorial Institute for viral RNA and CHIKV-specific antibody detection.A total of 413 suspected cases of CHIKV infections were reported, with incidence rates of 0.5 and 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2014 and 2015, respectively. During this period, 38.6% of CHIKV cases were autochthonous with rash and polyarthralgia as predominant symptoms. CHIKV and DENV incidence ratios were 1:306 and 1:34, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of E1/E2 genomic segment indicates that the outbreak strains belong to the Asian genotype and cluster together with CHIKV isolates from other American countries during the same period. Statistical analysis of the National Vector Control program at the district level shows low and medium vector infestation level for most of the counties with CHIKV cases. This index was lower than for neighboring countries.Previous training of clinical, laboratory and vector workers allowed a good caption and detection of the chikungunya cases and fast intervention. It is possible that low/medium vector infestation level could explain in part the paucity of chikungunya infections in Panama.
Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen, Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton Dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R; Ladner, Jason T; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara
The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.
André Luis Costa-da-Silva
Full Text Available The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil.During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV, Zika (ZIKV and Dengue viruses (DENV by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA genotype.Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.
Full Text Available Arboviral infection causes dysregulation of cascade of events involving numerous biomolecules affecting fitness of mosquito to combat virus. In response of the viral infection mosquito’s defense mechanism get initiated. Oxidative stress is among the first host responses triggered by the vector. Significant number of information is available showing changes in the transcripts and/or proteins upon Chikungunya virus and Dengue virus mono-infections and as co-infections. In the present study, we collected different -omics data available in the public database along with the data generated in our laboratory related to mono-infections or co-infections of these viruses. We analyzed the data and classified them into their respective pathways to study the role of oxidative stress in combating arboviral infection in Aedes mosquito. The analysis revealed that the oxidative stress related pathways functions in harmonized manner.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod borne virus infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate of severe human diseases worldwide. The midgut of mosquitoes is the first barrier for pathogen transmission and is a target organ where arboviruses must replicate prior to infecting other organs. A proteomic approach was undertaken to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that happen in the midgut for viral transmission to eventually take place. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a proteomics differential approach with two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, we defined the protein modulations in the midgut of Aedes aegypti that were triggered seven days after an oral infection (7 DPI with dengue 2 (DENV-2 and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses. Gel profile comparisons showed that the level of 18 proteins was modulated by DENV-2 only and 12 proteins were modulated by CHIKV only. Twenty proteins were regulated by both viruses in either similar or different ways. Both viruses caused an increase of proteins involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, energy production, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Midgut infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV triggered an antioxidant response. CHIKV infection produced an increase of proteins involved in detoxification. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti's midgut infected with viruses belonging to different families. It shows that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural, redox, regulatory proteins, and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some of these proteins like antioxidant are probably involved in cell protection. On the other hand, we propose that the modulation of other proteins like transferrin, hsp60 and alpha
Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stéphane; Khun, Huot; Pincet, Laurence; Roux, Pascal; Bahut, Muriel; Huerre, Michel; Guette, Catherine; Choumet, Valérie
Arthropod borne virus infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate of severe human diseases worldwide. The midgut of mosquitoes is the first barrier for pathogen transmission and is a target organ where arboviruses must replicate prior to infecting other organs. A proteomic approach was undertaken to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that happen in the midgut for viral transmission to eventually take place. Using a proteomics differential approach with two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we defined the protein modulations in the midgut of Aedes aegypti that were triggered seven days after an oral infection (7 DPI) with dengue 2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Gel profile comparisons showed that the level of 18 proteins was modulated by DENV-2 only and 12 proteins were modulated by CHIKV only. Twenty proteins were regulated by both viruses in either similar or different ways. Both viruses caused an increase of proteins involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species, energy production, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Midgut infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV triggered an antioxidant response. CHIKV infection produced an increase of proteins involved in detoxification. Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti's midgut infected with viruses belonging to different families. It shows that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural, redox, regulatory proteins, and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some of these proteins like antioxidant are probably involved in cell protection. On the other hand, we propose that the modulation of other proteins like transferrin, hsp60 and alpha glucosidase, may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of
Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America and Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development and outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy.We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV and DENV-2 infected patients.We observed that both activation and differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 and CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, and DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV.Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV and DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.
Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L
Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.
Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.
Full Text Available El 9 de diciembre de 2013 la Organización Panamericana de la Salud emitió una alerta epidemiológica debido a la detección de los primeros casos autóctonos de fiebre del Chikun-gunya en el continente americano; desde entonces este se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública. El primer reporte de un brote por el virus del Chikungunya se presentó en 1952-1953 en Tanzania. Las experiencias en epidemias en otros países han centrado la atención en que la presentación clínica no siempre tiene un comportamiento similar. Hasta 2005 todos los reportes mencionaban la presentación de la enfermedad como benigna y con cuadros clínicos bastantes similares, sin embargo, la aparición de epidemias después de ese año en las Islas Reunión y en la India describieron la presencia de cuadros graves, atípicos y un aumento de la mortalidad relacionados con la enfermedad. La región de las Américas debe prepararse para esta nueva epidemia. Esto hace necesario mejorar los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad; y un primer abordaje es a través de una descripción de la historia y epidemiología de la enfermedad por el virus del Chikungunya en el mundo.
Full Text Available Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV was introduced into the Caribbean island of St. Martin. Since then, approximately 2 million chikungunya cases have been reported by the Pan American Health Organization, and most countries in the Americas report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. In Nicaragua, the first imported case was described in July 2014 and the first autochthonous case in September 2014. Here, we conducted two studies to analyze the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first chikungunya epidemic in a community-based cohort study (ages 2-14 years and in a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years in the same area of Managua, Nicaragua. Routine annual serum samples collected from 3,362 cohort participants in March/April 2014 and 2015, and 848 age-stratified samples collected from persons ≥15 years old at the end of May-beginning of June 2015 were used to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-CHIKV antibodies after the first epidemic (October 2014 to February 2015 in the study population. Using an Inhibition ELISA assay that measures total anti-CHIKV antibodies, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in those aged ≥15 (13.1% (95%CI: 10.9, 15.5 than in the pediatric population (6.1% (95%CI: 5.3, 6.9. The proportion of inapparent infections was 58.3% (95%CI: 51.5, 65.1 in children and 64.9% (95%CI: 55.2, 73.7 in the ≥15 study population. We identified age, water availability, household size, and socioeconomic status as factors associated with the presence of anti-CHIKV antibodies. Overall, this is the first report of CHIKV seropositivity in continental Latin America and provides useful information for public health authorities in the region.
von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding
Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding
Erasmus, Jesse H; Needham, James; Raychaudhuri, Syamal; Diamond, Michael S; Beasley, David W C; Morkowski, Stan; Salje, Henrik; Fernandez Salas, Ildefonso; Kim, Dal Young; Frolov, Ilya; Nasar, Farooq; Weaver, Scott C
In December of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, was introduced to the island of Saint Martin in the Caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the Americas. As of January 2015, local and imported CHIKV has been reported in 50 American countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. CHIKV causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. Furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic assay limits surveillance and control efforts. To address this issue, we utilized an insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), to develop a diagnostic antigen that does not require biosafety containment facilities to produce. We demonstrated that EILV/CHIKV replicates to high titers in insect cells and can be applied directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays without inactivation, resulting in highly sensitive detection of recent and past CHIKV infection, and outperforming traditional antigen preparations.
Stefan W Metz
Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. Methods We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling. Conclusion Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.
Stone, D; Lyons, A C; Huang, Y-J S; Vanlandingham, D L; Higgs, S; Blitvich, B J; Adesiyun, A A; Santana, S E; Leiser-Miller, L; Cheetham, S
Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Two species of fruit bats were sampled, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus, all roosting in or within 1,000 m of human settlements. Fifteen (36%) of the 42 bats tested for neutralizing antibodies to CHIKV were positive. The CHIKV-seropositive bats lived in localities spanning five of the six parishes. All 43 bats tested for epitope-blocking ELISA antibody to the other alphaviruses were negative, except one positive for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. All 50 bats tested for neutralizing antibody to flaviviruses were negative, except one that had a BSQV PRNT 80 titre of 20. The CHIKV serology results indicate that bats living close to and within human settlements were exposed to CHIKV in multiple locations. Importantly, bats for this study were trapped a year after the introduction and peak of the human CHIKV epidemic in Grenada. Thus, our data indicate that bats were exposed to CHIKV possibly during a time of marked decline in human cases. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Díaz-González, Esteban E; Kautz, Tiffany F; Dorantes-Delgado, Alicia; Malo-García, Iliana R; Laguna-Aguilar, Maricela; Langsjoen, Rose M; Chen, Rubing; Auguste, Dawn I; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Weaver, Scott C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso
During a chikungunya fever outbreak in late 2014 in Chiapas, Mexico, entomovirological surveillance was performed to incriminate the vector(s). In neighborhoods, 75 households with suspected cases were sampled for mosquitoes, of which 80% (60) harbored Aedes aegypti and 2.7% (2) Aedes albopictus. A total of 1,170 Ae. aegypti and three Ae. albopictus was collected and 81 pools were generated. Although none of the Ae. albopictus pools were chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive, 18 Ae. aegypti pools (22.8%) contained CHIKV, yielding an infection rate of 32.3/1,000 mosquitoes. A lack of herd immunity in conjunction with high mosquito populations, poor vector control services in this region, and targeted collections in locations of human cases may explain the high infection rate in this vector. Consistent with predictions from experimental studies, Ae. aegypti appears to be the principal vector of CHIKV in southern Mexico, while the role of Ae. albopictus remains unknown. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C
Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/- mice, which are deficient for interferon α/β responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities.
Henß, Lisa; Beck, Simon; Weidner, Tatjana; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Sliva, Katja; Weber, Christopher; Becker, Stephan; Schnierle, Barbara S
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. It has efficiently adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions and currently causes large outbreaks in the Caribbean and Latin America. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the filovirus family. It causes the Ebola virus disease (EDV), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and has a mortality rate of up to 70 %. The last outbreak in Western Africa was the largest in history and has caused approximately 25,000 cases and 10,000 deaths. For both viral infections no specific treatment or licensed vaccine is currently available. The bis-hexasulfonated naphthylurea, suramin, is used as a treatment for trypanosome-caused African river blindness. As a competitive inhibitor of heparin, suramin has been described to have anti-viral activity. We tested the activity of suramin during CHIKV or Ebola virus infection, using CHIKV and Ebola envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and wild-type CHIKV and Ebola virus. Suramin efficiently inhibited CHIKV and Ebola envelope-mediated gene transfer while vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped vectors were only marginally affected. In addition, suramin was able to inhibit wild-type CHIKV and Ebola virus replication in vitro. Inhibition occurred at early time points during CHIKV infection. Suramin, also known as Germanin or Bayer-205, is a market-authorized drug, however shows significant side effects, which probably prevents its use as a CHIKV drug, but due to the high lethality of Ebola virus infections, suramin might be valuable against Ebola infections.
Jones, Jennifer E; Long, Kristin M; Whitmore, Alan C; Sanders, Wes; Thurlow, Lance R; Brown, Julia A; Morrison, Clayton R; Vincent, Heather; Peck, Kayla M; Browning, Christian; Moorman, Nathaniel; Lim, Jean K; Heise, Mark T
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. These include a recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands and the Americas that caused more than 1 million cases of viral arthralgia. Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. However, CHIKV strains that encode an arginine codon in place of the opal stop codon have been described, and deep-sequencing analysis of a CHIKV isolate from the Caribbean identified both arginine and opal variants within this strain. Therefore, we hypothesized that the introduction of the arginine mutation in place of the opal termination codon may influence CHIKV virulence. We tested this by introducing the arginine mutation into a well-characterized infectious clone of a CHIKV strain from Sri Lanka and designated this virus Opal524R. This mutation did not impair viral replication kinetics in vitro or in vivo Despite this, the Opal524R virus induced significantly less swelling, inflammation, and damage within the feet and ankles of infected mice. Further, we observed delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as reduced CD4 + T cell and NK cell recruitment compared to those in the parental strain. Therefore, the opal termination codon plays an important role in CHIKV pathogenesis, independently of effects on viral replication. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes significant outbreaks of viral arthralgia. Studies with CHIKV and other alphaviruses demonstrated that the opal termination codon within nsP3 is highly conserved. However, some strains of CHIKV and other alphaviruses contain mutations in the opal termination codon. These mutations alter the virulence
Alison W. Ashbrook
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a reemerging alphavirus that has caused epidemics of fever, arthralgia, and rash worldwide. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease. We conducted a high-throughput, chemical compound screen that identified digoxin, a cardiac glycoside that blocks the sodium-potassium ATPase, as a potent inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Treatment of human cells with digoxin or a related cardiac glycoside, ouabain, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in infection by CHIKV. Inhibition by digoxin was cell type-specific, as digoxin treatment of either murine or mosquito cells did not diminish CHIKV infection. Digoxin displayed antiviral activity against other alphaviruses, including Ross River virus and Sindbis virus, as well as mammalian reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. The digoxin-mediated block to CHIKV and reovirus infection occurred at one or more postentry steps, as digoxin inhibition was not bypassed by fusion of CHIKV at the plasma membrane or infection with cell surface-penetrating reovirus entry intermediates. Selection of digoxin-resistant CHIKV variants identified multiple mutations in the nonstructural proteins required for replication complex formation and synthesis of viral RNA. These data suggest a role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in promoting postentry steps of CHIKV replication and provide rationale for modulation of this pathway as a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy.
Full Text Available This is the first Canadian case of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection reported in a traveller returning from the Caribbean. Following multiple mosquito bites in Martinique Island in January 2014, the patient presented with high fever, headaches, arthralgia on both hands and feet, and a rash on the trunk upon his return to Canada. Initial serological testing for dengue virus infection was negative. Support therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was administered. The symptoms gradually improved 4 weeks after onset with residual arthralgia and morning joint stiffness. This clinical feature prompted the clinician to request CHIKV virus serology which was found to be positive for the presence of IgM and neutralizing antibodies. In 2014, over four hundred confirmed CHIKV infection cases were diagnosed in Canadian travellers returning from the Caribbean and Central America. Clinical suspicion of CHIKV or dengue virus infections should be considered in febrile patients with arthralgia returning from the recently CHIKV endemic countries of the Americas.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe and debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics and the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India and the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisphere, a region without pre-existing immunity. Nonhuman primates (NHPs serve as excellent animal models for understanding CHIKV pathogenesis and pre-clinical assessment of vaccines and therapeutics. NHPs present advantages over rodent models because they are a natural amplification host for CHIKV and they share significant genetic and physiological homology with humans. CHIKV infection in NHPs results in acute fever, rash, viremia and production of type I interferon. NHPs develop CHIKV-specific B and T-cells, generating neutralizing antibodies and CHIKV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. CHIKV establishes a persistent infection in NHPs, particularly in cynomolgus macaques, because infectious virus could be recovered from spleen, liver, and muscle as late as 44 days post infection. NHPs are valuable models that are useful in preclinical testing of vaccines and therapeutics and uncovering the details of CHIKV pathogenesis.
Goldbach Rob W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins were produced at high levels in insect cells with baculovirus vectors using their native signal peptides located in CHIKV 6K and E3, respectively. Results Expression in the presence of either tunicamycin or furin inhibitor showed that a substantial portion of recombinant intracellular E1 and precursor E3E2 was glycosylated, but that a smaller fraction of E3E2 was processed by furin into mature E3 and E2. Deletion of the C-terminal transmembrane domains of E1 and E2 enabled secretion of furin-cleaved, fully processed E1 and E2 subunits, which could then be efficiently purified from cell culture fluid via metal affinity chromatography. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on living baculovirus-infected Sf21 cells revealed that full-length E1 and E2 translocated to the plasma membrane, suggesting similar posttranslational processing of E1 and E2, as in a natural CHIKV infection. Baculovirus-directed expression of E1 displayed fusogenic activity as concluded from syncytia formation. CHIKV-E2 was able to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Conclusions Chikungunya virus glycoproteins could be functionally expressed at high levels in insect cells and are properly glycosylated and cleaved by furin. The ability of purified, secreted CHIKV-E2 to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits underscores the potential use of E2 in a subunit vaccine to prevent CHIKV infections.
Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P
We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.
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da Silva, Marcus Tulius Texeira; Rosala-Hallas, Anna; Jardim, Marcia Rodrigues; Burnside, Girvan; Pamplona, Luciana; Bhojak, Maneesh; Manohar, Radhika; da Silva, Gabriel Amorelli Medeiros; Adriano, Marcus Vinicius; Brasil, Patricia; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Carolina Cardoso; Turtle, Lance; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Brown, David W.; Griffiths, Michael J.; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo
Background During 2015–16 Brazil experienced the largest epidemic of Zika virus ever reported. This arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults but other neurological associations are uncertain. Chikungunya virus has caused outbreaks in Brazil since 2014 but associated neurological disease has rarely been reported here. We investigated adults with acute neurological disorders for Zika, chikungunya and dengue, another arbovirus circulating in Brazil. Methods We studied adults who had developed a new neurological condition following suspected Zika virus infection between 1st November 2015 and 1st June 2016. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine were tested for evidence of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. Results Of 35 patients studied, 22 had evidence of recent arboviral infection. Twelve had positive PCR or IgM for Zika, five of whom also had evidence for chikungunya, three for dengue, and one for all three viruses. Five of them presented with GBS; seven had presentations other than GBS, including meningoencephalitis, myelitis, radiculitis or combinations of these syndromes. Additionally, ten patients positive for chikungunya virus, two of whom also had evidence for dengue virus, presented with a similar range of neurological conditions. Conclusions Zika virus is associated with a wide range of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system disease. Chikungunya virus appears to have an equally important association with neurological disease in Brazil, and many patients had dual infection. To understand fully the burden of Zika we must look beyond GBS, and also investigate for other co-circulating arboviruses, particularly chikungunya. PMID:29432457
Bernard, Eric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Hamel, Rodolphe [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Neyret, Aymeric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Ekchariyawat, Peeraya [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Molès, Jean-Pierre [INSERM U1058, UM1, CHU Montpellier (France); Simmons, Graham [Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Chazal, Nathalie [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Desprès, Philippe [Unité Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others
Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV. The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus. As Ae. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as efficient as Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV? METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We infected orally both species with the variant E1-226V and estimated the infection, the viral dissemination, and the transmission rate by real time RT-PCR. Additionally, we used an in vitro assay to determine the amount of virus delivered by mosquitoes in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which underwent an efficient dissemination as detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 post-infection (pi. Infectious CHIKV particles were delivered by salivary glands from day 2 with a maximum at day 6 pi for Ae. albopictus (10(3.3 PFU and day 7 pi for Ae. aegypti (10(2.5 PFU. CONCLUSIONS: Ae. albopictus is slightly more efficient than Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV. These results will help to design an efficient vector control to limit transmission as soon as the first human cases are diagnosed.
Bernard, Eric; Hamel, Rodolphe; Neyret, Aymeric; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Simmons, Graham; Chazal, Nathalie; Desprès, Philippe
Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV
Cevallos, Varsovia; Ponce, Patricio; Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Coloma, Josefina; Quiroga, Cristina; Morales, Diego; Cárdenas, Maria José
The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peper, Shana M; Monson, Benjamin J; Van Schooneveld, Trevor; Smith, Christopher J
We present a case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in a 39-year-old female who developed an acute febrile illness marked by polyarthralgia and rash after returning from Saint Lucia. This epidemic-prone pathogen is increasingly likely to be encountered by primary care and hospital physicians in the coming months. The virus was first locally transmitted in the Caribbean in December 2013 and has since spread to 44 countries and 47 US states, affecting a suspected 1.2 million people. A mosquito-borne virus, CHIKV causes a severe and symmetric polyarthralgia that can relapse for months to years, creating debilitating illness and profound socioeconomic consequences. Current treatment is limited to supportive measures, which are dependent on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Research into immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapies, and vaccines is ongoing. Prevention remains key in slowing the spread of disease. Patient education should focus on personal protective measures, such as insect repellant and remaining indoors, while public health departments should implement strategies to control vector breeding grounds. Given the possibility of relapsing and debilitating disease, general internists should consider CHIKV in the differential diagnosis of a returning traveler with acute onset of fever, polyarthralgia, and rash.
Khan, Mohsin; Dhanwani, Rekha; Kumar, Jyoti S; Rao, P V Lakshmana; Parida, Manmohan
Despite the fact that Chikungunya resurgence is associated with epidemic of unprecedented magnitude, there are challenges in the field of its clinical diagnosis. However, serological tests in an ELISA format provide a rapid tool for the diagnosis of Chikungunya infection. Indeed, ELISAs based on recombinant proteins hold a great promise as these methods are cost effective and are free from the risk of handling biohazardous material. In this study, the performance of recombinant CHIKV antigens was compared in various ELISA formats for the diagnosis of Chikungunya. Two recombinant antigens derived from the envelope proteins of Chikungunya virus were prepared and evaluated by comparing their competence for detecting circulating antibodies in serum samples of patients infected with CHIKV using MAC-ELISA and indirect IgM-ELISA. The efficacy of the recombinant antigens was also compared with the native antigen. The indirect antibody capture IgM microplate ELISA revealed ≥90% concordance with the native antigen in detecting the CHIKV specific IgM antibodies whereas the recombinant antigen based MAC-ELISA showed 100% specificity. The recombinant antigens used in this study were effective and reliable targets for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection and also provide an alternative for native antigen use which is potentially biohazardous. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007 to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV.The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2% were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive, followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively. For DENV and RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01 with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01. These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.
Buhagiar, Tamara S.; Devine, Gregor J.; Ritchie, Scott A.
Background Metofluthrin reduces biting activity in Aedes aegypti through the confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. A geographical spread in dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, increases intervention demands. Response to a Zika outbreak may require a different strategy than dengue, as high-risk individuals, specifically pregnant women, need to be targeted. Methods In semi-field conditions within a residential property in Cairns, Queensland, the impacts of metofluthrin on ...
Sang, Rosemary C; Ahmed, Ouledi; Faye, Ousmane; Kelly, Cindy L H; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Mmadi, Ibrahim; Toilibou, Ali; Sergon, Kibet; Brown, Jennifer; Agata, Naftali; Yakouide, Allarangar; Ball, Mamadou D; Breiman, Robert F; Miller, Barry R; Powers, Ann M
From January to April 2005, an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness occurred in the Union of Comoros. Entomological studies were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from March 11 to March 31, aimed at identifying the primary vector(s) involved in transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by backpack aspiration and human landing collection in homes and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water-holding containers were inspected for presence of mosquito larvae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR and cultivation in cells for the presence of CHIK virus and/or nucleic acid. A total of 2,326 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 199 pools. The collection consisted of 62.8% Aedes aegypti, 25.5% Culex species, and 10.7% Aedes simpsoni complex, Eretmapodites spp and Anopheles spp. Seven mosquito pools were found to be positive for CHIKV RNA and 1 isolate was obtained. The single CHIKV mosquito isolate was from a pool of Aedes aegypti and the minimum infection rate (MIR) for this species was 4.0, suggesting that Ae. aegypti was the principal vector responsible for the outbreak. This was supported by high container (31.1%), household (68%), and Breteau (126) indices, with discarded tires (58.8%) and small cooking and water storage vessels (31.1%) registering the highest container indices.
Lounibos, Leon Philip; Kramer, Laura D
In this review, we highlight biological characteristics of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (VC). The invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. Vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become infectious in the mosquito, depends largely on vector and virus genetics, and most A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations thus far tested confer vector competence for CHIKV. VC, an entomological analog of the pathogen's basic reproductive rate (R 0 ), is epidemiologically more important than vector competence but less frequently measured, owing to challenges in obtaining valid estimates of parameters such as vector survivorship and host feeding rates. Understanding the complexities of these factors will be pivotal in curbing CHIKV transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Lista, Florigio; Rezza, Giovanni
Yemen, which is located in the southwestern end of the Arabian Peninsula, is one of countries most affected by recurrent epidemics caused by emerging vector-borne viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks have been reported with increasing frequency in several governorates since the year 2000, and the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been also responsible of large outbreaks and it is now a major public health problem in Yemen. We report the results of the phylogenetic analysis of DENV-2 and CHIKV isolates (NS1 and E1 genes, respectively) detected in an outbreak occurred in Al-Hudayda in 2012. Estimates of the introduction date of CHIKV and DENV-2, and the phylogeographic analysis of DENV-2 are also presented. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yemen isolates of DENV belonged to the lineage 2 Cosmopolitan subtype, whereas CHIKV isolates from Yemen belonged to the ECSA genotype. All the CHIKV isolates from Yemen were statistically supported and dated back to the year 2010 (95% HPD: 2009-2011); these sequences showed an alanine in the aminoacid position 226 of the E1 protein. Phylogeographic analysis of DENV-2 virus showed that cluster 1, which included Yemen isolates, dated back to 2003 Burkina Faso strains (95% HPD 1999-2007). The Yemen, cluster dated back to 2011 (95% HPD 2009-2012). Our study sheds light on the global spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-2 and CHIKV in Yemen. This study reinforces both the need to monitor the spread of CHIKV and DENV, and to apply significant measures for vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven
BACKGROUND: In spite of increasing reports of dengue and chikungunya activity in Tanzania, limited research has been done to document the general epidemiology of dengue and chikungunya in the country. This study aimed at determining the sero-prevalence and prevalence of acute infections of dengue......-like symptoms at health facilities at Bondo dispensary (Bondo, Tanga), Hai hospital (Hai, Kilimanjaro) and TPC hospital (Lower Moshi). Participants who were malaria negative using rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) were screened for sero-positivity towards dengue and chikungunya Immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and Ig......M) using ELISA-based kits. Participants with specific symptoms defined as probable dengue and/or chikungunya by WHO (fever and various combinations of symptoms such as headache, rash, nausea/vomit, and joint pain) were further screened for acute dengue and chikungunya infections by PCR. RESULTS: Out...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has recently re-emerged globally. The epidemic East/Central/South African (ECSA strains have spread for the first time to Asia, which previously only had endemic Asian strains. In Malaysia, the ECSA strain caused an extensive nationwide outbreak in 2008, while the Asian strains only caused limited outbreaks prior to this. To gain insight into these observed epidemiological differences, we compared genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes isolated in Malaysia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes were isolated from patients during outbreaks in Bagan Panchor in 2006, and Johor in 2008. Sequencing of the CHIKV strains revealed 96.8% amino acid similarity, including an unusual 7 residue deletion in the nsP3 protein of the Asian strain. CHIKV replication in cells and Aedes mosquitoes was measured by virus titration. There were no differences in mammalian cell lines. The ECSA strain reached significantly higher titres in Ae. albopictus cells (C6/36. Both CHIKV strains infected Ae. albopictus mosquitoes at a higher rate than Ae. aegypti, but when compared to each other, the ECSA strain had much higher midgut infection and replication, and salivary gland dissemination, while the Asian strain infected Ae. aegypti at higher rates. CONCLUSIONS: The greater ability of the ECSA strain to replicate in Ae. albopictus may explain why it spread far more quickly and extensively in humans in Malaysia than the Asian strain ever did, particularly in rural areas where Ae. albopictus predominates. Intergenotypic genetic differences were found at E1, E2, and nsP3 sites previously reported to be determinants of host adaptability in alphaviruses. Transmission of CHIKV in humans is influenced by virus strain and vector species, which has implications for regions with more than one circulating CHIKV genotype and Aedes species.
Full Text Available Purpose: Northeast Region of India possesses an abundant number of Aedes mosquitoes, the common vector for Dengue and Chikungunya (CHIK. Dengue is reported every year from Assam, but active surveillance for CHIK virus (CHIKV infection is lacking in this part of India. Therefore, this present study has been undertaken to detect any CHIKV infection during a dengue outbreak in Assam. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 dengue negative samples collected from Guwahati were screened for the presence of CHIK IgM antibodies. Further, all the samples were processed for CHIKV RNA detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was done by Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura-2 parameter model. Results: No IgM positivity was found in the processed samples; however, 7 samples were positive for CHIKV by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the circulating CHIKV belonged to Eastern, Central and Southern African genotype. Sequence analysis showed two uniform nucleotide substitutions and very less amino acid substitution. Conclusion: Silent existence of CHIKV beside dengue is reported from this study. Therefore, CHIKV diagnosis should be included as a regular practice for active surveillance of the disease and its accomplishment before commencing an outbreak.
Full Text Available This study aimed to derive and validate a score for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection screening in old people admitted to acute care units.This study was performed in the Martinique University Hospitals from retrospective cases. Patients were aged 65+, admitted to acute care units for suspected CHIKV infection in 2014, with biological testing using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used as the gold standard. A screening score was created using adjusted odds ratios of factors associated with positive RT-PCR derived from a multivariable logistic regression model. A ROC curve was used to determine the best cut-off of the score. Bootstrap analysis was used to evaluate its internal validity.In all, 687 patients were included, 68% with confirmed CHIKV infection, and 32% with laboratory-unconfirmed CHIKV infection. Mean age was 80±8 years, 51% were women. Four variables were found to be independently associated with positive RT-PCR (fever: 3 points; arthralgia of the ankle: 2 points; lymphopenia: 6 points; absence of neutrophil leucocytosis: 10 points. The best cut-off was score ≥12; sensitivity was 87% (83%-90% and specificity was 70% (63%-76%.This score shows good diagnostic performance and good internal validation and could be helpful to screen aged people for CHIKV infection.
Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pryke, Kara M; Abraham, Jinu; Sali, Tina M; Gall, Bryan J; Archer, Iris; Liu, Andrew; Bambina, Shelly; Baird, Jason; Gough, Michael; Chakhtoura, Marita; Haddad, Elias K; Kirby, Ilsa T; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N; Hirsch, Alec J; Smith, Jessica L; DeFilippis, Victor R
The ongoing concurrent outbreaks of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses in Latin America and the Caribbean highlight the need for development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments. The type I interferon (IFN) system has evolved in vertebrates to generate tissue responses that actively block replication of multiple known and potentially zoonotic viruses. As such, its control and activation through pharmacological agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for simultaneously impairing growth of multiple virus types and rendering host populations resistant to virus spread. In light of this strategy's potential, we undertook a screen to identify novel interferon-activating small molecules. Here, we describe 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-isopropyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,2-dihydrochromeno[2,3- c ]pyrrole-3,9-dione, which we termed AV-C. Treatment of human cells with AV-C activates innate and interferon-associated responses that strongly inhibit replication of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses. By utilizing genome editing, we investigated the host proteins essential to AV-C-induced cellular states. This showed that the compound requires a TRIF-dependent signaling cascade that culminates in IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-dependent expression and secretion of type I interferon to elicit antiviral responses. The other canonical IRF3-terminal adaptor proteins STING and IPS-1/MAVS were dispensable for AV-C-induced phenotypes. However, our work revealed an important inhibitory role for IPS-1/MAVS, but not TRIF, in flavivirus replication, implying that TRIF-directed viral evasion may not occur. Additionally, we show that in response to AV-C, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines that are linked with establishment of adaptive immunity to viral pathogens. Ultimately, synthetic innate immune activators such as AV-C may serve multiple therapeutic purposes, including direct antimicrobial responses and facilitation of pathogen
Le Coupanec, Alain; Tchankouo-Nguetcheu, Stéphane; Roux, Pascal; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Morales-Vargas, Ronald; Enguehard, Margot; Lavillette, Dimitri; Missé, Dorothée; Choumet, Valérie
Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause several emerging and resurgent infectious diseases in humans and animals. Chikungunya-affected areas often overlap with dengue-endemic areas. Concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been detected in travelers returning from regions of endemicity. CHIKV and DENV co-infected Aedes albopictus have also been collected in the vicinity of co-infected human cases, emphasizing the need to study co-infections in mosquitoes. We thus aimed to study the pathogen-pathogen interaction involved in these co-infections in DENV/CHIKV co-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In mono-infections, we detected CHIKV antigens as early as 4 days post-virus exposure in both the midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG), whereas we detected DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) antigens from day 5 post-virus exposure in MG and day 10 post-virus exposure in SG. Identical infection rates were observed for singly and co-infected mosquitoes, and facilitation of the replication of both viruses at various times post-viral exposure. We observed a higher replication for DENV-2 in SG of co-infected mosquitoes. We showed that mixed CHIKV and DENV infection facilitated viral replication in Ae. aegypti . The outcome of these mixed infections must be further studied to increase our understanding of pathogen-pathogen interactions in host cells.
Sheila B Agha
Full Text Available In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone, Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak to transmit CHIKV.Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31. Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations.Populations of Ae. aegypti from
Agha, Sheila B; Chepkorir, Edith; Mulwa, Francis; Tigoi, Caroline; Arum, Samwel; Guarido, Milehna M; Ambala, Peris; Chelangat, Betty; Lutomiah, Joel; Tchouassi, David P; Turell, Michael J; Sang, Rosemary
In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml) in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31). Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations. Populations of Ae. aegypti from Mombasa, Nairobi
Braga, José Ueleres; Bressan, Clarisse; Dalvi, Ana Paula Razal; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Rodrigues, Nadia; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Brito, Carlos; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Brasil, Patrícia
Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns. In this context, an accurate definition of a suspected Zika case is crucial in order for the surveillance system to gauge the magnitude of an epidemic. We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. Signs and symptoms that best discriminated PCR confirmed Zika from other laboratory confirmed febrile or exanthematic diseases were identified to propose and test predictive models for Zika infection based on these clinical features. Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highest values for auROC (0·903) and R2 (0·417), and the lowest Brier score 0·096. In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition.
José Ueleres Braga
Full Text Available Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns. In this context, an accurate definition of a suspected Zika case is crucial in order for the surveillance system to gauge the magnitude of an epidemic.We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. Signs and symptoms that best discriminated PCR confirmed Zika from other laboratory confirmed febrile or exanthematic diseases were identified to propose and test predictive models for Zika infection based on these clinical features.Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highest values for auROC (0·903 and R2 (0·417, and the lowest Brier score 0·096.In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition.
Silva, José V J; Lopes, Thaísa R R; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F de; Oliveira, Renato A S; Durães-Carvalho, Ricardo; Gil, Laura H V G
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides. In this context, vaccines may be the best control strategy for arboviral diseases. Here, we provide a general overview about licensed vaccines and the most advanced vaccine candidates against YFV, DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV. In particular, we highlight vaccine difficulties, the current status of the most advanced strategies and discuss how the molecular characteristics of each virus can influence the choice of the different vaccine formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bonifay, Timothée; Douine, Maylis; Bonnefoy, Clémence; Hurpeau, Benoit; Nacher, Mathieu; Djossou, Félix; Epelboin, Loïc
Since 2013, 3 successive arbovirus outbreaks, dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika virus, have occurred in French Guiana (FG). The primary objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic indicators of the first patients infected with CHIKV during the outbreak of 2014. The secondary objective was to compare those patients with patient infected by DENV and with the local population. A monocentric, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in Cayenne hospital in FG comparing a group of patients infected with CHIKV in 2014 with a group infected with DENV in 2013. Children aged less than 15 years and pregnant women were excluded. A total of 168 CHIKV patients were compared with 168 DENV patients. Factors associated with CHIKV were living in poor neighborhoods (82% vs 44%; odds ratio [OR], 5.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.35-10.2), having a precarious status (54% vs 33%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.49-3.78), and being born abroad (70% vs 35%; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.69-7.06). The present results suggest that early in the epidemic, the populations most at risk for CHIKV infection were the most socially vulnerable populations in the poorest neighborhoods, whereas DENV appeared to have affected a richer population and richer areas.
Kara M. Pryke
Full Text Available The ongoing concurrent outbreaks of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses in Latin America and the Caribbean highlight the need for development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments. The type I interferon (IFN system has evolved in vertebrates to generate tissue responses that actively block replication of multiple known and potentially zoonotic viruses. As such, its control and activation through pharmacological agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for simultaneously impairing growth of multiple virus types and rendering host populations resistant to virus spread. In light of this strategy’s potential, we undertook a screen to identify novel interferon-activating small molecules. Here, we describe 1-(2-fluorophenyl-2-(5-isopropyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-1,2-dihydrochromeno[2,3-c]pyrrole-3,9-dione, which we termed AV-C. Treatment of human cells with AV-C activates innate and interferon-associated responses that strongly inhibit replication of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses. By utilizing genome editing, we investigated the host proteins essential to AV-C-induced cellular states. This showed that the compound requires a TRIF-dependent signaling cascade that culminates in IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3-dependent expression and secretion of type I interferon to elicit antiviral responses. The other canonical IRF3-terminal adaptor proteins STING and IPS-1/MAVS were dispensable for AV-C-induced phenotypes. However, our work revealed an important inhibitory role for IPS-1/MAVS, but not TRIF, in flavivirus replication, implying that TRIF-directed viral evasion may not occur. Additionally, we show that in response to AV-C, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines that are linked with establishment of adaptive immunity to viral pathogens. Ultimately, synthetic innate immune activators such as AV-C may serve multiple therapeutic purposes, including direct antimicrobial responses and facilitation
Pryke, Kara M.; Abraham, Jinu; Sali, Tina M.; Gall, Bryan J.; Archer, Iris; Liu, Andrew; Bambina, Shelly; Baird, Jason; Gough, Michael; Chakhtoura, Marita; Haddad, Elias K.; Kirby, Ilsa T.; Nilsen, Aaron; Streblow, Daniel N.; Hirsch, Alec J.; Smith, Jessica L.
ABSTRACT The ongoing concurrent outbreaks of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses in Latin America and the Caribbean highlight the need for development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments. The type I interferon (IFN) system has evolved in vertebrates to generate tissue responses that actively block replication of multiple known and potentially zoonotic viruses. As such, its control and activation through pharmacological agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for simultaneously impairing growth of multiple virus types and rendering host populations resistant to virus spread. In light of this strategy’s potential, we undertook a screen to identify novel interferon-activating small molecules. Here, we describe 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-isopropyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,2-dihydrochromeno[2,3-c]pyrrole-3,9-dione, which we termed AV-C. Treatment of human cells with AV-C activates innate and interferon-associated responses that strongly inhibit replication of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses. By utilizing genome editing, we investigated the host proteins essential to AV-C-induced cellular states. This showed that the compound requires a TRIF-dependent signaling cascade that culminates in IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-dependent expression and secretion of type I interferon to elicit antiviral responses. The other canonical IRF3-terminal adaptor proteins STING and IPS-1/MAVS were dispensable for AV-C-induced phenotypes. However, our work revealed an important inhibitory role for IPS-1/MAVS, but not TRIF, in flavivirus replication, implying that TRIF-directed viral evasion may not occur. Additionally, we show that in response to AV-C, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines that are linked with establishment of adaptive immunity to viral pathogens. Ultimately, synthetic innate immune activators such as AV-C may serve multiple therapeutic purposes, including direct antimicrobial responses and facilitation of
Metz, S.W.H.; Martina, B.E.; Doel, van den P.; Geertsema, C.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes acute illness characterized by fever and long-lasting arthritic symptoms. The need for a safe and effective vaccine against CHM/infections is on the rise due to on-going vector spread and increasing severity of clinical complications. Here we report the results of a
Full Text Available Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that may cause severe disease, constitutes an important public health problem. Herein we describe a novel CHIKV infection model in zebrafish, where viral spread was live-imaged in the whole body up to cellular resolution. Infected cells emerged in various organs in one principal wave with a median appearance time of ∼14 hours post infection. Timing of infected cell death was organ dependent, leading to a shift of CHIKV localization towards the brain. As in mammals, CHIKV infection triggered a strong type-I interferon (IFN response, critical for survival. IFN was mainly expressed by neutrophils and hepatocytes. Cell type specific ablation experiments further demonstrated that neutrophils play a crucial, unexpected role in CHIKV containment. Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus.
Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kjaer, Anna Sophie L; Markova, Elena
We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with Chikungunya infection. An (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed four weeks after debut of symptoms revealed pathological (18)F-FDG uptake in enlarged lymph nodes on both side of the diaphragm, and inflammation of both...
Taylor, Adam; Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A; Merits, Andres; Mahalingam, Suresh
Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design. IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain
Full Text Available Background The re-emerging, Aedes spp. transmitted Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in a wide geographical distribution of the world including countries in Europe and America. Though fatalities associated with this self-remitting disease were rarely reported, quality of patients’ lives have been severely diminished by polyarthralgia recurrence. Neither effective antiviral treatment nor vaccines are available for CHIKV. Our previous in vitro screening showed that hesperetin, a bioflavonoid exhibits inhibitory effect on the virus intracellular replication. Here, we present a study using the computational approach to identify possible target proteins for future mechanistic studies of hesperetin. Methods 3D structures of CHIKV nsP2 (3TRK and nsP3 (3GPG were retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB, whereas nsP1, nsP4 and cellular factor SPK2 were modeled using Iterative Threading Assembly Refinement (I-TASSER server based on respective amino acids sequence. We performed molecular docking on hesperetin against all four CHIKV non-structural proteins and SPK2. Proteins preparation and subsequent molecular docking were performed using Discovery Studio 2.5 and AutoDock Vina 1.5.6. The Lipinski’s values of the ligand were computed and compared with the available data from PubChem. Two non-structural proteins with crystal structures 3GPG and 3TRK in complexed with hesperetin, demonstrated favorable free energy of binding from the docking study, were further explored using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Results We observed that hesperetin interacts with different types of proteins involving hydrogen bonds, pi-pi effects, pi-cation bonding and pi-sigma interactions with varying binding energies. Among all five tested proteins, our compound has the highest binding affinity with 3GPG at −8.5 kcal/mol. The ligand used in this study also matches the Lipinski’s rule of five in addition to exhibiting closely similar properties
Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin
In December 2013, the World Health Organization reported the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Western Hemisphere, with autochthonous cases identified in Saint Martin. Since then, local transmission has been identified in 17 countries or territories in the Caribbean or South America (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Sint Maarten). As of May 30, 2014, a total of 103,018 suspected and 4,406 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya cases had been reported from these areas. The number of reported cases nearly doubled during the previous 2 weeks. More than 95% of the cases have been reported from five jurisdictions: Dominican Republic (38,656 cases), Martinique (30,715), Guadeloupe (24,428), Haiti (6,318), and Saint Martin (4,113). The highest incidences have been reported from Saint Martin (115 cases per 1,000 population), Martinique (76 per 1,000), Saint Barthelemy (74 per 1,000), and Guadeloupe (52 per 1,000). Further expansion of these outbreaks and spread to other countries in the region is likely.
Gómez-Calderón, Cecilia; Mesa-Castro, Carol; Robledo, Sara; Gómez, Sergio; Bolivar-Avila, Santiago; Diaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Martínez-Gutierrez, Marlen
The transmission of Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. For this reason, the search for compounds with antiviral potential, either as licensed drugs or in natural products, is a research priority. The objective of this study was to identify some of the compounds that are present in Mammea americana (M. americana) and Tabernaemontana cymosa (T. cymosa) plants and, subsequently, to evaluate their cytotoxicity in VERO cells and their potential antiviral effects on DENV and CHIKV infections in those same cells. Dry ethanolic extracts of M. americana and T. cymosa seeds were subjected to open column chromatographic fractionation, leading to the identification of four compounds: two coumarins, derived from M. americana; and lupeol acetate and voacangine derived from T. cymosa.. The cytotoxicity of each compound was subsequently assessed by the MTT method (at concentrations from 400 to 6.25 μg/mL). Pre- and post-treatment antiviral assays were performed at non-toxic concentrations; the resulting DENV inhibition was evaluated by Real-Time PCR, and the CHIKV inhibition was tested by the plating method. The results were analyzed by means of statistical analysis. The compounds showed low toxicity at concentrations ≤ 200 μg/mL. The compounds coumarin A and coumarin B, which are derived from the M. americana plant, significantly inhibited infection with both viruses during the implementation of the two experimental strategies employed here (post-treatment with inhibition percentages greater than 50%, p treatment with percentages of inhibition greater than 40%, p treatment strategy (at inhibition percentages greater than 70%, p treating Dengue and Chikungunya fever. Additionally, lupeol acetate and voacangine efficiently inhibit infection with DENV, also turning them into promising antivirals for Dengue fever.
Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging pathogen that has caused widespread outbreaks affecting millions of people around the globe. Currently, there is no specific therapeutic drug against CHIKV, with symptomatic treatment only to manage the disease. Pi3-akt signaling has been implicated in infection of several viruses including that of CHIKV. Effect of Pi3-akt signaling inhibitors on CHIKV replication was evaluated in this study. Methods: Human primary dermal fibroblast cells were treated with inhibitors of the Pi3-akt signaling pathway. Suppression of CHIKV replication was evaluated as reduction in virus titer in cell supernatants. Effect of miltefosine (MF on CHIKV replication was evaluated in pre and post treatment regimen. Inhibition of virus replication was determined by cell growth, virus titer and western blot. Results: Inhibition of Akt-phosphorylation significantly inhibited CHIKV replication. No effect on CHIKV replication was observed after treatment with Pi3-kinase and mTOR activation inhibitors. Further, MF, an FDA-approved Akt-inhibitor, inhibited CHIKV replication in pre- and post-infection treatment regimens. Conclusion: Data suggests that Akt-phosphorylation can be an amenable target of therapy against CHIKV infection. This is the first study to show inhibition of CHIKV replication by MF, and presents a case for further development of MF as an anti-CHIKV drug.
Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Gill, Kara; Fonseca, Kevin; Tipples, Graham A; Tellier, Raymond
In the recent past, arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) have increased their area of endemicity and presented as an emerging global public health threat. To design an assay for the simultaneous detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and Dengue (DENV) 1-4 from patients with symptoms of arboviral infection. This would be advantageous because of the similar clinical presentation typically encountered with these viruses and their co-circulation in endemic areas. In this study we have developed and validated a triplex real time reverse transcription PCR assay using hydrolysis probes targeting the non-structural 5 (NS5) region of ZIKV, non-structural protein 4 (nsP4) from CHIKV and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of DENV 1-4. The 95% LOD by the triplex assay was 15 copies/reaction for DENV-1 and less than 10 copies/reaction for all other viruses. The triplex assay was 100% specific and did not amplify any of the other viruses tested. The assay was reproducible and adaptable to testing different specimen types including serum, plasma, urine, placental tissue, brain tissue and amniotic fluid. This assay can be easily implemented for diagnostic testing of patient samples, even in a high throughput laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kotsakiozi, Panayiota; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Caccone, Adalgisa; Evans, Benjamin; Schama, Renata; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Powell, Jeffrey R
Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years. Brazil can be considered the country suffering the most from the yellow fever mosquito, given the high number of dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases reported in the country, after having once been declared "free of Ae. aegypti". We used 12 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic structure of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, genetic variability, genetic affinities with neighboring geographic areas, and the timing of their arrival and spread. This enabled us to reconstruct their recent history and evaluate whether the reappearance in Brazil was the result of re-invasion from neighboring non-eradicated areas or re-emergence from local refugia surviving the eradication program. Our results indicate a genetic break separating the northern and southern Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, with further genetic differentiation within each cluster, especially in southern Brazil. Based on our results, re-invasions from non-eradicated regions are the most likely scenario for the reappearance of Ae. aegypti in Brazil. While populations in the northern cluster are likely to have descended from Venezuela populations as early as the 1970s, southern populations seem to have derived more recently from northern Brazilian areas. Possible entry points are also revealed within both southern and northern clusters that could inform strategies to control and monitor this important arbovirus vector.
Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years. Brazil can be considered the country suffering the most from the yellow fever mosquito, given the high number of dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases reported in the country, after having once been declared "free of Ae. aegypti".We used 12 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic structure of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, genetic variability, genetic affinities with neighboring geographic areas, and the timing of their arrival and spread. This enabled us to reconstruct their recent history and evaluate whether the reappearance in Brazil was the result of re-invasion from neighboring non-eradicated areas or re-emergence from local refugia surviving the eradication program. Our results indicate a genetic break separating the northern and southern Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, with further genetic differentiation within each cluster, especially in southern Brazil.Based on our results, re-invasions from non-eradicated regions are the most likely scenario for the reappearance of Ae. aegypti in Brazil. While populations in the northern cluster are likely to have descended from Venezuela populations as early as the 1970s, southern populations seem to have derived more recently from northern Brazilian areas. Possible entry points are also revealed within both southern and northern clusters that could inform strategies to control and monitor this important arbovirus vector.
Andrew F van den Hurk
Full Text Available Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV, chikungunya (CHIKV and yellow fever (YFV viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 10(4 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression.
Moreira-Soto, Andres; Carneiro, Ianei de Oliveira; Fischer, Carlo; Feldmann, Marie; Kümmerer, Beate M; Silva, Nama Santos; Santos, Uilton Góes; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Liborio, Fernanda de Azevedo; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica Mafra; Laroque, Plautino de Oliveira; da Fontoura, Fernanda Rosa; Oliveira, Alberto Vinicius Dantas; Drosten, Christian; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Drexler, Jan Felix
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV. No animal tested positive for viral RNA in genus-specific and species-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In contrast, six animals (2.9%) from the families Atelidae, Callitrichidae, and Cebidae showed ZIKV-specific antibodies and 11 (5.3%) showed CHIKV-specific antibodies in plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Reactivity was monotypic against either ZIKV or CHIKV in all cases, opposing unspecific virucidal activity of sera. PRNT endpoint titers were low at 1:40 in all NHP, and positive specimens did not correspond to the likely dispersal route and time of introduction of both arboviruses. All antibody-positive samples were therefore tested against the NHP-associated yellow fever virus (YFV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) and against the human-associated dengue virus (DENV) by PRNT. Two ZIKV-positive samples were simultaneously DENV positive and two CHIKV-positive samples were simultaneously MAYV positive, at titers of 1:40 to 1:160. This suggested cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous alphaviruses and flaviviruses in 24% of ZIKV-positive/CHIKV-positive sera. In sum, low seroprevalence, invariably low antibody titers, and the distribution of positive specimens call into question the capability of ZIKV and CHIKV to infect New World NHP and establish sylvatic transmission cycles. IMPORTANCE Since 2013, Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have infected millions of people in the Americas via
ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV. No animal tested positive for viral RNA in genus-specific and species-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In contrast, six animals (2.9%) from the families Atelidae, Callitrichidae, and Cebidae showed ZIKV-specific antibodies and 11 (5.3%) showed CHIKV-specific antibodies in plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Reactivity was monotypic against either ZIKV or CHIKV in all cases, opposing unspecific virucidal activity of sera. PRNT endpoint titers were low at 1:40 in all NHP, and positive specimens did not correspond to the likely dispersal route and time of introduction of both arboviruses. All antibody-positive samples were therefore tested against the NHP-associated yellow fever virus (YFV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) and against the human-associated dengue virus (DENV) by PRNT. Two ZIKV-positive samples were simultaneously DENV positive and two CHIKV-positive samples were simultaneously MAYV positive, at titers of 1:40 to 1:160. This suggested cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous alphaviruses and flaviviruses in 24% of ZIKV-positive/CHIKV-positive sera. In sum, low seroprevalence, invariably low antibody titers, and the distribution of positive specimens call into question the capability of ZIKV and CHIKV to infect New World NHP and establish sylvatic transmission cycles. IMPORTANCE Since 2013, Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have infected millions of people in the
White, Sarah Keller; Mavian, Carla; Salemi, Marco; Morris, John Glenn; Elbadry, Maha A; Okech, Bernard A; Lednicky, John A; Dunford, James C
As part of on-going arboviral surveillance activity in a semi-rural region in Haiti, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-positive mosquito pools were identified in 2014 (the peak of the Caribbean Asian-clade epidemic), and again in 2016 by RT-PCR. In 2014, CHIKV was only identified in Aedes aegypti (11 positive pools/124 screened). In contrast, in sampling in 2016, CHIKV was not identified in Ae. aegypti, but, rather, in (a) a female Aedes albopictus pool, and (b) a female Culex quinquefasciatus pool. Genomic sequence analyses indicated that the CHIKV viruses in the 2016 mosquito pools were from the East-Central-South African (ECSA) lineage, rather than the Asian lineage. In phylogenetic studies, these ECSA lineage strains form a new ECSA subgroup (subgroup IIa) together with Brazilian ECSA lineage strains from an isolated human outbreak in 2014, and a mosquito pool in 2016. Additional analyses date the most recent common ancestor of the ECSA IIa subgroup around May 2007, and the 2016 Haitian CHIKV genomes around December 2015. Known CHIKV mutations associated with improved Ae. albopictus vector competence were not identified. Isolation of this newly identified lineage from Ae. albopictus is of concern, as this vector has a broader geographic range than Ae. aegypti, especially in temperate areas of North America, and stresses the importance for continued vector surveillance.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, one (4N12 of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12. Because therapeutic administration of SVIR001 in immunocompetent mice significantly reduced viral load in joint tissues, we evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of CHIKV infection. Rhesus macaques that were treated after infection with SVIR001 showed rapid elimination of viremia and less severe joint infiltration and disease compared to animals treated with SVIR002, an isotype control mAb. SVIR001 reduced viral burden at the site of infection and at distant sites and also diminished the numbers of activated innate immune cells and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SVIR001 therapy; however, did not substantively reduce the induction of CHIKV-specific B or T cell responses. Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen. While the Aedes aegypti mosquito is its primary vector, recent evidence suggests that other carriers can transmit CHIKV thus raising concerns about its spread outside of natural endemic areas to new countries including the U.S. and Europe. Considering the potential for pandemic spread, understanding the development of immunity is paramount to the development of effective counter measures against CHIKV. In this study, we isolated a new CHIKV virus from an acutely infected human patient and developed a defined viral challenge stock in mice that allowed us to study viral pathogenesis and develop a viral neutralization assay. We then constructed a synthetic DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP that expresses a component of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and used this model to evaluate its efficacy. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, which individually were capable of providing protection against CHIKV challenge in mice. Furthermore, vaccine studies in rhesus macaques demonstrated induction of nAb responses, which mimicked those induced in convalescent human patient sera. These data suggest a protective role for nAb against CHIKV disease and support further study of envelope-based CHIKV DNA vaccines.
Carrie A Manore
Full Text Available The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. albopictus and then to other humans in USA cities with variable human densities and seasonality. Mosquito-borne disease occurs when specific combinations of conditions maximize virus-to-mosquito and mosquito-to-human contact rates. We develop a mathematical model that captures the epidemiology and is informed by current data on vector ecology from urban sites. The model demonstrates that under specific but realistic conditions, fifty-percent of introductions by infectious travelers to a high human, high mosquito density city could initiate local transmission and 10% of the introductions could result in 100 or more people infected. Despite the propensity for Ae. albopictus to bite non-human vertebrates, we also demonstrate that local virus transmission and human outbreaks may occur when vectors feed from humans even just 40% of the time. Inclusion of human behavioral changes and mitigations were not incorporated into the models and would likely reduce predicted infections. This work demonstrates how a conditional series of non-average events can result in local arbovirus transmission and outbreaks of human disease, even in temperate cities.
Trevon L Fuller
Full Text Available The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459 from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics. Further, we assessed the spatial pattern of arbovirus incidence at the municipal and neighborhood scales and the timing of epidemics and major rainfall events. Lab-confirmed cases included 1,717 infections with ZIKV (43.8% and 2,170 with CHIKV (55.4% and only 29 (<1% with DENV. ZIKV incidence was greater in neighborhoods with little access to municipal water infrastructure (r = -0.47, p = 1.2x10-8. CHIKV incidence was weakly correlated with urbanization (r = 0.2, p = 0.02. Rains began in October 2015 and were followed one month later by the largest wave of ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV cases markedly declined in February 2016, which coincided with the start of a CHIKV outbreak. Rainfall predicted ZIKV and CHIKV with a lead time of 3 weeks each time. The association between rainfall and epidemics reflects vector ecology as the larval stages of Aedes aegypti require pools of water to develop. The temporal dynamics of ZIKV and CHIKV may be explained by the shorter incubation period of the viruses in the mosquito vector; 2 days for CHIKV versus 10 days for ZIKV.
Fuller, Trevon L; Calvet, Guilherme; Genaro Estevam, Camila; Rafael Angelo, Jussara; Abiodun, Gbenga J; Halai, Umme-Aiman; De Santis, Bianca; Carvalho Sequeira, Patricia; Machado Araujo, Eliane; Alves Sampaio, Simone; Lima de Mendonça, Marco Cesar; Fabri, Allison; Ribeiro, Rita Maria; Harrigan, Ryan; Smith, Thomas B; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Brasil, Patrícia; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics. Further, we assessed the spatial pattern of arbovirus incidence at the municipal and neighborhood scales and the timing of epidemics and major rainfall events. Lab-confirmed cases included 1,717 infections with ZIKV (43.8%) and 2,170 with CHIKV (55.4%) and only 29 (<1%) with DENV. ZIKV incidence was greater in neighborhoods with little access to municipal water infrastructure (r = -0.47, p = 1.2x10-8). CHIKV incidence was weakly correlated with urbanization (r = 0.2, p = 0.02). Rains began in October 2015 and were followed one month later by the largest wave of ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV cases markedly declined in February 2016, which coincided with the start of a CHIKV outbreak. Rainfall predicted ZIKV and CHIKV with a lead time of 3 weeks each time. The association between rainfall and epidemics reflects vector ecology as the larval stages of Aedes aegypti require pools of water to develop. The temporal dynamics of ZIKV and CHIKV may be explained by the shorter incubation period of the viruses in the mosquito vector; 2 days for CHIKV versus 10 days for ZIKV.
María Fernanda Alvarez
Full Text Available Background: In the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. Methods: We performed a systematic review looking for reports about cardiovascular compromise during chikungunya disease. Cardiac compromise is not so common in isolated episodes; but countries where chikungunya virus is an epidemic should be well informed about this condition. We used 6 bibliographical databases as resources: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Ovid and SciELO. Dengue reports on cardiovascular affectation were included as well, to compare both arbovirus’ organic affectations. Articles that delved mainly into the rheumatic articular and cutaneous complications were not considered, as they were not in line with the purpose of this study. The type of articles included were reviews, meta-analyses, case-controls, cohort studies, case reports and case series. Results: Originally based on 737 articles, our reviewed selected 40 articles with 54.2% at least mentioning CHIKV cardiovascular compromise within the systemic affectation. Cardiovascular manifestations can be considered common and have been reported in France, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Colombia, Venezuela and USA, including mainly, but no limited to: hypotension, shock and circulatory collapse, Raynaud phenomenon, arrhythmias, murmurs, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive insufficiency, heart failure and altered function profile (Troponins, CPK. Conclusions: Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness
This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...
Alarcón-Cruz, Ángela P; Prieto-Suárez, Edgar
Objective To describe the process of preparation and response of local health authorities in key public health issues while facing the introduction stage of an unusual virus: Chikungunya in Colombia in 2014. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey that was developed for this study and sent to Public Health coordinators and to the person in charge of vector borne-diseases in the country's territorial entities. Results 23 out of the 35 territories at risk from the transmission of Chikungunya agreed to answer the survey. A global review of the survey scores for each evaluated section shows better performances in the areas of knowledge management, comprehensive patient care, epidemiological intelligence, and health promotion. According to the results of this study, the epidemiological surveillance system during the Chikungunya epidemic had a low acceptability and flexibility, possibly contributing to the underreporting of cases. Conclusions In general, knowledge and implementation by local authorities of the Integrated Health Strategy- EGI (Estrategia de Gestión Integral, by its Spanish acronym)- for vector-borne diseases was evident from the themes evaluated in this study. However, it is necessary to reinforce the communication of risks, laboratory, and outbreak and contingencies management areas faced during the introduction of new viruses.
Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.
Shrinet, Jatin; Srivastava, Pratibha; Sunil, Sujatha
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) spread via the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Both these viruses exist as co-infections in the host as well as the vector and are known to exploit their cellular machinery for their replication. While there are studies reporting the changes in Aedes transcriptome when infected with DENV and CHIKV individually, the effect both these viruses have on the mosquitoes when present as co-infections is not clearly understood. In the present study, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with DENV and CHIKV individually and as co-infection through nanoinjections. We performed high throughput RNA sequencing of the infected Aedes aegypti to understand the changes in the Aedes transcriptome during the early stages of infection, i.e., 24 h post infection and compared the transcriptome profiles during DENV and CHIKV mono-infections with that of co-infections. We identified 190 significantly regulated genes identified in CHIKV infected library, 37 genes from DENV library and 100 genes from co-infected library and they were classified into different pathways. Our study reveal that distinct pathways and transcripts are being regulated during the three types of infection states in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fryk, Jesse J; Marks, Denese C; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Watterson, Daniel; Hall, Roy A; Young, Paul R; Reichenberg, Stefan; Sumian, Chryslain; Faddy, Helen M
Arboviruses, such as dengue viruses (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), pose a risk to the safe transfusion of blood components, including plasma. Pathogen inactivation is an approach to manage this transfusion transmission risk, with a number of techniques being used worldwide for the treatment of plasma. In this study, the efficacy of the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma system to inactivate all DENV serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4) or CHIKV in plasma, using methylene blue and light illumination at 630 nm, was investigated. Pooled plasma units were spiked with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 DENV-4, or CHIKV and treated with the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma system at four light illumination doses: 20, 40, 60, and 120 (standard dose) J/cm(2) . Pre- and posttreatment samples were collected and viral infectivity was determined. The reduction in viral infectivity was calculated for each dose. Treatment of plasma with the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma system resulted in at least a 4.46-log reduction in all DENV serotypes and CHIKV infectious virus. The residual infectivity for each was at the detection limit of the assay used at 60 J/cm(2) , with dose dependency also observed. Our study demonstrated the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma system can reduce the infectivity of all DENV serotypes and CHIKV spiked into plasma to the detection limit of the assay used at half of the standard illumination dose. This suggests this system has the capacity to be an effective option for managing the risk of DENV or CHIKV transfusion transmission in plasma. © 2016 AABB.
Full Text Available In the mosquito, the midgut epithelium is the initial tissue to become infected with an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus that has been acquired from a vertebrate host along with a viremic bloodmeal. Following its replication in midgut epithelial cells, the virus needs to exit the midgut and infect secondary tissues including the salivary glands before it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The viral exit mechanism from the midgut, the midgut escape barrier (MEB, is poorly understood although it is an important determinant of mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. Using chikungunya virus (CHIKV as a model in Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that the basal lamina (BL of the extracellular matrix (ECM surrounding the midgut constitutes a potential barrier for the virus. The BL, predominantly consisting of collagen IV and laminin, becomes permissive during bloodmeal digestion in the midgut lumen. Bloodmeal digestion, BL permissiveness, and CHIKV dissemination are coincident with increased collagenase activity, diminished collagen IV abundance, and BL shredding in the midgut between 24-32 h post-bloodmeal. This indicates that there may be a window-of-opportunity during which the MEB in Ae. aegypti becomes permissive for CHIKV. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are the principal extracellular endopeptidases responsible for the degradation/remodeling of the ECM including the BL. We focused on Ae. aegypti (AeMMP1, which is expressed in midgut epithelial cells, is inducible upon bloodfeeding, and shows collagenase (gelatinase activity. However, attempts to inhibit AeMMP activity in general or specifically that of AeMMP1 did not seem to affect its function nor produce an altered midgut escape phenotype. As an alternative, we silenced and overexpressed the Ae. aegypti tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (AeTIMP in the mosquito midgut. AeTIMP was highly upregulated in the midgut during bloodmeal digestion and was able to inhibit MMP activity in
Tapas K. Nayak
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6 MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86 were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.
Nayak, Tapas K; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Laishram Pradeep K; Sahoo, Subhransu S; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6) MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86) were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology.
Faddy, Helen M; Fryk, Jesse J; Prow, Natalie A; Watterson, Daniel; Young, Paul R; Hall, Roy A; Tolksdorf, Frank; Sumian, Chryslain; Gravemann, Ute; Seltsam, Axel; Marks, Denese C
Arboviruses, including dengue (DENV 1-4), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Ross River (RRV), are emerging viruses that are a risk for transfusion safety globally. An approach for managing this risk is pathogen inactivation, such as the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system. We investigated the ability of this system to inactivate the above mentioned arboviruses. DENV 1-4, CHIKV, or RRV were spiked into buffy coat (BC)-derived platelet (PLT) concentrates in additive solution and treated with the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system at the following doses: 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 J/cm(2) (standard dose). Pre- and posttreatment samples were taken for each dose, and the level of viral infectivity was determined. At the standard ultraviolet C (UVC) dose (0.2 J/cm(2) ), viral inactivation of at least 4.43, 6.34, and 5.13 log or more, was observed for DENV 1-4, CHIKV, and RRV, respectively. A dose dependency in viral inactivation was observed with increasing UVC doses. Our study has shown that DENV, CHIKV, and RRV, spiked into BC-derived PLT concentrates, were inactivated by the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system to the limit of detection of our assay, suggesting that this system could contribute to the safety of PLT concentrates with respect to these emerging arboviruses. © 2016 AABB.
Jacobs, Susan C; Taylor, Adam; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh; Fazakerley, John K
Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.
Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin
Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 Chikungunya virus (CHIKV caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. An unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of Ae. albopictus as a principal vector. Previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation E1-A226V significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized CHIKV strains LR2006 OPY1 and 37997. However, in the current study we demonstrate that introduction of the E1-A226V mutation into the background of an infectious clone derived from the Ag41855 strain (isolated in Uganda in 1982 does not significantly increase infectivity for Ae. albopictus. In order to elucidate the genetic determinants that affect CHIKV sensitivity to the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus, the genomes of the LR2006 OPY1 and Ag41855 strains were used for construction of chimeric viruses and viruses with a specific combination of point mutations at selected positions. Based upon the midgut infection rates of the derived viruses in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, a critical role of the mutations at positions E2-60 and E2-211 on vector infection was revealed. The E2-G60D mutation was an important determinant of CHIKV infectivity for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, but only moderately modulated the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. However, the effect of the E2-I211T mutation with respect to mosquito infections was much more specific, strongly modifying the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. In contrast, CHIKV infectivity for Ae. aegypti was not influenced by the E2-1211T mutation. The occurrence of the E2-60G and E2-211I residues among CHIKV isolates was analyzed, revealing a high prevalence of E2-211I among strains belonging to the Eastern/Central/South African (ECSA clade. This suggests that the E2-211I might be important for adaptation of CHIKV to some particular conditions
Soa Fy Andriamandimby
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the use of capillary blood samples blotted on filter papers for molecular diagnosis of CHIKV infection. Venous blood samples can be difficult to obtain and the shipment of serum in appropriate temperature conditions is too costly for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Venous blood and dried-blood blotted on filter paper (DBFP were collected during the last CHIKV outbreak in Madagascar (2010 and as part of our routine surveillance of dengue-like illness. All samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR and results with serum and DBFP samples were compared for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with DBFP, relative to those with venous samples (defined as 100% were 93.1% (95% CI:[84.7-97.7] and 94.4% (95% CI:[88.3-97.7], respectively. The Kappa coefficient 0.87 (95% CI:[0.80-0.94] was excellent. CONCLUSION: This study shows that DBFP specimens can be used as a cost-effective alternative sampling method for the surveillance and monitoring of CHIKV circulation and emergence in developing countries, and probably also for other arboviruses. The loss of sensitivity is insignificant and involved a very small number of patients, all with low viral loads. Whether viruses can be isolated from dried blood spots remains to be determined.
Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L
Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.
Jane A C Wilson
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus causing epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease. Herein we describe a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of feet and lymph nodes at peak viraemia (day 2 post infection, acute arthritis (day 7 and chronic disease (day 30 in the CHIKV adult wild-type mouse model. Genes previously shown to be up-regulated in CHIKV patients were also up-regulated in the mouse model. CHIKV sequence information was also obtained with up to ≈8% of the reads mapping to the viral genome; however, no adaptive viral genome changes were apparent. Although day 2, 7 and 30 represent distinct stages of infection and disease, there was a pronounced overlap in up-regulated host genes and pathways. Type I interferon response genes (IRGs represented up to ≈50% of up-regulated genes, even after loss of type I interferon induction on days 7 and 30. Bioinformatic analyses suggested a number of interferon response factors were primarily responsible for maintaining type I IRG induction. A group of genes prominent in the RNA-Seq analysis and hitherto unexplored in viral arthropathies were granzymes A, B and K. Granzyme A-/- and to a lesser extent granzyme K-/-, but not granzyme B-/-, mice showed a pronounced reduction in foot swelling and arthritis, with analysis of granzyme A-/- mice showing no reductions in viral loads but reduced NK and T cell infiltrates post CHIKV infection. Treatment with Serpinb6b, a granzyme A inhibitor, also reduced arthritic inflammation in wild-type mice. In non-human primates circulating granzyme A levels were elevated after CHIKV infection, with the increase correlating with viral load. Elevated granzyme A levels were also seen in a small cohort of human CHIKV patients. Taken together these results suggest granzyme A is an important driver of arthritic inflammation and a potential target for therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00281294.
Buhagiar, Tamara S; Devine, Gregor J; Ritchie, Scott A
Metofluthrin reduces biting activity in Aedes aegypti through the confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. A geographical spread in dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, increases intervention demands. Response to a Zika outbreak may require a different strategy than dengue, as high-risk individuals, specifically pregnant women, need to be targeted. In semi-field conditions within a residential property in Cairns, Queensland, the impacts of metofluthrin on biting behaviour of free-flying Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti were evaluated. Mortality in Ae. aegypti exposed to metofluthrin over a 22 h period was 100% compared to 2.7% in an untreated room. No biting activity was observed in mosquitoes up to 5 m from the emanator after 10 min of metofluthrin exposure. Use of metofluthrin reduced biting activity up to 8 m, regardless of the host's proximity (near or far) to a dark harbourage area (HA) (P metofluthrin emanator, the host was most likely bitten when located immediately next to a HA (within 1 m) versus 8 m away from the HA (P = 0.006). The addition of a ceiling fan (0.8 m/s airflow) prevented all biting activity after 10 min of metofluthrin exposure. Previously unexposed Ae. aegypti were less likely to reach the host in a metofluthrin-treated room [Formula: see text]= 31%) compared to an untreated room ([Formula: see text]) (P metofluthrin to infiltrate protected locations within a room causing knockdown in caged mosquitoes, required more time than exposed locations (P Metofluthrin is effective in interrupting indoor host-seeking in Ae. aegypti. Metofluthrin's efficacy is increased by centrally locating the emanator in the room, and by using a fan to increase airflow. Newly treated rooms may require a period of 2-4 h for sufficient distribution of the metofluthrin into protected locations where mosquitoes may be resting.
Kantor, Isabel N
Los responsables de la actual pandemia de Chikungunya (alfavirus), dengue y Zika (flavivirus) son virus trasmitidos por artrópodos, arbovirus. Su importancia aumentó en las Américas en los últimos 20 años. Los vectores principales son Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. La infección por dengue provee inmunidad duradera al serotipo específico y temporaria a otros tres. La posterior infección por otro serotipo determina mayor gravedad. Existe una vacuna contra dengue registrada, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pa...
Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epidemic. While alphavirus replication is well understood in general, the specific function (s) of non-structural protein nsP3 remain elusive. CHIKV nsP3 modulates the mammalian stress response by preventing stress granule formation through sequestration of G3BP. In mosquitoes, nsP3 is a determinant of vector specificity, but its functional interaction with mosquito proteins is unclear. In this research we studied the domains required for localization of CHIKV nsP3 in insect cells and demonstrated its molecular interaction with Rasputin (Rin), the mosquito homologue of G3BP. The biological involvement of Rin in CHIKV infection was investigated in live Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In insect cells, nsP3 localized as cytoplasmic granules, which was dependent on the central domain and the C-terminal variable region but independent of the N-terminal macrodomain. Ae. albopictus Rin displayed a diffuse, cytoplasmic localization, but was effectively sequestered into nsP3-granules upon nsP3 co-expression. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the Rin-nsP3 interaction involved the NTF2-like domain of Rin and two conserved TFGD repeats in the C-terminal variable domain of nsP3. Although in vitro silencing of Rin did not impact nsP3 localization or CHIKV replication in cell culture, Rin depletion in vivo significantly decreased the CHIKV infection rate and transmissibility in Ae.albopictus. We identified the nsP3 hypervariable C-terminal domain as a critical factor for granular localization and sequestration of mosquito Rin. Our study offers novel insight into a conserved virus-mosquito interaction at the molecular level, and reveals a strong proviral role for G3BP homologue Rin in live mosquitoes
Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies · PowerPoint Presentation · CHIKUNGUNYA virus · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · CHIKV Genotypes · Slide 7 · In view of long absence of CHIK epidemics, it was postulated that CHIK virus has disappeared from India and South-East Asia. Serological surveys supported this view.
Cheong Huat Tan
Full Text Available Zika (ZIKV and Chikungunya (CHIKV viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV, Chikungunya (CHIKV, and Yellow Fever (YFV viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background was able to limit ZIKV and CHIKV infection in the mosquito.Five to seven-day old mosquitoes either infected or uninfected with wMel Wolbachia were orally infected with a Ugandan strain of ZIKV and several outbreak strains of CHIKV. The midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were sampled at days 6, 9 and 13 days post infectious blood meal to determine midgut infection and salivary glands dissemination rates, respectively. In general, all wild type Ae. aegypti were found to have high ZIKV and CHIKV infections in their midguts and salivary glands, across all sampling days, compared to Wolbachia infected counterparts. Median viral titre for all viruses in Wolbachia infected mosquitoes were significantly lower across all time points when compared to wild type mosquitoes. Most significantly, all but two and one of the wMel infected mosquitoes had no detectable ZIKV and CHIKV, respectively, in their salivary glands at 14 days post-infectious blood meal.Our results showed that wMel limits both ZIKV and CHIKV infection when introgressed into a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background. These results also strongly suggest that female Aedes aegypti carrying Wolbachia will have a reduced capacity to transmit ZIKV and CHIKV.
Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M
In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning.
Kantor, Isabel N
Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.
Yoshikawa, Minako Jen; Kusriastuti, Rita
Labor flow and travelers are important factors contributing to the spread of Dengue virus infection and chikungunya fever. Bali Province of Indonesia, a popular resort and tourist destination, has these factors and suffers from mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Using area study approach, a series of fieldwork was conducted in Bali to obtain up-to-date primary disease data, to learn more about public health measures, and to interview health officers, hotel personnel, and other resource persons. The national data including information on two other provinces were obtained for comparison. The health ministry reported 5,810 and 11,697 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bali in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Moreover, two densely populated tourist areas and one district have shown a particularly high incidence and sharp increases in 2010. Cases of chikungunya fever reported in Bali more than doubled in 2010 from the previous year. Our findings suggest that Bali can benefit from a significant reduction in vector populations and dissemination of disease preventive knowledge among both local residents and foreign visitors. This will require a concerted and trans-border approach, which may prove difficult in the province. PMID:23874141
Claudia Marcela Muñoz
Full Text Available Introducción. Se han observado manifestaciones clínicas atípicas en recién nacidos y lactantes con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya. Objetivo. Describir los casos de fiebre causada por el virus del chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes con lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio y de patología en tres hospitales regionales de los casos de recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con el virus del chikungunya que presentaban lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas; se hizo una búsqueda activa comunitaria en los barrios de residencia de los pacientes. Resultados. De 18 casos sospechosos de chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes, 11 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado presentaron manifestaciones mucocutáneas atípicas. Seis de los 11 casos confirmados eran niños menores de cinco meses de edad. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, eritema, irritabilidad y diarrea. Tres de los pacientes estaban infectados con dengue y chikungunya. Las úlceras se presentaron en cuero cabelludo, abdomen, región genital y perianal. En la búsqueda activa comunitaria se encontraron altas tasas de ataque de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Se presenta un informe de las manifestaciones mucocutáneas en recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya en Colombia. El rápido desarrollo de las úlceras se debe, probablemente, a la reacción inmunitaria al virus. Es necesario priorizar la atención de las mujeres embarazadas que presenten síntomas una semana antes del parto y hacerle seguimiento a los recién nacidos, para hacer el diagnóstico temprano del chikungunya y evitar complicaciones.
Migliori, A.; Marzin, H.; Rana, G.L.
Le Tomato Black Ring Virus (TBRV) a été isolé en France de l’artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.) et de Veronica persica Poir. (Scrophulariacées) naturellement infectés. L’isolat artichaut, dénommé TBRV-A, a été identifié au TBRV d’après les réactions des plantes-hôtes et les propriétés sérologiques. La transmission du virus au niveau du sol, la présence du nématode Longidorus attenuatus Hooper dans la rhizosphère des plantes infectées et la contamination de C..scolymus, Nicotiana tabacum L. v...
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV is caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus. CHIKV causes high fever and painful rheumatic disorders that may persist for years. Because little is known about interventions for treating CHIKV-related illness, we conducted a systematic review.We used Cochrane methods. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS and other sources from the earliest records to March 2016. We had no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials assessing any intervention for treating acute or chronic CHIKV-related illness. Our primary outcomes were pain relief, global health status (GHS or health related quality of life (HRQL, and serious adverse events (SAEs. We assessed bias risk with the Cochrane tool and used GRADE to assess evidence quality.We screened 2,229 records and found five small trials with a total of 402 participants. Patients receiving chloroquine (CHQ had better chronic pain relief than those receiving placebo (relative risk [RR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23 to 5.77, N = 54, but acute pain relief was marginally not different between groups (mean difference [MD] 1.46, 95% CI 0.00 to 2.92, N = 54. SAEs were similar (RR = 15.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 250.24, N = 54. Comparing CHQ with paracetamol (PCM, CHQ patients had better pain relief (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.93, N = 86. Compared with hydroxychloroquine (HCHQ, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs reduced pain (MD = -14.80, 95% CI -19.12 to -10.48, N = 72. DMARDs patients had less disability (MD = -0.74, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.56, N = 72 and less disease activity (MD = -1.35; 95% CI -1.70 to -1.00; N = 72. SAEs were similar between DMARDs and HCHQ groups (RR = 2.84, 95% CI 0.12 to 67.53, N = 72. Comparing meloxicam (MXM with CHQ, there was no difference in pain relief (MD = 0.24, 95% CI = -0.81 to 1.29; p = 0.65, N = 70, GHS or HRQL (MD = -0.31, 95% CI -2.06 to 1.44, N = 70 or SAEs (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.42, N = 70. Finally
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent massive global outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV emphasize the need to understand the biology of the virus for developing effective antiviral therapies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, an attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanism involved in Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 mediated regulation of CHIKV infection in mammalian cells using CHIKV prototype strain (S 27 and Indian outbreak strain of 2006 (DRDE-06. Our results showed that Hsp90 is required at a very early stage of viral replication and Hsp90 inhibitor Geldanamycin (GA can abrogate new virus particle formation more effectively in the case of S 27 than that of DRDE-06. Further analysis revealed that CHIKV nsP2 protein level is specifically reduced by GA treatment as well as HSP90-siRNA transfection; however, viral RNA remains unaltered. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that nsP2 interacts with Hsp90 during infection; however this interaction is reduced in the presence of GA. In addition, our analysis on Hsp90 associated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway demonstrated that CHIKV infection stabilizes Raf1 and activates Hsp90 client protein Akt, which in turn phosphorylates mTOR. Subsequently, this phosphorylation leads to the activation of two important downstream effectors, S6K and 4EBP1, which may facilitate translation of viral as well as cellular mRNAs. Hence, the data suggests that CHIKV infection is regulated by Hsp90 associated Akt phosphorylation and DRDE-06 is more efficient than S 27 in enhancing the activation of host signaling molecules for its efficient replication and virus production. CONCLUSION: Hsp90 positively regulates Chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing CHIKV-nsP2 through its interaction during infection. The study highlights the possible molecular mechanism of GA mediated inhibition of CHIKV replication and differential effect of this drug on S 27 and DRDE-06
Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie M; Suk, Jonathan E; Sudre, Bertrand; Hess, Andrea; Tjaden, Nils B; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Semenza, Jan C
Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences.In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the
Laredo-Tiscareño, S Viridiana; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Garza-Hernandez, Javier A; Doria-Cobos, Gloria L; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C; Bacab-Cab, Lucio A; Tangudu, Chandra S; Charles, Jermilia; De Luna-Santillana, Erick J; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Blitvich, Bradley J
A total of 1,090 residents of the city of Reynosa, Tamaulipas, on the Mexico-U.S. border presented at hospitals and clinics of the Secretariat of Health, Mexico, in 2015 with symptoms characteristic of dengue. Dengue virus (DENV) antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in acute sera from 134 (12.3%) patients. Sera from select patients ( N = 34) were also tested for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen (38.2%) patients, including five DENV antigen-positive patients, were positive. Sera from three CHIKV RNA-positive patients were further assayed by virus isolation in cell culture and CHIKV was recovered on each occasion. The genome of one isolate and structural genes of the other two isolates were sequenced. In conclusion, we present evidence of CHIKV and DENV coinfections in patients who live near the Mexico-U.S. border and provide the first genome sequence of a CHIKV isolate from northern Mexico.
Feldstein, Leora R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Staples, J Erin; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Ellis, Esther M
Recent large-scale chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus epidemics in the Americas pose a growing public health threat. Given that mosquito bite prevention and vector control are the main prevention methods available to reduce transmission of these viruses, we assessed adherence to these methods in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). We interviewed 334 USVI residents between December 2014 and February 2015 to measure differences in mosquito prevention practices by gender, income, presence of CHIKV symptoms, and age. Only 27% (91/334) of participants reported having an air conditioner, and of the 91 with air-conditioners, 18 (20%) reported never using it. Annual household income > $50,000 was associated with owning and using an air conditioner (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28-53% compared with annual household income ≤ $50,000: 17%; 95% CI: 12-22%). The majority of participants reported the presence of vegetation in their yard or near their home (79%; 265) and a cistern on their property (78%; 259). Only 52 (16%) participants reported wearing mosquito repellent more than once per week. Although the majority (80%; 268) of participants reported having screens on all of their windows and doors, most (82%; 273) of those interviewed still reported seeing mosquitoes in their homes. Given the uniformly low adherence to individual- and household-level mosquito bite prevention measures in the USVI, these findings emphasize the need for improved public health messaging and investment in therapeutic and vaccine research to mitigate vector-borne disease outbreaks.
Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.
Full Text Available During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors.A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%, "moderate" (42% and "high" (28%". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease.This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and persistent arthralgia in humans. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral against CHIKV infection. Therefore, this study evaluates whether RNA interference which targets at viral genomic level may be a novel antiviral strategy to inhibit the medically important CHIKV infection. METHODS: Plasmid-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA was investigated for its efficacy in inhibiting CHIKV replication. Three shRNAs designed against CHIKV Capsid, E1 and nsP1 genes were transfected to establish stable shRNA-expressing cell clones. Following infection of stable shRNA cells clones with CHIKV at M.O.I. 1, viral plaque assay, Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The in vivo efficacy of shRNA against CHIKV replication was also evaluated in a suckling murine model of CHIKV infection. RESULTS: Cell clones expressing shRNAs against CHIKV E1 and nsP1 genes displayed significant inhibition of infectious CHIKV production, while shRNA Capsid demonstrated a modest inhibitory effect as compared to scrambled shRNA cell clones and non-transfected cell controls. Western blot analysis of CHIKV E2 protein expression and transmission electron microscopy of shRNA E1 and nsP1 cell clones collectively demonstrated similar inhibitory trends against CHIKV replication. shRNA E1 showed non cell-type specific anti-CHIKV effects and broad-spectrum silencing against different geographical strains of CHIKV. Furthermore, shRNA E1 clones did not exert any inhibition against Dengue virus and Sindbis virus replication, thus indicating the high specificity of shRNA against CHIKV replication. Moreover, no shRNA-resistant CHIKV mutant was generated after 50 passages of CHIKV in the stable cell clones. More importantly, strong and sustained anti-CHIKV protection was conferred in suckling mice pre-treated with shRNA E1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these
Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Tan, Sharon S Y; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Lai, Yee-Ling; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Bucht, Göran; Lin, Raymond T P; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tan, Boon-Hian; Han, Hwi-Kwang; Ooi, Peng-Lim S; James, Lyn; Khoo, Seow-Poh
Local transmission of chikungunya, a debilitating mosquito-borne viral disease, was first reported in Singapore in January 2008. After 3 months of absence, locally acquired Chikungunya cases resurfaced in May 2008, causing an outbreak that resulted in a total of 231 cases by September 2008. The circulating viruses were related to East, Central, and South African genotypes that emerged in the Indian Ocean region in 2005. The first local outbreak was due to a wild-type virus (alanine at codon 226 of the envelope 1 gene) and occurred in an area where Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were the primary vector. Strains isolated during subsequent outbreaks showed alanine to valine substitution (A226V) and largely spread in areas predominated by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas.
Zaid, Ali; Gérardin, Patrick; Taylor, Adam; Mostafavi, Helen; Malvy, Denis; Mahalingam, Suresh
In the past decade, arboviruses-arthropod-borne viruses-have been the focus of public health institutions worldwide following a spate of devastating outbreaks. Chikungunya virus, an arbovirus that belongs to the alphavirus genus, is a reemerging arthritogenic virus that has caused explosive outbreaks since 2006, notably on Réunion Island, and more recently in the Caribbean, South America, India, and Southeast Asia. The severity of arthritic disease caused by chikungunya virus has prompted public health authorities in affected countries to develop specific guidelines to tackle this pathogen. Chikungunya virus disease manifests first as an acute stage of severe joint inflammation and febrile illness, which later progresses to a chronic stage, during which patients may experience debilitating and persisting articular pain for extended periods. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on current knowledge of chikungunya virus pathogenesis by identifying key clinical and experimental studies that have contributed to our understanding of chikungunya virus to date. In addition, the review explores the practical aspects of treatment and management of both acute and chronic chikungunya virus based on clinical experience during chikungunya virus outbreaks. Finally, recent findings on potential therapeutic solutions-from antiviral agents to immunomodulators-are reviewed to provide both viral immunologists and clinical rheumatologists with a balanced perspective on the nature of a reemerging arboviral disease of significant public health concern, and insight into future therapeutic approaches to better address the treatment and management of chikungunya virus. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Nagpal, Kadam; Agarwal, Puneet; Kumar, Amit; Reddi, Rajashekhar
Chikungunya fever is an Aedes mosquito-transmitted infection caused by chikungunya virus, an RNA virus in the family Togaviridae. The disease is characteristically manifested as fever, arthralgia, and/or rash. Various neurological manifestations like meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and myeloneuropathy have been mentioned in various reports. We present a rare case of chikungunya fever presenting with mild encephalitis with a reversible lesion of the splenium (MERS), which showed complete clinical and radiological recovery.
Full Text Available Chikungunya infection has recently re-emerged as an important arthropod-borne disease in Thailand. Recently, Southern Thailand was identified as a potentially endemic area for the chikungunya virus. Here, we report a case of severe musculoskeletal complication, presenting with muscle weakness and swelling of the limbs. During the investigation to exclude autoimmune muscular inflammation, high titers of antinuclear antibody were detected. This is the report of autoimmunity detection associated with an arbovirus infection. The symptoms can mimic autoimmune polymyositis disease, and the condition requires close monitoring before deciding to embark upon prolonged specific treatment with immunomodulators.
Bao, Huihui; Ramanathan, Aarti A; Kawalakar, Omkar; Sundaram, Senthil G; Tingey, Colleen; Bian, Charoran B; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Vijayachari, Paluru; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Ugen, Kenneth E; Muthumani, Karuppiah
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. It can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. The epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. The generation of an efficient vaccine against CHIKV is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. In this report, we studied immune response against a CHIKV-envelope DNA vaccine (pEnv) and the role of the CHIKV nonstructural gene 2 (nsP2) as an adjuvant for the induction of protective immune responses in a relevant mouse challenge model. When injected with the CHIKV pEnv alone, 70% of the immunized mice survived CHIKV challenge, whereas when co-injected with pEnv+pnsP2, 90% of the mice survived viral challenge. Mice also exhibited a delayed onset signs of illness, and a marked decrease in morbidity, suggesting a nsP2 mediated adjuvant effect. Co-injection of the pnsP2 adjuvant with pEnv also qualitatively and quantitatively increased antigen specific neutralizing antibody responses compared to vaccination with pEnv alone. In sum, these novel data imply that the addition of nsP2 to the pEnv vaccine enhances anti-CHIKV-Env immune responses and maybe useful to include in future CHIKV clinical vaccination strategies.
Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.
Altrich, Michelle L.; Nowicki, Marek J.
The identification of nearly 3,500 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in U.S. residents returning in 2014 and 2015 from areas in which it is endemic has raised concerns within the transplant community that, should recently infected individuals become organ and/or tissue donors, CHIKV would be transmitted to transplant recipients. Thus, tests designed to detect recent CHIKV infection among U.S. organ and tissue donors may become necessary in the future. Accordingly, we evaluated 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for CHIKV IgM readily available in the United States using 1,000 deidentified serum or plasma specimens collected from donors between November 2014 and March 2015. The Euroimmun indirect ELISA identified 38 reactive specimens; however, all 38 were negative for CHIKV IgG and IgM in immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) conducted at a reference laboratory and, thus, were falsely reactive in the Euroimmun CHIKV IgM assay. The InBios IgM-capture ELISA identified 26 reactive samples, and one was still reactive (index ≥ 1.00) when retested using the InBios kit with a background subtraction modification to identify false reactivity. This reactive specimen was CHIKV IgM negative but IgG positive by IFAs at two reference laboratories; plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) demonstrated CHIKV-specific reactivity. The IgG and PRNT findings strongly suggest that the InBios CHIKV IgM-reactive result represents true reactivity, even though the IgM IFA result was negative. If testing organ/tissue donors for CHIKV IgM becomes necessary, the limitations of the currently available CHIKV IgM ELISAs and options for their optimization must be understood to avoid organ/tissue wastage due to falsely reactive results. PMID:27535838
Harwood, James F; Farooq, Muhammad; Turnwall, Brent T; Richardson, Alec G
The principal vectors of chikungunya and dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial and natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these and similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military and civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular and liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB and VectoBac GR) and two liquid (Aquabac XT and VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, and hung 1.5 or 3 m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality and Bti droplet and granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular and liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open and beneath vegetation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Lark L. Coffey
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.
Full Text Available Little is known about the neurocognitive outcome in children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus (p-CHIKV infection.The CHIMERE ambispective cohort study compared the neurocognitive function of 33 p-CHIKV-infected children (all but one enrolled retrospectively at around two years of age with 135 uninfected peers (all enrolled prospectively. Psychomotor development was assessed using the revised Brunet-Lezine scale, examiners blinded to infectious status. Development quotients (DQ with subscores covering movement/posture, coordination, language, sociability skills were calculated. Predictors of global neurodevelopmental delay (GND, DQ ≤ 85, were investigated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling. Neuroradiologic follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans was proposed for most of the children with severe forms.The mean DQ score was 86.3 (95%CI: 81.0-91.5 in infected children compared to 100.2 (95%CI: 98.0-102.5 in uninfected peers (P<0.001. Fifty-one percent (n = 17 of infected children had a GND compared to 15% (n = 21 of uninfected children (P<0.001. Specific neurocognitive delays in p-CHIKV-infected children were as follows: coordination and language (57%, sociability (36%, movement/posture (27%. After adjustment for maternal social situation, small for gestational age, and head circumference, p-CHIKV infection was found associated with GND (incidence rate ratio: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.45-5.34. Further adjustments on gestational age or breastfeeding did not change the independent effect of CHIKV infection on neurocognitive outcome. The mean DQ of p-CHIKV-infected children was lower in severe encephalopathic children than in non-severe children (77.6 versus 91.2, P<0.001. Of the 12 cases of CHIKV neonatal encephalopathy, five developed a microcephaly (head circumference <-2 standard deviations and four matched the definition of cerebral palsy. MRI scans showed severe restrictions of white matter areas
Full Text Available AbstractChikungunya fever is one of re-emerging diseases in Indonesia. The most prominent symptoms in chikungunya patients are severe pain in joints, especially in the knee, ankles, arms and hands joints , as well as joints of the spine so that the joints very difficult to be moved. The disease is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV group.Cases of Chiku-ngunya in Central Java were increased, starting in 2005 which totaled only 46 cases, then became 86 cases in 2006, and increased sharply to reach 2,801 cases in 2007. The cases were distributed in several districts in Central Java including Boyolali, which contributes to considerable number of Chikungunya cases. In 2007 and 2008 the number of Chikungunyacases in Boyolali reached 634 and 517 respectively. In this study a survey was conducted to establish the relationship between community characteristics, socio-economic conditions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the people,entomological and environmental survey as risk factors of Chikungunya in Boyolali. This study was an analytical epidemiologic study with case control study design. Results showed that cases of Chikungunya was majority in the age range of 20-45 and 46-64 years, 51 (39.23% and 50 cases (38.46% respectively, among them,80 females (61.54%. The most of the Chikungunya cases ; 34 (26.15%were not completed primary school and farmers, the main occupation of the people, were 41 cases (31.54%. Based on all of characteristic of the respondents, only gender that have significant relationshipswith the Chikungunya case (with P< 0.05. The characteristics of age, education, and occupation have no significant relationships with the case (P> 0.05. Knowledge and practices of the people on the prevention towards Chikungunya transmissions has no significant relationships to the case(with P > 0.05. Hanged cloth was also has no relationships with the case, but the existing of Aedes sp larvae shown significant relationships to the case (with P
Full Text Available The recent global dissemination of Chikungunya and Zika has fostered public health concern worldwide. To better understand the drivers of transmission of these two arboviral diseases, we propose a joint analysis of Chikungunya and Zika epidemics in the same territories, taking into account the common epidemiological features of the epidemics: transmitted by the same vector, in the same environments, and observed by the same surveillance systems. We analyse eighteen outbreaks in French Polynesia and the French West Indies using a hierarchical time-dependent SIR model accounting for the effect of virus, location and weather on transmission, and based on a disease specific serial interval. We show that Chikungunya and Zika have similar transmission potential in the same territories (transmissibility ratio between Zika and Chikungunya of 1.04 [95% credible interval: 0.97; 1.13], but that detection and reporting rates were different (around 19% for Zika and 40% for Chikungunya. Temperature variations between 22 °C and 29 °C did not alter transmission, but increased precipitation showed a dual effect, first reducing transmission after a two-week delay, then increasing it around five weeks later. The present study provides valuable information for risk assessment and introduces a modelling framework for the comparative analysis of arboviral infections that can be extended to other viruses and territories.
Guaraldo, Lusiele; Wakimoto, Mayumi Duarte; Ferreira, Heloisa; Bressan, Clarisse; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Pinheiro, Geraldo Castelar; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Brasil, Patrícia
Chikungunya virus is amongst the fastest expanding vector transmissible diseases in recent years and has been causing massive epidemics in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite human infection by this virus being first described in the 1950s, there is a lack of adequate therapeutic evaluations to guide evidence-based recommendations. The current guidelines rely heavily in specialists' opinion and experience instead of using higher rated evidence. Areas covered: A systematic review of the literature was performed- not restricted to clinical trials - reporting the therapeutic response against this infection with the intent to gather the best evidence of the treatment options against musculoskeletal disorders following chikungunya fever. The 15 studies included in the analysis were categorized considering the initiation of treatment during the acute, subacute and chronic phase. Expert commentary: This review demonstrates the complexity of chikungunya fever and difficulty of therapeutic management. This review found no current evidence-based treatment recommendations for the musculoskeletal disorders following chikungunya fever. To provide an optimal treatment that prevents perpetuation or progression of chikungunya infection to a potentially destructive and permanent condition without causing more harm is an aim that must be pursued by researchers and health professionals working with this disease.
Full Text Available The primary vector at the origin of the 2007 outbreak in Libreville, Gabon is identified as Aedes albopictus, trapped around the nearby French military camp. The Chikungunya virus was isolated from mosquitoes and found to be identical to the A226V circulating human strain. This is the first field study showing the role of the recently arrived species Aedes albopictus in Chikungunya virus transmission in Central Africa, and it demonstrates this species' role in modifying the epidemiological presentation of Chikungunya in Gabon.
Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases that are of public health importance throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Seasonal variations in transmission of these viruses have been suggested owing to the ecology of their mosquito vectors. However, little is known about ...
Lucas Y. H. Goh
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.
Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Mayaro virus (MAYV are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae. MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.
Preliminary results on the control of Aedes spp. in a remote Guatemalan community vulnerable to dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus: community participation and use of low-cost ecological ovillantas for mosquito control
Ulibarri, Gerard; Betanzos, Angel; Betanzos, Mireya; Rojas, Juan Jacobo
Objective: To study the effectiveness of an integrated intervention of health worker training, a low-cost ecological mosquito ovitrap, and community engagement on Aedes spp. mosquito control over 10 months in 2015 in an urban remote community in Guatemala at risk of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus transmission. Methods: We implemented a three-component integrated intervention consisting of: web-based training of local health personnel in vector control, cluster-randomized assignment of an ecological modified ovitrap (ovillantas: ovi=egg, llanta=tire) or standard ovitraps to capture Aedes spp. mosquito eggs (no efforts have been taken to determine the exact Aedes species at this moment), and community engagement to promote participation of community members and health personnel in the understanding and maintenance of ovitraps for mosquito control. The intervention was implemented in local collaboration with Guatemala’s Ministry of Health’s Vector Control Programme, and in international collaboration with the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico. Findings: Eighty percent of the 25 local health personnel enrolled in the training programme received accreditation of their improved knowledge of vector control. When ovillantas were used in a cluster of ovitraps (several in proximity), significantly more eggs were trapped by ecological ovillantas than standard ovitraps over the 10 month (42 week) study period (t=5.2577; precycling of the attractant solution (or water) kept the ovillanta clean, free from algae growth. Among both community members and health workers, the levels of knowledge, interest, and participation in community mosquito control and trapping increased. Recommendations for enhancing and sustaining community mosquito control were identified. Conclusion: Our three-component integrated intervention proved beneficial to this remote community at risk of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The combination of
Lyle R. Petersen
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever and debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical and sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical and sub-tropical world and, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the biological and sociological underpinnings of its emergence and its future global outlook.
Talys J. Pinheiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Zika virus (ZIKV infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others. The diagnosis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. The most common symptoms of ZIKV infection are skin rash (mostly maculopapular, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, and conjunctivitis. Some epidemics that have recently occurred in French Polynesia and Brazil, reported the most severe conditions, with involvement of the nervous system (Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, microcephaly and meningitis. The treatment for ZIKV and CHIKV infections are symptomatic and the management for neurological complications depends on the type of affliction. Intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and corticosteroid pulse therapy are options.
Tran Minh Quan
Full Text Available Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited.In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam.The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137, Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136, Dak Lak province (n = 137, and Hue City (n = 136. The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%. The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58-18.02, 13.42% (7.16-19.68, 7.97% (3.56-12.38, and 3.72% (1.75-5.69 in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2-4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue. We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year.In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and
Wilmer E. Villamil-Gómez
Full Text Available The clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with a triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses are described. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 to 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according to the standard guidelines for the management of Zika virus-infected pregnant women.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar las lecciones aprendidas sobre la prevención y el control de enfermedades producidas por el mismo vector desde la comunicación en salud y comunicación de riesgo, de modo que puedan ser de utilidad para otros procesos de intervención en este campo en las regiones afectadas. Método: A partir de una revisión amplia de la literatura de los últimos 10 años se analizaron 52 documentos, entre artículos de investigación, capítulos de libro, guías gubernamentales y cartas al editor encontrados en las diferentes bases de datos especializadas. Resultados: Se encontró que aún son limitadas las investigaciones que evalúan el impacto de estas estrategias de prevención y control, en especial en el caso del Chikungunya. Asimismo, aunque se ha demostrado a nivel global que uno de los modelos recomendados para el caso del dengue, producido por el mismo vector, es COMBI –Communication for Behavioural Impact–, las intervenciones para este último caso, en gran medida, aún se fundan en el modelo de IEC –Información, Educación y Comunicación. Conclusión: Las lecciones aprendidas brindan luces para una mejor planeación de la comunicación, con anticipación a futuras epidemias, en la que los voceros oficiales y la relación con los medios de comunicación también hacen parte del éxito de estas experiencias.
Parmi les jeux pratiqués par les Touaregs, il faut distinguer les jeux sportifs qui opposent deux équipes ou deux hommes, des jeux de société dans un cadre inscrit dans le sable, et les jeux d’esprit, véritables joutes verbales ; enfin, il faut signaler la construction par les enfants de jouets. Un certain nombre de jeux sont connus chez d’autres populations africaines. L’ouvrage de Charles Béart, Jeux et jouets de l’Ouest africain (1955), nous permet d’utiles comparaisons. Il est donc intére...
Megan E Reller
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007.We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797 patients without acute dengue virus (DENV infection, 64.3% (18/28 of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007 showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5% patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection.Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.
Oehler, Erwan; Fournier, Emmanuel; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Larre, Philippe; Cubizolle, Stéphanie; Sookhareea, Chantal; Lastère, Stéphane; Ghawche, Frédéric
During the recent chikungunya fever outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2014 to March 2015, we observed an abnormally high number of patients with neurological deficit. Clinical presentation and complementary exams were suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) for nine patients. All nine had a recent dengue-like syndrome and tested positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in serology or RT-PCR. GBS incidence was increased four- to nine-fold during this period, suggesting a link to CHIKV infection.
Kajeguka, Debora C.; Kaaya, Robert D.; Desrochers, Rachelle
, and all participants were geo-referenced to the household level using a global positioning system. Potential clusters of individual exposed to dengue and chikungunya virus, as well as clusters of Aedes mosquitoes in the wet and dry seasons were detected using SaTScan. All significant clusters (with p≤0.......05) were mapped using ArcGIS. Results: A large, widely dispersed cluster of chikungunya exposed individuals was detected spanning Rundugai and parts of Magadini villages (RR = 2.58, p= 0.01), while no significant clustering was observed in the dry season. Spatial clusters of Aedes aegypti were detected...... and Aedes mosquitoes indicate on-going transmission of chikungunya virus in Hai district of northern Tanzania....
Martínez-Medina, Miguel Ángel; Cañedo-Dorame, Ismael Antonio
The Chikungunya is an arbovirus first described during a 1952 outbreak of febrile exantematic disease in southern Tanganyika (now Tanzania). It is a virus within the alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family, it is usually transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Typically, the disease manifests as acute onset of fever and joint pains. This study describes the clinical characteristics the first imported case infected with chikungunya fever (CHIK) in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. We report the case of a 30 years old man seen in our emergency department due to fever, polyarthralgia, rash and headache. This patient has been in Tapachula, Chiapas, a jungle area in southern México, and he returned from a 45 days trip before the onset his symptoms. The chikungunya viral infection (CHIK) was diagnosed by RT-PCR procedure. Paracetamol therapy was administered and his clinical course was self-limited. We concluded that with the increase of mosquito´s habitat by global warming and frequent traveling, CHIK reemerged and showed global distribution recently. This disease must be suspected in patients with compatible clinical symptoms returning from epidemic/endemic areas. CHIK must be diagnosed on the basis of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory criteria.
Jacky, Njiki Bikoï; Paul, Ndom; Lilian, Mupang; Sylvie, Agokeng Demanou
L'épidémiologie de l'infection par le virus herpès humain de type 8 (HHV8) associée à celle à VIH, reste encore méconnue au Cameroun, bien que le pays soit considéré comme une zone endémique pour ces deux virus. L'objectif de ce travail était de ressortir le profil de la séroprévalence du HHV8 au sein de notre population d'étude. 57 personnes ont été recrutées à l'Hôpital Général de Yaoundé et suivies sur une durée 12 mois. Des anticorps IgG anti-HHV8 ont été déterminés par ELISA. Des paramètres autres, tels que l'âge, le sexe, le stade des maladies (SK et VIH/SIDA), le protocole ARV, ainsi que les taux de CD4 ont été utilisés pour déterminer les variables associées à la séropositivité au HHV8. Cette association a été évaluée par le test khi carré. La séroprévalence du HHV8 était de 90% dans notre population en début d'étude et de 74% douze mois plus tard, une séroprévalence qui restait élevée quelque soit le profil clinique, la tranche d'âge, le sexe ou le taux de CD4+ de l'individu. Aucune variable de l'étude n'était significativement associée à la séropositivité du HHV8. Le virus HHV8 semblait circuler au sein de notre population d'étude. Cependant l'on constate, douze mois plus tard, l'absence de manifestations cliniques du SK chez les patients VIH+ positifs, malgré des titres très élevés en IgG anti-HHV8. PMID:26090027
Conclusions: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.
Paixão, Enny S; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Rodrigues, Laura C
The recent emergence and re-emergence of viral infections transmitted by vectors-Zika, chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and others-is a cause for international concern. Using as examples Zika, chikungunya and dengue, we summarise current knowledge on characteristics of the viruses and their transmission, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, burden, history, possible causes of the spread and the expectation for future epidemics. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, are of difficult diagnosis, can have surprising clinical complications and cause severe burden. The current situation is complex, because there is no vaccine for Zika and chikungunya and no specific treatment for the three arboviruses. Vector control is the only comprehensive solution available now and this remains a challenge because up to now this has not been very effective. Until we develop new technologies of control mosquito populations, the globalised and urbanised world we live in will remain vulnerable to the threat of successive arbovirus epidemics.
Kajeguka, Debora C; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Mwangi, Rose
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge and prevention practices regarding dengue and chikungunya amongst community members, as well as knowledge, treatment and diagnostic practices among healthcare workers. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 125 community members and 125 healthcare...... good knowledge. We conducted qualitative survey (n = 40) to further assess knowledge and practice regarding dengue and chikungunya fever. RESULTS: 15.2% (n = 19) of community members had good knowledge regarding dengue, whereas 53.6%, (n = 67) of healthcare workers did. 20.3% (n = 16) of participants...... from lowland areas and 6.5% (n = 3) from highland areas had good knowledge of dengue (χ(2) = 4.25, P = 0.03). Only 2.4% (n = 3) of all participants had a good knowledge score for chikungunya. In the qualitative study, community members expressed uncertainty about dengue and chikungunya. Some healthcare...
Background In 1998, Malaysia experienced its first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak in the suburban areas followed by another two in 2006 (rural areas) and 2008 (urban areas), respectively. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of documented data regarding the magnitude of CHIKV exposure in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of chikungunya virus infection in healthy Malaysian adults residing in outbreak-free locations. Methods A cross sectional study of chikungunya (CHIK) seroprevalence was carried out in 2009 amongst The Malaysian Cohort participants living in four states (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan). A total of 945 participants were randomly identified for the study. Potential risk factors for CHIK infection were determined via questionnaires, and IgG antibodies against CHIK were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Logistic regression identified risk factors associated with CHIK seropositivity, while geographical information system was used for visual and spatial analysis. Results From the 945 serum samples tested, 5.9% was positive for CHIK IgG. Being male, Malay, rural occupancy and Negeri Sembilan residency were identified as univariate predictors for CHIK seropositivity, while multivariate analysis identified being male and rural occupancy as risk factors. Conclusions This study provided evidence that CHIK is slowly emerging in Malaysia. Although the current baseline seroprevalence is low in this country, increasing number of CHIK cases reported to the Malaysia Ministry of Health imply the possibility of CHIK virus becoming endemic in Malaysia. PMID:23379541
Full Text Available Chikungunya (CHIK fever is a re-emerging viral disease characterized by abrupt onset of fever with severe arthralgia followed by constitutional symptoms and rash lasting for 1-7 days. The disease is almost self-limiting and rarely fatal. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a RNA virus belonging to family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Molecular characterization has demonstrated two distinct lineages of strains which cause epidemics in Africa and Asia. These geographical genotypes exhibit differences in the transmission cycles. In contrast to Africa where sylvatic cycle is maintained between monkeys and wild mosquitoes, in Asia the cycle continues between humans and the Aedes aegypti mosquito. CHIKV is known to cause epidemics after a period of quiescence. The first recorded epidemic occurred in Tanzania in 1952-1953. In Asia, CHIK activity was documented since its isolation in Bangkok, Thailand in 1958. Virus transmission continued till 1964. After hiatus, the virus activity re-appeared in the mid-1970s and declined by 1976. In India, well-documented outbreaks occurred in 1963 and 1964 in Kolkata and southern India, respectively. Thereafter, a small outbreak of CHIK was reported from Sholapur district, Maharashtra in 1973. CHIKV emerged in the islands of South West Indian Ocean viz. French island of La Reunion, Mayotee, Mauritius and Seychelles which are reporting the outbreak since February, 2005. After quiescence of about three decades, CHIKV re-emerged in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu since December, 2005. Cases have also been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Kerala. The outbreak is still continuing. National Institute of Communicable Diseases has conducted epidemiological, entomological and laboratory investigations for confirmation of the outbreak. These have been discussed in detail along with the major challenges that the country faced during the current outbreak.
Javelle, Emilie; Tiong, Tee Hua; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Savini, Hélène; Simon, Fabrice
The re-emerging invalidating chikungunya disease has recently extended to temperate areas. Other alphaviruses can also present with febrile arthalgias. Dengue virus transmitted by the same species of mosquitoes may cocirculate, leading to dual infections and concurrent epidemics. Although these diseases share similar clinical features, their prognoses considerably differ. Prominent and prolonged articular disorders are more consistent with chikungunya virus, whereas haemorrhages make the gravity of dengue infection. Specific symptoms are required, especially when diagnostic tests are not available or performable at a large scale. Indeed, early clinical suspicion of a vector-borne disease is crucial to isolate the first cases in the course of an outbreak, and discrimination between arboviruses help to optimal management of patients. No specific chikungunya clinical sign has been yet reported. We highlight here the high prevalence (about 25%) of acute ear redness in infected people during the 2008 chikungunya outbreak in Jahor Bahru in Malaysia. Nine consenting patients are more precisely described. Ear chondritis could be sensitive diagnostic criterion of the acute stage of chikungunya, every physician - even in occidental non endemic areas - should be aware of. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... and Regional Director for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO), today formally began her second term as ... as Regional Director for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO). PAHO continues response activities after Hurricanes in ...
Chikungunya Arthritis Mechanisms in the Americas (CAMA): A cross sectional analysis of chikungunya arthritis patients 22 months post-infection demonstrates a lack of viral persistence in synovial fluid
2010;120(3): 894-906. 442 (8) Hoarau JJ , Jaffar Bandjee MC, Krejbich Trotot P, Das T, Li-Pat-Yuen G, Dassa B, et al. Persistent chronic 443...Fingolimod treatment abrogates 478 chikungunya virus-induced arthralgia. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9(375): eaal1333. 479 (24) Miner JJ , Cook LE, Hong
Full Text Available Abstract The symptoms of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection include fever, headache, muscle aches, skin rash, and polyarthralgia, characterized by intense pain, edema, and temporary functional impairment. This is the first report of encephalitis caused by CHIKV infection associated with an atypical presentation of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, evolving to cognitive impairment and apraxia of speech.
Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)
This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.
Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam
This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases
Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam
This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.
Manore, C.; Conrad, J.; Del Valle, S.; Ziemann, A.; Fairchild, G.; Generous, E. N.
Mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses have dynamics coupled to weather, ecology, human infrastructure, socio-economic demographics, and behavior. We use time-varying remote sensing and weather data, along with demographics and ecozones to predict risk through time for Zika, dengue, and chikungunya outbreaks in Brazil. We use distributed lag methods to quantify the lag between outbreaks and weather. Our statistical model indicates that the relationships between the variables are complex, but that quantifying risk is possible with the right data at appropriate spatio-temporal scales.
Full Text Available De acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, el virus del Chikungunya no es un evento nuevo. La fiebre Chikungunya es una enfermedad vírica transmitida al ser humano por mosquitos, la cual fue descrita por primera vez durante un brote ocurrido en el sur de Tanzanía en 19521 . Este país africano, ubicado en el trópico, tiene características similares, en lo ambiental y climático, a Colombia. Es decir, compartimos ambientes comunes en los cuales el mismo vector (Aedes Aegypti puede transmitir diferentes enfermedades, entre ellas el dengue.
Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E
The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Claudia Diniz Lopes Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya fever has become an important public health problem in countries where epidemics occur because half of the cases progress to chronic, persistent and debilitating arthritis. Literature data on specific therapies at the various phases of arthropathy caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection are limited, lacking quality randomized trials assessing the efficacies of different therapies. There are a few studies on the treatment of musculoskeletal manifestations of chikungunya fever, but these studies have important methodological limitations. The data currently available preclude conclusions favorable or contrary to specific therapies, or an adequate comparison between the different drugs used. The objective of this study was to develop recommendations for the treatment of chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed via evidence-based selection of articles in the databases Medline, SciELO, PubMed and Embase and conference proceedings abstracts, in addition to expert opinions to support decision-making in defining recommendations. The Delphi method was used to define the degrees of agreement in 2 face-to-face meetings and several online voting rounds. This study is part 2 of the Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia - SBR for the Diagnosis and Treatment of chikungunya fever and specifically addresses treatment.
Depistage clinique des infections sexuellement transmissibles chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH suivies au Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire du Centre National Hospitalier Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga de Cotonou.
Le but de l'étude est d'analyser sur une période de 12 mois chez 75 patients en hémodialyse chronique, âgés de 38ans en moyenne, le les aspects cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs des manifestations cardiovasculaires. La prévalence est de 87,20% chez les patients. Les signes fonctionnels les plus fréquents sont la ...
Chikungunya fever has reemerged in India, with thousands of people reporting moderate to high fever with arthralgia and arthritis. Learn what researchers at the National Institute of Virology in Pune, India, determined after analying blood samples collected from suspected case-patients in 3 Indian states.
Aníbal E Carbajo
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.
Giuseppe La Torre
Full Text Available
Introduction Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquitoborne alphavirus indigenous to African countries, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, where it causes endemic and epidemic chikungunya (CHIK fever . Chikungunya infection is transmitted by biting mosquitoes belonging to the genus Aedes. Since the identification of the virus in the 1950s  in Africa, transmission to humans has been usually associated with bites of A. aegypti mosquitoes. In recent outbreaks occurring in the South-eastern islands of the Indian Ocean, transmission has also been associated with A. albopictus, also known as the “tiger mosquito.” This species is indigenous to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Indian Ocean, but has recently spread to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. . Although tropical forests are considered to be their original habitat, A. aegypti and A. albopictus have developed the capacity to exploit artificial environments . Besides the natural habitat consisting of tree holes filled with water and other small natural pools, they are capable of breeding in any artificial habitat with small reservoirs of stagnant water, such as vases, buckets, tires and other containers found around houses in urban and periurban areas.
Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F; Lecuit, Marc
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents.
Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Abbate, Jessica L; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Nsio-Mbeta, Justus; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Becquart, Pierre; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques
For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong, Rift Valley fever, Zika, and YFV. The average age of patients was 22.1 years. We reported 16 cases (3.5%; confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-5.2) of dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) and 2 cases (0.4%; CI: 0.0-1.0) of Chikungunya. Three patients were co-infected with the two serotypes of dengue virus. Three cases of dengue were found in early July 2010 from the city of Titule (Oriental province) during a laboratory-confirmed outbreak of yellow fever, suggesting simultaneous circulation of dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study showed that dengue and Chikungunya viruses are potential causes of acute febrile jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider dengue and Chikungunya diagnosis in the integrated disease surveillance and response program in the DRC. A prospective study is necessary to establish the epidemiology of these diseases.
Isabel N. Kantor
Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, zika (ZIKV and chikungunya (CHIKV, three arbovirosis transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have spread in recent decades in humid tropical and subtropical zones. Dengue is epidemic in subtropical areas of Argentina. DENV infection confers lasting immunity against the infecting serotype but increases the risk of serious disease upon reinfection by any of the other three. The recombinant tetravalent vaccine Dengvaxia® prevents severe dengue and hospitalization in seropositive subjects. In 2017, Dengvaxia was approved in Argentina, for ages 9 to 45, but is not included in the national vaccination calendar. Two other vaccines are in Phase III evaluation: one developed by NIAID / Instituto Butantan and the other by Takeda. ZIKV, a virus associated with microcephaly in newborns in Brazil, circulates since 2016 in Argentina. There is still not effective treatment nor vaccine with proven activity against ZIKV. There has been no active circulation of CHIKV in Argentina in 2017. Outbreaks of CHIKV fever have a complication: the development of chronic post-disease rheumatism. There are not approved vaccines for humans nor effective antiviral therapies. The seriousness of these virosis has contributed to a rapid progress in the knowledge of the infection processes and the immune response. For now, Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus vectors continue to expand, suggesting that the vaccine will be the most effective means of controlling these viruses. Here we summarize information about these arbovirosis in Argentina and Brazil and describe advances in the development and evaluation of vaccines.
Kantor, Isabel N
Dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV) and chikungunya (CHIKV), three arbovirosis transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have spread in recent decades in humid tropical and subtropical zones. Dengue is epidemic in subtropical areas of Argentina. DENV infection confers lasting immunity against the infecting serotype but increases the risk of serious disease upon reinfection by any of the other three. The recombinant tetravalent vaccine Dengvaxia® prevents severe dengue and hospitalization in seropositive subjects. In 2017, Dengvaxia was approved in Argentina, for ages 9 to 45, but is not included in the national vaccination calendar. Two other vaccines are in Phase III evaluation: one developed by NIAID / Instituto Butantan and the other by Takeda. ZIKV, a virus associated with microcephaly in newborns in Brazil, circulates since 2016 in Argentina. There is still not effective treatment nor vaccine with proven activity against ZIKV. There has been no active circulation of CHIKV in Argentina in 2017. Outbreaks of CHIKV fever have a complication: the development of chronic post-disease rheumatism. There are not approved vaccines for humans nor effective antiviral therapies. The seriousness of these virosis has contributed to a rapid progress in the knowledge of the infection processes and the immune response. For now, Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus vectors continue to expand, suggesting that the vaccine will be the most effective means of controlling these viruses. Here we summarize information about these arbovirosis in Argentina and Brazil and describe advances in the development and evaluation of vaccines.
Sari, Kartika; Myint, Khin Saw Aye; Andayani, Ayu Rai; Adi, Putu Dwi; Dhenni, Rama; Perkasa, Aditya; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Witari, Ni Putu Diah; Megawati, Dewi; Powers, Ann M; Jaya, Ungke Anton
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported sporadically within the last 5 years in several areas of Indonesia including Bali. Most of the reports, however, have lacked laboratory confirmation. A recent fever outbreak in a village in the North Bali area was investigated using extensive viral diagnostic testing including both molecular and serological approaches. Ten out of 15 acute febrile illness samples were confirmed to have CHIKV infection by real-time PCR or CHIKV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The outbreak strain belonged to the Asian genotype with highest homology to other CHIKV strains currently circulating in Indonesia. The results are of public health concern particularly because Bali is a popular tourist destination in Indonesia and thereby the potential to spread the virus to non-endemic areas is high. KY885022, KY885023, KY885024, KY885025, KY885026, KY885027. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Galo, Saira Saborío; González, Karla; Téllez, Yolanda; García, Nadezna; Pérez, Leonel; Gresh, Lionel; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Ángel
To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA) for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM) to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014-2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA). For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%-95.9%. Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.
Saira Saborío Galo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Methods Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014–2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA. For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. Results All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%–95.9%. Conclusion Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.
Li Ting Soh
Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.
Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich
Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to
DE MONTALEMBERT G.
Full Text Available L'évolution quantitative et qualitative de la production de sperme au cours de la période de spermiation a été étudiée chez des brochets maintenus en captivité dans un étang de 400 m2. Le sperme est prélevé toutes les semaines à partir du début de février, et pendant près de 2 mois. La quantité de sperme recueillie est très faible et présente de fortes variations individuelles ; elle augmente progressivement jusqu'à la 5me semaine et décroit ensuite. La quantité moyenne de sperme récoltée par mâle est de l'ordre de 0,7 ml/semaine et varie considérablement d'un mâle à l'autre (0.07 à 1,5 ml. La concentration du sperme en spermatozoïdes varie entre 18 et 25 milliards par ml ( X = 21,5 109 + 2,11. La quantité de spermatozoïdes récoltée par semaine est de 28,5 106 + 26,4/kg de poids corporel. La qualité du sperme appréciée par l'intensité et la durée de motilité suit une évolution similaire à celle de la quantité de sperme récoltée avec des valeurs maximales à 4 semaines et minimales en début et fin de période de prélèvement. Les premières ovulations détectées sur des femelles stockées dans les mêmes conditions que les mâles ont été observées à la 6me semaine de prélèvements alors que les performances de spermiation avaient déjà fortement déclinées. Il est vraisemblable que les conditions expérimentales particulièrement traumatisantes pour les mâles ont affecté prématurément la spermiation, amplifiant ainsi le décalage fréquemment observé entre les périodes de spermiation et d'ovulation.
Gabriella Maria Pitt Gameiro Sales
Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Chikungunya (CHIK is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated. Method: A systematic review was performed on the PubMed and Scielo databases in January 2017. Clinical trials, cohorts, case-control and case reports were included in the study. Expert opinions, societal consensuses and literary reviews were exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The studies were descriptively analyzed and the data was grouped according to methodological similarity. Results: Twenty-four (24 articles were selected and, in compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 were eliminated, with six studies remaining in the present review: five clinical trials and one case report. Conclusion: When the manifestations of CHIK become chronic and, the longer they last, more complications arise. Polyarthralgia can be immaterial, distancing individuals from their daily-life activities. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or not, in addition to immunosuppressants, homeopathy and physiotherapy are measures of treatment that, according to the literature, have been successful in relieving or extinguishing symptoms. However, it is fundamental that studies of CHIK treatment be further developed.
Sales, Gabriella Maria Pitt Gameiro; Barbosa, Izabel Crystine Pereira; Canejo Neta, Laura Maia Sampaio; Melo, Paloma Lopes de; Leitão, Raphael de Azevedo; Melo, Hugo Moura de Albuquerque
Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated. A systematic review was performed on the PubMed and Scielo databases in January 2017. Clinical trials, cohorts, case-control and case reports were included in the study. Expert opinions, societal consensuses and literary reviews were exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The studies were descriptively analyzed and the data was grouped according to methodological similarity. Twenty-four (24) articles were selected and, in compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 were eliminated, with six studies remaining in the present review: five clinical trials and one case report. When the manifestations of CHIK become chronic and, the longer they last, more complications arise. Polyarthralgia can be immaterial, distancing individuals from their daily-life activities. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or not), in addition to immunosuppressants, homeopathy and physiotherapy are measures of treatment that, according to the literature, have been successful in relieving or extinguishing symptoms. However, it is fundamental that studies of CHIK treatment be further developed.
Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M
A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.
Corry van den Bosch
Full Text Available Certain infectious agents are associated with lymphomas, but the strength of the association varies geographically, suggesting that local environmental factors make important contributions to lymphomagenesis. Endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma has well-defined environmental requirements making it particularly suitable for research into local environmental factors. The Epstein-Barr virus and holoendemic Malaria are recognized as important cofactors in endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma and their contributions are discussed. Additionally, infection with Chikungunya Fever, a potentially oncogenic arbovirus, was associated with the onset of endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma in one study and also with space-time case clusters of the lymphoma. Chikungunya Virus has several characteristics typical of oncogenic viruses. The Flavivirus, Hepatitis C, a Class 1 Human Carcinogen, closely related to the arboviruses, Yellow Fever, and Dengue, is also more distantly related to Chikungunya Virus. The mechanisms of oncogenesis believed to operate in Hepatitis C lymphomagenesis are discussed, as is their potential applicability to Chikungunya Virus.
Herder s’inspire à la fois de la philosophie leibnizienne de la force, de la théorie d’Albrecht von Haller sur l’excitabilité (Reizbarkeit) et des pensées françaises de l’énergie, que l’on trouve aussi chez Sulzer à Berlin et James Harris en Angleterre, et d’une autre façon chez Hamann que commentera Hegel. Mais le Trieb est plus qu’une concentration de force, et la critique herdérienne des pensées françaises de l’énergie ou du culte allemand du génie retrouve les arguments du premier discour...
Nava-Frías, Margarita; Searcy-Pavía, Ricardo Efrén; Juárez-Contreras, Carina Aurora; Valencia-Bautista, Anayeli
Chikungunya fever is a tropical vector-borne disease that has been spreading rapidly around the world during the last 10 years, and which has been usually misdiagnosed as dengue. Nowadays, this disease is increasing in Mexico, mainly in the southern and central zones of the country, being significantly more common in women, children and young adults (28% in<20 years of age). The classical presentation includes fever, arthralgia, polyarthritis, back-pain, and skin rashes. Although symptoms and treatment are similar to those for dengue, there are key clinical features to differentiate these two diseases. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Bodenmann, P; Genton, B
Little is known about chikungunya fever and, until March 2005, this abovirosis was seldom part of the differential diagnosis in the case of a patient with fever after travel return; at this time, a major outbreak of this self-limiting febrile illness was taking place in East Africa heading towards India and now also present in South East Asia. Although the evolution of this arbovirosis is usually favourable, important complications can appear in patients with initial comorbidities and in infants or elderly people. A simple serology can be used to show paraclinical evidence. The use of computer databases and internet surveillance networks is a precious help in establishing the differential diagnosis of patients with fever after travel return.
La souche du virus de l'influenza aviaire hautement pathogène (H5N1) est responsable d'une forme grave de la maladie liée à une mortalité élevée chez la volaille d'élevage, les oiseaux d'eau et d'autres espèces d'oiseaux. Même si le mode de propagation de la maladie à l'échelle internationale est encore mal compris, ...
La souche du virus de l'influenza aviaire hautement pathogène (H5N1) est responsable d'une forme grave de la maladie liée à une mortalité élevée chez la volaille d'élevage, les oiseaux d'eau et d'autres espèces d'oiseaux. Les autorités de la santé publique craignent une mutation de cette souche hautement virulente qui ...
Claudia Diniz Lopes Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya fever has become a relevant public health problem in countries where epidemics occur. Until 2013, only imported cases occurred in the Americas, but in October of that year, the first cases were reported in Saint Marin island in the Caribbean. The first autochthonous cases were confirmed in Brazil in September 2014; until epidemiological week 37 of 2016, 236,287 probable cases of infection with Chikungunya virus had been registered, 116,523 of which had serological confirmation. Environmental changes caused by humans, disorderly urban growth and an ever-increasing number of international travelers were described as the factors responsible for the emergence of large-scale epidemics. Clinically characterized by fever and joint pain in the acute stage, approximately half of patients progress to the chronic stage (beyond 3 months, which is accompanied by persistent and disabling pain. The aim of the present study was to formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, SciELO and PubMed databases to ground the decisions for recommendations. The degree of concordance among experts was established through the Delphi method, involving 2 in-person meetings and several online voting rounds. In total, 25 recommendations were formulated and divided into 3 thematic groups: (1 clinical, laboratory and imaging diagnosis; (2 special situations; and (3 treatment. The first 2 themes are presented in part 1, and treatment is presented in part 2.
Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mnzava, Abraham; Mohareb, Emad; Zayed, Alia; Al Kohlani, Abdulhakeem; Thabet, Ahmed A K; El Bushra, Hassan
Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of "dengue-like" acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Julius Erving Ballera
Full Text Available Background: In July 2012, the Philippines National Epidemiology Center received a report of a suspected chikungunya fever outbreak in San Pablo City, Laguna Province, the first chikungunya cases reported from the city since surveillance started in 2007. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify risk factors associated with chikungunya. Methods: A case was defined as any resident of Concepcion Village in San Pablo City who had fever of at least two days duration and either joint pains or rash between 23 June and 6 August 2012. Cases were ascertained by conducting house-to-house canvassing and medical records review. An unmatched case-control study was conducted and analysed using a multivariate logistic regression. An environmental investigation was conducted by observing water and sanitation practices, and 100 households were surveyed to determine House and Breteau Indices. Human serum samples were collected for confirmation for chikungunya IgM through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: There were 98 cases identified. Multivariate analysis revealed that having a chikungunya case in the household (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0–12.9 and disposing of garbage haphazardly (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.4 were associated with illness. House and Breteau Indices were 27% and 28%, respectively. Fifty-eight of 84 (69% serum samples were positive for chikungunya IgM. Conclusion: It was not surprising that having a chikungunya case in a household was associated with illness in this outbreak. However, haphazard garbage disposal is not an established risk factor for the disease, although this could be linked to increased breeding sites for mosquitoes.
Suroowan, Shanoo; Mahomoodally, Fawzi; Ragoo, Luxcha
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) flourish mostly in impoverished developing nations of the world. It is estimated that NTDs plague up to 1 billion people every year thereby inducing a massive economic and health burden worldwide. Following explosive outbreaks mostly in Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Indian Ocean, two common NTDs namely, Chikungunya and Dengue both transmitted by an infected mosquito vector principally Aedes aegypti have emerged as a major public health threat. Given the limitations of conventional medicine in specifically targeting the Chikungunya and Dengue virus (CHIKV and DENV), natural products present an interesting avenue to explore in the quest of developing novel anti; mosquito, CHIKV and DENV agents. In this endeavor, a number of plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, essential oils and seaweeds have shown promising larvicidal and insecticidal activity against some mosquito vectors as well as anti CHIKV and DENV activity invitro. Other natural products that have depicted good potential against these diseases include; the symbiotic bacterial genus Wolbachia which can largely reduce the life span and infectivity of mosquito vectors and the marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum which has shown anti- CHIKV activity at minimal cytotoxic level. The impetus of modern drug discovery approaches such as high throughput screening, drug repositioning, synthesis and computer-aided drug design will undeniably enhance the process of developing more stable lead molecules from natural products which have shown promising antiviral activity in-vitro.
Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Werneke, Scott W.; de la Calle, Claire; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Giodini, Alessandra; Peduto, Lucie; Levine, Beth; Schwartz, Olivier; Lenschow, Deborah J.
Autophagy is an important survival pathway and can participate in the host response to infection. Studying Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the causative agent of a major epidemic in India, Southeast Asia, and southern Europe, we reveal a novel mechanism by which autophagy limits cell death and mortality after infection. We use biochemical studies and single cell multispectral assays to demonstrate that direct infection triggers both apoptosis and autophagy. CHIKV-induced autophagy is mediated by the independent induction of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress pathways. These cellular responses delay apoptotic cell death by inducing the IRE1α–XBP-1 pathway in conjunction with ROS-mediated mTOR inhibition. Silencing of autophagy genes resulted in enhanced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, favoring viral propagation in cultured cells. Providing in vivo evidence for the relevance of our findings, Atg16LHM mice, which display reduced levels of autophagy, exhibited increased lethality and showed a higher sensitivity to CHIKV-induced apoptosis. Based on kinetic studies and the observation that features of apoptosis and autophagy were mutually exclusive, we conclude that autophagy inhibits caspase-dependent cell death but is ultimately overwhelmed by viral replication. Our study suggests that inducers of autophagy may limit the pathogenesis of acute Chikungunya disease. PMID:22508836
Thanapati, Subrat; Ganu, Mohini A; Tripathy, Anuradha S
The role of natural killer (NK; CD3-CD56+)/NKT (CD3+CD56+)-like cells in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease progression/recovery remains unclear. Here, we investigated the expression profiles and function of NK and NKT-like cells from 35 chronic chikungunya patients, 30 recovered individuals, and 69 controls. Percentage of NKT-like cells was low in chronic chikungunya patients. NKp30+, CD244+, DNAM-1+, and NKG2D+ NK cell percentages were also lower (MFI and/or percentage), while those of CD94+ and NKG2A+ NKT-like cells were higher (MFI and/or percentage) in chronic patients than in recovered subjects. IFN-γ and TNF-α expression on NKT-like cells was high in the chronic patients, while only IFN-γ expression on NK cells was high in the recovered individuals. Furthermore, percentage of perforin+NK cells was low in the chronic patients. Lower cytotoxic activity was observed in the chronic patients than in the controls. CD107a expression on NK and NKT-like cells post anti-CD94/anti-NKG2A blocking was comparable among the patients and controls. Upregulated inhibitory and downregulated activating NK receptor expressions on NK/NKT-like cells, lower perforin+ and CD107a+NK cells are likely responsible for inhibiting the NK and NKT-like cell function in the chronic stage of chikungunya. Therefore, deregulation of NKR expression might underlie CHIKV-induced chronicity.
Liu, Liang E; Dehning, Meaghan; Phipps, Ashley; Swienton, Ray E; Harris, Curtis A; Klein, Kelly R
Mosquito-borne diseases pose a threat to individual health and population health on both a local and a global level. The threat is even more exaggerated during disasters, whether manmade or environmental. With the recent Zika virus outbreak, it is important to highlight other infections that can mimic the Zika virus and to better understand what can be done as public health officials and health care providers. This article reviews the recent literature on the Zika virus as well as chikungunya virus and dengue virus. The present findings give a better understanding of the similarities and differences between the 3 infections in terms of their characteristics, clinical presentation, diagnosis methodology, and treatment and what can be done for prevention. Additionally, the article highlights a special population that has received much focus in the latest outbreak, the pregnant individual. Education and training are instrumental in controlling the outbreak, and early detection can be lifesaving. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:290-299).
Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer; Ranieri, Tani; Favreto, Cátia; Nunes, Zenaida Marion Alves; Tumioto Giannini, Gabriela Luchiari; Sanberg, Nara Druck; da Rosa, Marilda Tereza Mar; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini
The recent emergence of arboviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has posed a threat to human health and to the country's economy. Outbreaks occur mainly in tropical areas; however, increasing number of cases have been observed in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Southernmost state; therefore, surveillance of these arboviruses is essential for public health measures. In this study, we analyzed 1276 samples from patients with clinically suspected arboviral diseases between 2014 and 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected and described; cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were analyzed. Results show that CHIKV and ZIKV entered RS in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with imported cases confirmed. Autochthonous infections occurred in 2016 for both viruses, with a total of 5 autochthonous cases for CHIKV and 44 for ZIKV. Most patients were older than 21 years; the main symptoms were fever, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache; rash, conjunctivitis, and pruritus were also reported in ZIKV cases. Three cases of congenital Zika syndrome were confirmed in our study, while another 20 cases of microcephaly associated with congenital infection were confirmed (10 positive for syphilis, 6 for toxoplasmosis and 4 for cytomegalovirus). Considering co-circulation of different arbovirus in RS, including Dengue virus, CHIKV, and ZIKV, and the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the area, surveillance of patients infected by these viruses contributes to the control and prevention of such diseases. Practical difficulties in diagnosing these infections are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wadhwani, Gyandas G
To observe the effect of homeopathic therapy in Chikungunya Fever (CF) and in Post-Chikungunya Chronic Arthritis (PCCA) in a primary health care setting. A prospective observational study was conducted at Delhi Government Homeopathic Dispensary, Aali Village, New Delhi, India, for a period of 6 months, from 1st October 2010 to 31st March 2011. 126 patients (75 CF, 51 PCCA) were enrolled based on predefined inclusion criteria. A single homeopathic medicine was prescribed for each patient after case taking with the help of Materia Medica and/or Repertory. Results were evaluated on the basis of visual analogue scale and symptom scores. Complete recovery was seen in 84.5% CF cases in a mean time of 6.8 days. 90% cases of PCCA recovered completely in a mean time of 32.5 days. Homeopathic therapy may be effective in CF and PCCA. A randomized controlled trial should be considered. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The proportion of unsanitary housing in French overseas departments is much higher than in mainland France. Reunion Island is no exception to this fact. Between 80 and 90% of housing in Reunion Island was built by squatters with no legal claim or deed to the property. This has resulted in uncontrolled urban sprawl with living conditions reminiscent of those in developing countries. The absence of adequate drainage systems for sewage and rain water and the lack of properly organized garbage disposal that characterizes these sprawl areas constitutes a particularly favorable breeding ground for vector-borne diseases, especially chikungunya. Thus, implementing measures to control this type of settlement and to relocate of people out of existing sprawl areas constitutes a significant tool to control this epidemiological risk. Up to now, public officials have shown a clear reluctance to intervene in sprawl areas despite good knowledge of their location. On June 26th of this year, a law containing provisions relative to the control of urban sprawl and unsanitary housing in overseas departments and territories will come into effect. This law should provide public officials with the legal basis that has up until now been lacking to take action. Persistence in the "wait-and-see" attitude could lead to condemnation by French or European courts.
Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello
Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.14122Várias viroses emergentes ou reemergentes podem ser veiculadas por mosquitos. Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, os mesmos que transmitem o vírus da dengue e da febre amarela, podem disseminar o vírus Chikungunya que este ano no Brasil já fez cerca de 1000 casos confirmados. A doença tem parâmetros semelhantes aos da Dengue, e embora a taxa de letalidade seja muito baixa, sequelas podem permanecer no individuo por um ano. Em 2014 a partir de setembro o mundo observou perplexo a ressurgência de um vírus hemorrágico letal, em uma das piores epidemias já ocorridas no continente africano. O vírus Ebola atingiu mais de 6000 pessoas. Estudos no sentido de melhorar as estratégias de contenção da disseminação de vetores e dos vírus devem ser estabelecidas, enquanto aguardamos a produção de vacinas eficazes. O mundo não é imune a uma infecção endêmica, localizada no interior de um continente e não estamos preparados para atender uma demanda deste porte.
infection urinaire chez 5 patients (10.6%), une dysurie chez 4 patients et une hémorragie retardée chez 4 autres (8.5%). Un seul de ces patients a nécessité une transfusion sanguine et aucun patient n'a nécessité une réintervention. En 3 mois de suivi un seul patient a nécessité une incision du col vésical pour sclérose du ...
... than an adult mosquito. If you have a septic tank, follow these steps: • • Repair cracks or gaps. • • Cover ... Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Keep septic tanks sealed. Install or repair window & door screens. August ...
Ecriture traumatique de la problematique de la jeunesse chez deux romanciers africains froncophones: Ahmadou kourouma et boubacar boris diop, ou l'Afrique au pied du mur de la crise de la conscience Africaine.
Mahroum, Naim; Adawi, Mohammad; Sharif, Kassem; Waknin, Roy; Mahagna, Hussein; Bisharat, Bishara; Mahamid, Mahmud; Abu-Much, Arsalan; Amital, Howard; Luigi Bragazzi, Nicola; Watad, Abdulla
The recent outbreak of Chikungunya virus in Italy represents a serious public health concern, which is attracting media coverage and generating public interest in terms of Internet searches and social media interactions. Here, we sought to assess the Chikungunya-related digital behavior and the interplay between epidemiological figures and novel data streams traffic. Reaction to the recent outbreak was analyzed in terms of Google Trends, Google News and Twitter traffic, Wikipedia visits and edits, and PubMed articles, exploiting structural modelling equations. A total of 233,678 page-views and 150 edits on the Italian Wikipedia page, 3,702 tweets, 149 scholarly articles, and 3,073 news articles were retrieved. The relationship between overall Chikungunya cases, as well as autochthonous cases, and tweets production was found to be fully mediated by Chikungunya-related web searches. However, in the allochthonous/imported cases model, tweet production was not found to be significantly mediated by epidemiological figures, with web searches still significantly mediating tweet production. Inconsistent relationships were detected in mediation models involving Wikipedia usage as a mediator variable. Similarly, the effect between news consumption and tweets production was suppressed by the Wikipedia usage. A further inconsistent mediation was found in the case of the effect between Wikipedia usage and tweets production, with web searches as a mediator variable. When adjusting for the Internet penetration index, similar findings could be obtained, with the important exception that in the adjusted model the relationship between GN and Twitter was found to be partially mediated by Wikipedia usage. Furthermore, the link between Wikipedia usage and PubMed/MEDLINE was fully mediated by GN, differently from what was found in the unadjusted model. In conclusion-a significant public reaction to the current Chikungunya outbreak was documented. Health authorities should be aware of
Full Text Available The recent outbreak of Chikungunya virus in Italy represents a serious public health concern, which is attracting media coverage and generating public interest in terms of Internet searches and social media interactions. Here, we sought to assess the Chikungunya-related digital behavior and the interplay between epidemiological figures and novel data streams traffic. Reaction to the recent outbreak was analyzed in terms of Google Trends, Google News and Twitter traffic, Wikipedia visits and edits, and PubMed articles, exploiting structural modelling equations. A total of 233,678 page-views and 150 edits on the Italian Wikipedia page, 3,702 tweets, 149 scholarly articles, and 3,073 news articles were retrieved. The relationship between overall Chikungunya cases, as well as autochthonous cases, and tweets production was found to be fully mediated by Chikungunya-related web searches. However, in the allochthonous/imported cases model, tweet production was not found to be significantly mediated by epidemiological figures, with web searches still significantly mediating tweet production. Inconsistent relationships were detected in mediation models involving Wikipedia usage as a mediator variable. Similarly, the effect between news consumption and tweets production was suppressed by the Wikipedia usage. A further inconsistent mediation was found in the case of the effect between Wikipedia usage and tweets production, with web searches as a mediator variable. When adjusting for the Internet penetration index, similar findings could be obtained, with the important exception that in the adjusted model the relationship between GN and Twitter was found to be partially mediated by Wikipedia usage. Furthermore, the link between Wikipedia usage and PubMed/MEDLINE was fully mediated by GN, differently from what was found in the unadjusted model. In conclusion-a significant public reaction to the current Chikungunya outbreak was documented. Health authorities
Full Text Available Introduction: Chikungunya is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, which are widespread in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. However, chikungunya virus (CHIKV had not been detected in the country before outbreaks reported in July 2012. The first outbreaks were detected through health care worker event-based surveillance. Methods: The case definition for the outbreaks was defined as a person with acute onset of fever (> 38 °C and severe arthralgia (joint pain or arthritis from 1 May 2012 in Champassak Province. Rapid response teams conducted active case finding, performed an environmental assessment including an entomological survey and implemented control measures. Descriptive analysis was undertaken in Microsoft Excel. Results: There were 197 cases (attack rate 3.4% of suspected chikungunya reported from 10 villages in Moonlapamok and Khong Districts of Champassak Province. All age groups (age range: seven months–74 years were affected with slightly more female (56% than male cases. Thirty-one per cent (16 of 52 of serum samples tested positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction. The environmental assessment found poor water storage practices and high entomological indices. Discussion: These outbreaks show the effectiveness of health care worker event-based surveillance and the importance of sharing of information across borders for detecting emerging diseases. Public health education is an important measure to prevent epidemics of chikungunya. Information about chikungunya should be supplied to health care workers in the region so they are alert to the potential spread and are able to implement control measures for this disease.
Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar
Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.
Full Text Available La fiebre de Chikungunya es una enfermedad tropical desatendida en muchos países por su relativa baja letalidad. Esta enfermedad es causada por el virus de Chikungunya (VCHIK, transmitido por artrópodos pertenecientes al género Alphavirus de la familia Togaviridae. Este virus se transmite a los humanos a través de la picadura de mosquitos Aedes infectados (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus. Generalmente la enfermedad por VCHIK se manifiesta como una artritis autolimitada, ex-cepto en personas inmunocomprometidas y en recién nacidos, en los que se puede manifestar como una enfermedad grave.La trasmisión de infecciones de la madre al niño se puede dar in útero (congénita alre-dedor del periodo del parto (perinatal o de manera posnatal a través de la leche materna. La infección materna se disemina al embrión y al feto por infección ascendente desde la vagina, vía cuello uterino hasta llegar al líquido amniótico o vía hematógena secundaria a viremia, parasitemia o bacteremia.La vía hematógena de infección fetal es más común durante episodios de viremia materna como los que se presentan durante la infección por VCHIK. La transmisión perinatal del VCHIK es un evento poco frecuente que ocurre en los brotes masivos de infección cuando el riesgo de viremia en mujeres embarazadas cercanas al término se convierte en no despreciable. En estas pacientes, la infección neonatal se presenta con una probabilidad de ocurrencia del 50 %, y se expresa en el recién nacido principalmente como postración y encefalopatía.
Murali, Krishnan Saravana; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Giridaran, Bupesh; Dinesh, Sundaram; Gunasekaran, Palani; Krishnasamy, Kaveri; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam
To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
La tuberculose ganglionnaire cervicale est une localisation extrapulmonaire relativement fréquente chez l'enfant. Elle pose essentiellement des difficultés de prévention. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez des enfants vaccinés par le BCG. Matériel et méthodes: Nôtre ...
hypercholestérolémie, l'hyper LDL-cholestérolémie, l'hypo HDLcholestérolémie ont été retrouvées respectivement chez 41,4%, 23,5% et 17,4% des patients. La différence n'est pas significative entre les fréquences des troubles lipidiques chez les ...
... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.
Full Text Available Despite explicit warning from the National Institute of Health, Pakistan experienced its first chikungunya outbreak in the metropolis of Karachi. We underscore the attention of health authorities and healthcare professionals towards contributing factors associated with this outbreak and the measures required to combat this viral disease.
Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease,
Full Text Available Response to Zika virus (ZIKV invasion in Brazil lagged a year from its estimated February 2014 introduction, and was triggered by the occurrence of severe congenital malformations. Dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV invasions tend to show similar response lags. We analyzed geo-coded symptomatic case reports from the city of Merida, Mexico, with the goal of assessing the utility of historical DENV data to infer CHIKV and ZIKV introduction and propagation. About 42% of the 40,028 DENV cases reported during 2008-2015 clustered in 27% of the city, and these clustering areas were where the first CHIKV and ZIKV cases were reported in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Furthermore, the three viruses had significant agreement in their spatio-temporal distribution (Kendall W>0.63; p<0.01. Longitudinal DENV data generated patterns indicative of the resulting introduction and transmission patterns of CHIKV and ZIKV, leading to important insights for the surveillance and targeted control to emerging Aedes-borne viruses.
Soebiyanto, R. P.; Rama, X.; Jepsen, R.; Bijoria, S.; Linthicum, K. J.; Anyamba, A.
There is an increasing concern for reemergence and spread of chikungunya in the last 10 years in Africa, the Indian Ocean, and Asia, and range expansion that now reaches the Caribbean, South America and threatens North America. The outbreak of Chikungunya in 2013 and its spread throughout the Americas has so far resulted in more than 1.7 million suspected cases. This has demonstrated the importance of readiness in assessing potential risk of the emergence of vector-borne diseases. Climate and ecological conditions are now recognized as major contributors to the emergence and re-emergence of various vector-borne diseases including Chikungunya. Variations and persistence of extreme climate conditions provide suitable environment for the increase of certain disease vector populations, which then further amplify vector-borne disease transmission. This highlights the importance of climate anomaly information in assessing regions at risk for Chikungunya. In order to address such issue, we are developing a climate-based app, CHIKRISK, which will help decision makers to answer three critical questions: (i) Where has Chikungunya activity occurred; (ii) Where it is occurring now; (iii) Which regions are currently at risk for Chikungunya. We first develop a database of historical Chikungunya outbreak locations compiled from publicly available information. These records are used to map where Chikungunya activity has occurred over time. We leverage on various satellite-based climate data records - such as rainfall, land surface and near surface temperature to characterize evolving conditions prior to and during Chikungunya activity. Chikungunya outbreak data, climate and ancillary (i.e. population and elevation) data are used to develop analytics capability that will produce risk maps. The CHIKRISK app has the capability to visualize historical Chikungunya activity locations, climate anomaly conditions and Chikungunya risk maps. Currently, the focus of the development is on the
Chew, L P; Chua, H H
In 2008, an outbreak of chikungunya infection occurred in Johor. We performed a retrospective review of all laboratory confirmed adult chikungunya cases admitted to Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru from April to August 2008, looking into clinical and laboratory features. A total of 18 laboratory confirmed cases of chikungunya were identified with patients presenting with fever, joint pain, rash and vomiting. Haemorrhagic signs were not seen. Lymphopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, raised liver enzymes and deranged coagulation profile were the prominent laboratory findings. We hope this study can help guide physician making a diagnosis of chikungunya against other arborviruses infection.
Full Text Available Introducción: La vigilancia de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores es importante para establecer medidas de control en salud pública. Las poblaciones indígenas de Córdoba viven en condiciones geoclimáticas que favorecen la presencia de vectores que podrían permitir la diseminación y aparición de hantavirosis, rickettsiosis y fiebre por el virus Chikungunya. Objetivo: Establecer la seroprevalencia de Hantavirus, Rickettsia sp. y Chikungunya en la población indígena de Tuchín, Córdoba. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 190 individuos del resguardo indígena del municipio de Tuchín; el muestreo fue realizado entre agosto y diciembre del 2012. La detección de anticuerpos IgG contra Hantavirus se llevó a cabo con la prueba IgG DxSelectTM (Focus Technologies, EL1600G, California, EE. UU., anticuerpos IgG contra Rickettsia sp. se determinaron por inmunofluorescencia indirecta y se realizó detección de anticuerpos IgG contra el virus Chikungunya mediante ELISA de captura (Nova-Tec, inmunodiagnostica GmbH, CHIG0590, Alemania. Resultados: De 190 sueros analizados, el 5,2% (10/190 fueron positivos para Rickettsia sp. del grupo de la fiebre manchada, para Hantavirus 7 de 87 (8% fueron positivos y no se encontraron positivos para Chikungunya. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p = 0,05 entre los seropositivos de Hantavirus y Rickettsia sp. para las variables género, edad y ocupación. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos demuestran exposición previa a Rickettsia sp. y a Hantavirus en la población indígena de Tuchín. Los resultados pueden ser útiles para establecer una alerta sobre estas fiebres hemorrágicas. Aunque no se hallaron seropositivos para Chikungunya, este fue el primer trabajo de vigilancia epidemiológica realizado en Colombia sobre este virus.
Younger, David S
Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patterson, Jessica; Sammon, Maura; Garg, Manish
The arboviruses that cause dengue, chikungunya, and Zika illnesses have rapidly expanded across the globe in recent years, with large-scale outbreaks occurring in Western Hemisphere territories in close proximity to the United States (U.S.). In March 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC) expanded its vector surveillance maps for A. aegypti and A. albopictus , the mosquito vectors for these arboviruses. They have now been shown to inhabit a larger portion of the U.S., including the heavily populated northeast corridor. Emergency physicians need to further familiarize themselves with these diseases, which have classically been considered only in returning travelers but may soon be encountered in the U.S. even in the absence of travel. In this paper, we discuss the presentation and treatment of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, as well as special challenges presented to the emergency physician in evaluating a patient with a suspected arbovirus infection.
Isabel N. Kantor
Dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV) and chikungunya (CHIKV), three arbovirosis transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have spread in recent decades in humid tropical and subtropical zones. Dengue is epidemic in subtropical areas of Argentina. DENV infection confers lasting immunity against the infecting serotype but increases the risk of serious disease upon reinfection by any of the other three. The recombinant tetravalent vaccine Dengvaxia® prevents severe dengue and hospitalization in seropositive subjec...
Waggoner, Jesse; Brichard, Julie; Mutuku, Francis; Ndenga, Bryson; Heath, Claire Jane; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Sahoo, Malaya K; Vulule, John; Lefterova, Martina; Banaei, Niaz; Mukoko, Dunstan; Pinsky, Benjamin A; LaBeaud, A Desiree
In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is frequently overdiagnosed as the cause of an undifferentiated febrile illness, whereas arboviral illnesses are presumed to be underdiagnosed. Sera from 385 febrile Kenyan children, who presented to 1 of 4 clinical sites, were tested using microscopy and real-time molecular assays for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), malaria, and Leptospira . Malaria was the primary clinical diagnosis for 254 patients, and an arboviral infection (DENV or CHIKV) was the primary diagnosis for 93 patients. In total, 158 patients (41.0%) had malaria and 32 patients (8.3%) had CHIKV infections. Compared with real-time polymerase chain reaction, microscopy demonstrated a percent positive agreement of 49.7%. The percentage of malaria cases detected by microscopy varied significantly between clinical sites. Arboviral infections were the clinical diagnosis for patients on the Indian Ocean coast (91 of 238, 38.2%) significantly more often than patients in the Lake Victoria region (2 of 145, 1.4%; P < .001). However, detection of CHIKV infections was significantly higher in the Lake Victoria region (19 of 145 [13.1%] vs 13 of 239 [5.4%]; P = .012). The clinical diagnosis of patients with an acute febrile illness, even when aided by microscopy, remains inaccurate in malaria-endemic areas, contributing to inappropriate management decisions.
Thanapati, Subrat; Das, Rumki; Tripathy, Anuradha S
The aim of this study was to characterize NK (CD56(+)CD3(-)) and NKT-like cell (CD56(+)CD3(+)) responses early after chikungunya infection. Expression profiling and functional analysis of T/NK/NKT-like cells were performed on samples from 56 acute and 31 convalescent chikungunya patients and 56 control individuals. The percentages of NK cells were high in both patient groups, whereas NKT-like cell percentages were high only in the convalescent group. The percentages of NKp30(+)CD3(-)CD56(+), NKp30(+)CD3(+)CD56(+), CD244(+)CD3(-)CD56(+), and CD244(+)CD3(+)CD56(+)cells were high, whereas the percentages of NKG2D(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) and NKG2D(+)CD3(+)CD56(+)cells were low in both patient groups. The percentages of NKp44(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) cells were high in both patient groups, whereas the percentages of NKp44(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) cells were higher in the acute group than in convalescent and control groups. The percentages of NKp46(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) cells were high in both patient groups. Higher percentages of perforin(+)CD3(-)CD56(+) and perforin(+)CD3(+)CD56(+) cells were observed in acute and convalescent patients, respectively. Higher cytotoxic activity was observed in acute patients than in controls. IFN-γ expression on NK cells of convalescent patients and on NKT-like cells of both patient groups was indicative of the regulatory role of NK and NKT-like cells. Collectively, these data showed that higher expression of activating receptors on NK/NKT-like cells and perforin(+) NK cells in acute patients could be responsible for increased cytotoxicity. The observed expression of perforin(+) NK cells in the acute phase and IFN-γ(+) NKT-like cells in the subsequent convalescent stage showed that NK/NKT-like cells mount an early and efficient response to chikungunya virus. Further study of the molecular mechanisms that limit viral dissemination/establishment of chronic disease will aid in understanding how NK/NKT-like cells control chikungunya infection.
Huber, John H; Childs, Marissa L; Caldwell, Jamie M; Mordecai, Erin A
Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus epidemics transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have recently (re)emerged and spread throughout the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and elsewhere. Understanding how environmental conditions affect epidemic dynamics is critical for predicting and responding to the geographic and seasonal spread of disease. Specifically, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how seasonal variation in temperature affects epidemic magnitude and duration. Here, we develop a dynamic disease transmission model for dengue virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that integrates mechanistic, empirically parameterized, and independently validated mosquito and virus trait thermal responses under seasonally varying temperatures. We examine the influence of seasonal temperature mean, variation, and temperature at the start of the epidemic on disease dynamics. We find that at both constant and seasonally varying temperatures, warmer temperatures at the start of epidemics promote more rapid epidemics due to faster burnout of the susceptible population. By contrast, intermediate temperatures (24-25°C) at epidemic onset produced the largest epidemics in both constant and seasonally varying temperature regimes. When seasonal temperature variation was low, 25-35°C annual average temperatures produced the largest epidemics, but this range shifted to cooler temperatures as seasonal temperature variation increased (analogous to previous results for diurnal temperature variation). Tropical and sub-tropical cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, and Salvador, Brazil; Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla, Colombia; Delhi, India; Guangzhou, China; and Manila, Philippines have mean annual temperatures and seasonal temperature ranges that produced the largest epidemics. However, more temperate cities like Shanghai, China had high epidemic suitability because large seasonal variation offset moderate annual average temperatures. By accounting for seasonal
John H Huber
Full Text Available Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus epidemics transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have recently (reemerged and spread throughout the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and elsewhere. Understanding how environmental conditions affect epidemic dynamics is critical for predicting and responding to the geographic and seasonal spread of disease. Specifically, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how seasonal variation in temperature affects epidemic magnitude and duration. Here, we develop a dynamic disease transmission model for dengue virus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that integrates mechanistic, empirically parameterized, and independently validated mosquito and virus trait thermal responses under seasonally varying temperatures. We examine the influence of seasonal temperature mean, variation, and temperature at the start of the epidemic on disease dynamics. We find that at both constant and seasonally varying temperatures, warmer temperatures at the start of epidemics promote more rapid epidemics due to faster burnout of the susceptible population. By contrast, intermediate temperatures (24-25°C at epidemic onset produced the largest epidemics in both constant and seasonally varying temperature regimes. When seasonal temperature variation was low, 25-35°C annual average temperatures produced the largest epidemics, but this range shifted to cooler temperatures as seasonal temperature variation increased (analogous to previous results for diurnal temperature variation. Tropical and sub-tropical cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, and Salvador, Brazil; Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla, Colombia; Delhi, India; Guangzhou, China; and Manila, Philippines have mean annual temperatures and seasonal temperature ranges that produced the largest epidemics. However, more temperate cities like Shanghai, China had high epidemic suitability because large seasonal variation offset moderate annual average temperatures. By accounting
Marta Cerrillo Arranz
Full Text Available La enfermedad del Chikungunya es una infección causada por el virus Chikungunya y transmitida al hombre por la picadura de mosquitos vectores del género Aedes. Aun siendo endémica de otros países, la elevada movilidad actual de la población por motivos lúdicos, laborales, comerciales y migratorios junto a la presencia del vector competente (Aedes albopictus en numerosas zonas geográficas de España, hace que haya irrumpido en nuestro territorio en los últimos años. La palabra Chikungunya deriva del idioma Makonde (Mozambique. Significa "el que se encorva" en referencia a la postura frecuentemente adoptada por dolor articular. A pesar de su escasa mortalidad, la morbilidad puede ser elevada, afectando de forma significativa a la actividad de vida diaria y capacidad laboral del paciente, reflejado en el consecuente absentismo laboral y repercusión económica. En España, tanto desde el Servicio Sanitario Público como desde los Servicios Médicos de Salud Laboral y Servicios de Prevención, se debe estar preparado para el diagnóstico, seguimiento, tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades hasta ahora desconocidas en nuestro ámbito de trabajo. Este artículo describe el primer caso laboral en España por enfermedad del Chikungunya importada por contagio en Haití.
Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; García-Arriaza, Juan; Lemonnier, François A; Esteban, Mariano; López, Daniel
The adaptive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response is critical for clearance of many viral infections. These CTL recognize naturally processed short viral antigenic peptides bound to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on the surface of infected cells. This specific recognition allows the killing of virus-infected cells. The T cell immune T cell response to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for severe musculoskeletal disorders, has not been fully defined; nonetheless, the importance of HLA class I-restricted immune response in this virus has been hypothesized. By infection of HLA-A*0201-transgenic mice with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the CHIKV structural polyprotein (rVACV-CHIKV), we identified the first human T cell epitopes from CHIKV. These three novel 6K transmembrane protein-derived epitopes are presented by the common HLA class I molecule, HLA-A*0201. One of these epitopes is processed and presented via a complex pathway that involves proteases from different subcellular locations. Specific chemical inhibitors blocked these events in rVACV-CHIKV-infected cells. Our data have implications not only for the identification of novel Alphavirus and Togaviridae antiviral CTL responses, but also for analyzing presentation of antigen from viruses of different families and orders that use host proteinases to generate their mature envelope proteins.
La dysfonction erectile (DE) est un probleme de sante publique qui altere la qualite de vie des patients. Chez les personnes infectees par le VIH, le tabagisme en association ii d'autres facteurs pourrait accroitre le risque de survenue de ce trouble. L'objectif de cette etude est de determiner la prevalence de laDE, les ...
L'évolution à 6 mois n'a pas été favorable chez 65,7 % des patients. ... Sa prise en charge permettrait assurément d'améliorer la qualité de vie des patients, ... The management of post-stroke depression certainly improves the quality of life of ...
Buts : Rechercher les facteurs psychologiques ou psychosociaux responsables de l'inobservance thérapeutique (IBT) aux antiretroviraux (ARV) Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale sur 06 mois (mai - octobre 2008) menée au centre de promotion sociale à Lomé chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) ...
Contexte : Depuis 1996, les traitements du sida ont permis de changer le visage de la maladie. Un traitement efficace ... Conclusion : Cette étude a décrit que le risque de transmission sexuelle des infections sexuellement transmissibles (IST) existe chez les PVVIH à cause des rapports sexuels à risque. D'autres études ...
Efficacite de la bitherapie raltegravir-etravirine chez les immunodeprimes au VIH. D Traore, A Simon, N Sawadogo, S.A. Coulibaly, D.S. Sow, A.S. Kaya, M Dembélé, A.K. Traoré, H.A. Traoré, S Herson ...
Kenneth S Plante
Full Text Available We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV, both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from 30% and mortality (from 0 to 100%, CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality. These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.
Full Text Available Les éditions et études du Commentaire sur le Banquet de Platon, ou De amore, de Marsile Ficin ont mis en évidence que la conception de Vamor humanus chez l'humaniste florentin, inspirée certes des définitions du Banquet de Platon, était étroitement liée aux conceptions néoplatoniciennes héritées de Plotin. Néanmoins, l'interprétation du texte de Platon et les développements de ses successeurs ne sauraient à eux seuls rendre compte de la définition ficinienne, notamment dans son lien avec la notion, romaine, de la fascinatio. La philosophie et la poésie romaines des passions offrent une analyse du sentiment amoureux dont les échos sont sensibles dans le texte même du Commentaire. En effet, l'exposé des passions qu'offre le livre IV des Tusculanes a sans aucun doute fourni à Ficin les caractéristiques et la définition du « mauvais amour », dont l'évocation n'est pas étrangère aux motifs poétiques tels qu'on peut les trouver, par exemple, dans la poésie ovidienne à propos du mythe de Narcisse, dont Ficin se souvient. Si Cicéron soulignait, au début du livre IV des Tusculanes, la tension qui existait entre l'anthropologie platonicienne et la théorie des passions stoïcienne, il ne la résolvait pas. Ficin, lui, réalise cette articulation grâce à la hiérarchisation néoplatonicienne des différents amours et peut ainsi affirmer l'existence d'un bon amour. Mais un tel amor humanus, qui est amour philopédique, destiné à l'élévation divine ou voué à s'affaisser jusqu'à la concupiscence bestiale, ne peut être qu'un moment dans le processus proposé par Ficin, un point de fragile équilibre, intenable.
Roiz, David; Boussès, Philippe; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe; Fontenille, Didier
Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding and mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community and public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased and extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. We report results from close monitoring of the adult and egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species and extension of the transmission period. Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change and extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics and the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood.
Adel I Al-Afaleq
Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and
Sarah K White
Full Text Available In the context of recent arbovirus epidemics, questions about the frequency of simultaneous infection of patients with different arbovirus species have been raised. In 2014, a major Chikungunya virus (CHIKV epidemic impacted the Caribbean and South America. As part of ongoing screening of schoolchildren presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Haiti, we used RT-PCR to identify CHIKV infections in 82 of 100 children with this diagnosis during May-August 2014. Among these, eight were infected with a second arbovirus: six with Zika virus (ZIKV, one with Dengue virus serotype 2, and one with Mayaro virus (MAYV. These dual infections were only detected following culture of the specimen, suggesting low viral loads of the co-infecting species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ZIKV and MAYV strains differ from those detected later in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Moreover, CHIKV and ZIKV strains from co-infected patients clustered monophyletically in their respective phylogeny, and clock calibration traced back the common ancestor of each clade to an overlapping timeframe of introduction of these arboviruses onto the island.
Kantor, Isabel N
Dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV) y chikungunya (CHIKV), tres arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos Aedes, se han propagado en las últimas décadas en zonas tropicales y subtropicales húmedas. El dengue es epidémico en áreas subtropicales de la Argentina. Después de la infección por DENV hay inmunidad duradera contra el serotipo infectante, pero aumenta el riesgo de enfermedad grave por los otros tres. La vacuna recombinante tetravalente, Dengvaxia® previene el dengue grave y la hospitalización en s...
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available In 1780, Philadelphia suffered an unusual outbreak of hemorrhagic fever, which years later was identified as dengue (1. One hundred years later, in Memphis, 1500 people died from yellow fever, which caused residents to abandoned the city (2. Even though these stories may seem anecdotes, they show how dramatic hemorrhagic arbovirus outbreaks can be. The tropic host arboviruses such as Chikungunya (CHIKV, Dengue, and Zika (ZIKV; but there are others, such as Mayaro, Oropuche, and Bussuquara, among others, which have still not been studied in depth by the public health systems of our countries.
Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E
Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332
John M Humphrey
Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970-2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen, with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0-43% and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0-30%. Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11 and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0-43% and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10-23%. CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.
La ville à l’écran est le substrat imaginaire et historique du cinéma. Mais le cinéma, burlesque et soviétique, transforme ce contexte tout en constituant sa mémoire. Walter Benjamin inaugura cette problématique avec la notion de « distraction », liant architecture et cinéma sur le fond du paradigme de la stratification de l’appareil psychique chez Freud.
Das, Trina; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie Christine; Hoarau, Jean Jacques; Krejbich Trotot, Pascale; Denizot, Melanie; Lee-Pat-Yuen, Ghislaine; Sahoo, Renubala; Guiraud, Pascale; Ramful, Duksha; Robin, Stephanie; Alessandri, Jean Luc; Gauzere, Bernard Alex; Gasque, Philippe
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and causes an acute symptomatic illness with fever, skin rash, and incapacitating arthralgia, which can evolve into chronic rheumatoid arthritis in elderly patients. This is a tropical disease originally described in central/east Africa in the 1960s, but its 2004 re-emergence in Africa and rapid spread in lands in and around the Indian Ocean (Reunion island, India, Malaysia) as well as Europe (Italy) led to almost 6 million cases worldwide. The risk of importation and spreading diseases with long-term sequelae is even greater today given the global distribution of the vectors (including in the Americas), increased tourism and the apparent capacity of CHIKV to produce high levels of viremia (10(9)-10(12) virus/ml of blood) and new mutants. CHIKV-associated neuropathology was described early in the 1960s, but it is the unprecedented incidence rate in Indian Ocean areas with efficient clinical facilities that allowed a better description of cases with severe encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, peripheral neuropathies and deaths among newborns (mother-to-child infection), infants and elderly patients. Death rates following CHIKV infection were estimated at 1:1000 cases in la Reunion's outbreak. These clinical observations have been corroborated by experimental infection in several mouse models, leading to CNS pathologies. We further describe in this review the capacity of CHIKV to infect neurons and glial cells, delineate the fundamental innate (intrinsic) immune defence mechanisms to protect from infection and argue about the possible mechanisms involved in the encephalopathy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL. Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65% of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0. However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p Conclusions There exists a specific chronic pain condition associated to CHIKV. Pain with NC seems to be associated with more aggressive clinical picture, more intense impact in QoL and more challenging pharmacological treatment.
Vernon J Lee
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue and chikungunya are co-circulating vector-borne diseases with substantial overlap in clinical presentations. It is important to differentiate between them during first presentation as their management, especially for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, is different. This study compares their clinical presentation in Singapore adults to derive predictors to assist doctors in diagnostic decision-making. METHODS: We compared 117 patients with chikungunya infection diagnosed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with 917 dengue RT-PCR-positive adult patients (including 55 with DHF. We compared dengue fever (DF, DHF, and chikungunya infections by evaluating clinical characteristics of dengue and chikungunya; developing classification tools via multivariate logistic regression models and classification trees of disease etiology using clinical and laboratory factors; and assessing the time course of several clinical variables. FINDINGS: At first presentation to hospital, significantly more chikungunya patients had myalgia or arthralgia, and fewer had a sore throat, cough (for DF, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia or tachycardia than DF or DHF patients. From the decision trees, platelets <118 × 10(9/L was the only distinguishing feature for DF versus chikungunya with an overall correct classification of 89%. For DHF versus chikungunya using platelets <100 × 10(9/L and the presence of bleeding, the overall correct classification was 98%. The time course analysis supported platelet count as the key distinguishing variable. INTERPRETATION: There is substantial overlap in clinical presentation between dengue and chikungunya infections, but simple clinical and laboratory variables can predict these infections at presentation for appropriate management.
Jaime R. Torres
Conclusions: This study presents the largest number of symptomatic neonates with CHIKF analyzed so far in any region and is the first involving infection with the Asian genotype of CHIKV. Although the clinical manifestations found were similar to those reported previously, the percentage of neurological complications was lower. The CFR was comparatively high. Chikungunya represented a substantial risk for neonates born to symptomatic parturients during the chikungunya outbreak in the Americas Region, with important clinical and public health implications.
Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; ZulKifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan
Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by ...
Rebecca C Christofferson
Full Text Available Given the recent emergence of chikungunya in the Americas, the accuracy of forecasting and prediction of chikungunya transmission potential in the U.S. requires urgent assessment. The La Reunion-associated sub-lineage of chikungunya (with a valine substitution in the envelope protein was shown to increase viral fitness in the secondary vector, Ae. albopictus. Subsequently, a majority of experimental and modeling efforts focused on this combination of a sub-lineage of the East-Central-South African genotype (ECSA-V-Ae. albopictus, despite the Asian genotype being the etiologic agent of recent chikungunya outbreaks world-wide. We explore a collection of data to investigate relative transmission efficiencies of the three major genotypes/sub-lineages of chikungunya and found difference in the extrinsic incubation periods to be largely overstated. However, there is strong evidence supporting the role of Ae. albopictus in the expansion of chikungunya that our R0 calculations cannot attribute to fitness increases in one vector over another. This suggests other ecological factors associated with the Ae. albopictus-ECSA-V cycle may drive transmission intensity differences. With the apparent bias in literature, however, we are less prepared to evaluate transmission where Ae. aegypti plays a significant role. Holistic investigations of CHIKV transmission cycle(s will allow for more complete assessment of transmission risk in areas affected by either or both competent vectors.
Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura
Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Appassakij, Hatsadee; Promwong, Charuporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Silpapojakul, Khachornsakdi
Asymptomatic Chikungunya fever (CHIKF)-viremic blood donors could be a potential threat of spreading the disease unwittingly through contaminated blood transfusions. The relatively low prevalence of Chikungunya virus antibodies in the population and the records of more than 9000 suspected CHIKF cases raised concern about the potential transfusion-associated CHIKF during the 2009 epidemic. This study assessed the potential transfusion risk for CHIKF and the implementation of blood safety measures to mitigate this risk. A probabilistic model using key variables obtained from local information was used to estimate the weekly risk of transfusion-associated CHIKF during the 2009 epidemic. In addition, other blood safety measure-based strategies involving screening for donors at risk, donor tracing, and a 7-day quarantine of blood components at risk were implemented at the time of the epidemic. The risk of viremic donations per 100,000 ranged from 38.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5-39.8) to 52.3 (95% CI, 50.4-54.2). The potential risk of transfusion-associated CHIKF per 100,000 was estimated to be 1 in 2429 (0.04%; 95% CI, 1 in 6681 [0.02%]-1 in 1572 [0.06%]) to 1 in 1781 (0.06%; 95% CI, 1 in 3817 [0.03%]-1 in 1214 (0.08%]) donations. Among 26,722 donations, 11 (95% CI, 4-17) to 15 (95% CI, 7-22) donations were predicted to associate with transfusion risk. The implementation of blood safety measure-based strategies for this epidemic period suggested to deter 11 blood donations of transfusion risk. The interventions for blood safety measures applied in this study had mitigated the potential transfusion-associated CHIKF during the 2009 epidemic. © 2014 AABB.
Diana Andriyani Pratamawati
Full Text Available EnglishABSTRACTOn February 9, 2012 date specified chikungunya outbreak in Salatiga. This study aimed to examine behavioral and environmental risk factors associated with the disease, vector, modes of transmission, treatment seeking, as well as ways to prevent chikungunya on people in the hamlet Sinoman and Rekesan during the chikungunya outbreak in 2012 . This type of research is used case-control study. This study was conducted in January through April of 2012. Interview and observations conducted on 134 respondents. There is no relationship between the incidence of chikungunya respondent behavior and the behavior of the respondent is not proven as a risk factor chikungunya. But events, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya lighting and home lighting proved to be a risk factor for chikungunya incidence and its risk by 2.8 times. In addition to lighting, there is a relationship between the incidence of chikungunya home humidity, although not statistically proven as a risk factor for chikungunya. There was a significant association between the presence of mosquitoes on the clothes hanging in the incidence of chikungunya, in harmony with it has been shown that the presence of mosquitoes at the clothes hanging heightens the risk by 4.19 times causing events are expected to cultivate back chikungunya. People must have eradication of mosquito breeding activity, do not hang clothes secondhand, using a wire gauze on the vent, and the use of anti-mosquito drugs to avoid contact with the mosquitoborne chikungunya .IndonesiaKejadian luar biasa (KLB penyakit chikungunya di Kota Salatiga pada tanggal 9 Februari 2012 Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji faktor risiko perilaku dan lingkungan rumah, yang berkaitan dengan penyakit, vektor, cara penularan, pencarian pengobatan, serta cara pencegahan chikungunya di Dusun Sinoman dan Rekesan ketika KLB Chikungunya tahun 2012. Rancangan penelitian adalah case control. Penelitian ini
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available In a recent study of undifferentiated tropical fevers in an endemic area of Colombia, it was shown that not all acute fevers are caused by the dengue virus (1. The complex clinical-epidemiological panorama of tropical fevers has become a puzzle of difficult resolution due to the appearance of new etiological agents in the Americas such as Chikungunya and Zika. For the differential diagnosis Hantavirus, Arenavirus, Orupuche, tick thrombocytopenic virus, Heartland virus, leptospira and malaria should be considered.
Les auteurs rapportent un cas de morsure de serpent au niveau de la face chez une femme enceinte, dont l'évolution a été marquée par l'installation d'un oedème cervico-facial nécessitant une trachéotomie en urgence, et une mort foetale in utero avec troubles de l'hémostase responsable du décès maternel dans un ...
Position du problème: déterminer la prévalence et identifier les facteurs déterminants du stress professionnel chez les enseignants de l'école primaire publique au Togo. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée sur cinq mois, de décembre 2011 à avril 2012, dans la commune de Lomé et la préfecture du Golfe, ...
Objectifs : Déterminer la fréquence et le titre des hémolysines anti-A et anti-B dans la population des donneurs O et de prédire de l'intérêt de la systématisation de leur recherche chez tous les donneurs O par l'évaluation du risque d'accident transfusionnels liés aux hémolysines. Méthodologie : Etude prospective au ...
Full Text Available During December 2013, the first locally transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV infections in the Americas were reported in the Caribbean. Although CHIKV infection is rarely fatal, risk for severe disease increases with age and medical comorbidities. Herein we describe characteristics of Veterans Health Administration (VHA patients with CHIKV infection and, among those with infections diagnosed in Puerto Rico, investigated risk factors for hospitalization.We queried VHA's national electronic medical records to identify patients with CHIKV testing during 2014. Demographics, clinical history, laboratory results, and outcomes were abstracted. We investigated risk factors for hospitalization among patients with laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection in Puerto Rico.We identified 180 laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections; 148 (82.2% were diagnosed in Puerto Rico, and 32 (17.8% were diagnosed among returning travelers elsewhere in the United States. In Puerto Rico, where more patients were hospitalized (55.4% versus 20.0% and died (4.1% versus 0%, risk for hospitalization increased with age (relative risk [RR]/each 10-year increase, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.32 and, adjusted for age, increased among patients with congestive heart failure (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25-1.99, chronic kidney disease (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94, diabetes mellitus (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.84, or chronic lung disease (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03-1.82.CHIKV infection is an emerging problem among Veterans residing in or visiting areas with CHIKV transmission. Although overall mortality rates are low, clinicians in affected areas should be aware that older patients and patients with comorbidities may be at increased risk for severe disease.
Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel
Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006.
Aldila, Dipo; Ria Agustin, Maya
Dengue disease has been a major health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries since the early 1900s. On the other hand, according to a 2017 WHO fact sheet, Chikungunya was detected in the first outbreak in 1952 in Tanzania and has continued increasing until now in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Both these diseases are vector-borne diseases which are spread by the same mosquito, i.e. the female Aedes aegypti. According to the WHO report, there is a great possibility that humans and mosquitos might be infected by dengue and chikungunya at the same time. Here in this article, a mathematical model approach will be used to understand the spread of dengue and chikungunya in a closed population. A model is developed as a nine-dimensional deterministic ordinary differential equation. Equilibrium points and their local stability are analyzed analytically and numerically. We find that the basic reproduction number, the endemic indicator, is given by the maximum of three different basic reproduction numbers of a complete system, i.e. basic reproduction numbers for dengue, chikungunya and for co-infection between dengue and chikungunya. We find that the basic reproduction number for the co-infection sub-system dominates other basic reproduction numbers whenever it is larger than one. Some numerical simulations are provided to confirm these analytical results.
Full Text Available Background. An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has attracted global attention. ZIKV is conveyed by a mosquito vector, Aedes species, which also acts as the vector species of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Methods. Arrival time of ZIKV importation (i.e., the time at which the first imported case was diagnosed in each imported country was collected from publicly available data sources. Employing a survival analysis model in which the hazard is an inverse function of the effective distance as informed by the airline transportation network data, and using dengue and chikungunya virus transmission data, risks of importation and local transmission were estimated. Results. A total of 78 countries with imported case(s have been identified, with the arrival time ranging from 1 to 44 weeks since the first ZIKV was identified in Brazil, 2015. Whereas the risk of importation was well explained by the airline transportation network data, the risk of local transmission appeared to be best captured by additionally accounting for the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Discussion. The risk of importation may be high given continued global travel of mildly infected travelers but, considering that the public health concerns over ZIKV infection stems from microcephaly, it is more important to focus on the risk of local and widespread transmission that could involve pregnant women. The predicted risk of local transmission was frequently seen in tropical and subtropical countries with dengue or chikungunya epidemic experience.
Calcifications valvulaires chez l'hémodialysé au Maroc. Samia Ait Faqih, Béfa Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Lalla Meryam Abouamrane, Naoufal Mtiou, Selma El Khaya, Mohamed Zamd, Ghislaine Medkouri, Mohamed Gharbi Bengahanem, Benyounes Ramdani ...
Maintien de l'abstinence chez les patients alcoolo-dependants: étude comparee de la disponibilite et du cout du traitement par le baclofene, l'acamprosate, et la naltrexone a Cotonou (Benin) et a Lome (Togo)
Les hémolysines apparaissent suite à une immunisation ABO et peuvent causer, à titre élevé, une hémolyse chez le receveur de sang ou chez le nouveau-né. ... Mots Clés: Hémolysines anti-A et anti-A, Incompatibilité foeto-maternelle ABO, Maladie hémolytique du nouveau-né, Période du post-partum immédiate ...
Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez 29,6 % des patientes,l'exposition professionnelle aux carcinogènes dans 5.4 % des cas. Discussion: L'incidence du cancer de la vessie chez la femme est parmi les plus basses dans le monde. Elle est plus élevée dans le grand Tunis et les zones côtières. Elle augmente directement avec ...
L'infection urinaire chez l'insuffisant rénal est fréquente et particulière dans sa prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique. L'objectif de notre étude est de déterminer le profil bactériologique et d'étudier les facteurs de risque des infections urinaires chez le patient insuffisant rénal chronique en milieu de néphrologie.
Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc
To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.
Le comportement alimentaire, indispensable à la survie de l'individu et donc de l'espèce, occupe à ce titre une position de première importance dans la hiérarchie des comportements fondamentaux qui tous en dépendent très étroitement. Chez les poissons, cette prééminence se trouve illustrée par l'extrême diversité des supports sensoriels impliqués et des expressions comportementales qui leur sont liées. A la suite d'un certain nombre de mises en évidence neurophysiologiques et éthologiques de ...
Presence of human papillomavirus-18 and Epstein-Barr virus in a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old patient. Case report and review of the current literature; Presence dans un cancer epidermoide de la langue d'un papillomavirus HPV-18 et d'un virus d'Epstein-Barr chez une patiente de 20 ans. Case-report et revue de la litterature
Hermann, R.M.; Pradier, O.; Christiansen, H.; Schmidberger, H. [Georg-August Gottingen Universitat, Dept. of Radiotherapy (Germany); Fuzesi, L. [Georg-August Gottingen Universitat, Dept. of Pathology (Germany)
We report on a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old woman with co-infection of the tumor with human papilloma virus type 18 and Epstein-Barr virus.To our knowledge, this is the first case of co-infection in carcinoma of the tongue to be reported. We review the present data and theories concerning viral onco-genesis of oral carcinomas. (author)
Gupta, Rina; Pinzon, Jorge L
RÉSUMÉ Même si, au Canada, les mineurs n’ont pas le droit de jouer à des jeux de hasard légalisés, les adolescents participent souvent à des jeux de hasard soit légalisés (produits de loterie, casino, terminaux de jeux vidéo), soit autonomes (jeux de cartes, paris sportifs, dés) à la maison et en milieu scolaire. Chez les adultes, le taux de prévalence de dépendance aux jeux de hasard au cours de la vie se situe entre 1 % et 2 %. D’après les données existantes, la prévalence chez les adolescents serait de deux à quatre fois plus élevée. On ne sait pas grand-chose des facteurs de risque d’apparition et de perpétuation d’une dépendance pathologique aux jeux de hasard. Le présent document de principes vise à informer les pédiatres, les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels de la santé des connaissances émergentes sur les jeux de hasard pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence et du risque de conséquences graves qui s’y rattachent. On y exhorte également les gouvernements fédéral, provinciaux et territoriaux à inclure cette question dans leur programme et à tenir compte des facteurs sociopolitiques associés aux jeux de hasard.
Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim; Sudre, Bertrand
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia. Identified in 2005, the E1 glycoprotein A226V mutation of the East/Central/South Africa genotype conferred enhanced transmission by the A. albopictus mosquito and has been implicated in CHIKV's further spread in the last decade. In 2013, the Asian CHIKV genotype emerged in the Caribbean and quickly took the Americas by storm. This review will discuss the history of CHIKV as well as its expanding geographic distribution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Alto, Barry W; Kim, Myong Sang; Bradley, Andrea; Yaren, Ozlem; Benner, Steven A
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a growing and global concern for public health that needs inexpensive and convenient methods to collect mosquitoes as potential carriers so that they can be preserved, stored and transported for later and/or remote analysis. Reported here is a cellulose-based paper, derivatized with quaternary ammonium groups ("Q-paper") that meets these needs. In a series of tests, infected mosquito bodies were squashed directly on Q-paper. Aqueous ammonia was then added on the mosquito bodies to release viral RNA that adsorbed on the cationic surface via electrostatic interactions. The samples were then stored (frozen) or transported. For analysis, the CHIKV nucleic acids were eluted from the Q-paper and PCR amplified in a workflow, previously developed, that also exploited two nucleic acid innovations, ("artificially expanded genetic information systems", AEGIS, and "self-avoiding molecular recognition systems", SAMRS). The amplicons were then analyzed by a Luminex hybridization assay. This procedure detected CHIKV RNA, if present, in each infected mosquito sample, but not in non-infected counterparts or ddH 2 O samples washes, with testing one week or ten months after sample collection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An experimental vaccine for mosquito-borne chikungunya is being tested at sites in the Caribbean as part of a phase II clinical trial being managed by the Frederick National Lab. No vaccine or treatment currently exists for the viral disease, which c
Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.
was associated with G6PD status (p = 0.03) while there was no apparent association between genetic factors (G6PD, HbB or alpha-thalassemia) and chikungunya seropositivity. Conclusion: Public health education on environmental management practices is needed to eliminate the identified risks such as simple removal...
Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; ZulKifle, Mohammad; Sherwani, Arish Mohammad Khan; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Tiwari, Satyanarayan
Objectives: To observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites. Methods: The study was observational and analytical. A total of 162 houses and 670 subjects were observed during the study period. One hundred forty-two febrile patients were eligible for the study. After obtaining informed consent from all febrile patients, 140 blood samples were collected to diagnose malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Larval samples were collected by the standard protocol that follows. Correlation of data was performed by Pearson correlation test. Results: Forty-seven blood samples were found positive: 33 for chikungunya, 3 for dengue, and 11 for malaria. Fifty-one out of 224 larval samples were found positive. Out of the 51 positive samples, 37 were positive for Aedes, 12 were positive for Anopheles, and two were positive for Culex larvae. Interpretation and Conclusion: Mosquito-borne fevers, especially malaria, dengue, and chikungunya, have shown a significant relationship with mosquito breeding sites. PMID:23610486
Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Calteri, Deanna; Petropulacos, Kyriakoula; Mattivi, Andrea; Po, Claudio; Macini, Pierluigi; Tomasini, Ivana; Zucchelli, Paolo; Silvestri, Anna Rita; Sambri, Vittorio; Pupella, Simonetta; Catalano, Liviana; Piccinini, Vanessa; Calizzani, Gabriele; Grazzini, Giuliano
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and recently caused a massive epidemic on La Réunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. Between July and September 2007 it caused the first autochthonous epidemic outbreak in Europe, in the Region of Emilia-Romagna in the north-east of Italy. After the first reports of an unusually high number of patients with a febrile illness of unknown origin in two contiguous villages, an outbreak investigation was carried out to identify the primary source of infection, the modes of transmission and the dynamics of the epidemic. An active surveillance system was also implemented. Laboratory diagnosis was performed through serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Blood donation was discontinued in the areas involved from September to October 2007 and specific precautionary blood safety and self-sufficiency measures were adopted by the regional health and blood authorities and the National Blood Centre. An estimate method to early assess the risk of viraemic blood donations by asymptomatic donors was developed, as a tool for "pragmatic" risk assessment and management, aiming at providing a reliable order of magnitude of the mean risk of CHIKV transmission through blood transfusion. Two hundred and seventeen cases of CHIKV infection were identified between 4th July and 28th September. The disease was fairly mild in most of the cases. The precautionary measures adopted in the blood system caused a considerable reduction of the collection of blood components and of the delivery of plasma to the pharmaceutical industry for contract manufacturing. The estimated risk of CHIKV transmission through blood transfusion peaked in the third week of August. ACHIKV epidemic poses considerable problems for public health authorities, who not only need good routine programmes of vector control and epidemiological surveillance but also local and national emergency plans to sustain the blood supply, so as to promptly deal
T S Anish
Full Text Available Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural of Kerala. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural district during November 2007. Materials and Methods : Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers. These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area. The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method. Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%. The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 8.01 (6.06-14.60], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.
Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.
Rivas Morales, Stefano
Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...
Full Text Available La question de la libert é e st récurrente dans les théories de l’habitus. Bien qu'il en fasse un concept central, elle reste si peu thématisée chez Bourdieu que de nombreux critiques ont pu taxer son travail de déterministe. Pourtant, une lecture approfondie permet de dégager au cœur du modèle au moins trois principes qui le rendent incompatible avec le déterminisme : la production d’un nombre infini de comportements à partir d’un nombre limité de principes, la mutation permanente et les limites intensives et extensives de l’appréhension sociologique. L’identification de ses principes et l’analyse de leur portée sur la matrice conceptuelle permettent de mieux comprendre le statut de la liberté dans l’œuvre de Bourdieu. The question of freedom is recurrent in the theories of habitus. In the Bourdieu’s work, the freedom plays an essential role but not often explicit. This article tries to identify and to analyse the underlying principles of the freedom in this sociological approach.
Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha
Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343
Full Text Available Introduction : Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV et leurs facteurs de risque présentent des gradients socioéconomiques clairs chez les adultes canadiens, mais présentent des ambiguïtés chez les enfants. L'objectif de cette étude est de vérifier l'existence ou non de gradients socioéconomiques dans les marqueurs physiologiques du risque de MCV chez les enfants et les adolescents canadiens. Méthodologie : À partir des données transversales combinées de l'Enquête canadienne sur les mesures de la santé 2007-2011, nous avons étudié, chez 2 149 enfants (6 à 11 ans et 2 073 adolescents (12 à 17 ans et selon le sexe, les marqueurs de risque cardiovasculaire suivants : excès de poids (y compris l'obésité, score de capacité aérobique (SCA, pression artérielle (PA, lipides sanguins (totaux, cholestérol LDL et HDL, triglycérides, métabolisme du glucose et protéine C réactive (CRP. Des analyses de régression logistique et de régression linéaire multidimensionnelles ont permis de dégager les tendances relatives au risque cardiovasculaire en fonction de la suffisance du revenu du ménage et du niveau de scolarité des parents, après ajustement en fonction de l'âge et de l'origine ethnique, et après stratification par groupe d'âge et par sexe. Résultats : La prévalence de l'obésité était sensiblement plus élevée chez les jeunes garçons que chez les jeunes filles (prévalence de 18,5 %, intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % : 15,6 à 21,5 contre 7,7 %, IC à 95 % : 5,2 à 10,3. Toutefois, des gradients socioéconomiques négatifs ont été observés en ce qui concerne le risque d'adiposité chez les jeunes filles et les adolescentes, et non chez les garçons. Parmi les enfants et les adolescents, les garçons étaient en meilleure condition physique que les filles (SCA moyen de 541, IC à 95 % : 534 à 546 contre 501, IC à 95 % : 498 à 505 chez les enfants; 522, IC à 95 % : 514 à 529 contre 460, IC à 95 % : 454
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp, which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.
Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah
Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rahim, Muhammad Abdur; Uddin, Khwaja Nazim
Chikungunya is an emerging and rapidly spreading viral infection in many parts of the world including Bangladesh. It shares many epidemiological and clinical characteristics with dengue. So, a sound knowledge is required for its detection and differentiation from dengue, specially in endemic regions. We present seven confirmed cases of chikungunya having different clinical presentations occurring among middle aged males and females from different socio-economic background in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. All patients had fever and aches and pains. Less common features were rash, diarrhea, vomiting and altered liver biochemistry. Dengue was excluded in six patients. Paracetamol remained the mainstay of treatment during febrile periods, but over 50% of the patients had prolonged joint symptoms requiring non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In spite of being a self-limiting disease, chikungunya may have different presentations and a protracted clinical course. During the febrile episode, exclusion of dengue is equally important. Physicians should be aware of the condition and public health initiatives are necessary to break the disease transmission.
Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam
Disease mapping is a method to display the geographical distribution of disease occurrence, which generally involves the usage and interpretation of a map to show the incidence of certain diseases. Relative risk (RR) estimation is one of the most important issues in disease mapping. This paper begins by providing a brief overview of Chikungunya disease. This is followed by a review of the classical model used in disease mapping, based on the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), which we then apply to our Chikungunya data. We then fit an extension of the classical model, which we refer to as a Poisson-Gamma model, when prior distributions for the relative risks are assumed known. Both results are displayed and compared using maps and we reveal a smoother map with fewer extremes values of estimated relative risk. The extensions of this paper will consider other methods that are relevant to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, in order to inform and direct government strategy for monitoring and controlling Chikungunya disease.
Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Stapleford, Kenneth; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Vignuzzi, Marco; Schwartz, Olivier; Albert, Matthew L.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the causative agent of a major epidemic spanning five continents, is a positive stranded mRNA virus that replicates using the cell’s cap-dependent translation machinery. Despite viral infection inhibiting mTOR, a metabolic sensor controls cap-dependent translation, viral proteins are efficiently translated. Rapalog treatment, silencing of mtor or raptor genes, but not rictor, further enhanced CHIKV infection in culture cells. Using biochemical assays and real time imaging, we demonstrate that this effect is independent of autophagy or type I interferon production. Providing in vivo evidence for the relevance of our findings, mice treated with mTORC1 inhibitors exhibited increased lethality and showed a higher sensitivity to CHIKV. A systematic evaluation of the viral life cycle indicated that inhibition of mTORC1 has a specific positive effect on viral proteins, enhancing viral replication by increasing the translation of both structural and nonstructural proteins. Molecular analysis defined a role for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase (MnKs) activation, leading to the hyper-phosphorylation of eIF4E. Finally, we demonstrated that in the context of CHIKV inhibition of mTORC1, viral replication is prioritized over host translation via a similar mechanism. Our study reveals an unexpected bypass pathway by which CHIKV protein translation overcomes viral induced mTORC1 inhibition. PMID:26317997
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, the causative agent of a major epidemic spanning five continents, is a positive stranded mRNA virus that replicates using the cell's cap-dependent translation machinery. Despite viral infection inhibiting mTOR, a metabolic sensor controls cap-dependent translation, viral proteins are efficiently translated. Rapalog treatment, silencing of mtor or raptor genes, but not rictor, further enhanced CHIKV infection in culture cells. Using biochemical assays and real time imaging, we demonstrate that this effect is independent of autophagy or type I interferon production. Providing in vivo evidence for the relevance of our findings, mice treated with mTORC1 inhibitors exhibited increased lethality and showed a higher sensitivity to CHIKV. A systematic evaluation of the viral life cycle indicated that inhibition of mTORC1 has a specific positive effect on viral proteins, enhancing viral replication by increasing the translation of both structural and nonstructural proteins. Molecular analysis defined a role for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K and MAP kinase-activated protein kinase (MnKs activation, leading to the hyper-phosphorylation of eIF4E. Finally, we demonstrated that in the context of CHIKV inhibition of mTORC1, viral replication is prioritized over host translation via a similar mechanism. Our study reveals an unexpected bypass pathway by which CHIKV protein translation overcomes viral induced mTORC1 inhibition.
Full Text Available With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.
Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier
Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729
Full Text Available Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]. We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction.
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-alpha/betaR(+/- or totally (IFN-alpha/betaR(-/- abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.
Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
Full Text Available Is there a reason to fear that an Ebola outbreak may strike Latin America? The fear may not be unreasonable taking into account the history of epidemics that have affected the American continent since colonization times in 1492. Old World small pox epidemics spread and killed millions of Native Americans north and south from the equator. Imported West Nile virus infections reported in New York in 1999 dramatically spread East to West of the United States. Most recently, Chikungunya virus arrived to Central America in 2013 and has already infected close to 1 million people in Mexico, Central American countries, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyanas, Paraguay, and Venezuela.
Full Text Available Le comportement alimentaire, indispensable à la survie de l'individu et donc de l'espèce, occupe à ce titre une position de première importance dans la hiérarchie des comportements fondamentaux qui tous en dépendent très étroitement. Chez les poissons, cette prééminence se trouve illustrée par l'extrême diversité des supports sensoriels impliqués et des expressions comportementales qui leur sont liées. A la suite d'un certain nombre de mises en évidence neurophysiologiques et éthologiques de l'importance du sens chimique (olfaction, gustation dans le comportement alimentaire des poissons, de très importants secteurs d'études électrophysiologiques et d'analyses physico-chimiques visant à en déterminer la nature exacte (en termes de substances actives se sont développés ces vingt dernières années. De tous ces travaux dont les plus avancés sont présentés ici, il ressort que les acides aminés de série L plus ou moins associés à d'autres composés de poids moléculaires < 1000 constituent des composés chimiques jouant un rôle déterminant dans le comportement alimentaire de nombreuses espèces de poissons carnivores.
Chotiwan, Nunya; Brewster, Connie D.; Magalhaes, Tereza; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Duggal, Nisha K.; Rückert, Claudia; Nguyen, Chilinh; Garcia Luna, Selene M.; Fauver, Joseph R.; Andre, Barb; Gray, Meg; Black, William C.; Kading, Rebekah C.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Jaenisch, Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Harris, Eva; Foy, Brian D.; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Perera, Rushika; Rovnak, Joel
Understanding the dynamics of Zika virus transmission and formulating rational strategies for its control require precise diagnostic tools that are also appropriate for resource-poor environments. We have developed a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that distinguishes Zika viruses of Asian and African lineages. The assay does not detect chikungunya virus or flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, or West Nile viruses. The assay conditions allowed direct detection of Zika virus RNA in cultured infected cells; in mosquitoes; in virus-spiked samples of human blood, plasma, saliva, urine, and semen; and in infected patient serum, plasma, and semen samples without the need for RNA isolation or reverse transcription. The assay offers rapid, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive detection of the Asian-lineage Zika virus strain that is currently circulating in the Western hemisphere, and can also detect the African-lineage Zika virus strain using separate, specific primers. PMID:28469032
25 avr. 2013 ... 2 Présidence de l'Université Ibn Tofaïl, Kenitra, Maroc. Auteur correspondant .... ambiante et sous lumière continue afin de favoriser davantage la .... formation de sclérotes sur les disques foliaires de tomate est observée chez ...
transglutaminase tissulaire (AtTG) et anti-gliadines (AAG) chez les patients diabétiques de type 1 dans le but de recommander une éventuelle biopsie jéjunale et d'instaurer un régime sans gluten précocement avant l'installation des signes ...
La dialyse péritonéale chez les patients de moins de vingt ans: expérience d'un centre hospitalier universitaire marocain. Intissar Haddiya, Hakima Rhou, Fatima Ezaitouni, Naima Ouzeddoun, Rabia Bayahia, Loubna Benamar ...
Les accidents de la vie courante chez l'enfant à Dakar: à propos de 201 cas. Azhar Salim Mohamed, Aloïse Sagna, Mbaye Fall, Ndeye Aby Ndoye, Papa Alassane Mbaye, Aimé Lakh Fall, Alou Diaby, Oumar Ndour, Gabriel Ngom ...
étude montre une forte prévalence des manifestations cliniques des troubles gonadiques chez les patients en hémodialyse chronique. Aussi elles doivent être recherchées afin de mieux les prendre en charge, car ces troubles sont vécus par ...
S'attaquer à la marginalisation, à la criminalité et à la violence chez les jeunes - le rôle du capital social communautaire. Il est maintenant reconnu que les adolescents ont besoin d'un capital social positif (réseaux sociaux, relations interpersonnelles) pour devenir des adultes productifs et socialement responsables.
Evolution des paramètres biochimiques chez les chevaux de sport pendant un test d'effort. ... English Title: Evolution of biochemical parameters in sport horses subjected to a stress test. English Abstract. The study aimed ... The evaluation of the fitness of these racehorses is of great use in assessing the physical conditions.
Mutia Dwi Putri
Full Text Available AbstrakKampung Taratak Paneh merupakan daerah yang paling banyak terjadi kasus Chikungunya pada tahun 2012 (45 kasus. Penyebaran Chikungunya dipengaruhi faktor lingkungan dan tindakan Pemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (PSN. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melihat hubungan PSN terhadap keberadaan larva vektor Chikungunya. Penelitian ini adalah analitik dengan desain cross sectional study. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kampung Taratak Paneh dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 87 orang. Subjek diambil dengan metode proporsional simple random sampling. Data disajikan dalam bentuk tabel distribusi dan dianalisis dengan uji chi square. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara tindakan PSN dengan keberadaan jentik (p=0,000. Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara menguras TPA untuk keperluan mandi (p=0,029 dan keperluan rumah tangga (p=0,038, menutup TPA setiap kali digunakan (p=0,013, mengubur barang bekas (p=0,034, menabur bubuk abate (p=0,001, dan membersihkan talang air (p=0,000 terhadap keberadaan jentik vektor Chikungunya. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara tindakan memelihara ikan pemakan jentik (p=0,760, pencahayaan dan ventilasi yang cukup (p=0,053, menggantung pakaian di dalam kamar (p=0,068, memasang kawat kasa (p=0,274, membersihkan pot/vas bunga berisi air/tempat minum burung (p=0,915, menggunakan kelambu (p=0,619, menggunakan obat anti nyamuk (p=0,209 dan menutup lubang pohon (p=0,123 terhadap keberadaan jentik vektor Chikungunya.Kata kunci: PSN, jentik, vektor chikungunya AbstractTaratak Paneh is the most common area of Chikungunya cases in 2012 (45 cases.The spreading of Chikungunya is influenced by environmental factor and practice of breading place eradication. The objective of this study was to discover the relationship between breading place eradication practice and the presence of larvae Chikungunya vektor.This was an analytic research with cross-sectional study design. The research was held in Taratak Paneh on 87 samples
I Made Djaja
Full Text Available The impact of sosiodemographic and environmental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City in 2006. On october 2005, in Depok occured chikungunya outbreaks that attack 200 citizen at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. This study purpose is to know the impact of sosidemographic and enviromental factor on chikungunya outbreaks at Cinere, Limo Sub District, Depok City. Research design is case control study. The number of case group and control group is 118 patient. Factor studied are education, knowlwdge, house density, age, occupation, sex, mobility, anti-mosquito chemical, existance of mosquito-larva, container, and wire netting. The result of the study suggest that there are three variabels that involved in chikungunya outbreaks, namely education (OR=1,9: 1,12-3,23, age (OR= 2,1: 1,22-3,46, and house density (OR=2,2: 1,25-3,80. Multivariat analysis showed that the most dominant factors are house density, and followed by education. Probability of chikungunya outbreaks is 2,1 for low house density and low education
Vazeille, Marie; Moutailler, Sara; Coudrier, Daniel; Rousseaux, Claudine; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Thiria, Julien; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Despres, Philippe; Failloux, Anna-Bella
A Chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations. We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from La Réunion: (i) strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii) strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu)/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i) whole females and (ii) midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21. Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.
Full Text Available A Chikungunya (CHIK outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations.We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV from La Réunion: (i strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 10(7 plaque forming units (pfu/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i whole females and (ii midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21.Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.
Full Text Available Une étude des Méditations pour se disposer à l’Humilité et à la pénitence qui les replace dans le cadre des pratiques de son époque, par exemple, chez François de Sales, celles de l’oraison, de la méditation et de la contemplation, permet d’apercevoir que l’une des thèses majeures du malebranchisme, la vision en Dieu, est un effet instauré dans le destinataire par un dispositif textuel. Celui-ci tire sa puissance prescriptive de l’a priori pratique où il s’inscrit. C’est à une opération de production de soi que l’exercice spirituel donne lieu : l’analyse des quatre premières Méditations chrétiennes et métaphysiques, en particulier, montre que c’est une organisation de la substance personnelle que provoque le travail spirituel sur soi. Celui-ci consiste à déterminer le rapport à soi comme relation d’une vision attentive à une activité illuminante, par un décentrement textuel du « je » vers le « tu ».One of the major Malebranche’s assertion, that we see truth in God, is not a mere theoretical thesis. I study first the Méditations pour se disposer à l’Humilité et à la pénitence and compare them with François de Sales’ spiritual exercitations, and show that prayer, meditation and contemplation constitute the practical frameworks of this period. The text of the Méditations is an apparatus which is fit to cause an effect in its target – the self of the reader : the vision in God. The practical a priori of the meditation provides the text with prescriptive power to transform the self. Then I study the Méditations chrétiennes et métaphysiques i-iv : we see that Malebranche set his textual apparatus so that it prescribes its receiver a form of « work-on-one’s-self ». The self is here produced by the organisation of relationship between attentive vision and lighting action, and this structure is built in the self by a movement, induced by the text, which leads the self from
30% des adolescentes et près de 10% des garçons sont soit en surpoids, soit obèses. (McQuaide, 2008). Des études ont estimé la prévalence de la surcharge pondérale chez les adolescents mexicains à 19,8% et chez les adolescents égyptiens à 12.1%. Les facteurs de risque étaient l'âge, le niveau d'instruction,.
Full Text Available In the Latin American tropics, we have witnessed the emergence of several pathogenic arboviruses in the last decade. These include Yellow Fever, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Mayaro, Oropouche, Ilheus, and most recently, Chikungunya and Zika. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS, microcephaly and all the encephalitides, have been of concern to public health officials in Latin America since the arrival of emerging arboviruses. ¡Don‘t forget about dengue!
Full Text Available Ricardo O Izurieta,1 David A DeLacure,1 Andres Izurieta,2 Ismael A Hoare,1 Miguel Reina Ortiz,1,3 1Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Fundación Raíces, Esmeraldas, Ecuador Abstract: Mayaro fever is an emerging acute viral disease endemic in Central and South America. Mayaro virus (MAYV is classified in the Semliki Forest virus antigenic complex and shares similarities with the alphavirus Chikungunya virus and the flavivirus Dengue virus. MAYV is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus janthinomys, with competence also demonstrated in Aedes aegypti, Aedes scapularis, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Outbreaks and small epidemics of Mayaro fever have occurred in several countries in northern South America and the Caribbean. In addition, travel-associated cases have been reported in European nationals returning from endemic areas. Clinical features of Mayaro fever include fever, chills, persistent arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, maculopapular rash, itching, dizziness, and, rarely, lymphadenopathy. Methods of control for MAYV are similar to those used for other sylvatic arboviruses. Although MAYV was discovered as long ago as the 1950s and continues to be prevalent in the tropical areas of the Americas, it remains neglected and under-studied. This paper provides a thorough and current review of the published MAYV literature ranging from its original description to modern outbreaks, and from the basic virus characteristics to the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease. Keywords: Mayaro virus, emerging arbovirus, dengue-like virus, arthrogenic virus
Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Hargrave, Anita; Diaz, Avriel; Kenneson, Aileen; Madden, David; Romero, Moory M; Molina, Juan Pablo; Saltos, David Macias
On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ) infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40-64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home ( p < 0.05). The results of this study highlight the need to investigate the interactions between psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.
Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Kenneson, Aileen; King, Christine A.; Abbott, Mark; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Beltrán-Ayala, Efraín; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Cueva, Cinthya; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Lupone, Christina D.; Jarman, Richard G.; Maljkovic Berry, Irina; Mehta, Saurabh; Polhemus, Mark; Silva, Mercy; Endy, Timothy P.
Abstract. Here, we report the findings from the first 2 years (2014–2015) of an arbovirus surveillance study conducted in Machala, Ecuador, a dengue-endemic region. Patients with suspected dengue virus (DENV) infections (index cases, N = 324) were referred from five Ministry of Health clinical sites. A subset of DENV-positive index cases (N = 44) were selected, and individuals from the index household and four neighboring homes within 200 m were recruited (N = 400). Individuals who entered the study, other than the index cases, are referred to as associates. In 2014, 70.9% of index cases and 35.6% of associates had acute or recent DENV infections. In 2015, 28.3% of index cases and 12.8% of associates had acute or recent DENV infections. For every DENV infection captured by passive surveillance, we detected an additional three acute or recent DENV infections in associates. Of associates with acute DENV infections, 68% reported dengue-like symptoms, with the highest prevalence of symptomatic acute infections in children aged less than 10 years. The first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections were detected on epidemiological week 12 in 2015; 43.1% of index cases and 3.5% of associates had acute CHIKV infections. No Zika virus infections were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of isolates of DENV from 2014 revealed genetic relatedness and shared ancestry of DENV1, DENV2, and DENV4 genomes from Ecuador with those from Venezuela and Colombia, indicating the presence of viral flow between Ecuador and surrounding countries. Enhanced surveillance studies, such as this, provide high-resolution data on symptomatic and inapparent infections across the population. PMID:29512482
Mohamed Adnane Berdai
Full Text Available Les piqures multiples d�abeilles sont responsables d�envenimation severe. Nous rapportons un cas d�une attaque massive par un essaim d�abeilles chez un enfant de sept ans. Sa gravite est liee a la localisation cephalique et au nombre important des piqures qui etait d�environ 270. Ses complications etaient l�insuffisance renale, l�anemie et une conjonctivite. La prise en charge etait symptomatique avec bonne evolution clinique et biologique.
L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les ...
Introduction: Le VIH/SIDA et son traitement antirétroviral sont associés à un risque élevé de maladies cardiovasculaires comme les accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC). L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence du VIH et d'identifier ses facteurs associés chez les patients hospitalisés pour un AVC. Méthode: ...
Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...
Introduction: L'évaluation cardiovasculaire est essentielle en hémodialyse périodique car les affections cardiovasculaires sont la première cause de mortalité chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous avons conduit cette étude afin de déterminer la prévalence et le type des différentes complications cardiovasculaires et ...
La fistule artério veineuse a présenté très peu de complications chez les patients. Mots clés : Abord vasculaire, Hémodialyse, insuffisance rénale chronique. English abstract. Monitoring of vascular access in chronic hemodialysis patients at the National Hospital of Niamey Lamordé The purpose of this cross-sectional study ...
Devant l'ampleur du paludisme en pays intertropicaux le rôle du personnel soignant dans la réduction de la fréquence des cas de paludisme grave et de son taux de létalité devient évident. Nous avons alors voulu évaluer la qualité de la prise en charge de cette affection chez l'enfant de moins de cinq ans dans un hôpital ...
7 déc. 2011 ... Le volume de salive déglutie et sa concentration en bicarbonates semblent jouer un rôle primordial dans la clairance œsophagienne (4, 6). vidange gastrique : Des études récentes ont montré qu'il existait une gastro- parésie et des troubles de la motricité gastro-intestinale chez des enfants atteints de RGO ...
Evaluation de la fonction rénale chez les patients atteints de maladie cardio vasculaire (MCV) : comparaison entre ... Mots clés : Cystatine C, créatinine, insuffisance rénale, débit de filtration glomérulaire, maladies cardiovasculaires. Evaluation of the ... L'insuffisance rénale chronique (IRC) et les maladies cardiovasculaires ...
Les patientes ont été adressées à l'institut national d'oncologie pour prise en charge thérapeutique. Le pronostic du LBPM est réservé, il survient volontiers chez des femmes jeunes, ce qui rend d'autant plus nécessaire une thérapeutique agressive afin d'améliorer le taux de survie. The Pan African Medical Journal 2016; ...
Assadi Soumeh, Elham; van Milgen, Jaap; Sloth, Niels Morten
croissance s’ils sont fournis en deçà du besoin. Des études de métaanalyse révèlent que peu de données de type dose‐réponse sont disponibles chez le porcelet pour l’Ile, notamment avec des aliments exempts de cellules de sang, et la Val (van Milgen et al., 2012, 2013). Par ailleurs, une revue de la...
Carlos Brisola Marcondes
Full Text Available Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.
Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.
Full Text Available Une alimentation saine, en particulier la consommation régulière d’aliments riches en vitamine D, est un facteur protecteur contre la survenue de pathologie démentielle chez la personne âgée. Outre ses propriétés traditionnellement reconnues de régulation du métabolisme phosphocalcique, la vitamine D est une hormone neurostéroïde indispensable au fonctionnement neurophysiologique (régulation de neurotransmetteurs et de neurotrophines avec, en plus, une action neuroprotectrice anti-inflammatoire et anti-oxydante. Au contraire son insuffisance, extrêmement prévalente chez la personne âgée, pourrait engendrer des dysfonctionnements du système nerveux central, expliquant en partie les troubles cognitifs rencontrés dans cette population. L’épidémiologie est cohérente avec cette notion et rapporte une association entre hypovitaminose D et trouble cognitif, que ce soit en population âgée générale ou chez le malade Alzheimer. Les essais d’intervention confirment la relation de causalité et quantifient l’efficacité cognitive de la supplémentation vitaminique D chez la personne âgée, ce qui suscite des perspectives en matière de prévention primo-secondaire des troubles cognitifs chez la personne âgée par un apport exogène de vitamine D. En particulier, tandis que les traitements anti-démence symptomatiques actuellement disponibles ne font que ralentir transitoirement le déclin cognitif, les futures possibilités de traitement pourraient reposer sur des combinaisons médicamenteuses luttant contre plusieurs mécanismes neurodégénératifs à la fois. À ce titre, la vitamine D améliore l’efficacité de la mémantine en termes de protection neuronale et de prévention du déclin cognitif au cours de la maladie d’Alzheimer.
Vasquez, Victor; Haddad, Elie; Perignon, Alice; Jaureguiberry, Stéphane; Brichler, Ségolène; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Caumes, Eric
Dengue (DV), chikungunya (CV) and Zika virus (ZV) infections are rapidly expanding across countries and diagnosed in returned travelers who represent epidemiological sentinels. French Territories of America (FTA) such as Guadeloupe and Martinique are highly touristic places and have experienced three consecutive outbreaks by such viruses in the last decade. We evaluated how ill returned travelers could be deemed as epidemiological sentinels for these three expanding arboviral diseases during eight consecutive years. We estimated the degree of correlation between the cases of ill returned travelers arriving at our hospital and the three outbreaks that occurred in the FTA during the study period. We included all consecutive ill returned travelers diagnosed at a French tertiary hospital in Paris with imported DV, CV or ZV infections from January 2009 to December 2016. Epidemiological and clinical variables were evaluated. Data concerning the incidence of arboviruses in the FTA, and the temporal relationship between the occurrence of imported cases and outbreaks in FTA were analyzed. Overall, 320 cases of arboviral infections with 216 DV, 68 CV and 36 ZV were reported. Most of the patients presented with fever and exanthema. 115 patients were exposed in Guadeloupe or Martinique which were the at-risk destination in 25% of patients with DV, 59% patients with CV, and 58% patients with ZV. The occurrence of cases diagnosed in returning travelers followed the same time pattern as the outbreaks in these areas. We found a temporal correlation between newly diagnosed imported cases of arboviruses, and the three corresponding outbreaks that occurred in Martinique and Guadeloupe during 8 consecutive years. We show that ill returned travelers act as epidemiological sentinels from the beginning up to the end of outbreaks occurring in touristic places. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schultz, M J; Tan, A L; Gray, C N; Isern, S; Michael, S F; Frydman, H M; Connor, J H
Mosquito-transmitted viruses are spread globally and present a great risk to human health. Among the many approaches investigated to limit the diseases caused by these viruses are attempts to make mosquitos resistant to virus infection. Coinfection of mosquitos with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis from supergroup A is a recent strategy employed to reduce the capacity for major vectors in the Aedes mosquito genus to transmit viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Recently, a supergroup B Wolbachia w Stri, isolated from Laodelphax striatellus , was shown to inhibit multiple lineages of ZIKV in Aedes albopictus cells. Here, we show that w Stri blocks the growth of positive-sense RNA viruses DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV, and yellow fever virus by greater than 99.9%. w Stri presence did not affect the growth of the negative-sense RNA viruses LaCrosse virus or vesicular stomatitis virus. Investigation of the stages of the ZIKV life cycle inhibited by w Stri identified two distinct blocks in viral replication. We found a reduction of ZIKV entry into w Stri-infected cells. This was partially rescued by the addition of a cholesterol-lipid supplement. Independent of entry, transfected viral genome was unable to replicate in Wolbachia -infected cells. RNA transfection and metabolic labeling studies suggested that this replication defect is at the level of RNA translation, where we saw a 66% reduction in mosquito protein synthesis in w Stri-infected cells. This study's findings increase the potential for application of w Stri to block additional arboviruses and also identify specific blocks in viral infection caused by Wolbachia coinfection. IMPORTANCE Dengue, Zika, and yellow fever viruses are mosquito-transmitted diseases that have spread throughout the world, causing millions of infections and thousands of deaths each year. Existing programs that seek to contain these diseases through elimination of the mosquito population have so
Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in foetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis and public health.
Núñez, Eduardo; Vásquez, Marilin; Beltrán-Luque, Briana; Padgett, Denis
El virus Zika (ZIKV) es un arbovirus, aislado por primera vez en Zika Uganda, reportándose el primer caso en humanos en 1954, desde entonces se han descrito casos en África, Asia, Oceanía y en América. Centroamérica ha sido afectada, por cambios climáticos, pobreza y mal saneamiento ambiental. Su transmisión es vectorial y puede tener transmisión perinatal, transfusiones sanguíneas o por semen infectado. Clínicamente se diferencian poco de Dengue y Chikungunya. Sus complicaciones son principa...
Sbiti, Mohammed; Khalki, Hanane; Benbella, Imane; louzi, Lhoussaine
La transmission materno-fœtale du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est un problème qui préoccupe toujours les autorités sanitaires à travers le monde et suscite la mise en place de mesures préventives renforcées. Le statut réplicatif du virus chez la mère séropositive, évalué par la positivité de l'AgHbe et le taux de la charge virale, conditionne le risque de contamination qui est plus important en période péri-natale. Les mères porteuses chroniques du VHB constituent un véritable réservoir de la transmission verticale de cette infection. Nous avons étudié, à travers cette enquête sur 1120 femmes enceintes Marocaines, la séroprévalence de l'AgHBs qui était de 2,35%, dans le but d'alimenter les données nationales sur ce sujet. Parmi ces femmes séropositives pour l'AgHBs, 79,1% avaient un AgHBe négatif et ont bénéficié d'une recherche moléculaire qui s'est révélée positive dans 89,4% des cas. La vaccination de la femme en âge de procréer est l'un des piliers majeurs de la prévention de la transmission verticale du VHB, seulement 2,4% de nos patientes étaient vaccinées. Ceci relève l'intérêt du dépistage au cours de la grossesse, qui doit se focaliser sur la sensibilisation à la vaccination de femmes séronégatives, et le suivi par biologie moléculaire des mères séropositives dans le but d'instaurer un traitement prophylactique adéquat. PMID:27795784
K R Janardanan Nair
Conclusion: Bryonia alba 30C as genus epidemicus was better than placebo in decreasing the incidence of chikungunya in Kerala. The efficacy of genus epidemicus needs to be replicated in different epidemic settings.
Full Text Available From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy, raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO2 and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV.
Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar la seroprevalencia, la tasa de ataque clínica y la proporción de infecciones subclínicas por chikungunya, Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal en 39 sitios distribuidos en todo el territorio nacional de Nicaragua en octubre 2015. Se recopiló información demográfica y clínica a través de una encuesta personal. Se recolectaron muestras hemáticas para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos antivirus chikungunya utilizando el método de ELISA de inhibición desarrollado por el Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados y modelos de multinivel de Poisson en el análisis de los resultados. Resultados Se enrolaron 11 722 participantes mayores de dos años de edad y se procesaron 11 280 muestras. En el nivel nacional, la seroprevalencia fue de 32,8% (IC95% [intervalo de confianza de 95%]: 31,9-33,6, con una tasa de ataque clínica de 26,5% (IC95%: 25,7-27,3 y una proporción de infecciones subclínicas de 19,1% (IC95%: 17,8-20,4. Se observó variabilidad en la seroprevalencia de los 39 sitios, y los que presentaron mayor índice de infestación por el vector mostraron una mayor seroprevalencia. A nivel individual, esta fue más elevada en los participantes mayores de 11 años. Conclusión Este es el primer estudio sobre la seroprevalencia de chikungunya en América Latina continental desde su introducción, en el que se determinaron la prevalencia a nivel nacional, la tasa de ataque clínico y la proporción de infecciones subclínicas. El modelo utilizado, con una amplia participación comunitaria y el rol rector del Ministerio de Salud de Nicaragua, puede constituir un ejemplo para la realización de estudios similares en la región.
Shrinet, Jatin; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Gaind, Rajni; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Sunil, Sujatha
Chikungunya and dengue are arboviral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. A subset of chikungunya infection occurs also as co-infections with dengue, resulting in complications during diagnosis and patient management. The present study was undertaken to identify the global metabolome of patient sera infected with chikungunya as mono infections and with dengue as co-infections. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolome of sera of three disease conditions, namely, chikungunya and dengue as mono-infections and when co-infected were ascertained and compared with healthy individuals. Further, the cohorts were analyzed on the basis of age, onset of fever and joint involvement. Here we show that many metabolites in the serum are significantly differentially regulated during chikungunya mono-infection as well as during chikungunya co-infection with dengue. We observed that glycine, serine, threonine, galactose and pyrimidine metabolisms are the most perturbed pathways in both mono and co-infection conditions. The affected pathways in our study correlate well with the clinical manifestation like fever, inflammation, energy deprivation and joint pain during the infections. These results may serve as a starting point for validations and identification of distinct biomolecules that could be exploited as biomarker candidates thereby helping in better patient management.
Nitwara Wikan; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Sutee Yoksan; Duncan R. Smith; Prasert Auewarakul
Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.
Gabriela S. Tsankova
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.
Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...
Lata Baswanna Galate
Full Text Available Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.
Ma, Daphne Y; Suthar, Mehul S
Recent outbreaks of Ebola, West Nile, Chikungunya, Middle Eastern Respiratory and other emerging/re-emerging RNA viruses continue to highlight the need to further understand the virus-host interactions that govern disease severity and infection outcome. As part of the early host antiviral defense, the innate immune system mediates pathogen recognition and initiation of potent antiviral programs that serve to limit virus replication, limit virus spread and activate adaptive immune responses. Concordantly, viral pathogens have evolved several strategies to counteract pathogen recognition and cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. In this review, we highlight the major mechanisms of innate immune evasion by emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses, focusing on pathogens that pose significant risk to public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
As sulphite appears to be an intermediate substance in the degradation of sulphur-containing amino acids, and has an important metabolic role, notably for plants, this research thesis aims at comparing transformations which may occur for a same chemical compound (the sulphite) in various organisms belonging to different species or kingdoms. More particularly, the author studied the formation of sulphite in vegetal tissues, and the oxidisation of sulphite into sulfate within these tissues. In vitro experiments have been performed with oat, while in vivo experiments have been performed on tobacco plants [French] Le sulfite apparait comme une substance intermediaire de la degradation des acides amines soufres. Son role dans la biosynthese de certains d'entre eux, problematique chez les mammiferes, est certain chez les oiseaux, qui, a cet egard, se comportent comme des autotrophes partiels, puisqu'ils reduisent le sulfate en sulfite. On s'apercoit ainsi qu'un degre d'evolution moindre confere au sulfite une importance metabolique plus grande. On peut s'attendre a trouver chez les vegetaux un role encore accru pour le sulfite. Le present travail entre dans ce cadre d'etudes comparees des transformations que peut subir un meme type de compose chimique: le sulfite, dans divers organismes appartenant a des especes ou a des regnes differents. Les donnees acquises exposees ici auront trait aux deux points suivants: I - La formation du sulfite dans les tissus vegetaux, II - L'oxydation dans ces tissus, du sulfite en sulfate. L'avoine nous a servi comme materiel de depart pour les experiences faites in vitro. Cette plante presente en effet l'avantage de se bien cultiver en toutes saisons, de se broyer facilement, et d'etre depourvue au maximum de mucilages, de resines, substances genantes pour l'analyse ulterieure. Les essais faits in vivo, ont mis en oeuvre des plants de tabac, qui permettent une nutrition par le petiole ou par la tige particulierement aisee.
Introduction. Le but de ce travail était d'étudier la mortalité liée au VIH chez les enfants séropositifs aux CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé. Patients et méthode. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée dans les services de pédiatrie des CHU-Campus et Tokoin de Lomé et qui a couvert une période de 6 mois ...
Introduction: Les dysthyroïdies chez l'hémodialysé chronique sont représentées par une hypothyroïdie: dite le syndrome de basse T3, actuellement nommée "le syndrome de la maladie euthyroïdienne". L'objectif de notre travail est de déterminer le profil thyroïdien de nos HDC afin de préciser la prévalence des différents ...
En dépit des grands bouleversements systématiques dans la philosophie allemande du xviiie siècle, la continuité est étonnante, de Wolff à Hegel, pour ce qui concerne le contenu des doctrines sur la raison pratique. Une comparaison de ces doctrines chez Wolff, Kant, Fichte et Hegel peut révéler l’intention et les raisons pour lesquelles chacun de ces auteurs modifia la systématique des différentes facultés. À partir de Kant, autonomie et liberté deviennent les concepts directeurs permettant de...
Introduction: Il est devenu un problème de santé mentale au sein des casques bleus. L'objectif de cette étude était d'explorer les facteurs de risque du burnout chez les casques sénégalais en mission de maintien de la paix au Darfour. Méthode: Cette étude est transversale et analytique. Elle s'est déroulée du 19 avril au 20 ...
Le polymorphisme génétique de l'apolipoprotéine A-IV (apo A-IV) a été étudié chez 601 togolais dont 252 sujets d'un isolat relatif, les Adélé et 349 sujets des ethnies, Ewé, Mina, Ouatchi originaires de la côte atlantique. La détermination des phénotypes a été réalisée par isoélectrofocalisation (IEF) sur gel de ...
Jaime A. Cardona-Ospina
Full Text Available Plant expression systems could be used as biofactories of heterologous proteins that have the potential to be used with biopharmaceutical aims and vaccine design. This technology is scalable, safe and cost-effective and it has been previously proposed as an option for vaccine and protein pharmaceutical development in developing countries. Here we present a proposal of how plant expression systems could be used to address Zika and chikungunya outbreaks through development of vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits.
Zambrano, Lysien I; Sierra, Manuel; Lara, Bredy; Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Medina, Marco T; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J
Geographical information systems (GIS) use for development of epidemiological maps in dengue has been extensively used, however not in other emerging arboviral diseases, nor in Central America. Surveillance cases data (2015) were used to estimate annual incidence rates of dengue and chikungunya (cases/100,000 pop) to develop the first maps in the departments and municipalities of Honduras. The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1 ® . Four thematic maps were developed according departments, municipalities, diseases incidence rates. A total of 19,289 cases of dengue and 85,386 of chikungunya were reported (median, 726 cases/week for dengue and 1460 for chikungunya). Highest peaks were observed at weeks 25th and 27th, respectively. There was association between progression by weeks (p37%, both). Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps allow to guide decisions-taking for prevention and control of diseases that still represents significant issues in the region and the country, but also in emerging conditions. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Curtis, Andrew; Buritica, Paola; Ajayakumar, Jayakrishnan; Squires, Robert; Dávalos, Diana; Pacheco, Robinson; Bhatta, Madhav P.; James, Mark A.
Background Cali, Colombia has experienced chikungunya and Zika outbreaks and hypoendemic dengue. Studies have explained Cali’s dengue patterns but lack the sub-neighborhood-scale detail investigated here. Methods Spatial-video geonarratives (SVG) with Ministry of Health officials and Community Health Workers were collected in hotspots, providing perspective on perceptions of why dengue, chikungunya and Zika hotspots exist, impediments to control, and social outcomes. Using spatial video and Google Street View, sub-neighborhood features possibly contributing to incidence were mapped to create risk surfaces, later compared with dengue, chikungunya and Zika case data. Results SVG captured insights in 24 neighborhoods. Trash and water risks in Calipso were mapped using SVG results. Perceived risk factors included proximity to standing water, canals, poverty, invasions, localized violence and military migration. These risks overlapped case density maps and identified areas that are suitable for transmission but are possibly underreporting to the surveillance system. Conclusion Resulting risk maps with local context could be leveraged to increase vector-control efficiency- targeting key areas of environmental risk. PMID:28767730
Amy R Krystosik
Full Text Available Cali, Colombia has experienced chikungunya and Zika outbreaks and hypoendemic dengue. Studies have explained Cali's dengue patterns but lack the sub-neighborhood-scale detail investigated here.Spatial-video geonarratives (SVG with Ministry of Health officials and Community Health Workers were collected in hotspots, providing perspective on perceptions of why dengue, chikungunya and Zika hotspots exist, impediments to control, and social outcomes. Using spatial video and Google Street View, sub-neighborhood features possibly contributing to incidence were mapped to create risk surfaces, later compared with dengue, chikungunya and Zika case data.SVG captured insights in 24 neighborhoods. Trash and water risks in Calipso were mapped using SVG results. Perceived risk factors included proximity to standing water, canals, poverty, invasions, localized violence and military migration. These risks overlapped case density maps and identified areas that are suitable for transmission but are possibly underreporting to the surveillance system.Resulting risk maps with local context could be leveraged to increase vector-control efficiency- targeting key areas of environmental risk.
Daudens-Vaysse , Elise; Ledrans , Martine; Gay , Noellie; Ardillon , Vanessa; Cassadou , Sylvie; Najioullah , Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart , Isabelle; Rousset , Dominique; Herrmann , Cécile; Cesaire , Raymond; Maquart , Marianne; Flusin , Olivier; Matheus , Séverine; Huc-Anais , Patricia; Jaubert , Josiane
International audience; Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspectedcases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the f...
Catherine A Pruszynski
Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti.This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site.Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.
Pruszynski, Catherine A; Hribar, Lawrence J; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L
Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had treated sites was >50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.
Pruszynski, Catherine A.; Hribar, Lawrence J.; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L.
Background Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. Methodology This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Conclusions Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA. PMID:28199323
Luxation postérieure de l'épaule chez un sujet sportif traitée par transfert pédiculé du sub-scapulaire. Adil El Alaoui, Ilyas Rabhi, Aliou Bah, Mouhcine Sbiyaa, Amine Mezzani, Badr Alami, Amine Marzouki, Fawzi Boutayeb ...
Préoccupations de carrière chez les médecins de travail des groupements de Médecine de travail en Tunisie. Irtyah Merchaoui, Asma Chouchène, Ines Bouanène, Néila Chaari, Wassim Zrafi, Adnène Henchi, Mohamed Akrout, Charfeddine Amri ...
Nelson Nogueira Reis
Full Text Available The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.
Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.
Full Text Available Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011.We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2% lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area. Amongst them, 37 (11.7% were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay, of whom 36 (97.3% had fever, 22 (66.7% myalgia and 32 (86.5% arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors, providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2% with sensitivity (78.6% and specificity (72.4% values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%, but the positive predictive value (45% indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1 demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis.We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and
Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin; Haszianaliza Haslan; Norshalizah Mamikutty; Nurul Hannim Zaidun; Mohamad Fairuz Azmi; Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin; Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad; Zar Chi Thent
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus.
Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Djomassi, Lucienne Dempouo; Monebenimp, Francisca
Introduction La littérature scientifique dispose de très peu de données relatives à l’épidémiologie du VIH chez les sujets âgés en Afrique subsaharienne. Au Cameroun, les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'infection par le VIH chez les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus ne sont pas documentées. Méthodes Dans une étude de cohorte rétrospective et une enquête transversale, nous avons comparé les caractéristiques clinico-biologiques et la survie post thérapeutique des patients âgés de 50 ans et plus, sous traitement antirétroviral au Centre de Traitement Agrée de Bafoussam - Cameroun, aux adultes plus jeunes. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 39 ans, les extrêmes étant 17 et 88 ans. Les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus représentaient 14,1% des cas. Les plus âgés étaient moins bien informés sur les modes de transmission du virus (p = 0,04). Leur séropositivité au VIH était le plus souvent découverte au décours d'une infection opportuniste (p = 0,02). La fréquence de comorbidité était significativement plus élevée chez les personnes âgées de 50 ans et plus (p VIH. La promotion du dépistage et les programmes d’éducation sanitaire relatifs au VIH/SIDA devraient être renforcés au sein de cette communauté déjà affaiblie par le poids de l’âge, afin de réduire l'incidence du SIDA et de leur assurer prise en charge précoce. PMID:23133707
Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...
Lawson-Ananissoh, Laté Mawuli; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Bagny, Aklesso; Kaaga, Laconi; Redah, Datouda
Introduction Notre étude consistera à rapporter les indications et les lésions objectivées à la fibroscopie digestive haute et relever les particularités selon le sexe. Méthodes Étude rétrospective, descriptive sur des résultats de compte-rendu de la fibroscopie digestive haute menée en unité d'endoscopie digestive du service d'hépato-gastro-entérologie du CHU Campus de Lomé du 15 Mai 2009 au 31 Décembre 2013. Résultats La fibroscopie digestive haute a été réalisée chez 2795 patients dont 1188 hommes et 1607 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 40,65 ans (Extrêmes: 5 et 93 ans). La fibroscopie digestive haute était normale chez les femmes que chez les hommes avec une différence statistiquement significative (p = 0,000). Les principales indications étaient: les épigastralgies chez les femmes (p = 0,000); les hémorragies digestives hautes (p = 0,000) et l'hypertension portale (p = 0,000) chez les hommes; 3485 lésions pathologiques ont été observées. La pathologie inflammatoire prédominait (56,3%), la pathologie ulcéreuse (13,89%), la pathologie tumorale (2,01%). Les varices et la candidose œsophagiennes étaient significativement notées chez les hommes. Les ulcérations gastriques (p = 0,000), le reflux biliaire duodéno-gastrique (p = 0,017) étaient plus retrouvés chez les femmes et la gastropathie hypertensive beaucoup plus chez les hommes (p = 0,000). Que les lésions duodénales soient inflammatoires ou ulcéreuses associées ou non à une sténose bulbaire, elles étaient plus fréquentes chez les hommes. Conclusion De manière générale, il y avait une prédominance des lésions inflammatoires chez les femmes, les lésions tumorales et ulcéreuses chez les hommes PMID:25852805
Mécanisme évolutif bien connu chez les plantes, l’hybridation interspécifique a été relativement peu étudiée dans certains groupes taxonomiques, comme les champignons. Chez les champignons phytopathogènes, l’hybridation entre une espèce indigène et une espèce exotique peut pourtant conduire à l’émergence de nouvelles maladies des plantes.
Facteurs prédictifs de la réponse à la CERA chez les hémodialysés chroniques naïfs de traitement par agent stimulant l'érythropoïèse. ... Il s'agit une étude prospective mono centrique faite au sein d'une population d' hémodialysés chroniques. ... L'anémie est une complication majeure chez les hémodialysés chroniques.
Full Text Available La epidemia de chikungunya en la República Dominicana se inició en febrero de 2014. En los primeros seis meses se registraron 429 421 casos, que representaron 65% de todos los notificados a la Organización Panamericana de la Salud por 33 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas. Esta epidemia se ha transmitido con rapidez en dicho país y ha demandado una intensa respuesta intersectorial, que ha liderado el Ministerio de Salud Pública y, especialmente, el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y la red de los servicios de salud. Considerando que afectará a miles de personas, el objetivo de este artículo es describir las actuaciones realizadas y compartir los resultados y las lecciones aprendidas durante estos primeros meses con los ministerios de salud y los profesionales de los países de la Región para ayudarles a preparar una respuesta adecuada para afrontarla de forma efectiva y eficiente.
Aileciram Monialy Barros Marinho Ribeiro
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: in April of 2016, the epidemiological bulletin reported 39,017 suspected cases of chikungunya fever in Brazil. The main symptoms of the disease in the acute phase are: high fever, polyarthralgia, back pain, headache and fatigue; while in the late phase present polyarthralgia or musculoskeletal pain which often has prolonged duration. Description: in the late phase, the patient presented complaints mainly of: severe pain on the ankle joints wrists, elbows and shoulders. The medical handling consisted of continuous ultrasound sessions with the frequency of 1 MHz. The infrared laser with a dosage of 4J and 3s per point; TENS-burst with a pulse width of 250 us and the frequency of 2Hz, carried out for 10 days. The physiotherapeutic treatment proposal was an innovation, however there are no medical literatures for completementary medication for the treatment which could reduce the use of analgesics and could cause prolonged comfort to the patient ratified by EVA and the SF-36. Discussion: the use of ultrasound and low intensity laser are performed on the signs of chronic articular treatment in order to reduce inflammation, pain and joint stiffness. Therefore, a remarkable reduction of the algic state and the improvement of the patient's life along the r ten consecutive sessions of a proposed protocol in this study, thus there is a need for further researches on this issue so it is possible to perform a medical handling based on evidences on the theme.
Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar
Chikungunya fever (CF) epidemic has recently re-emerged in India on a large scale affecting many parts of the country. We have reviewed the mucocutaneous manifestations of the disease in a number of cases. Twenty six serologically proven cases of CF with rash from the district of 24-Paraganas (North) in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal were subjected to detailed clinical study to investigate the chronology and evolution of mucocutaneous lesions, the type and distribution of the rash, and systemic changes. Most patients were in their 3rd and 4th decade (23% each). Males and females were equally affected. Most patients developed the rash concomitantly with the onset or during the febrile illness, but 5 (19.2%) developed rash after defervescence. Most (57.7%) patients developed rash within the first 2 days of fever. The upper limb was the most common site of first appearance of lesions. Morbilliform eruption was the most common type of lesion noted, followed by scaling, macular erythema, intertrigo, hypermelanosis, xerosis, excoriated papules, urticaria and petechial spots. Cutaneous lesions were generally asymptomatic but 5 (19.2%) patients had intense pruritus. Mucosal lesions were found in 4 (15.4%) patients. Moderate to marked joint involvement was universal. CF exanthem may have varying morphology. Since the disease is spreading widely in different parts of the world, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any acute febrile arthropathy with rash.
Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.
Herinirina, Nicolas Fanantenana; Rajaonarison, Lova Hasina Ny Ony Narindra; Herijoelison, Andry Roussel; Rakoto, Olivat Aimée Alson; Ahmad, Ahmad
Introduction Le doppler transcrânien est un outil efficace permettant de dépister les enfants drépanocytaires à risque d'AVC. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude descriptive transversale sur des enfants Malagasy âgés entre 24 mois et 15 ans (groupe 1: 57 drépanocytaires, groupe 2: 43 témoins) afin d’évaluer le profil vélocimétrique des artères cérébrales chez les drépanocytaires. Un examen Doppler transcrânien a été réalisé avec étude des flux sanguins cérébraux chez les enfants des deux groupes. Résultats Pour les sujets drépanocytaires, la vitesse moyenne (VM) de l'artère cérébrale moyenne était de 100,9 ± 26,8 cm/s, l'indice de pulsatilité (IP) de 0,73 ± 0,20, la différence entre les artères cérébrales moyennes droite et gauche (ACMr) de 19,8 ± 21,5 cm/s, le rapport des vitesses de l'artère cérébrale antérieure/artère cérébrale moyenne (ACA/ACM) de 0,7 ± 0,2. Pour les enfants non drépanocytaires, VM: 80,6 ± 19,3 cm/s, IP: 0,79 ± 0,14, ACMr: 17 ± 20,1 cm/s, ACA/ACM: 0,8 ± 0,2. La vélocité des enfants drépanocytaires était supérieure au groupe contrôle. Les vitesses ont été corrélées avec le taux d'hémoglobine et l’âge et non pas avec le sexe et le volume globulaire moyen. Conclusion Les vitesses circulatoires cérébrales sont élevées chez les drépanocytaires que les enfants non drépanocytaires et sont influencées par le taux d'hémoglobine et l’âge. PMID:27516829
Introduction : le diabète de type 1 (DT1) est une maladie autoimmune qui résulte de la destruction progressive et sélective des cellules-bêta pancréatiques. Objectifs : Ce travail consiste à déterminer les nivaux de zinc apporté par l’alimentation et de mesurer sa concentration sérique chez les diabétiques de type 1 et les sujets sains, contrôles. But : Montrer le rôle immuno-modulateur du zinc dans le processus d’auto-immunité inflammatoire au cours de DT1. Matériels et méthodes : t...
Monniaux , Danielle; Caraty , Alain; Clement , Frederique; Dalbiès-Tran , Rozenn; Dupont , J.; Fabre , Stéphane; Gérard , N.; Mermillod , Pascal; Monget , Philippe; Uzbekova , Svetlana
Cette revue présente l’état des connaissances sur la folliculogenèse et l’ovulation chez les mammifères. La folliculogenèse basale est une phase de croissance folliculaire lente, au cours de laquelle l’ovocyte acquiert la compétence méiotique. La folliculogenèse terminale est une phase de développement rapide, au cours de laquelle le follicule ovulatoire est sélectionné et termine sa maturation, tandis que l’ovocyte acquiert la compétence au développement. La revue décrit les différents chang...
Full Text Available Notre étude vise à montrer dans le cadre d’une poétique du discours réaliste la manière dont l’« hallucination » fonctionne, se construit et trouve sa signification chez Flaubert. Par quels procédés fait-il surgir des mots le caractère éphémère des images et l’intensité de leur perception ?Notre étude se développera en une forme de triptyque, où le contexte, l’avant-texte et le texte seront examinés. Mais, ces trois points constituant ensemble l’œuvre de Flaubert, nous ne les séparerons pas à...
Jouany, J Pierre
Les études sur la digestion et le métabolisme des camélidés ont bénéficié au cours des quinze dernières années des progrès techniques et méthodologiques issus des travaux conduits chez les ruminants. On dispose aujourd’hui d’éléments scientifiques fiables qui permettent de comparer les aptitudes digestives et métaboliques respectives de ces deux types d’animaux. L’anatomie des pré-estomacs ainsi que le comportement alimentaire des animaux sont très différents entre camélidés et ruminants. De ...
Sankale, A.A.; Manyacka Ma Nyemb, P.; Coulibaly, N.F.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndoye, M.
Summary Il s'agit d'une étude faisant ressortir les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques des séquelles de brûlures du membre inférieur chez l'enfant, à propos de 42 cas colligés au service de chirurgie infantile de l'Hôpital Aristide Le Dantec (Sénégal). L'âge moyen retrouvé est de 5 ans et 3 mois, et le sex-ratio garçons/filles de 1,8/1. La brûlure thermique est causée par une flamme dans 33% des cas, par un liquide chaud dans 21% des cas, et par des braises dans 21% des cas. Les cicatrices rétractiles intéressent le genou et le creux poplité dans 47% des cas et le pied dans 45% des cas. Elles sont bilatérales dans 21% des cas, et concernent une autre localisation associée dans 21% des cas. Quant aux brides, 21% ont bénéficié d'une chirurgie, avec un délai moyen de 3 ans et 2 mois après la brûlure. Cette procédure chirurgicale consiste en une plastie en Z dans 91% des cas, à laquelle est associée une greffe de peau dans 54% des cas. Une rééducation fonctionnelle est pratiquée chez 54% des opérés. Parallèlement aux données de la littérature, nos résultats montrent que l'optimisation de la prise en charge passe par une meilleure prévention des accidents domestiques et une bonne codification thérapeutique. PMID:21991202
Pogany, Lisa; Romanowski, Barbara; Robinson, Joan; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Latham-Carmanico, Cathy; Weir, Christine; Wong, Tom
Résumé Objectif Présenter des recommandations sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes. Qualité des données Les recommandations thérapeutiques des lignes directrices canadiennes sur les infections transmissibles sexuellement reposent sur une recherche documentaire de même que sur des catégories de recommandations et des niveaux de qualité de données déterminés par au moins 2 évaluateurs. Les recommandations ont été revues par des pairs et sont en instance d’approbation par le groupe de travail d’experts. Message principal Les nouvelles recommandations portant sur la prise en charge de l’infection gonococcique chez les adultes et les jeunes préconisent les cultures à titre d’outil diagnostique lorsqu’elles sont pratiques, le traitement par antibiothérapie combinée (ceftriaxone associée à l’azithromycine) et le signalement sans délai de tous les cas dont le traitement a échoué aux autorités de santé publique. Conclusion Si elles sont suivies, ces nouvelles recommandations pourraient réduire l’échec thérapeutique, contribuer à une surveillance plus étroite des tendances à la résistance de Neisseria gonorrhoeae aux antibiotiques et contribuer à prévenir la transmission de gonorrhée résistante à plusieurs médicaments.
Ces dernières années, c'est en Amérique latine qu'on a observé le nombre le plus élevé de cas de dengue, soit au Brésil, en Colombie et au Mexique. Ces pays ont aussi été confrontés à des épidémies de chikungunya (2014-2015) et du virus Zika (2015-2016). Les trois infections sont transmises par le même vecteur de ...
Pâques E., Luc
L’hybridation interspécifique se rencontre fréquemment chez les arbres forestiers et intéressent les chercheurs dans des contextes très différents : introgression dans les aires naturelles des espèces, pollution des pools génétiques autochtones par des espèces/variétés introduites…. Elle est aussi valorisée en amélioration génétique en vue de la création variétale. Ce dernier aspect constitue le cœur de nos activités et de notre projet de recherche. Etudiés depuis longtemps chez les plantes...
Mazdar, Adil; Sakel, Adil Ait; Essatara, Younes; Beddouche, Ali; Elsayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine
Résumé Le sarcome à cellules claires du rein (SCCR) se voit très rarement chez les jeunes. Il est caractérisé par une évolution agressive marquée par un taux élevé de récidive et de mortalité. Nous rapportons le cas d’un SCCR chez un patient de 17 ans et nous discutons de son apport et de son intérêt médical en vue d’une bonne prise en charge thérapeutique. L’agressivité du SCCR et la prolifération de métastases surtout osseuses impliquent qu’il ne faut pas méconnaître ce diagnostic afin de mettre en place un traitement adapté. PMID:24940474
Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is currently an important vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, and its role in transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses may increase in the future due to its ability to colonize temperate regions. In contrast to Aedes aegypti, the dominant vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus, genetic responses of Ae. albopictus upon infection with an arbovirus are not well characterized. Here we present a study of the changes in transcript expression in Ae. albopictus exposed to dengue virus serotype 2 via feeding on an artificial bloodmeal.We isolated midguts and midgut-free carcasses of Ae. albopictus fed on bloodmeals containing dengue virus as well as controls fed on virus-free control meals at day 1 and day 5 post-feeding. We confirmed infection of midguts from mosquitoes sampled on day 5 post-feeding via RT-PCR. RNAseq analysis revealed dynamic modulation of the expression of several putative immunity and dengue virus-responsive genes, some of whose expression was verified by qRT-PCR. For example, a serine protease gene was up-regulated in the midgut at 1 day post infection, which may potentially enhance mosquito susceptibility to dengue infection, while 14 leucine-rich repeat genes, previously shown to be involved in mosquito antiviral defenses, were down-regulated in the carcass at 5 days post infection. The number of significantly modulated genes decreased over time in midguts and increased in carcasses.Dengue virus exposure results in the modulation of genes in a time- and site-specific manner. Previous literature on the interaction between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens suggests that most of the changes that occurred in Ae. albopictus exposed to DENV would favor virus infection. Many genes identified in this study warrant further characterization to understand their role in viral manipulation of and antiviral response of Ae. albopictus.
d'épithélium et de couche musculaire lisse . Il peut être secon- daire à une effraction de la paroi urétrale par un traumatisme pelvien ou périnéal  (c'est le cas de nos observations) ou à un traumatisme iatrogène: sondage vésical prolongé surtout chez les paraplégiques ou traumatique, urètrotomie endoscopique .
26 avr. 2016 ... ... but de combattre l'obésité chez les enfants. La démarche repose sur trois piliers, à savoir augmenter la proportion de fruits et de légumes frais dans les repas servis à l'école, faciliter l'approvisionnement en produits auprès des agriculteurs locaux et favoriser l'augmentation de la production maraîchère.
21 avr. 2016 ... FLIKR/ROSS POLLOCK. Des lignes directrices sur la gestion de la douleur dans les hôpitaux thaïlandais aident à prévenir ou à traiter la douleur chez les enfants. Global Health Research Initiative. Les enfants sont plus susceptibles que les adultes de souffrir de l'absence de traitement ou de traitement ...
Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.
Full Text Available La réponse au stress induit par le transport a été étudiée chez des truites arc-en-ciel immatures d'un poids moyen de 200 g. D'une manière globale, les valeurs de l'hématocrite, de l'osmolarité du plasma sanguin, du Cortisol et de la testostérone sont significativement plus élevées chez les poissons transportés que chez les témoins non transportés, alors que les niveaux de gonadostimuline (GTH1 et d'hormone de croissance ne diffèrent pas suivant les lots. L'analyse du comportement en "open field" des individus de chaque lot montre que les poissons transportés s'immobilisent en moyenne après un temps significativement plus long que les témoins. L'étude des performances zootechniques de chaque lot pendant les deux mois suivant l'expérience indique que le lot transporté récupère rapidement.
Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Sabat, Jyotsnamayee; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Kumar, Anu; Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kar, Shantanu K
The sudden death of 10 children in a tribal village of Kandhamal district, Odisha in eastern India led to this investigation. We conducted a door-to-door survey to identify cases. Antibodies for Chandipura, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, chikungunya and West Nile viruses were tested by ELISA in probable cases. Chandipura virus RNA was tested from both human blood samples and sand flies by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We conducted vector surveys in domestic and peridomestic areas, and collected sand flies. Entomological investigations revealed the presence of Phlebotomus argentipes and Sergentomiya sp. Thirty-five patients presented with fever, 12 of them had altered sensorium including 4 who had convulsions. The blood samples of 21 patients were tested; four samples revealed Chandipura virusspecific IgM antibody. Chandipura virus infection causing encephalitis affected this tribal population in eastern India at 1212 m above sea level. Copyright 2015, NMJI.
Vázquez-Cruz, Irene; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Sánchez-Ramos, Apolinar; Morales-Sánchez, Ofelia de Jesúis
Chikungunya fever (CHIK) generally causes temporary sick leave, affecting groups of productive age, which represents a significant economic impact from the labor point of view. The objective was to estimate costs of disability due to chikungunya in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Guerrero, Mexico. Cost assessment of working population from IMSS in Guerrero who met the definition of case for CHIK and took sick leave, which was registered in the Original Disability Certificates (OCI, according to its initials in Spanish) processed from January to April, 2015. Paid sick days were multiplied by the current minimum wage of the municipality of Acapulco (geographical area A, general = $ 70.10: seventy pesos with 10 cents per day]). Of all the OCIs, 31.5% (38 271/12 062) met the criteria for CHIK with a total of 41 197 prescribed days and 14 941 paid sick days with an estimated cost of 2 397 393.40 pesos (two million, three hundred and ninety seven thousand, three hundred and ninety three dollars and forty cents). Sick leaves increase the costs in health systems. These costs increase as increases the number of days granted. The average number of days granted is consistent with the information published in different articles.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2003, the tropical arthritogenic chikungunya (CHIK virus has become an increasingly medical and economic burden in affected areas as it can often result in long-term disabilities. The clinical spectrum of post-CHIK (pCHIK rheumatic disorders is wide. Evidence-based recommendations are needed to help physicians manage the treatment of afflicted patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a 6-year case series retrospective study in Reunion Island of patients referred to a rheumatologist due to continuous rheumatic or musculoskeletal pains that persisted following CHIK infection. These various disorders were documented in terms of their clinical and therapeutic courses. Post-CHIK de novo chronic inflammatory rheumatisms (CIRs were identified according to validated criteria. RESULTS: We reviewed 159 patient medical files. Ninety-four patients (59% who were free of any articular disorder prior to CHIK met the CIR criteria: rheumatoid arthritis (n=40, spondyloarthritis (n=33, undifferentiated polyarthritis (n=21. Bone lesions detectable by radiography occurred in half of the patients (median time: 3.5 years pCHIK. A positive therapeutic response was achieved in 54 out of the 72 patients (75% who were treated with methotrexate (MTX. Twelve out of the 92 patients (13% received immunomodulatory biologic agents due to failure of contra-indication of MTX treatment. Other patients mainly presented with mechanical shoulder or knee disorders, bilateral distal polyarthralgia that was frequently associated with oedema at the extremities and tunnel syndromes. These pCHIK musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were managed with pain-killers, local and/or general anti-inflammatory drugs, and physiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Rheumatologists in Reunion Island managed CHIK rheumatic disorders in a pragmatic manner following the outbreak in 2006. This retrospective study describes the common mechanical and inflammatory pCHIK disorders. We provide a diagnostic
Maegan V. Mazereeuw
Full Text Available Introduction : L'absence d'identificateurs, dans les bases de données administratives sur la santé, nous empêche de bien comprendre le fardeau du cancer chez les Premières Nations. Notre étude compare les facteurs de risque et le dépistage du cancer chez les membres des Premières Nations en Ontario (vivant dans des réserves et hors réserves et chez les Ontariens non autochtones, en s'appuyant sur deux enquêtes sur la santé. Méthodologie : Les taux normalisés selon l'âge ont été calculés en utilisant la phase 2 de l'Enquête régionale sur la santé des Premières Nations (ERS de 2008-2010 pour les Premières Nations dans des réserves et l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (ESCC de 2007-2013 pour les membres des Premières Nations hors réserves et les Ontariens non autochtones. Des rapports de taux (RT et des tests du chi carré de Pearson (pour les différences de proportion ont été utilisés pour comparer les estimations entre les membres des Premières Nations (dans des réserves et hors réserves et les Ontariens non autochtones. Résultats : Une proportion plus élevée d'hommes, de femmes et d'adolescents des Premières Nations vivant dans des réserves fumaient (RT = 1,97, 2,78 et 7,21 respectivement et souffraient d'obésité (RT = 1,73, 2,33 et 3,29 respectivement, comparativement à leurs homologues non autochtones. Des tendances similaires ont été observées chez les membres des Premières Nations vivant hors réserves. La consommation excessive ponctuelle d'alcool fréquente était également plus répandue chez les hommes et les femmes des Premières Nations vivant dans des réserves (RT = 1,28 et 2,22, respectivement et hors réserves (RT = 1,70 et 1,45, respectivement que chez les Ontariens non autochtones. Les hommes et les femmes des Premières Nations vivant dans des réserves étaient deux fois moins susceptibles de consommer des fruits au moins deux fois par jour et des l
Kajeguka, Debora C; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Mwangi, Rose; Mgabo, Maseke R; Alifrangis, Michael; Kavishe, Reginald A; Mosha, Franklin W; Kulkarni, Manisha A
To investigate knowledge and prevention practices regarding dengue and chikungunya amongst community members, as well as knowledge, treatment and diagnostic practices among healthcare workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 125 community members and 125 healthcare workers from 13 health facilities in six villages in the Hai district of Tanzania. A knowledge score was generated based on participant responses to a structured questionnaire, with a score of 40 or higher (of 80 and 50 total scores for community members and healthcare workers, respectively) indicating good knowledge. We conducted qualitative survey (n = 40) to further assess knowledge and practice regarding dengue and chikungunya fever. 15.2% (n = 19) of community members had good knowledge regarding dengue, whereas 53.6%, (n = 67) of healthcare workers did. 20.3% (n = 16) of participants from lowland areas and 6.5% (n = 3) from highland areas had good knowledge of dengue (χ 2 = 4.25, P = 0.03). Only 2.4% (n = 3) of all participants had a good knowledge score for chikungunya. In the qualitative study, community members expressed uncertainty about dengue and chikungunya. Some healthcare workers thought that they were new diseases. There is insufficient knowledge regarding dengue and chikungunya fever among community members and healthcare workers. Health promotion activities on these diseases based on Ecological Health Mode components to increase knowledge and improve preventive practices should be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus for which there are no vaccines or specific therapeutics. We screened a library of 2,000 bioactive compounds for their ability to block Zika virus infection in three distinct cell types with two different strains of Zika virus. Using a microscopy-based assay, we validated 38 drugs that inhibited Zika virus infection, including FDA-approved nucleoside analogs. Cells expressing high levels of the attachment factor AXL can be protected from infection with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, while placental-derived cells that lack AXL expression are insensitive to this inhibition. Importantly, we identified nanchangmycin as a potent inhibitor of Zika virus entry across all cell types tested, including physiologically relevant primary cells. Nanchangmycin also was active against other medically relevant viruses, including West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya viruses that use a similar route of entry. This study provides a resource of small molecules to study Zika virus pathogenesis.
Chotiwan, Nunya; Brewster, Connie D; Magalhaes, Tereza; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Duggal, Nisha K; Rückert, Claudia; Nguyen, Chilinh; Garcia Luna, Selene M; Fauver, Joseph R; Andre, Barb; Gray, Meg; Black, William C; Kading, Rebekah C; Ebel, Gregory D; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Angel; Jaenisch, Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Brault, Aaron C; Harris, Eva; Foy, Brian D; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Perera, Rushika; Rovnak, Joel
Understanding the dynamics of Zika virus transmission and formulating rational strategies for its control require precise diagnostic tools that are also appropriate for resource-poor environments. We have developed a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that distinguishes Zika viruses of Asian and African lineages. The assay does not detect chikungunya virus or flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, or West Nile viruses. The assay conditions allowed direct detection of Zika virus RNA in cultured infected cells; in mosquitoes; in virus-spiked samples of human blood, plasma, saliva, urine, and semen; and in infected patient serum, plasma, and semen samples without the need for RNA isolation or reverse transcription. The assay offers rapid, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive detection of the Asian-lineage Zika virus strain that is currently circulating in the Western hemisphere, and can also detect the African-lineage Zika virus strain using separate, specific primers. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Infected mosquitoes do not show detectable signs of disease, even though the virus maintains a lifelong persistent infection. The infection of the Aedes mosquito by viruses involves a molecular crosstalk between cell and viral proteins. An understanding of how mosquito vectors and viruses interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies in combination with bioinformatics have been successfully applied to identify and quantify global changes in cellular proteins, lipids, peptides, and metabolites in response to viral infection. Although the information about proteomics in the Aedes mosquito is limited, the information that has been reported can set up the basis for future studies. This review reflects how MS-based approaches have extended our understanding of Aedes mosquito biology and the development of DENV and CHIKV infection in the vector. Finally, this review discusses future challenges in the field.
Emily A. Byrd
Full Text Available Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and the equine encephalitis viruses. The virus membrane is covered by a lattice composed of 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E2 and E1 transmembrane proteins. During virus endocytic entry, the E1 glycoprotein mediates the low-pH-dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane, thus initiating virus infection. While much is known about E1 structural rearrangements during membrane fusion, it is unclear how the E1/E2 dimer dissociates, a step required for the fusion reaction. A recent Alphavirus cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed a previously unidentified D subdomain in the E2 ectodomain, close to the virus membrane. A loop within this region, here referred to as the D-loop, contains two highly conserved histidines, H348 and H352, which were hypothesized to play a role in dimer dissociation. We generated Semliki Forest virus mutants containing the single and double alanine substitutions H348A, H352A, and H348/352A. The three D-loop mutations caused a reduction in virus growth ranging from 1.6 to 2 log but did not significantly affect structural protein biosynthesis or transport, dimer stability, virus fusion, or specific infectivity. Instead, growth reduction was due to inhibition of a late stage of virus assembly at the plasma membrane. The virus particles that are produced show reduced thermostability compared to the wild type. We propose the E2 D-loop as a key region in establishing the E1-E2 contacts that drive glycoprotein lattice formation and promote Alphavirus budding from the plasma membrane.
Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Médale, Françoise
Cet article fait le point sur la régulation de la genèse des dépôts lipidiques par l’alimentation chez les poissons, sur la base de données bibliographiques existantes et de données personnelles obtenues chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chez la truite arc-en-ciel, l’importance quantitative des dépôts lipidiques corporels varie avec la teneur en lipides des aliments, mais les mécanismes de dépôts sont identiques quel que soit le régime alimentaire. Le tissu adipeux périviscéra...
Ojha Vijay P
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47
Saeed; Reza; Jamali; Moghadam; Samaneh; Bayrami; Sepideh; Jamali; Moghadam; Raheleh; Golrokhi; Fatemeh; Golsoorat; Pahlaviani; SeyedAhmad; SeyedAlinaghi
Zika virus(ZIKV) has two lineages:African and Asian.Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are thought to replicate initially in dendritic cells and then spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream.Risk for infection through blood transfusion,sexual practices and perinatal transmission exists.The possible routes of perinatal transmission are during delivery,breastfeeding and by close contact between the mother and her newborn.Also,mucocutaneous exposures to the virus by infected blood or monkey bite,organ transplantation or hemodialysis are the other routes of ZIKV transmission.There are two types of ZIKV infection;Zika fever and congenital infection.Clinical presentation of Zika fever varies from asymptomatic infections to a self-limiting febrile disease with low grade fever,conjunctivitis,maculopapular rash,headache,retro-orbital pain and arthritis/arthralgia with periarticular edema,myalgia,vertigo,vomiting and asthenia.This clinical feature could be mistaken for dengue or chikungunya fevers.Microcephaly is the most important and frequently reported clinical picture of suspected congenital Zika syndrome.Laboratory tests are needed for diagnosis of ZIKV infection,because there is no known pathognomonic clinical,biochemical or radiological features.RT-PCR is the most wellliked assay.Serum samples are tested by immunoglobulin G ELISA with ZIKV antigen.Samples are also tested by immunoglobulin M ELISA.There is no certified vaccine or therapeutic medication.In asymptomatic or uncomplicated patients,treatment is not necessary.
Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam; Samaneh Bayrami; Sepideh Jamali Moghadam; Raheleh Golrokhi; Fatemeh Golsoorat Pahlaviani; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi
Zika virus (ZIKV) has two lineages:African and Asian. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are thought to replicate initially in dendritic cells and then spread to lymph nodes and the blood stream. Risk for infection through blood transfusion, sexual practices and perinatal transmission exists. The possible routes of perinatal transmission are during delivery, breastfeeding and by close contact between the mother and her newborn. Also, muco-cutaneous exposures to the virus by infected blood or monkey bite, organ transplantation or hemodialysis are the other routes of ZIKV transmission. There are two types of ZIKV infection;Zika fever and congenital infection. Clinical presentation of Zika fever varies from asymptomatic infections to a self-limiting febrile disease with low grade fever, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, headache, retro-orbital pain and arthritis/arthralgia with periarticular edema, myalgia, vertigo, vomiting and asthenia. This clinical feature could be mistaken for dengue or chikungunya fevers. Microcephaly is the most important and frequently reported clinical picture of suspected congenital Zika syndrome. Labo-ratory tests are needed for diagnosis of ZIKV infection, because there is no known pathognomonic clinical, biochemical or radiological features. RT-PCR is the most well-liked assay. Serum samples are tested by immunoglobulin G ELISA with ZIKV antigen. Samples are also tested by immunoglobulin M ELISA. There is no certified vaccine or therapeutic medication. In asymptomatic or uncomplicated patients, treatment is not necessary.
Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert
we do not have information about their settlement in the country. The doctors may encounter introduced cases and we do not have to fear the spreading of the epidemic to our country, but in the bordering Slovakia and Slovenia infections have been reported. The future of the Zika virus is yet unpredictable, although looking at the global spread of the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, a worldwide spread is expectable in the near future. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 563-571.
Guzzetta, Giorgio; Trentini, Filippo; Poletti, Piero; Baldacchino, Frederic Alexandre; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Melegaro, Alessia
In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015.We found that routine larviciding of public catch basins can limit both the risk of autochthonous transmission and the size of potential epidemics. Ideal larvicide interventions should be timed in such a way to cover the month of July. Optimally timed larviciding can reduce locally transmitted cases of chikungunya by 20% - 33% for a single application (dengue: 18-22%) and up to 43% - 65% if treatment is repeated four times throughout the season (dengue: 31-51%). In larger municipalities (>35,000 inhabitants), the cost of comprehensive larviciding over the whole urban area overcomes potential health benefits related to preventing cases of disease, suggesting the adoption of more localized interventions. Small/medium sized towns with high mosquito abundance will likely have a positive cost-benefit balance. Involvement of private citizens in routine larviciding activities further reduces transmission risks but with disproportionate costs of intervention. International travels and the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases are increasing worldwide, exposing a growing number of European citizens to higher risks of potential outbreaks. Results from this study may support the planning and timing of interventions aimed to reduce the
Vijayakumar, K; George, B; Anish, T S; Rajasi, R S; Teena, M J; Sujina, C M
The southern state of Kerala, India was seriously affected by a chikungunya epidemic in 2007. As this outbreak was the first of its kind, the morbidity incurred by the epidemic was a challenge to the state's public health system. A cross sectional survey was conducted in five districts of Kerala that were seriously affected by the epidemic, using a two-stage cluster sampling technique to select households, and the patients were identified using a syndromic case definition. We calculated the direct health expenditure of families and checked whether it exceed the margins of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The median (IQR) total out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure in the study population was USD7.4 (16.7). The OOP health expenditure did not show any significant association with increasing per-capita monthly income.The major share (47.4%) of the costs was utilized for buying medicines, but costs for transportation (17.2%), consultations (16.6%), and diagnoses (9.9%) also contributed significantly to the total OOP health expenditure. The OOP health expenditure was high in private sector facilities, especially in tertiary care hospitals. For more than 15% of the respondents, the OOP was more than double their average monthly family income. The chikungunya outbreak of 2007 had significantly contributed to the OOP expenditure of the affected community in Kerala.The OOP health expenditure incurred was high, irrespective of the level of income. Governments should attempt to ensure comprehensive financial protection by covering the costs of care, along with loss of productivity.
Full Text Available The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016, where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d. there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013. Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe, and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources.
Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel Brandon; Sudre, Bertrand; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Brady, Oliver; Bogoch, Isaac I; Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Semenza, Jan C; Ong, Mark; Aaslav, Kaja Kaasik; Khan, Kamran
The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d.) there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013). Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe), and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barrett, P Noel; Terpening, Sara J; Snow, Doris; Cobb, Ronald R; Kistner, Otfried
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses. The utility of this platform in rapidly developing inactivated whole virus vaccines against pandemic (-like) influenza viruses and other emerging viruses such as West Nile, Chikungunya, Ross River and SARS is reviewed. The potential of the platform for development of vaccines against other emerging viruses such as Zika virus is described. Expert commentary: Use of this platform can substantially accelerate process development and facilitate licensure because of the substantial existing data set available for the cell matrix. However, programs to provide vaccines against emerging diseases must allow alternative clinical development paths to licensure, without the requirement to carry out large scale field efficacy studies.
Introduction: L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs associés aux échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes: Une étude transversale rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 5 mois en 2010, recrutant 222 enfants âgés de 1 à 18 ans et sous ...
Le chômage chez les jeunes constitue un problème de taille aussi bien pour les pays industrialisés que pour les pays en développement. L'Éthiopie ne fait pas exception. Quels sont les politiques et les programmes qui favorisent l'emploi des jeunes et quel rôle le secteur privé peut-il jouer à cet égard ? Le présent projet ...
Objectif : Décrire le profil des grossesses chez l'adolescente à l'hôpital de Tsévié (Togo). Matériel et méthode : Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive analytique portant sur les dossiers des parturientes âgées de 10 à 19 ans reçues à l'hôpital de Tsévié entre janvier 2011 et juin 2012. Résultats : Au cours de cette période, 180 ...
Roch, Sylvie; Thétaz, Alain; Balthazard, Pierre
Introduction : Le conflit sous-acromial est une pathologie fréquente qui touche une grande partie de la population. Quelques revues de la littérature recommandent une prise en charge spécifique, mais peu d’études proposent le taping comme adjuvant aux traitements préconisés. Ainsi ce travail de bachelor a pour objectif de déterminer les effets potentiels du taping chez une population adulte souffrant de conflit sous-acromial. Méthodologie : Notre recherche d’études s’est effectuée de janvier ...
Titre : Epidémiologie de l'infection urinaire chez l'enfant au CHU-Campus de Lomé. Objectif : Evaluer la prévalence et étudier l'épidémiologie des infections urinaires. Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective qui s'est déroulée du 1er janvier au 31décembre 2009, dans le service de pédiatrie du CHU-Campus de ...
... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...
... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...
El Mekki, A A; van der Groen, G
Yellow fever, dengue (types 1, 2 and 4), Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses were inoculated into susceptible cell cultures and daily investigated by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) and electron microscopy (EM) with a view to achieve an early detection-identification of these agents. Compared to the other cell lines tested (Vero, BHK-21 and Aedes albopictus), CV-1 cells were found to be more sensitive. Viral antigens were detected by IFA from a few hours post inoculation (CHIK and RVF) to a maximum of 3 days (YF and EBO). For most of the viruses studied, the cytopathic effect (CPE) commenced 2-3 days after the detection of viral antigens. Virus particles were detected by EM only in the case of EBO, MBG and LAS, before any CPE was observed in cell cultures.
Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.
ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral
Full Text Available L’autofiction chez Nelly Arcan, en plus de mettre en scène l’union atypique, bien que déjà vue, de l’écriture et de la prostitution, donne l’impression d’être tout entier un rassemblement de pensées opposées, incompatibles, en désordre. S’opposer à soi-même peut montrer l’existence d’un esprit critique, en plus de la capacité à pousser celui-ci au-delà du simple débat entre amis. La critique négative et la négativité de la critique pénètrent profondément le processus d’écriture dans les autofictions d’Arcan, Putain et Folle, et cette dernière possède définitivement un esprit critique. Par contre, celui-ci ne semble pas la source des oppositions qui caractérisent sa plume. La poétique de l’auteure semble en effet être fondée sur l’utilisation constante d’une série de contradictions. C’est dans la tension de l’exploration de ces contradictions, de la force de cette dialectique négative, qu’Arcan tente de faire éclater le sens des préjugés, de ce qui a été jugé d’avance sans aucun esprit critique, afin d’atteindre une conception et une compréhension qui seraient plus authentiques.
Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D.
Résumé Question Une fillette de 4 ans jouait avec le chien de ses voisins. Le chien s’est excité et a mordu la jeune fille à l’avant-bras, y laissant une plaie punctiforme. À cause cette blessure, elle s’est présentée à mon bureau. Devrais-je la traiter avec des antibiotiques? Quel antibiotique faut-il utiliser et pendant combien de temps? Réponse L’administration d’antibiotiques prophylactiques est indiquée lorsqu’on a procédé à une suture primitive de la morsure, que la plaie est de gravité modérée à sévère, qu’elle est punctiforme (particulièrement s’il y a eu pénétration de l’os, de la gaine tendineuse ou de l’articulation), pour les morsures au visage, aux mains, aux pieds ou aux parties génitales ou lorsque les victimes sont immunodéprimées ou souffrent d’asplénisme. L’antibiotique de première intention est l’amoxicilline-clavulanate. La prophylaxie appropriée antitétanique et contre la rage devrait faire partie des soins chez un patient qui a été mordu par un chien, tout comme le débridement local et le nettoyage complet de la plaie.
Marta G. Cavalcanti
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV transmission through non-mosquito-dependent routes has become increasingly important since reports of sexual transmission. Breastfeeding is a potential means of ZIKV transmission, but data on this remain limited. The cases of four mothers with laboratory-proven infections are reported. No disease evolved in three of the breastfed babies despite detectable maternal viremia and viruria, the presence of viral RNA shedding, and the isolation of infective particles in one milk sample. Fever and rash in one infant of a ZIKV-infected mother proved to be related to chikungunya virus infection. The results suggest that the presence of infective particles in breast milk may not be sufficient for the efficient perinatal transmission of ZIKV.
Ali, Sofia; Gugliemini, Olivia; Harber, Serena; Harrison, Alexandra; Houle, Lauren; Ivory, Javarcia; Kersten, Sierra; Khan, Rebia; Kim, Jenny; LeBoa, Chris; Nez-Whitfield, Emery; O'Marr, Jamieson; Rothenberg, Emma; Segnitz, R Max; Sila, Stephanie; Verwillow, Anna; Vogt, Miranda; Yang, Adrienne; Mordecai, Erin A
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission. Here, we review hypotheses and preliminary evidence for the environmental and social changes that have fueled the ZIKV epidemic. Potential drivers include climate variation, land use change, poverty, and human movement. Beyond the direct impact of microcephaly and GBS, the ZIKV epidemic will likely have social ramifications for women's health and economic consequences for tourism and beyond.
Full Text Available Since Zika virus (ZIKV was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV, which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission. Here, we review hypotheses and preliminary evidence for the environmental and social changes that have fueled the ZIKV epidemic. Potential drivers include climate variation, land use change, poverty, and human movement. Beyond the direct impact of microcephaly and GBS, the ZIKV epidemic will likely have social ramifications for women's health and economic consequences for tourism and beyond.
HARRIS P. D.
Full Text Available Les Gyrodactylidae sont des Monogènes vivipares, les embryons se développent de manière emboitée dans l'utérus maternel. Les premier et deuxième individus fils se développent sans auto, ni fécondation croisée ; seuls les troisième et suivants peuvent se développer sexuellement. L'importance relative de la reproduction sexuée, dépend de la structure d'âge de la population et de la mortalité. Chez Macrogyrodactylus polypteri, le développement postnatal de l'appareil génital femelle facilite la fécondation croisée chez tous les individus suivant la seconde naissance. La reproduction asexuée maximise la croissance de la population mais la sexualité intervient régulièrement. Gyrdicotylus gallieni, qui parasite la bouche de Xenopus laevis, présente une croissance exceptionnellement lente de la population et les populations parasites sont surtout composées d'individus âgés et sexuellement matures. Isancistrum subulatae, parasite du Calmar Alloteuthis subulata, forme d'importantes populations, mais leur croissance est probablement lente, et la structure d'âge suggère que la sexualité est courante. Chez Gyrodactylus, plusieurs stratégies existent. Gyrodactylus turnbulli, chez les Guppis, a une courte durée de vie et manifeste une mortalité spécifique croissant exponentiellement avec l'âge, de telle sorte que moins d'un pour cent survivent assez longtemps pour donner une troisième naissance. La reproduction est principalement asexuée mais le sexe intervient dans les populations de très fortes densités. Dans la nature la reproduction asexuée prédomine sans doute et cette espèce peut être considérée comme cycliquement parthénogénétique. Chez le saumon, Gyrodactylus salaris, présente des mortalités faibles et 10-15% des survivants se reproduisent sexuellement. Des individus fécondés sont trouvés même dans les faibles infestations et la sexualité est habituelle dans la biologie de cette espèce. Chez
Full Text Available Cette recherche qualitative exploratoire vise à mettre à jour les impacts psychosociaux possibles de consommation de pornographie homosexuelle masculine à travers les discours de 20 usagers gais de Toronto (Canada. La consommation de pornographie semble plus acceptée et normalisée chez les hommes gais que chez les hommes hétérosexuels. Une telle consommation peut avoir une incidence sur certains aspects de la santé sexuelle et de la santé mentale. L'analyse thématique du corpus de nos données nous révèle que les impacts peuvent se faire sentir au niveau de l'apprentissage, de l'édification de la fantasmatique, de la validation de la sexualité entre hommes, de l'ingérence dans la vie sexuelle et enfin, sur l'habituation et sur l'image de soi/image corporelle. À l'aide de l’analyse critique de discours, nous avons pu documenter les discours sociaux plus larges en jeu dans les récits des usagers et voir de quelle façon ils se positionnent à l'intérieur de ces mêmes discours.
Dans cette étude, nous avons comparé l’activité insulinosécrétoire des îlots de Langerhans isolés du rat Wistar et du rat des sables, afin de déterminer les variation interspécifiques. Nos résultats préliminaires indiquent que l'effet le plus probant est observé en présence de l’IL-1b. En effet, cette cytokine stimule la sécrétion d’insuline de manière dose-dépendante également chez le rat des sables; toutefois, l'amplitude de la réponse est plus prononcée chez le rongeur désertique, avec une augmentation du taux de l’insuline libérée de l’ordre de 147%, en présence d’une concentration de 20 UI/ml de l’IL-1b, comparée à la sécrétion basale. Quant à l’IL-2, nous n’avons enregistré aucune modification dans l’activité insulinosécrétoire des 2 espèces.
Boukind, S.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.
Summary L’association brûlure et épilepsie est une constatation fréquente au Maroc. Ces brûlures, souvent itératives, touchent le plus souvent des femmes jeunes de milieu rural. L’accident survient habituellement au domicile, le plus souvent dans la cuisine à la suite d’une chute sur un moyen de cuisson posé au sol. Elles peuvent être inaugurales de la maladie mais surviennent plus souvent chez des patients connus mais au traitement mal suivi. Les conséquences de ces brûlures, toujours profondes, sont souvent dramatiques en termes de séquelles, chez des patients ayant déjà une insertion sociale rendue difficile par l’épilepsie. La prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et concerner à la fois la brûlures et l’épilepsie. Des mesures de prévention simples, visant à équilibrer l’épilepsie et éviter au patient de se trouver seul à proximité d’une source de chaleur, doivent être mises en place. PMID:27252613
Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Full Text Available Objective: There are limited studies in Latin America regarding the chronic consequences of the Chikungunya virus (CHIK, such as post-CHIK chronic inflammatory rheumatism (pCHIK-CIR. We assessed the largest cohort so far of pCHIK-CIR in Latin America, at the municipality of La Virginia, Risaralda, a new endemic area of CHIK in Colombia. Methods: We conducted a cohort retrospective study in Colombia of 283 patients diagnosed with CHIK that persisted with pCHIK-CIR after a minimum of 6 weeks and up to a maximum of 26.1 weeks. pCHIK cases were identified according to validated criteria via telephone. Results: Of the total CHIK-infected subjects, 152 (53.7% reported persistent rheumatological symptoms (pCHIK-CIR. All of these patients reported joint pains (chronic polyarthralgia, pCHIK-CPA, 49.5% morning stiffness, 40.6% joint edema, and 16.6% joint redness. Of all patients, 19.4% required and attended for care prior to the current study assessment (1.4% consulting rheumatologists. Significant differences in the frequency were observed according to age groups and gender. Patients aged >40 years old required more medical attention (39.5% than those ≤40 years-old (12.1% (RR=4.748, 95%CI 2.550-8.840. Conclusions: According to our results, at least half of the patients with CHIK developed chronic rheumatologic sequelae, and from those with pCHIK-CPA, nearly half presented clinical symptoms consistent with inflammatory forms of the disease. These results support previous estimates obtained from pooled data of studies in La Reunion (France and India and are consistent with the results published previously from other Colombian cohorts in Venadillo (Tolima and Since (Sucre.
Full Text Available Since its emergence in 2007 in Micronesia and Polynesia, the arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV has spread in the Americas and the Caribbean, following first detection in Brazil in May 2015. The risk of ZIKV emergence in Europe increases as imported cases are repeatedly reported. Together with chikungunya virus (CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV, ZIKV is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Any countries where these mosquitoes are present could be potential sites for future ZIKV outbreak. We assessed the vector competence of European Aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV.Two populations of Ae. aegypti from the island of Madeira (Funchal and Paul do Mar and two populations of Ae. albopictus from France (Nice and Bar-sur-Loup were challenged with an Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Fully engorged mosquitoes were then maintained in insectary conditions (28°±1°C, 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 16-24 mosquitoes from each population were examined at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-infection to estimate the infection rate, disseminated infection rate and transmission efficiency. Based on these experimental infections, we demonstrated that Ae. albopictus from France were not very susceptible to ZIKV.In combination with the restricted distribution of European Ae. albopictus, our results on vector competence corroborate the low risk for ZIKV to expand into most parts of Europe with the possible exception of the warmest regions bordering the Mediterranean coastline.
Hjira, Naoufal; Frikh, Rachid; Marcil, Tarik; Lamsyah, Hanane; Oumakhir, Siham; Baba, Noureddine; Boui, Mohammed
Connue au Maroc depuis la fin du XIX siècle, la leishmaniose cutanée (LC) constitue un problème de santé publique dans notre pays. Le but de notre travail est de décrire le profil épidémioclinique et l’évolution post thérapeutique chez les patients ayant une leishmaniose cutanée dans notre contexte. Nous avons effectué une étude rétrospective, basée sur l'exploitation des dossiers de malades ayant présenté une leishmaniose cutanée confirmée entre janvier 2003 et décembre 2012. Nous avons colligés 157 cas de leishmaniose cutanée. L’âge moyen des patients était de 34.5 ans avec des extrêmes de 6 ans à 63 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 2.34 H/F. La durée d’évolution moyenne des lésions était de 3,6 mois avec des extrêmes de 2 semaines à 10 mois. Les lésions étaient uniques dans 29.5% des cas. Les lésions siégeaient sur membres dans 63%. La forme ulcèro- croûteuse touchait plus de 48%. Le Glucantime était utilisé dans 29.3% des cas, l'azote liquide était utilisé chez 111 autres. L’évolution post-thérapeutique était favorable avec disparition quasi-complète des lésions dans un délai variant de 6 à 10 semaines, au prix de cicatrices inesthétiques chez 14 patients. La leishmaniose cutanée continue à poser un vrai problème de santé publique dans notre pays. L’émergence de formes sévères et résistantes à travers le monde doit inciter à multiplier et renforcer les mesures prophylactiques. PMID:25309671
Blagrove, Marcus S C; Caminade, Cyril; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Sutton, Elizabeth R; Wardeh, Maya; Baylis, Matthew
Mosquito-borne viruses have been estimated to cause over 100 million cases of human disease annually. Many methodologies have been developed to help identify areas most at risk from transmission of these viruses. However, generally, these methodologies focus predominantly on the effects of climate on either the vectors or the pathogens they spread, and do not consider the dynamic interaction between the optimal conditions for both vector and virus. Here, we use a new approach that considers the complex interplay between the optimal temperature for virus transmission, and the optimal climate for the mosquito vectors. Using published geolocated data we identified temperature and rainfall ranges in which a number of mosquito vectors have been observed to co-occur with West Nile virus, dengue virus or chikungunya virus. We then investigated whether the optimal climate for co-occurrence of vector and virus varies between "warmer" and "cooler" adapted vectors for the same virus. We found that different mosquito vectors co-occur with the same virus at different temperatures, despite significant overlap in vector temperature ranges. Specifically, we found that co-occurrence correlates with the optimal climatic conditions for the respective vector; cooler-adapted mosquitoes tend to co-occur with the same virus in cooler conditions than their warmer-adapted counterparts. We conclude that mosquitoes appear to be most able to transmit virus in the mosquitoes' optimal climate range, and hypothesise that this may be due to proportionally over-extended vector longevity, and other increased fitness attributes, within this optimal range. These results suggest that the threat posed by vector-competent mosquito species indigenous to temperate regions may have been underestimated, whilst the threat arising from invasive tropical vectors moving to cooler temperate regions may be overestimated.
Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?
Full Text Available The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015 meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.
Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I
Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...
... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Definitive diagnosis through detection of viral RNA is possible in serum or plasma within 10 days of disease onset, in whole blood within 3 weeks of onset, and in semen for up to 3 months. Serological diagnosis is nonetheless critical because few patients have access to molecular diagnostics during the acute phase of infection and infection may be associated with only mild or inapparent disease that does not prompt molecular testing. Serological diagnosis is confounded by cross-reactivity of immune sera with other flaviviruses endemic in the areas where ZIKV has recently emerged. Accordingly, we built a high-density microarray comprising nonredundant 12-mer peptides that tile, with one-residue overlap, the proteomes of Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Ilheus, Oropouche, and chikungunya viruses. Serological analysis enabled discovery of a ZIKV NS2B 20-residue peptide that had high sensitivity (96.0% and specificity (95.9% versus natural infection with or vaccination against dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, or Japanese encephalitis virus in a microarray assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA of early-convalescent-phase sera (2 to 3 weeks after onset of symptomatic infection.
Full Text Available Les IGF, leurs récepteurs et leurs protéines de liaison constituent une famille moléculaire qui joue un rôle essentiel dans la régulation de la croissance et du développement. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation moléculaire de l'IGF-l et de son récepteur (IGF-1R chez le turbot (Psetta maxima, un poisson plat téléostéen. Par RT-PCR, nous avons clone un ADNc codant pour les quatre domaines de l'IGF-l mature. La protéine présente 70 à 96 % d'identité avec les autres IGF-I de vertébrés. Le clonage de la séquence codante entière du récepteur a nécessité la construction d'une banque d'ADNc d'embryons de turbots. Le récepteur est organisé en domaines dont la taille et les caractéristiques sont semblables à celles des autres récepteurs aux IGF de type 1 décrits chez les mammifères et le poulet. La région catalytique est particulièrement conservée. Dans certains domaines, notamment dans la région C-terminale du précurseur, quelques différences qui pourraient avoir une importance fonctionnelle sont cependant observées. Enfin, par RT-PCR, nous avons mis en évidence une régulation ontogénique du statut de polyadénylation des ARNm IGF-1R.
O'Campo, Patricia; Hwang, Stephen W; Gozdzik, Agnes; Schuler, Andrée; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Poremski, Daniel; Lazgare, Luis Ivan Palma; Distasio, Jino; Belbraouet, Slimane; Addorisio, Sindi
Individuals experiencing homelessness are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. The At Home/Chez Soi study provides a unique opportunity to first examine baseline levels of food security among homeless individuals with mental illness and second to evaluate the effect of a Housing First (HF) intervention on food security in this population. At Home/Chez Soi was a 2-year randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of HF compared with usual care among homeless adults with mental illness, stratified by level of need for mental health services (high or moderate). Logistic regressions tested baseline associations between food security (US Food Security Survey Module), study site, sociodemographic variables, duration of homelessness, alcohol/substance use, physical health and service utilization. Negative binomial regression determined the impact of the HF intervention on achieving levels of high or marginal food security over an 18-month follow-up period (6 to 24 months). Community settings at five Canadian sites (Moncton, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver). Homeless adults with mental illness (n 2148). Approximately 41 % of our sample reported high or marginal food security at baseline, but this figure varied with gender, age, mental health issues and substance use problems. High need participants who received HF were more likely to achieve marginal or high food security than those receiving usual care, but only at the Toronto and Moncton sites. Our large multi-site study demonstrated low levels of food security among homeless experiencing mental illness. HF showed promise for improving food security among participants with high levels of need for mental health services, with notable site differences.
Ben Thabet, Jihène; Jaoua, Feriel; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Maalej, Mohamed
Introduction La démence peut retentir lourdement sur les aidants familiaux du patient. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de déterminer le niveau de fardeau et de la dépression chez les aidants familiaux de sujets déments, et d'identifier les facteurs associés à un niveau de fardeau élevé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une enquête auprès de 65 aidants tunisiens. Les niveaux de fardeau et de la dépression ont été évalués par, respectivement, l'inventaire de Zarit et l’échelle de Beck. Résultats Le taux des aidants qui avaient un niveau de fardeau élevé était de 52,3 %. Une dépression modérée ou sévère a été relevée chez 46,2 %. Un niveau de fardeau élevé était corrélé, du côté de l'aidant, avec le niveau socio-économique moyen à élevé, la cohabitation avec le patient, le fait d’être son conjoint, la réduction des activités quotidiennes et la sévérité de la dépression, et, du côté du dément, avec l'agressivité. Conclusion Les facteurs corrélés à un niveau de fardeau élevé orientent vers les cibles d'intervention et sont susceptibles d’être améliorés par la prise en charge, ce qui contribuerait à alléger la détresse des aidants. PMID:22384291
Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Kahn, A.; Pierce, S. A.; Wang, S.; Wade, C.; Moran, S.
With the continued spread of the zika virus in the United States in both Florida and Virginia, increased public awareness, prevention and targeted prediction is necessary to effectively mitigate further infection and propagation of the virus throughout the human population. The goal of this project is to utilize publicly accessible data and HPC resources coupled with machine learning algorithms to identify potential threat vectors for the spread of the zika virus in Texas, the United States and globally by correlating available zika case data collected from incident reports in medical databases (e.g., CDC, Florida Department of Health) with known bodies of water in various earth science databases (e.g., USGS NAQWA Data, NASA ASTER Data, TWDB Data) and by using known mosquito population centers as a proxy for trends in population distribution (e.g., WHO, European CDC, Texas Data) while correlating historical trends in the spread of other mosquito borne diseases (e.g., chikungunya, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, west nile, etc.). The resulting analysis should refine the identification of the specific threat vectors for the spread of the virus which will correspondingly increase the effectiveness of the limited resources allocated towards combating the disease through better strategic implementation of defense measures. The minimal outcome of this research is a better understanding of the factors involved in the spread of the zika virus, with the greater potential to save additional lives through more effective resource utilization and public outreach.
Full Text Available Le style d’Araki se caractérise par un usage massif de la double-page, loin de l’usage ponctuel que l’on trouve habituellement dans les shonen. Elle témoigne d’une forme d’ubris qui se fait norme de composition c’est-à-dire qu’elle érige le principe de débordement en règle de structuration de l’action et des planches Elle est ainsi la marque de la démesure d’un auteur qui, sous l’apparence du manga populaire, et à travers les codes de ce dernier, élabore une œuvre d’une puissance et d’une sophistication rares..
Pour appréhender ce phénomène, il nous faut d’abord observer concrètement l’usage que fait Hirohiko Araki de la double-page, les lieux du récit que celle-ci investit, la fréquence de ses manifestations, et la manière dont elle caractérise les différentes parties de la saga Jojo’s bizarre Adventure. L’ubris de la double-page met alors particulièrement en relief deux éléments centraux de la poétique d’Hirohiko Araki : le corps et le temps. La double-page apparaît comme la réponse matérielle à ces corps qui débordent de la page classique, qui éclatent ou se dispersent de telle sorte que l’auteur doit étendre les limites de ce cadre pour les représenter. Le temps entre lui en scène à travers le détail : la double-page devient le règne d’un détail sur lequel le lecteur passe trop vite et auquel le héros accorde toute son attention. Enfin, la double-page possède chez Hirohiko Araki une dimension proprement esthétique que révèle clairement l’usage presque absolu qui en est fait dans la septième partie de Jojo’s bizarre Adventure, Steel Ball Run, et dans le volume Rohan au Louvre, même si l’on peut la deviner déjà auparavant. La double-page est un moment où l’énigme se présente au héros, se met en mouvement ou se trouve élucidée. Le règne de l’ubris s’affirme là, dans ces doubles-pages qui n’en sont finalement plus, dans cette
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Les dysthyroïdies chez l’hémodialysé chronique sont représentées par une hypothyroïdie: dite le syndrome de basse T3, actuellement nommée "le syndrome de la maladie euthyroïdienne". L’objectif de notre travail est de déterminer le profil thyroïdien de nos HDC afin de préciser la prévalence des différents troubles thyroïdiens dans notre population et de dégager les facteurs prédictifs, aussi on a précisé l’évolution sur une période de 3 ans. METHODES: Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée en Mars 2007 concernant 68 patients adultes en hémodialyse périodique. Nous avons analysé les paramètres anthropométriques, cliniques et biologiques. Le dosage des hormones thyroïdiennes ((triiodothyronine libre FT3, (thyroxine libre FT4 et (thyréostimuline ultra-sensible TSHus s’est effectué selon la méthode radio-immunologique. Nous avons comparé 2 groupes de patients avec et sans dysthyroïdie (définie par un taux anormal de FT3 et/ou de FT4 et/ou de TSH afin de dégager les facteurs de risque. On a réalisé une surveillance biologique des hormones thyroïdiennes pendant 3 ans afin de préciser l’incidence des différents troubles thyroïdiens dans la même population. RESULTATS: Tous les patients sont en euthyroïdie clinique. On n’a noté aucun cas de goitre. Le profil thyroïdien est caractérisé par une hypothyroïdie biologique, la prévalence était de 28%. Nous n'avons pas trouvé des cas d'hyperthyroïdie. L'étude comparative des deux groupes de malades biologiquement euthyroïdiens et hypothyroïdiens a révèle le syndrome inflammatoire (p=0.001, l’âge avancé (p=0.003, et la durée prolongée en hémodialyse (p=0.04 comme des facteurs de risque liés à l’hypothyroïdie biologique. Deux HDC ont nécessité un traitement hormonal substitutif vu le contexte du diabète dans un cas et de la grossesse dans l’autre cas. Le suivi biologique pendant trois ans n’a r
Chez le chat, l'hémogramme est un examen complémentaire parfois difficile à interpréter aux vues des nombreuses difficultés d'ordre pré-analytique et analytique potentielle. Parmi elles, on retiendra la forte tendance des plaquettes à s'agréger in vitro, surtout sur EDTA-dépendante, une nouvelle molécule antiagrégante a montré son intérêt : le CTAD (Citrate, Théophylline, Adénosine et Dipyridamole). Dans notre étude, l'utilisation de l'association EDTA et CTAD chez 46 chats sains, en éliminan...
La germination, les paramètres de croissance ainsi que les paramètres biochimiques, sont comparés chez deux variétés de tomate (Campbell 33 et Mongal) soumises à des concentrations croissantes de NaCl. (0,17, 50, 85 et 130 mM). Le pourcentage de germination des graines diminue avec l'augmentation de la salinité ...
7 juil. 2016 ... Gordon Betcherman, professeur à l'École de développement international et mondialisation de l'Université d'Ottawa et coauteur du Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2013 : Emplois publié par la Banque mondiale, a évoqué la nécessité d'enrichir les connaissances au sujet du chômage chez ...
Weiner , L.; Baratta , A.; Henry , J.; Di Santi , C.
Resume Nous allons illustrer a partir d?un cas clinique les procedures diagnostiques des troubles du spectre autistique chez l?adulte, inspirees des theories neurocognitives actuelles. Nous relatons le cas d?un homme de 29 ans recu en consultation psychiatrique. Le diagnostic initialement retenu etait celui de personnalite evitante, compliquee de phobie sociale et d?un trouble depressif intercurrent. Malgre la diminution des symptomes anxieux et depressifs apres l?instauration d?un...
Cláudia Herte de Moraes
Full Text Available We understand that the Environmental Journalism can be seen as part of the Risk Communication associated with the environment, since many conflicts derived from man-nature relationship become perceived danger or threat to life. In order to reflect on their role in the context of the risks, we analyze the coverage of Folha de S. Paulo about three diseases (dengue, chikungunya and zika, which can be related to the intensification of climate change. With the theoretical and methodological orientation of Discourse Analysis, we conclude that the approach is based on scientific sources, foreign and Discursive formations that link the prospects of technological optimism, scientific uncertainty and caution.
Full Text Available Cet article se propose de retracer les étapes d’un projet d’écriture qui se rattache historiquement aux mouvances internationales de la poésie concrète comme à l’émergence d’une poétique de l’iconicité chez l’avant-garde nord-américaine du vingtième siècle. Le matérialisme dont se réclame la poésie de Steve McCaffery se traduit dans son œuvre typographique Carnival (1967-75 par une pratique mettant en jeu la lettre, le plus petit dénominateur de la langue, et la page, qui doit se laisser transformer pour que se réalise un nouvel espace de signification poétique. Le dialogue qui se joue entre le lisible et le visible prend forme grâce à un répertoire de techniques expérimenté avec la machine à écrire et de concert avec le lecteur, devenu acteur de l’œuvre poétique. La pratique architecturale du poème-panneau chez McCaffery sera envisagée dans son rapport actuel avec le prolongement des problématiques de la poésie visuelle chez l’avant-garde nord-américaine.
Full Text Available The mosquito nuisance and the mosquito borne diseases have become major important challenging public health problems in India especially in the fast developing city like Pondicherry urban agglomeration. The Pondicherry government has been implemented full-fledged mosquito control measures, however, dengue and chikungunya epidemics was accelerating trend in Pondicherry for the recent years, and therefore, the directorate of public health, Pondicherry was requested vector control research centre (VCRC, to conduct a mosquito control evaluation survey. A team of field staff of VCRC headed by the author, Pondicherry, have conducted a detailed reconnaissance survey for collecting the site specifications of houses and the streetwise mosquito data for analyzing the density of vector mosquitoes in the wards / blocks and delineating the areas vulnerable to disease epidemics in the urban areas. The GPS GARMIN 12 XL was used to collect the field data. The ARC GIS 10.0 software was used to map the site locations (houses with mosquito’s data. The digital map of block boundary of Pondicherry was used for mapping purpose. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquito genic condition in the urban areas and the coordinates of sites of house information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping. The four blocks were selected for Aedes mosquito survey where the mosquito problem was identified as comparatively high, four numbers of wards were selected from each block, and the 40 number of houses was selected with 100 meter interval distance for mosquito breeding survey in the domestic and peripheral domestic areas in each wards. The problematic areas were identified, highlighted and recommended for web mapping GIS for Aedes mosquito surveillance continuously for monitoring the mosquito control
Gobbi, Federico; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Giobbia, Mario; Conforto, Mario; Franzetti, Marzia; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Raise, Enzo; Rovere, Pierangelo; Mulatti, Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Drago, Andrea; Barzon, Luisa; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Zanella, Francesca; Pozza, Francesca; Russo, Francesca; Rosi, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno
Since 2010 Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy) planned a special integrated surveillance of summer fevers to promptly identify cases of West Nile Fever (WNF), dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). The objectives of this study were (i) To increase the detection rate of imported CHIKV and DENV cases in travellers from endemic areas and promptly identify potential autochthonous cases.(ii) To detect autochthonous cases of WNF, besides those of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) that were already included in a national surveillance. Human surveillance: a traveler who had returned within the previous 15 days from endemic countries, with fever >38°C, absence of leucocytosis (leukocyte count 38°C for Entomologic surveillance: for West Nile (WNV) it was carried out from May through November placing CDC-CO2 traps in five provinces of Veneto Region, while for DENV and CHIKV it was also performed around residences of viremic cases. Human surveillance: between 2010 and 2012, 234 patients with fever after travelling were screened, of which 27 (11,5%) were found infected (24 with DENV and 3 with CHIKV). No autochthonous case of DENV or CHIKV was detected. Autochthonous patients screened for WNF were 408, and 24 (5,9%) were confirmed cases. Entomologic surveillance: the WNV was found in 10, 2 and 11 pools of Culex pipiens from 2010 to 2012 respectively, in sites of Rovigo, Verona, Venezia and Treviso provinces). No infected Aedes albopictus with DENV or CHIKV was found. Veneto is the only Italian region reporting WNV human cases every year since 2008. WNV is likely to cause sporadic cases and unforeseeable outbreaks for decades. Including WNF in surveillance provides additional information and possibly an early alert system. Timely detection of DENV and CHIKV should prompt vector control measures to prevent local outbreaks.
Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C
Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.
Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad
ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern. ZIKV shares not only its vector Aedes aegypti with dengue and chikungunya but also the geographic distribution and clinical features, which makes the laboratory confirmation mandatory for definitive diagnosis. The serological cross-reactivity with other Flavivirus, particularly with DENV makes laboratory confirmation challenging and will place additional burden on health systems to establish molecular diagnostic facilities. The evidence of additional nonvector modes of transmission, such as perinatal, sexual as well as transfusion has made preventative strategies more difficult. As ZIKV disease continues to mystify us with several unanswered questions, it calls for coordinated effort of global scientific community to address the ever growing arboviral threat to mankind.