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Sample records for virus capsid protein

  1. Properties and Functions of the Dengue Virus Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Laura A; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2016-09-29

    Dengue virus affects hundreds of millions of people each year around the world, causing a tremendous social and economic impact on affected countries. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the functions, structure, and interactions of the viral capsid protein. The primary role of capsid is to package the viral genome. There are two processes linked to this function: the recruitment of the viral RNA during assembly and the release of the genome during infection. Although particle assembly takes place on endoplasmic reticulum membranes, capsid localizes in nucleoli and lipid droplets. Why capsid accumulates in these locations during infection remains unknown. In this review, we describe available data and discuss new ideas on dengue virus capsid functions and interactions. We believe that a deeper understanding of how the capsid protein works during infection will create opportunities for novel antiviral strategies, which are urgently needed to control dengue virus infections.

  2. Drosophila Nora virus capsid proteins differ from those of other picorna-like viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Jens-Ola; Habayeb, Mazen S; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Kieselbach, Thomas; Wingsle, Gunnar; Hultmark, Dan

    2011-09-01

    The recently discovered Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster is a single-stranded RNA virus. Its published genomic sequence encodes a typical picorna-like cassette of replicative enzymes, but no capsid proteins similar to those in other picorna-like viruses. We have now done additional sequencing at the termini of the viral genome, extending it by 455 nucleotides at the 5' end, but no more coding sequence was found. The completeness of the final 12,333-nucleotide sequence was verified by the production of infectious virus from the cloned genome. To identify the capsid proteins, we purified Nora virus particles and analyzed their proteins by mass spectrometry. Our results show that the capsid is built from three major proteins, VP4A, B and C, encoded in the fourth open reading frame of the viral genome. The viral particles also contain traces of a protein from the third open reading frame, VP3. VP4A and B are not closely related to other picorna-like virus capsid proteins in sequence, but may form similar jelly roll folds. VP4C differs from the others and is predicted to have an essentially α-helical conformation. In a related virus, identified from EST database sequences from Nasonia parasitoid wasps, VP4C is encoded in a separate open reading frame, separated from VP4A and B by a frame-shift. This opens a possibility that VP4C is produced in non-equimolar quantities. Altogether, our results suggest that the Nora virus capsid has a different protein organization compared to the order Picornavirales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific cross-linking of capsid proteins to virus RNA by ultraviolet irradiation of polio virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetz, K.; Habermehl, K.O. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    Poliovirus was irradiated with u.v. light under conditions causing approx. 5% cross-linking of capsid protein to virus RNA. Cross-linked RNA-protein complexes, freed from unbound protein, were treated with nuclease, and then analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The smallest capsid polypeptide VP4 was found to be associated with the RNA to the greatest degree, followed by VP2 and VP1, while VP3 was attached only in trace amounts. Low radiation doses, which produced cross-linking of RNA to protein, did not cause breakdown of the virus particles or conformational changes of the capsid as examined physically and serologically. However, higher doses caused structural alterations of the virus capsid.

  4. Specific cross-linking of capsid proteins to virus RNA by ultraviolet irradiation of polio virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetz, K.; Habermehl, K.-O.

    1982-01-01

    Poliovirus was irradiated with u.v. light under conditions causing approx. 5% cross-linking of capsid protein to virus RNA. Cross-linked RNA-protein complexes, freed from unbound protein, were treated with nuclease, and then analysed on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The smallest capsid polypeptide VP4 was found to be associated with the RNA to the greatest degree, followed by VP2 and VP1, while VP3 was attached only in trace amounts. Low radiation doses, which produced cross-linking of RNA to protein, did not cause breakdown of the virus particles or conformational changes of the capsid as examined physically and serologically. However, higher doses caused structural alterations of the virus capsid. (author)

  5. Intracellular cargo delivery by virus capsid protein-based vehicles: From nano to micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Men, Dong; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Cellular delivery is an important concern for the efficiency of medicines and sensors for disease diagnoses and therapy. However, this task is quite challenging. Self-assembly virus capsid proteins might be developed as building blocks for multifunctional cellular delivery vehicles. In this work, we found that SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein) could function as a new cell-penetrating protein. The VP1 protein could carry foreign proteins into cells in a pentameric structure. A double color structure, with red QDs (Quantum dots) encapsulated by viral capsids fused with EGFP, was created for imaging cargo delivery and release from viral capsids. The viral capsids encapsulating QDs were further used for cellular delivery of micron-sized iron oxide particles (MPIOs). MPIOs were efficiently delivered into live cells and controlled by a magnetic field. Therefore, our study built virus-based cellular delivery systems for different sizes of cargos: protein molecules, nanoparticles, and micron-sized particles. Much research is being done to investigate methods for efficient and specific cellular delivery of drugs, proteins or genetic material. In this article, the authors describe their approach in using self-assembly virus capsid proteins SV40 VP1 (Simian virus 40 major capsid protein). The cell-penetrating behavior provided excellent cellular delivery and should give a new method for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  7. Functional requirements of the yellow fever virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Chinmay G; Jones, Christopher T; Chang, Yu-hsuan; Warrier, Ranjit; Kuhn, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    Although it is known that the flavivirus capsid protein is essential for genome packaging and formation of infectious particles, the minimal requirements of the dimeric capsid protein for virus assembly/disassembly have not been characterized. By use of a trans-packaging system that involved packaging a yellow fever virus (YFV) replicon into pseudo-infectious particles by supplying the YFV structural proteins using a Sindbis virus helper construct, the functional elements within the YFV capsid protein (YFC) were characterized. Various N- and C-terminal truncations, internal deletions, and point mutations of YFC were analyzed for their ability to package the YFV replicon. Consistent with previous reports on the tick-borne encephalitis virus capsid protein, YFC demonstrates remarkable functional flexibility. Nearly 40 residues of YFC could be removed from the N terminus while the ability to package replicon RNA was retained. Additionally, YFC containing a deletion of approximately 27 residues of the C terminus, including a complete deletion of C-terminal helix 4, was functional. Internal deletions encompassing the internal hydrophobic sequence in YFC were, in general, tolerated to a lesser extent. Site-directed mutagenesis of helix 4 residues predicted to be involved in intermonomeric interactions were also analyzed, and although single mutations did not affect packaging, a YFC with the double mutation of leucine 81 and valine 88 was nonfunctional. The effects of mutations in YFC on the viability of YFV infection were also analyzed, and these results were similar to those obtained using the replicon packaging system, thus underscoring the flexibility of YFC with respect to the requirements for its functioning.

  8. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  9. Structural basis for the development of avian virus capsids that display influenza virus proteins and induce protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P; Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Nieto, Amelia; Carrascosa, José L; Castón, José R

    2015-03-01

    Bioengineering of viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) is a well-established approach in the development of new and improved vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. We report here that the capsid of a major avian pathogen, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), can accommodate heterologous proteins to induce protective immunity. The structural units of the ~70-nm-diameter T=13 IBDV capsid are trimers of VP2, which is made as a precursor (pVP2). The pVP2 C-terminal domain has an amphipathic α helix that controls VP2 polymorphism. In the absence of the VP3 scaffolding protein, 466-residue pVP2 intermediates bearing this α helix assemble into genuine VLPs only when expressed with an N-terminal His6 tag (the HT-VP2-466 protein). HT-VP2-466 capsids are optimal for protein insertion, as they are large enough (cargo space, ~78,000 nm(3)) and are assembled from a single protein. We explored HT-VP2-466-based chimeric capsids initially using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The VLP assembly yield was efficient when we coexpressed EGFP-HT-VP2-466 and HT-VP2-466 from two recombinant baculoviruses. The native EGFP structure (~240 copies/virion) was successfully inserted in a functional form, as VLPs were fluorescent, and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy showed that the EGFP molecules incorporated at the inner capsid surface. Immunization of mice with purified EGFP-VLPs elicited anti-EGFP antibodies. We also inserted hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M2) protein epitopes derived from the mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza virus and engineered several HA- and M2-derived chimeric capsids. Mice immunized with VLPs containing the HA stalk, an M2 fragment, or both antigens developed full protection against viral challenge. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multimeric protein cages that mimic the infectious virus capsid and are potential candidates as nonliving vaccines that induce long-lasting protection. Chimeric VLPs can display or include foreign

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins; analysis of protein processing, assembly and utility as vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. The infection is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the picornavirus family. The positive sense RNA genome of the virus includes a single, large......, open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein. The intact polyprotein is never observed as it is processed, both during and after translation, to 15 different mature proteins plus a variety of precursors. The FMDV capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus encoded 3C protease (3Cpro......) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1 and the peptide 2A. Sixty copies of each of the capsid proteins “self-assemble” into empty capsid particles or with the RNA genome into infectious viruses. These particles normally lack 2A but it is possible to construct and isolate mutant FMDVs in which the cleavage of the VP1/2A...

  11. Transient Bluetongue virus serotype 8 capsid protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertha R. van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants, and has recently caused several outbreaks in Europe. Current vaccines include live-attenuated and inactivated viruses; while these are effective, there is risk of reversion to virulence by mutation or reassortment with wild type viruses. Subunit or virus-like particle (VLP vaccines are safer options: VLP vaccines produced in insect cells by expression of the four BTV capsid proteins are protective against challenge; however, this is a costly production method. We investigated production of BTV VLPs in plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, an inexpensive production system very well suited to developing country use. Leaves infiltrated with recombinant pEAQ-HT vectors separately encoding the four BTV-8 capsid proteins produced more proteins than recombinant pTRA vectors. Plant expression using the pEAQ-HT vector resulted in both BTV-8 core-like particles (CLPs and VLPs; differentially controlling the concentration of infiltrated bacteria significantly influenced yield of the VLPs. In situ localisation of assembled particles was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and it was shown that a mixed population of core-like particles (CLPs, consisting of VP3 and VP7 and VLPs were present as paracrystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of plant cells co-expressing all four capsid proteins.

  12. Poliovirus-associated protein kinase: Destabilization of the virus capsid and stimulation of the phosphorylation reaction by Zn2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratka, M.; Lackmann, M.; Ueckermann, C.; Karlins, U.; Koch, G.

    1989-01-01

    The previously described poliovirus-associated protein kinase activity phosphorylates viral proteins VP0 and VP2 as well as exogenous proteins in the presence of Mg 2+ . In this paper, the effect of Zn 2+ on the phosphorylation reaction and the stability of the poliovirus capsid has been studied in detail and compared to that of Mg 2+ . In the presence of Zn 2+ , phosphorylation of capsid proteins VP2 and VP4 is significantly higher while phosphorylation of VP0 and exogenous phosphate acceptor proteins is not detected. The results indicate the activation of more than one virus-associated protein kinase by Zn 2+ . The ion-dependent behavior of the enzyme activities is observed independently of whether the virus was obtained from HeLa or green monkey kidney cells. The poliovirus capsid is destabilized by Zn 2+ . This alteration of the poliovirus capsid structure is a prerequisite for effective phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins. The increased level of phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins results in further destabilization of the viral capsid. As a result of the conformational changes, poliovirus-associated protein kinase activities dissociate from the virus particle. The authors suggest that the destabilizing effect of phosphorylation on the viral capsid plays a role in uncoating of poliovirus

  13. Effects of Point Mutations in the Major Capsid Protein of Beet Western Yellows Virus on Capsid Formation, Virus Accumulation, and Aphid Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, V.; Bergdoll, M.; Mutterer, J.; Prasad, V.; Pfeffer, S.; Erdinger, M.; Richards, K. E.; Ziegler-Graff, V.

    2003-01-01

    Point mutations were introduced into the major capsid protein (P3) of cloned infectious cDNA of the polerovirus beet western yellows virus (BWYV) by manipulation of cloned infectious cDNA. Seven mutations targeted sites on the S domain predicted to lie on the capsid surface. An eighth mutation eliminated two arginine residues in the R domain, which is thought to extend into the capsid interior. The effects of the mutations on virus capsid formation, virus accumulation in protoplasts and plants, and aphid transmission were tested. All of the mutants replicated in protoplasts. The S-domain mutant W166R failed to protect viral RNA from RNase attack, suggesting that this particular mutation interfered with stable capsid formation. The R-domain mutant R7A/R8A protected ∼90% of the viral RNA strand from RNase, suggesting that lower positive-charge density in the mutant capsid interior interfered with stable packaging of the complete strand into virions. Neither of these mutants systemically infected plants. The six remaining mutants properly packaged viral RNA and could invade Nicotiana clevelandii systemically following agroinfection. Mutant Q121E/N122D was poorly transmitted by aphids, implicating one or both targeted residues in virus-vector interactions. Successful transmission of mutant D172N was accompanied either by reversion to the wild type or by appearance of a second-site mutation, N137D. This finding indicates that D172 is also important for transmission but that the D172N transmission defect can be compensated for by a “reverse” substitution at another site. The results have been used to evaluate possible structural models for the BWYV capsid. PMID:12584348

  14. Biophysical characterization of the feline immunodeficiency virus p24 capsid protein conformation and in vitro capsid assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Serrière

    Full Text Available The Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV capsid protein p24 oligomerizes to form a closed capsid that protects the viral genome. Because of its crucial role in the virion, FIV p24 is an interesting target for the development of therapeutic strategies, although little is known about its structure and assembly. We defined and optimized a protocol to overexpress recombinant FIV capsid protein in a bacterial system. Circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the structure of the purified FIV p24 protein was comprised mainly of α-helices. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and cross-linking experiments demonstrated that p24 was monomeric at low concentration and dimeric at high concentration. We developed a protocol for the in vitro assembly of the FIV capsid. As with HIV, an increased ionic strength resulted in FIV p24 assembly in vitro. Assembly appeared to be dependent on temperature, salt concentration, and protein concentration. The FIV p24 assembly kinetics was monitored by DLS. A limit end-point diameter suggested assembly into objects of definite shapes. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, where FIV p24 assembled into spherical particles. Comparison of FIV p24 with other retroviral capsid proteins showed that FIV assembly is particular and requires further specific study.

  15. Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

  16. The two capsid proteins of maize rayado fino virus contain common peptide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, B W; Tsai, J H

    1986-01-01

    Virions of maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) were purified and two major capsid proteins (ca. Mr 29,000 and 22,000) were resolved by SDS-PAGE. When the two major capsid proteins were isolated from gels and compared by one-dimensional peptide mapping after digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease, indistinguishable peptide maps were obtained, suggesting that these two proteins contain common peptide sequences. Some preparations also showed minor protein components that were intermediate between the Mr 22,000 and Mr 29,000 capsid proteins. One of the minor proteins, ca. Mr 27,000, gave a peptide map indistinguishable from the major capsid proteins. In vitro ageing of partially purified preparations or virion treatment with proteolytic enzymes failed to show conversion of the Mr 29,000 protein to a Mr 22,000. Protease inhibitors added to the buffers used for virion purification did not affect the apparent 1:3 ratio of 29,000 to 22,000 proteins in the purified preparations.

  17. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X from Pakistan. Arshad Jamal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Munim Farooq, Zahida Qamar, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, M. Arshad Javed, Tayyab Husnain ...

  18. Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Susan C; Taylor, Adam; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh; Fazakerley, John K

    2017-10-20

    Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.

  19. Determination of prestress and elastic properties of virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankush

    2018-03-01

    Virus capsids are protein shells that protect the virus genome, and determination of their mechanical properties has been a topic of interest because of their potential use in nanotechnology and therapeutics. It has been demonstrated that stresses exist in virus capsids, even in their equilibrium state, due to their construction. These stresses, termed "prestresses" in this study, closely affect the capsid's mechanical behavior. Three methods—shape-based metric, atomic force microscope indentation, and molecular dynamics—have been proposed to determine the capsid elastic properties without fully accounting for prestresses. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the three methods used for mechanical characterization of virus capsids and numerically investigate how prestresses affect the capsid's mechanical properties. We consolidate all the results and propose that by using these techniques collectively, it is possible to accurately determine both the mechanical properties and prestresses in capsids.

  20. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Zlotnick, Adam

    2018-01-29

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. © 2017, Schlicksup et al.

  1. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  2. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  3. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (particle symmetry. We deduced that HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. PMID:29377794

  4. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  5. Characterization of Three Novel Linear Neutralizing B-Cell Epitopes in the Capsid Protein of Swine Hepatitis E Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyang; Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Li, Huixia; Du, Taofeng; Nan, Yuchen; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2018-04-18

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver disease in humans and is thought to be a zoonotic infection with domestic animals being a reservoir including swine and rabbits. One of the proteins encoded by the virus is the capsid protein. This is likely the major immune-dominant protein and a target for vaccination. Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); three novel; 1E4, 2C7, 2G9, and one previously characterized (1B5), were evaluated for binding to the capsid protein from genotype 4 (swine) hepatitis E virus (HEV). The results indicated that 625 DFCP 628 , 458 PSRPF 462 , and 407 EPTV 410 peptides on the capsid protein comprised minimal amino acid sequence motifs recognized by 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, respectively. The data suggested that 2C7 and 2G9 epitopes were partially exposed on the surface of the capsid protein. Truncated genotype 4 swine HEV capsid protein (sp239, amino acids 368-606), can exist in multimeric forms. Pre-incubation of swine HEV with 2C7, 2G9, or 1B5 before addition to HepG2 cells partially blocked sp239 cell binding and inhibited swine HEV infection. The study indicated that 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 partially blocked swine HEV infection of rabbits better than 1E4 or normal mouse IgG. The cross reactivity of antibodies suggested that capsid epitopes recognized by 2C7 and 2G9 are common to HEV strains infecting most host species. Collectively, MAbs 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 were shown to recognize three novel linear neutralizing B-cell epitopes of genotype 4 HEV capsid protein. These results enhance understanding of HEV capsid protein structure to guide vaccine and anti-viral design. IMPORTANCE Genotype 3 and 4 HEVs are zoonotic viruses. Here, genotype 4 HEV was studied due to its prevalence in human populations and pig herds in China. To improve HEV disease diagnosis and prevention, a better understanding of antigenic structure and neutralizing epitopes of HEV capsid protein are needed. In this study, the locations of three novel linear B-cell recognition epitopes within

  6. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  7. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  8. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam; Liu, Xiang; Zaid, Ali; Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Hall, Roy A; Merits, Andres; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2017-02-21

    Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design. IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain

  9. The Cellular Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 Is Required for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Precursor Processing and Assembly of Capsid Pentamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph; Asfor, Amin S; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Curry, Stephen; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2018-03-01

    Productive picornavirus infection requires the hijacking of host cell pathways to aid with the different stages of virus entry, synthesis of the viral polyprotein, and viral genome replication. Many picornaviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), assemble capsids via the multimerization of several copies of a single capsid precursor protein into a pentameric subunit which further encapsidates the RNA. Pentamer formation is preceded by co- and posttranslational modification of the capsid precursor (P1-2A) by viral and cellular enzymes and the subsequent rearrangement of P1-2A into a structure amenable to pentamer formation. We have developed a cell-free system to study FMDV pentamer assembly using recombinantly expressed FMDV capsid precursor and 3C protease. Using this assay, we have shown that two structurally different inhibitors of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) impeded FMDV capsid precursor processing and subsequent pentamer formation. Treatment of FMDV permissive cells with the hsp90 inhibitor prior to infection reduced the endpoint titer by more than 10-fold while not affecting the activity of a subgenomic replicon, indicating that translation and replication of viral RNA were unaffected by the drug. IMPORTANCE FMDV of the Picornaviridae family is a pathogen of huge economic importance to the livestock industry due to its effect on the restriction of livestock movement and necessary control measures required following an outbreak. The study of FMDV capsid assembly, and picornavirus capsid assembly more generally, has tended to be focused upon the formation of capsids from pentameric intermediates or the immediate cotranslational modification of the capsid precursor protein. Here, we describe a system to analyze the early stages of FMDV pentameric capsid intermediate assembly and demonstrate a novel requirement for the cellular chaperone hsp90 in the formation of these pentameric intermediates. We show the added complexity

  10. Promoter analysis of the Chilo iridescent virus DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalcacioglu, R.; Marks, H.; Vlak, J.M.; Demirbag, Z.; Oers, van M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The DNA polymerase (DNApol) and major capsid protein (MCP) genes were used as models to study promoter activity in Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). Infection of Bombyx mori SPC-BM-36 cells in the presence of inhibitors of DNA or protein synthesis showed that DNApol, as well as helicase, is an

  11. Dengue Virus Uses a Non-Canonical Function of the Host GBF1-Arf-COPI System for Capsid Protein Accumulation on Lipid Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Nestor G; Mondotte, Juan A; Byk, Laura A; De Maio, Federico A; Samsa, Marcelo M; Alvarez, Cecilia; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2015-09-01

    Dengue viruses cause the most important human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. In recent years, a great deal has been learned about molecular details of dengue virus genome replication; however, little is known about genome encapsidation and the functions of the viral capsid protein. During infection, dengue virus capsid progressively accumulates around lipid droplets (LDs) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we examined the process by which the viral capsid is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, where the protein is synthesized, to LDs. Using different methods of intervention, we found that the GBF1-Arf1/Arf4-COPI pathway is necessary for capsid transport to LDs, while the process is independent of both COPII components and Golgi integrity. The transport was sensitive to Brefeldin A, while a drug resistant form of GBF1 was sufficient to restore capsid subcellular distribution in infected cells. The mechanism by which LDs gain or lose proteins is still an open question. Our results support a model in which the virus uses a non-canonical function of the COPI system for capsid accumulation on LDs, providing new ideas for antiviral strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  13. Nucleolin Interacts with the Dengue Virus Capsid Protein and Plays a Role in Formation of Infectious Virus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, Corey A.; Schmeisser, Hana; Ganesan, Sundar; Singh, Kavita; Pierson, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease in humans and is considered a reemerging pathogen of significant importance to public health. The DENV capsid (C) protein functions as a structural component of the infectious virion; however, it may have additional functions in the virus replicative cycle. Here, we show that the DENV C protein interacts and colocalizes with the multifunctional host protein nucleolin (NCL). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction can be disrupted by the addition of an NCL binding aptamer (AS1411). Knockdown of NCL with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or treatment of cells with AS1411 results in a significant reduction of viral titers after DENV infection. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed no differences in viral RNA or protein levels at early time points postinfection, suggesting a role for NCL in viral morphogenesis. We support this hypothesis by showing that treatment with AS1411 alters the migration characteristics of the viral capsid, as visualized by native electrophoresis. Here, we identify a critical interaction between DENV C protein and NCL that represents a potential new target for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24027323

  14. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binds Core Histones and Inhibits Nucleosome Formation in Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection. PMID:21909430

  15. Revised Mimivirus major capsid protein sequence reveals intron-containing gene structure and extra domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan-Monti Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus (APM is the largest known dsDNA virus. The viral particle has a nearly icosahedral structure with an internal capsid shell surrounded with a dense layer of fibrils. A Capsid protein sequence, D13L, was deduced from the APM L425 coding gene and was shown to be the most abundant protein found within the viral particle. However this protein remained poorly characterised until now. A revised protein sequence deposited in a database suggested an additional N-terminal stretch of 142 amino acids missing from the original deduced sequence. This result led us to investigate the L425 gene structure and the biochemical properties of the complete APM major Capsid protein. Results This study describes the full length 3430 bp Capsid coding gene and characterises the 593 amino acids long corresponding Capsid protein 1. The recombinant full length protein allowed the production of a specific monoclonal antibody able to detect the Capsid protein 1 within the viral particle. This protein appeared to be post-translationnally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation. We proposed a secondary structure prediction of APM Capsid protein 1 compared to the Capsid protein structure of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, another member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA virus family. Conclusion The characterisation of the full length L425 Capsid coding gene of Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus provides new insights into the structure of the main Capsid protein. The production of a full length recombinant protein will be useful for further structural studies.

  16. Eclipse Phase of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: Efficient Dynein-Mediated Capsid Transport without the Small Capsid Protein VP26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhner, Katinka; Radtke, Kerstin; Schmidt, Simone; Sodeik, Beate

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein,together with its cofactor dynactin, transports incoming herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids along microtubules (MT) to the MT-organizing center (MTOC). From the MTOC, capsids move further to the nuclear pore, where the viral genome is released into the nucleoplasm. The small capsid protein VP26 can interact with the dynein light chains Tctex1 (DYNLT1) and rp3 (DYNLT3) and may recruit dynein to the capsid. Therefore, we analyzed nuclear targeting of incoming HSV1-ΔVP26 capsids devoid of VP26 and of HSV1-GFPVP26 capsids expressing a GFPVP26 fusion instead of VP26. To compare the cell entry of different strains, we characterized the inocula with respect to infectivity, viral genome content, protein composition, and particle composition. Preparations with a low particle-to-PFU ratio showed efficient nuclear targeting and were considered to be of higher quality than those containing many defective particles, which were unable to induce plaque formation. When cells were infected with HSV-1 wild type, HSV1-ΔVP26, or HSV1-GFPVP26, viral capsids were transported along MT to the nucleus. Moreover, when dynein function was inhibited by overexpression of the dynactin subunit dynamitin, fewer capsids of HSV-1 wild type, HSV1-ΔVP26, and HSV1-GFPVP26 arrived at the nucleus. Thus, even in the absence of the potential viral dynein receptor VP26, HSV-1 used MT and dynein for efficient nuclear targeting. These data suggest that besides VP26, HSV-1 encodes other receptors for dynein or dynactin. PMID:16873277

  17. Inner tegument proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus are sufficient for intracellular capsid motility in neurons but not for axonal targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Oliver; Ivanova, Lyudmila; Bialy, Dagmara; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Hegemann, Maike; Viejo-Borbolla, Abel; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Upon reactivation from latency and during lytic infections in neurons, alphaherpesviruses assemble cytosolic capsids, capsids associated with enveloping membranes, and transport vesicles harboring fully enveloped capsids. It is debated whether capsid envelopment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is completed in the soma prior to axonal targeting or later, and whether the mechanisms are the same in neurons derived from embryos or from adult hosts. We used HSV mutants impaired in capsid envelopment to test whether the inner tegument proteins pUL36 or pUL37 necessary for microtubule-mediated capsid transport were sufficient for axonal capsid targeting in neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice. Such neurons were infected with HSV1-ΔUL20 whose capsids recruited pUL36 and pUL37, with HSV1-ΔUL37 whose capsids associate only with pUL36, or with HSV1-ΔUL36 that assembles capsids lacking both proteins. While capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 were actively transported along microtubules in epithelial cells and in the somata of neurons, those of HSV1-ΔUL36 and -ΔUL37 could only diffuse in the cytoplasm. Employing a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify capsid targeting to axons, we show that only a few capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 entered axons, while vesicles transporting gD utilized axonal transport efficiently and independently of pUL36, pUL37, or pUL20. Our data indicate that capsid motility in the somata of neurons mediated by pUL36 and pUL37 does not suffice for targeting capsids to axons, and suggest that capsid envelopment needs to be completed in the soma prior to targeting of herpes simplex virus to the axons, and to spreading from neurons to neighboring cells. PMID:29284065

  18. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-α/β influences West Nile virus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-α. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-α/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-α/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  19. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  20. Characterization of the mode of action of a potent dengue virus capsid inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Pietro; Trist, Iuni Margaret Laura; Paul, David; Kumar, Anil; Acosta, Eliana G; Byrd, Chelsea M; Jordan, Robert; Brancale, Andrea; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2014-10-01

    Dengue viruses (DV) represent a significant global health burden, with up to 400 million infections every year and around 500,000 infected individuals developing life-threatening disease. In spite of attempts to develop vaccine candidates and antiviral drugs, there is a lack of approved therapeutics for the treatment of DV infection. We have previously reported the identification of ST-148, a small-molecule inhibitor exhibiting broad and potent antiviral activity against DV in vitro and in vivo (C. M. Byrd et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:15-25, 2013, doi:10 .1128/AAC.01429-12). In the present study, we investigated the mode of action of this promising compound by using a combination of biochemical, virological, and imaging-based techniques. We confirmed that ST-148 targets the capsid protein and obtained evidence of bimodal antiviral activity affecting both assembly/release and entry of infectious DV particles. Importantly, by using a robust bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we observed an ST-148-dependent increase of capsid self-interaction. These results were corroborated by molecular modeling studies that also revealed a plausible model for compound binding to capsid protein and inhibition by a distinct resistance mutation. These results suggest that ST-148-enhanced capsid protein self-interaction perturbs assembly and disassembly of DV nucleocapsids, probably by inducing structural rigidity. Thus, as previously reported for other enveloped viruses, stabilization of capsid protein structure is an attractive therapeutic concept that also is applicable to flaviviruses. Dengue viruses are arthropod-borne viruses representing a significant global health burden. They infect up to 400 million people and are endemic to subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Currently, there are neither vaccines nor approved therapeutics for the prophylaxis or treatment of DV infections, respectively. This study reports the characterization of the

  1. RNA packaging of MRFV virus-like particles: The interplay between RNA pools and capsid coat protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be produced through self-assembly of capsid protein (CP) into particles with discrete shapes and sizes and containing different types of RNA molecules. The general principle that governs particle assembly and RNA packaging is determined by unique interactions between ...

  2. Promoter analysis of the Chilo iridescent virus DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Marks, Hendrik; Vlak, Just M.; Demirbag, Zihni; Oers, Monique M. van

    2003-01-01

    The DNA polymerase (DNApol) and major capsid protein (MCP) genes were used as models to study promoter activity in Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). Infection of Bombyx mori SPC-BM-36 cells in the presence of inhibitors of DNA or protein synthesis showed that DNApol, as well as helicase, is an immediate-early gene and confirmed that the major capsid protein (MCP) is a late gene. Transcription of DNApol initiated 35 nt upstream and that of MCP 14 nt upstream of the translational start site. In a luciferase reporter gene assay both promoters were active only when cells were infected with CIV. For DNApol sequences between position -27 and -6, relative to the transcriptional start site, were essential for promoter activity. Furthermore, mutation of a G within the sequence TTGTTTT located just upstream of the DNApol transcription initiation site reduced the promoter activity by 25%. Sequences crucial for MCP promoter activity are located between positions -53 and -29

  3. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hespenheide, B M; Jacobs, D J; Thorpe, M F

    2004-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  4. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespenheide, B. M.; Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.

    2004-11-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  6. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  7. Molecular characterization of genome segments 1 and 3 encoding two capsid proteins of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Mrinmay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV, a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11 in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11 have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. Results In this study genome segments 1 (S1 and 3 (S3 of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV, Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV, and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV. The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. Expression of S1 and S3 ORFs in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants showed to produce viral like particles (VLPs by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. Conclusion Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3

  8. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Marielle [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Neurosciences, Laboratory of Cellular and Tissular Biology, Liege (Belgium); Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Di Valentin, Emmanuel [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Viral Vectors Platform, Liege (Belgium); Bontems, Sébastien [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine, E-mail: csadzot@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.

  9. Expression and purification of capsid proteins of Aichi virus and in vitro reassembly of empty virion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smola, Miroslav; Dubánková, Anna; Šilhán, Jan; Bouřa, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 107 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21030Y; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Aichi virus * capsid proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  10. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  11. Residues of the UL25 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus That Are Required for Its Stable Interaction with Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Shelley K.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Toropova, Katerina; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2011-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL25 gene product is a minor capsid component that is required for encapsidation, but not cleavage, of replicated viral DNA. UL25 is located on the capsid surface in a proposed heterodimer with UL17, where five copies of the heterodimer are found at each of the capsid vertices. Previously, we demonstrated that amino acids 1 to 50 of UL25 are essential for its stable interaction with capsids. To further define the UL25 capsid binding domain, we generated recombinant viruses with either small truncations or amino acid substitutions in the UL25 N terminus. Studies of these mutants demonstrated that there are two important regions within the capsid binding domain. The first 27 amino acids are essential for capsid binding of UL25, while residues 26 to 39, which are highly conserved in the UL25 homologues of other alphaherpesviruses, were found to be critical for stable capsid binding. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of capsids containing either a small tag on the N terminus of UL25 or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused between amino acids 50 and 51 of UL25 demonstrate that residues 1 to 27 of UL25 contact the hexon adjacent to the penton. A second region, most likely centered on amino acids 26 to 39, contacts the triplex that is one removed from the penton. Importantly, both of these UL25 capsid binding regions are essential for the stable packaging of full-length viral genomes. PMID:21411517

  12. The VP7 Outer Capsid Protein of Rotavirus Induces Polyclonal B-Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    The early response to a homologous rotavirus infection in mice includes a T-cell-independent increase in the number of activated B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches. The mechanism of this activation has not been previously determined. Since rotavirus has a repetitively arranged triple-layered capsid and repetitively arranged antigens can induce activation of B cells, one or more of the capsid proteins could be responsible for the initial activation of B cells during infection. To address this question, we assessed the ability of rotavirus and virus-like particles to induce B-cell activation in vivo and in vitro. Using infectious rotavirus, inactivated rotavirus, noninfectious but replication-competent virus, and virus-like particles, we determined that neither infectivity nor RNA was necessary for B-cell activation but the presence of the rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7, was sufficient for murine B-cell activation. Preincubation of the virus with neutralizing VP7 antibodies inhibited B-cell activation. Polymyxin B treatment and boiling of the virus preparation were performed, which ruled out possible lipopolysaccharide contamination as the source of activation and confirmed that the structural conformation of VP7 is important for B-cell activation. These findings indicate that the structure and conformation of the outer capsid protein, VP7, initiate intestinal B-cell activation during rotavirus infection. PMID:15194774

  13. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I.; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2013-10-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of protein chains, which result in the capsid stiffening. Dynamic coupling of these modes defines the extent of elasticity and reversibility of capsid mechanical deformation. This emerging picture illuminates how unique physico-chemical properties of protein nanoshells help define their structure and morphology, and determine their viruses' biological function.

  14. Labeling and localization of the herpes simplex virus capsid protein UL25 and its interaction with the two triplexes closest to the penton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James F.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Copeland, Anna Maria; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Homa, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL25 protein is one of seven viral proteins that are required for DNA cleavage and packaging. Together with UL17, UL25 forms part of an elongated molecule referred to as the C-capsid-specific component or CCSC. Five copies of the CCSC are located at each of the capsid vertices on DNA-containing capsids. To study the conformation of UL25 as it is folded on the capsid surface, we identified the sequence recognized by a UL25-specific monoclonal antibody and localized the epitope on the capsid surface by immunogold electron microscopy. The epitope mapped to amino acids 99-111 adjacent to the region of the protein (amino acids 1-50) that is required for capsid binding. In addition, cryo-EM reconstructions of C-capsids in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused within the N-terminus of UL25 localized the point of contact between UL25 and GFP. The result confirmed the modeled location of the UL25 protein in the CCSC density as the region that is distal to the penton with the N-terminus of UL25 making contact with the triplex one removed from the penton. Immunofluorescence experiments at early times during infection demonstrated that UL25-GFP was present on capsids located within the cytoplasm and adjacent to the nucleus. These results support the view that UL25 is present on incoming capsids with the capsid binding domain of UL25 located on the surface of the mature DNA-containing capsid. PMID:20109467

  15. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan; Agirre, Jon; Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S; Costabel, Marcelo D; Marti, Gerardo A; Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Guérin, Diego M A; Rey, Felix A

    2013-06-01

    The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  16. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro , and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo , purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro . Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  17. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Hammond, John

    2010-02-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is an isometric plant virus of 30 nm containing two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Both particles are composed of two serologically related, carboxy co-terminal, coat proteins (CP) of apparent molecular mass 21-22 kDa (CP2) and 24-28 kDa (CP1) in a molar ratio of 3:1, respectively; CP1 contains a 37 amino acid amino terminal extension of CP2. In our study, expression of CP1 or CP2 in Escherichia coli resulted in assembly of each capsid protein into virus-like particles (VLPs), appearing in electron microscopy as stain-permeable (CP2) or stain-impermeable particles (CP1). CP1 VLPs encapsidated bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA, but not CP mRNA, while CP2 VLPs encapsidated neither CP mRNA nor 16S ribosomal RNA. Expression of CP1 and CP2 in E. coli using a co-expression vector resulted in the assembly of VLPs which were stain-impermeable and encapsidated CP mRNA. These results suggest that the N-terminal 37 amino acid residues of CP1, although not required for particle formation, may be involved in the assembly of complete virions and that the presence of both CP1 and CP2 in the particle is required for specific encapsidation of MRFV CP mRNA. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of a protein kinase activity associated with purified capsids of the granulosis virus infecting Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Consigli, R A

    1985-06-01

    A cyclic-nucleotide independent protein kinase activity has been demonstrated in highly purified preparations of the granulosis virus infecting the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. A divalent cation was required for activity. Manganese was the preferred cation and a pH of 8.0 resulted in optimal incorporation of 32P radiolabel into acid-precipitable protein. Although both ATP and GTP could serve as phosphate donors, ATP was utilized more efficiently by the enzyme. The kinase activity was localized to purified capsids; and the basic, internal core protein, VP12, was found to be the predominant viral acceptor. Histones and protamine sulfate could also serve as acceptors for the capsid-associated kinase activity. Using acid hydrolysis and phosphoamino acid analysis of phosphorylated nucleocapsid protein and nuclear magnetic resonance of phosphorylated VP12, it was determined that the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of phosphate to both serine and arginine residues of acceptor proteins. We believe this kinase activity may play a significant role in the viral replication cycle.

  19. Characterization of the invariable residue 51 mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein on in vitro CA assembly and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höglund Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24 molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. Results We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution mutations (D51E and D51N had no substantial effect on in vitro capsid assembly, yet they impaired viral infectivity and particle production. In contrast, the D51Q mutant was defective both for in vitro capsid assembly and for virus replication in cell culture. Conclusion These results show that substitutions of D51 with glutamate, glutamine, or asparagine, three amino acid residues that are structurally related to aspartate, could partially rescue both in vitro capsid assembly and intra-cellular CAp24 production but not replication of the virus in cultured cells.

  20. The Assembly-Activating Protein Promotes Stability and Interactions between AAV’s Viral Proteins to Nucleate Capsid Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Maurer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The adeno-associated virus (AAV vector is a preferred delivery platform for in vivo gene therapy. Natural and engineered variations of the AAV capsid affect a plurality of phenotypes relevant to gene therapy, including vector production and host tropism. Fundamental to these aspects is the mechanism of AAV capsid assembly. Here, the role of the viral co-factor assembly-activating protein (AAP was evaluated in 12 naturally occurring AAVs and 9 putative ancestral capsid intermediates. The results demonstrate increased capsid protein stability and VP-VP interactions in the presence of AAP. The capsid’s dependence on AAP can be partly overcome by strengthening interactions between monomers within the assembly, as illustrated by the transfer of a minimal motif defined by a phenotype-to-phylogeny mapping method. These findings suggest that the emergence of AAP within the Dependovirus genus relaxes structural constraints on AAV assembly in favor of increasing the degrees of freedom for the capsid to evolve. : Maurer et al. describe a phenotype-to-phylogeny mapping strategy correlating phenotypic variation in AAVs to a reconstructed phylogeny, revealing capsid structure-function relationships relevant to that phenotype. Dependence on the viral co-factor AAP for capsid assembly is examined, and capsid functional motifs, in addition to mechanistic roles of AAP, are elucidated. Keywords: AAV, AAP, adeno-associated virus, capsid assembly, manufacturing, capsid, vector engineering, structure-function, gene therapy

  1. Processing of the VP1/2A junction is not necessary for production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids and infectious viruses: characterization of "self-tagged" particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2013-11-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3C(pro) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm]), three different amino acid substitutions (E83K, S134C, and K210E) were identified within the VP1 region of the P1-2A precursor compared to the field strain (wild type [wt]). Expression of the O1 Manisa P1-2A (wt or with the S134C substitution in VP1) plus 3C(pro), using a transient expression system, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3C(pro) at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of "self-tagged" empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is not essential for virus viability. The production of such engineered self-tagged empty capsid particles may facilitate their purification for use as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.

  2. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  3. Assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Muszynski, Bartosz; Organtini, Lindsey J.

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) into the capsid proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3 (and 2A). In some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3Cpro can be toxic...... (from serotypes O and A) and 3Cpro were expressed from monocistronic cDNA cassettes as P1-2A-3C, or from dicistronic cassettes with the 3Cpro expression dependent on a mutant FMDV internal ribosome entry site (IRES) (designated P1-2A-mIRES-3C). The effects of using a mutant 3Cpro with reduced catalytic....... These products self-assembled to form FMDV empty capsid particles, which have a related, but distinct, morphology (as determined by electron microscopy and reconstruction) from that determined previously by X-ray crystallography. The assembled empty capsids bind, in a divalent cation-dependent manner, to the RGD...

  4. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, G.R.; Anderson, C.W.; Dorner, A.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis was performed on radiolabeled poliovirus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. A computer-assisted comparison of the amino acid sequences obtained with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus genome allows assignment of the amino terminus of each capsid protein to a unique position within the virus polyprotein. Sequence analysis of trypsin-digested VP4, which has a blocked amino terminus, demonstrates that VP4 is encoded at or very near to the amino terminus of the polyprotein. The gene order of the capsid proteins is VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1. Cleavage of VP0 to VP4 and VP2 is shown to occur between asparagine and serine, whereas the cleavages that separate VP2/VP3 and VP3/VP1 occur between glutamine and glycine residues. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cleavage of VP0, which occurs during virion morphogenesis, is distinct from the cleavages that separate functional regions of the polyprotein

  5. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  6. Direct interaction between two viral proteins, the nonstructural protein 2C and the capsid protein VP3, is required for enterovirus morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades-long studies, the mechanism of morphogenesis of plus-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus of Picornaviridae, including poliovirus (PV, is not understood. Numerous attempts to identify an RNA encapsidation signal have failed. Genetic studies, however, have implicated a role of the non-structural protein 2C(ATPase in the formation of poliovirus particles. Here we report a novel mechanism in which protein-protein interaction is sufficient to explain the specificity in PV encapsidation. Making use of a novel "reporter virus", we show that a quasi-infectious chimera consisting of the capsid precursor of C-cluster coxsackie virus 20 (C-CAV20 and the nonstructural proteins of the closely related PV translated and replicated its genome with wild type kinetics, whereas encapsidation was blocked. On blind passages, encapsidation of the chimera was rescued by a single mutation either in capsid protein VP3 of CAV20 or in 2C(ATPase of PV. Whereas each of the single-mutation variants expressed severe proliferation phenotypes, engineering both mutations into the chimera yielded a virus encapsidating with wild type kinetics. Biochemical analyses provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between 2C(ATPase and VP3 of PV and CAV20. Chimeras of other C-CAVs (CAV20/CAV21 or CAV18/CAV20 were blocked in encapsidation (no virus after blind passages but could be rescued if the capsid and 2C(ATPase coding regions originated from the same virus. Our novel mechanism explains the specificity of encapsidation without apparent involvement of an RNA signal by considering that (i genome replication is known to be stringently linked to translation, (ii morphogenesis is known to be stringently linked to genome replication, (iii newly synthesized 2C(ATPase is an essential component of the replication complex, and (iv 2C(ATPase has specific affinity to capsid protein(s. These conditions lead to morphogenesis at the site where newly

  7. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  8. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Agirre, Jon [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S. [U.N.S., San Juan 670 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Costabel, Marcelo D. [U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Marti, Gerardo A. [Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CCT, La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Calle 2 No. 584 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Guérin, Diego M. A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rey, Felix A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  9. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan; Agirre, Jon; Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S.; Costabel, Marcelo D.; Marti, Gerardo A.; Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Guérin, Diego M. A.; Rey, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed

  10. Processing of the VP1/2A Junction Is Not Necessary for Production of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsids and Infectious Viruses: Characterization of “Self-Tagged” Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3Cpro to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm...... the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction...

  11. Analysis of SAT Type Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Proteins and the Identification of Putative Amino Acid Residues Affecting Virus Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F.; Blignaut, Belinda; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces. PMID:23717387

  12. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois F Maree

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces.

  13. A molecular breadboard: Removal and replacement of subunits in a hepatitis B virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lye Siang; Brunk, Nicholas; Haywood, Daniel G; Keifer, David; Pierson, Elizabeth; Kondylis, Panagiotis; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Jacobson, Stephen C; Jarrold, Martin F; Zlotnick, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a model system for studying assembly and disassembly of icosahedral structures. Controlling disassembly will allow re-engineering the 120 subunit HBV capsid, making it a molecular breadboard. We examined removal of subunits from partially crosslinked capsids to form stable incomplete particles. To characterize incomplete capsids, we used two single molecule techniques, resistive-pulse sensing and charge detection mass spectrometry. We expected to find a binomial distribution of capsid fragments. Instead, we found a preponderance of 3 MDa complexes (90 subunits) and no fragments smaller than 3 MDa. We also found 90-mers in the disassembly of uncrosslinked HBV capsids. 90-mers seem to be a common pause point in disassembly reactions. Partly explaining this result, graph theory simulations have showed a threshold for capsid stability between 80 and 90 subunits. To test a molecular breadboard concept, we showed that missing subunits could be refilled resulting in chimeric, 120 subunit particles. This result may be a means of assembling unique capsids with functional decorations. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  14. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Structure of the capsid of Kilham rat virus from small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobbe, C.R.; Mitra, S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of empty capsids of Kilham rat virus, an autonomous parvovirus with icosahedral symmetry, was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. From the forward scatter, the molecular weight was determined to be 4.0 x 10(6), and from the Guinier region, the radius of gyration was found to be 105 A in D2O and 104 A in H 2 O. On the basis of the capsid molecular weight and the molecular weights and relative abundances of the capsid proteins, the authors propose that the capsid has a triangulation number of 1. Extended scattering curves and mathematical modeling revealed that the capsid consists of two shells of protein, the inner shell extending from 58 to 91 A in D2O and from 50 to 91 A in H 2 O and containing 11% of the capsid scattering mass, and the outer shell extending to 121 A in H 2 O and D2O. The inner shell appears to have a higher content of basic amino acids than the outer shell, based on its lower scattering density in D2O than in H 2 O. The authors propose that all three capsid proteins contribute to the inner shell and that this basic region serves DNA binding and partial charge neutralization functions

  16. Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of herpes simplex virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Wouter H.; Radtke, Kerstin; Kniesmeijer, Edward; Geertsema, Hylkje; Sodeik, Beate; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) capsids undergo extensive structural changes during maturation and DNA packaging. As a result, they become more stable and competent for nuclear egress. To further elucidate this stabilization process, we used biochemical and nanoindentation approaches to analyze the structural and mechanical properties of scaffold-containing (B), empty (A), and DNA-containing (C) nuclear capsids. Atomic force microscopy experiments revealed that A and C capsids were mechanically indistinguishable, indicating that the presence of DNA does not account for changes in mechanical properties during capsid maturation. Despite having the same rigidity, the scaffold-containing B capsids broke at significantly lower forces than A and C capsids. An extraction of pentons with guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) increased the flexibility of all capsids. Surprisingly, the breaking forces of the modified A and C capsids dropped to similar values as those of the GuHCl-treated B capsids, indicating that mechanical reinforcement occurs at the vertices. Nonetheless, it also showed that HSV1 capsids possess a remarkable structural integrity that was preserved after removal of pentons. We suggest that HSV1 capsids are stabilized after removal of the scaffold proteins, and that this stabilization is triggered by the packaging of DNA, but independent of the actual presence of DNA. PMID:19487681

  17. Yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of RNA silencing that binds double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Wiley, Michael R; Badawi, Atif; Adelman, Zach N; Myles, Kevin M

    2016-11-29

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown. Here we describe a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) encoded by the prototype flavivirus, YFV. We show that the YFV capsid (YFC) protein inhibits RNA silencing in the mosquito Aedes aegypti by interfering with Dicer. This VSR activity appears to be broadly conserved in the C proteins of other medically important flaviviruses, including that of ZIKV. These results suggest that a molecular "arms race" between vector and pathogen underlies the continued existence of flaviviruses in nature.

  18. A novel inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Dai, Dongcheng; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Berhanu, Aklile; Jones, Kevin F; Cardwell, Kara B; Schneider, Christine; Wineinger, Kristin A; Page, Jessica M; Harver, Chris; Stavale, Eric; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar; Stone, Melialani A; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Scaturro, Pietro; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide per year, of which 500,000 develop severe life-threatening disease. This mosquito-borne illness is endemic in most tropical and subtropical countries and has spread significantly over the last decade. While there are several promising vaccine candidates in clinical trials, there are currently no approved vaccines or therapeutics available for treatment of dengue infection. Here, we describe a novel small-molecule compound, ST-148, that is a potent inhibitor of all four serotypes of DENV in vitro. ST-148 significantly reduced viremia and viral load in vital organs and tended to lower cytokine levels in the plasma in a nonlethal model of DENV infection in AG129 mice. Compound resistance mapped to the DENV capsid (C) gene, and a direct interaction of ST-148 with C protein is suggested by alterations of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein in the presence of compound. Thus, ST-148 appears to interact with the DENV C protein and inhibits a distinct step(s) of the viral replication cycle.

  19. The structure of avian polyomavirus reveals variably sized capsids, non-conserved inter-capsomere interactions, and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Peter S.; Enderlein, Dirk; Nelson, Christian D.S.; Carter, Weston S.; Kawano, Masaaki; Xing Li; Swenson, Robert D.; Olson, Norman H.; Baker, Timothy S.; Cheng, R. Holland; Atwood, Walter J.; Johne, Reimar; Belnap, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes a fatal, multi-organ disease among several bird species. Using cryogenic electron microscopy and other biochemical techniques, we investigated the structure of APV and compared it to that of mammalian polyomaviruses, particularly JC polyomavirus and simian virus 40. The structure of the pentameric major capsid protein (VP1) is mostly conserved; however, APV VP1 has a unique, truncated C-terminus that eliminates an intercapsomere-connecting β-hairpin observed in other polyomaviruses. We postulate that the terminal β-hairpin locks other polyomavirus capsids in a stable conformation and that absence of the hairpin leads to the observed capsid size variation in APV. Plug-like density features were observed at the base of the VP1 pentamers, consistent with the known location of minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. However, the plug density is more prominent in APV and may include VP4, a minor capsid protein unique to bird polyomaviruses.

  20. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  1. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  2. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies

  3. Production of FMDV virus-like particles by a SUMO fusion protein approach in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu-Mei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs are formed by the self-assembly of envelope and/or capsid proteins from many viruses. Some VLPs have been proven successful as vaccines, and others have recently found applications as carriers for foreign antigens or as scaffolds in nanoparticle biotechnology. However, production of VLP was usually impeded due to low water-solubility of recombinant virus capsid proteins. Previous studies revealed that virus capsid and envelope proteins were often posttranslationally modified by SUMO in vivo, leading into a hypothesis that SUMO modification might be a common mechanism for virus proteins to retain water-solubility or prevent improper self-aggregation before virus assembly. We then propose a simple approach to produce VLPs of viruses, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. An improved SUMO fusion protein system we developed recently was applied to the simultaneous expression of three capsid proteins of FMDV in E. coli. The three SUMO fusion proteins formed a stable heterotrimeric complex. Proteolytic removal of SUMO moieties from the ternary complexes resulted in VLPs with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. The method described here can also apply to produce capsid/envelope protein complexes or VLPs of other disease-causing viruses.

  4. Essential C-Terminal region of the baculovirus minor capsid protein VP80 binds DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, M.; Merten, O.W.; Francis-Devaraj, F.; Oers, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) minor capsid protein VP80 has been recently shown to interact with the virus-triggered, nuclear F-actin cytoskeleton. A role for VP80 in virus morphogenesis has been proposed in the maturation of progeny nucleocapsids and

  5. Comparison of classical and affinity purification techniques of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein: The Alteration of the product by an affinity tag

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumlová, Michaela; Benedíková, Jitka; Cubínková, Romana; Pichová, Iva; Ruml, Tomáš

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2001), s. 75-83 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * capsid protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.497, year: 2001

  6. Relevance of capsid structure in the buckling and maturation of spherical viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aznar, María; Luque, Antoni; Reguera, David

    2012-01-01

    The shape and mechanical properties of viral capsids play an important role in several biological processes during the virus life cycle. In particular, to become infective, many viruses require a maturation stage where the capsid undergoes a buckling transition, from an initial spherical procapsid into a final icosahedral faceted shell. Here we study, using a minimal physical model, how the capsid shape and the buckling transition depend on the triangulation number T and the icosahedral class P of the virus structure. We find that, for small shells, capsids with P = 1 are most likely to produce polyhedral shapes that minimize their energy and accumulated stress, whereas viruses with P = 3 prefer to remain spherical. For big capsids, all shells are more stable adopting an icosahedral shape, in agreement with continuum elastic theory. Moreover, spherical viruses show a buckling transition to polyhedral shells under expansion, in consonance with virus maturation. The resulting icosahedral shell is mechanically stiffer, tolerates larger expansions and withstands higher internal pressures before failing, which could explain why some dsDNA viruses, which rely on the pressurization of their genetic material to facilitate the infection, undergo a buckling transition. We emphasize that the results are general and could also be applied to non-biological systems. (paper)

  7. Highly specific salt bridges govern bacteriophage P22 icosahedral capsid assembly: identification of the site in coat protein responsible for interaction with scaffolding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, Juliana R; Motwani, Tina; Vyas, Aashay A; Teschke, Carolyn M

    2014-05-01

    Icosahedral virus assembly requires a series of concerted and highly specific protein-protein interactions to produce a proper capsid. In bacteriophage P22, only coat protein (gp5) and scaffolding protein (gp8) are needed to assemble a procapsid-like particle, both in vivo and in vitro. In scaffolding protein's coat binding domain, residue R293 is required for procapsid assembly, while residue K296 is important but not essential. Here, we investigate the interaction of scaffolding protein with acidic residues in the N-arm of coat protein, since this interaction has been shown to be electrostatic. Through site-directed mutagenesis of genes 5 and 8, we show that changing coat protein N-arm residue 14 from aspartic acid to alanine causes a lethal phenotype. Coat protein residue D14 is shown by cross-linking to interact with scaffolding protein residue R293 and, thus, is intimately involved in proper procapsid assembly. To a lesser extent, coat protein N-arm residue E18 is also implicated in the interaction with scaffolding protein and is involved in capsid size determination, since a cysteine mutation at this site generated petite capsids. The final acidic residue in the N-arm that was tested, E15, is shown to only weakly interact with scaffolding protein's coat binding domain. This work supports growing evidence that surface charge density may be the driving force of virus capsid protein interactions. Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and is a model for icosahedral viral capsid assembly. In this system, coat protein interacts with an internal scaffolding protein, triggering the assembly of an intermediate called a procapsid. Previously, we determined that there is a single amino acid in scaffolding protein required for P22 procapsid assembly, although others modulate affinity. Here, we identify partners in coat protein. We show experimentally that relatively weak interactions between coat and scaffolding proteins are capable of driving

  8. Plus- and minus-end directed microtubule motors bind simultaneously to herpes simplex virus capsids using different inner tegument structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Radtke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic alphaherpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1 show bidirectional transport towards the cell center as well as the periphery, indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the molecular composition of such motile viral structures. We have generated HSV1 capsids with different surface features without impairing their overall architecture, and show that in a mammalian cell-free system the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin-1 and the dynein cofactor dynactin could interact directly with capsids independent of other host factors. The capsid composition and surface was analyzed with respect to 23 structural proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol during virus assembly or cell entry. Many of these proteins belong to the tegument, the hallmark of all herpesviruses located between the capsid and the viral envelope. Using immunoblots, quantitative mass spectrometry and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, we show that capsids exposing inner tegument proteins such as pUS3, pUL36, pUL37, ICP0, pUL14, pUL16, and pUL21 recruited dynein, dynactin, kinesin-1 and kinesin-2. In contrast, neither untegumented capsids exposing VP5, VP26, pUL17 and pUL25 nor capsids covered by outer tegument proteins such as vhs, pUL11, ICP4, ICP34.5, VP11/12, VP13/14, VP16, VP22 or pUS11 bound microtubule motors. Our data suggest that HSV1 uses different structural features of the inner tegument to recruit dynein or kinesin-1. Individual capsids simultaneously accommodated motors of opposing directionality as well as several copies of the same motor. Thus, these associated motors either engage in a tug-of-war or their activities are coordinately regulated to achieve net transport either to the nucleus during

  9. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2012-05-24

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus.In the present study we compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region.Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected with the O1K/O-UKG chimera or the field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) developed fulminant disease. Furthermore, 3 of 4 in-contact pigs exposed to the O1K/O-UKG virus died in the acute phase of infection, likely from myocardial infection. However, in the group exposed to the O1K/A-TUR chimeric virus, only 1 pig showed symptoms of disease within the time frame of the experiment (10 days). All pigs that developed clinical disease showed a high level of viral RNA in serum and infected pigs that survived the acute phase of infection developed a serotype specific antibody response. It is concluded that the capsid coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs.

  10. Specific in vitro cleavage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein: evidence for a potential role of retroviral protease in early stages of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumlova, Michaela; Ruml, Tomas; Pohl, Jan; Pichova, Iva

    2003-01-01

    Processing of Gag polyproteins by viral protease (PR) leads to reorganization of immature retroviral particles and formation of a ribonucleoprotein core. In some retroviruses, such as HIV and RSV, cleavage of a spacer peptide separating capsid and nucleocapsid proteins is essential for the core formation. We show here that no similar spacer peptide is present in the capsid-nucleocapsid (CA-NC) region of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) and that the CA protein is cleaved in vitro by the PR within the major homology region (MHR) and the NC protein in several sites at the N-terminus. The CA cleavage product was also identified shortly after penetration of M-PMV into COS cells, suggesting that the protease-catalyzed cleavage is involved in core disintegration

  11. Virus Capsids as Targeted Nanoscale Delivery Vessels of Photoactive Compounds for Site-Specific Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian A.

    The research presented in this work details the use of a viral capsid as an addressable delivery vessel of photoactive compounds for use in photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy is a treatment that involves the interaction of light with a photosensitizing molecule to create singlet oxygen, a reactive oxygen species. Overproduction of singlet oxygen in cells can cause oxidative damage leading to cytotoxicity and eventually cell death. Challenges with the current generation of FDA-approved photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy primarily stem from their lack of tissue specificity. This work describes the packaging of photoactive cationic porphyrins inside the MS2 bacteriophage capsid, followed by external modification of the capsid with cancer cell-targeting G-quadruplex DNA aptamers to generate a tumor-specific photosensitizing agent. First, a cationic porphyrin is loaded into the capsids via nucleotide-driven packaging, a process that involves charge interaction between the porphyrin and the RNA inside the capsid. Results show that over 250 porphyrin molecules associate with the RNA within each MS2 capsid. Removal of RNA from the capsid severely inhibits the packaging of the cationic porphyrins. Porphyrin-virus constructs were then shown to photogenerate singlet oxygen, and cytotoxicity in non-targeted photodynamic treatment experiments. Next, each porphyrin-loaded capsid is externally modified with approximately 60 targeting DNA aptamers by employing a heterobifunctional crosslinking agent. The targeting aptamer is known to bind the protein nucleolin, a ubiquitous protein that is overexpressed on the cell surface by many cancer cell types. MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells were selected as an in vitro model for breast cancer and normal tissue, respectively. Fluorescently tagged virus-aptamer constructs are shown to selectively target MCF-7 cells versus MCF-10A cells. Finally, results are shown in which porphyrin-virus

  12. Structures of Adenovirus Incomplete Particles Clarify Capsid Architecture and Show Maturation Changes of Packaging Protein L1 52/55k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condezo, Gabriela N; Marabini, Roberto; Ayora, Silvia; Carazo, José M; Alba, Raúl; Chillón, Miguel; San Martín, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most complex icosahedral, nonenveloped viruses. Even after its structure was solved at near-atomic resolution by both cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, the location of minor coat proteins is still a subject of debate. The elaborated capsid architecture is the product of a correspondingly complex assembly process, about which many aspects remain unknown. Genome encapsidation involves the concerted action of five virus proteins, and proteolytic processing by the virus protease is needed to prime the virion for sequential uncoating. Protein L1 52/55k is required for packaging, and multiple cleavages by the maturation protease facilitate its release from the nascent virion. Light-density particles are routinely produced in adenovirus infections and are thought to represent assembly intermediates. Here, we present the molecular and structural characterization of two different types of human adenovirus light particles produced by a mutant with delayed packaging. We show that these particles lack core polypeptide V but do not lack the density corresponding to this protein in the X-ray structure, thereby adding support to the adenovirus cryo-electron microscopy model. The two types of light particles present different degrees of proteolytic processing. Their structures provide the first glimpse of the organization of L1 52/55k protein inside the capsid shell and of how this organization changes upon partial maturation. Immature, full-length L1 52/55k is poised beneath the vertices to engage the virus genome. Upon proteolytic processing, L1 52/55k disengages from the capsid shell, facilitating genome release during uncoating. Adenoviruses have been extensively characterized as experimental systems in molecular biology, as human pathogens, and as therapeutic vectors. However, a clear picture of many aspects of their basic biology is still lacking. Two of these aspects are the location of minor coat proteins in the capsid and the

  13. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: → We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. → Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. → A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. → Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  14. Structures of the major capsid proteins of the human Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Ursula; Wang, Jianbo; Macejak, Dennis; Garcea, Robert L; Stehle, Thilo

    2011-07-01

    The Karolinska Institutet and Washington University polyomaviruses (KIPyV and WUPyV, respectively) are recently discovered human viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Although they have not yet been linked to disease, they are prevalent in populations worldwide, with initial infection occurring in early childhood. Polyomavirus capsids consist of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1), which determines antigenicity and receptor specificity. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 proteins are distant in evolution from VP1 proteins of known structure such as simian virus 40 or murine polyomavirus. We present here the crystal structures of unassembled recombinant WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 pentamers at resolutions of 2.9 and 2.55 Å, respectively. The WUPyV and KIPyV VP1 core structures fold into the same β-sandwich that is a hallmark of all polyomavirus VP1 proteins crystallized to date. However, differences in sequence translate into profoundly different surface loop structures in KIPyV and WUPyV VP1 proteins. Such loop structures have not been observed for other polyomaviruses, and they provide initial clues about the possible interactions of these viruses with cell surface receptors.

  15. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vast diversity of prokaryotic virus genomes encoding double jelly-roll major capsid proteins uncovered by genomic and metagenomic sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutin, Natalya; Bäckström, Disa; Ettema, Thijs J G; Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2018-04-10

    Analysis of metagenomic sequences has become the principal approach for the study of the diversity of viruses. Many recent, extensive metagenomic studies on several classes of viruses have dramatically expanded the visible part of the virosphere, showing that previously undetected viruses, or those that have been considered rare, actually are important components of the global virome. We investigated the provenance of viruses related to tail-less bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae by searching genomic and metagenomics sequence databases for distant homologs of the tectivirus-like Double Jelly-Roll major capsid proteins (DJR MCP). These searches resulted in the identification of numerous genomes of virus-like elements that are similar in size to tectiviruses (10-15 kilobases) and have diverse gene compositions. By comparison of the gene repertoires, the DJR MCP-encoding genomes were classified into 6 distinct groups that can be predicted to differ in reproduction strategies and host ranges. Only the DJR MCP gene that is present by design is shared by all these genomes, and most also encode a predicted DNA-packaging ATPase; the rest of the genes are present only in subgroups of this unexpectedly diverse collection of DJR MCP-encoding genomes. Only a minority encode a DNA polymerase which is a hallmark of the family Tectiviridae and the putative family "Autolykiviridae". Notably, one of the identified putative DJR MCP viruses encodes a homolog of Cas1 endonuclease, the integrase involved in CRISPR-Cas adaptation and integration of transposon-like elements called casposons. This is the first detected occurrence of Cas1 in a virus. Many of the identified elements are individual contigs flanked by inverted or direct repeats and appear to represent complete, extrachromosomal viral genomes, whereas others are flanked by bacterial genes and thus can be considered as proviruses. These contigs come from metagenomes of widely different environments, some dominated by

  17. The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Dong; Omarov, Rustem T.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport

  18. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Valles

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV, an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order.

  19. Pt, Co–Pt and Fe–Pt alloy nanoclusters encapsulated in virus capsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, M; Eloi, J-C; Jones, S E Ward; Schwarzacher, W; Verwegen, M; Cornelissen, J J L M

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured Pt-based alloys show great promise, not only for catalysis but also in medical and magnetic applications. To extend the properties of this class of materials, we have developed a means of synthesizing Pt and Pt-based alloy nanoclusters in the capsid of a virus. Pure Pt and Pt-alloy nanoclusters are formed through the chemical reduction of [PtCl 4 ] − by NaBH 4 with/without additional metal ions (Co or Fe). The opening and closing of the ion channels in the virus capsid were controlled by changing the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The size of the nanoclusters is limited to 18 nm by the internal diameter of the capsid. Their magnetic properties suggest potential applications in hyperthermia for the Co–Pt and Fe–Pt magnetic alloy nanoclusters. This study introduces a new way to fabricate size-restricted nanoclusters using virus capsid. (paper)

  20. Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Firth, Andrew E. [Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP (United Kingdom); Wang, David, E-mail: davewang@borcim.wustl.edu [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses. - Highlights: • Orsay virus encodes a novel fusion protein by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. • Orsay capsid and fusion protein is translated from a non-canonical initiation site. • The fusion protein is likely incorporated into Orsay virions.

  1. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Edward I.; Dombrovski, Andrew K.; Swarbrick, Crystall M.D.; Raidal, Shane R.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface

  2. Identification of structural protein-protein interactions of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin H; Vittone, Valerio; Diefenbach, Eve; Cunningham, Anthony L; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2008-09-01

    In this study we have defined protein-protein interactions between the structural proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) using a LexA yeast two-hybrid system. The majority of the capsid, tegument and envelope proteins of HSV-1 were screened in a matrix approach. A total of 40 binary interactions were detected including 9 out of 10 previously identified tegument-tegument interactions (Vittone, V., Diefenbach, E., Triffett, D., Douglas, M.W., Cunningham, A.L., and Diefenbach, R.J., 2005. Determination of interactions between tegument proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1. J. Virol. 79, 9566-9571). A total of 12 interactions involving the capsid protein pUL35 (VP26) and 11 interactions involving the tegument protein pUL46 (VP11/12) were identified. The most significant novel interactions detected in this study, which are likely to play a role in viral assembly, include pUL35-pUL37 (capsid-tegument), pUL46-pUL37 (tegument-tegument) and pUL49 (VP22)-pUS9 (tegument-envelope). This information will provide further insights into the pathways of HSV-1 assembly and the identified interactions are potential targets for new antiviral drugs.

  3. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. In the present study we...... compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K...... coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs....

  4. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  5. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of canine parvovirus capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli and application as virus-like particle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Guo, Hui-Chen; Wei, Yan-Quan; Dong, Hu; Han, Shi-Chong; Ao, Da; Sun, De-Hui; Wang, Hai-Ming; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus (CPV). Current commercial vaccines are mainly attenuated and inactivated; as such, problems concerning safety may occur. To resolve this problem, researchers developed virus-like particles (VLPs) as biological nanoparticles resembling natural virions and showing high bio-safety. This property allows the use of VLPs for vaccine development and mechanism studies of viral infections. Tissue-specific drug delivery also employs VLPs as biological nanomaterials. Therefore, VLPs derived from CPV have a great potential in medicine and diagnostics. In this study, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) fusion motif was utilized to express a whole, naturalVP2 protein of CPV in Escherichia coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the CPV VP2 protein has self-assembled into VLPs. The VLPs had a size and shape that resembled the authentic virus capsid. However, the self-assembly efficiency of VLPs can be affected by different pH levels and ionic strengths. The mice vaccinated subcutaneously with CPV VLPs and CPV-specific immune responses were compared with those immunized with the natural virus. This result showed that VLPs can effectively induce anti-CPV specific antibody and lymphocyte proliferation as a whole virus. This result further suggested that the antigen epitope of CPV was correctly present on VLPs, thereby showing the potential application of a VLP-based CPV vaccine.

  6. Random Insertion of mCherry Into VP3 Domain of Adeno-associated Virus Yields Fluorescent Capsids With no Loss of Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Judd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-derived vectors are promising gene delivery systems, and a number of design strategies have been pursued to improve their performance. For example, genetic insertion of proteins into the capsid may be used to achieve vector retargeting, reduced immunogenicity, or to track vector transport. Unfortunately, rational approaches to genetic insertion have experienced limited success due to the unpredictable context-dependent nature of protein folding and the complexity of the capsid's macroassembly. We report the construction and use of a frame-enriched DNase-based random insertion library based on AAV2 cap, called pAAV2_RaPID (Random Peptide Insertion by DNase. The fluorescent mCherry protein was inserted randomly throughout the AAV2 capsid and the library was selected for fluorescent and infectious variants. A capsid site was identified in VP3 that can tolerate the large protein insertion. In contrast to previous efforts to incorporate fluorescent proteins into the AAV2 capsid, the isolated mCherry mutant maintains native infectivity while displaying robust fluorescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the pAAV2_RaPID platform library can be used to create fully infectious AAV vectors carrying large functional protein domains on the capsid.

  7. Role of a nuclear localization signal on the minor capsid Proteins VP2 and VP3 in BKPyV nuclear entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shauna M. [Cellular and Molecular Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhao, Linbo [Doctoral Program in Cancer Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bosard, Catherine [Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Imperiale, Michael J., E-mail: imperial@umich.edu [Cellular and Molecular Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Doctoral Program in Cancer Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a ubiquitous nonenveloped human virus that can cause severe disease in immunocompromised populations. After internalization into renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, BKPyV traffics through the ER and enters the cytosol. However, it is unclear how the virus enters the nucleus. In this study, we elucidate a role for the nuclear localization signal located on the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 during infection. Site-directed mutagenesis of a single lysine in the basic region of the C-terminus of the minor capsid proteins abrogated their nuclear localization, and the analogous genomic mutation reduced infectivity. Additionally, through use of the inhibitor ivermectin and knockdown of importin β1, we found that the importin α/β pathway is involved during infection. Overall these data are the first to show the significance of the NLS of the BKPyV minor capsid proteins during infection in a natural host cell. - Highlights: • Polyomaviruses must deliver their genome to the nucleus to replicate. • The minor capsid proteins have a well-conserved nuclear localization signal. • Mutation of this NLS diminishes, but does not completely inhibit, infection.

  8. Role of a nuclear localization signal on the minor capsid Proteins VP2 and VP3 in BKPyV nuclear entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Shauna M.; Zhao, Linbo; Bosard, Catherine; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a ubiquitous nonenveloped human virus that can cause severe disease in immunocompromised populations. After internalization into renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, BKPyV traffics through the ER and enters the cytosol. However, it is unclear how the virus enters the nucleus. In this study, we elucidate a role for the nuclear localization signal located on the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 during infection. Site-directed mutagenesis of a single lysine in the basic region of the C-terminus of the minor capsid proteins abrogated their nuclear localization, and the analogous genomic mutation reduced infectivity. Additionally, through use of the inhibitor ivermectin and knockdown of importin β1, we found that the importin α/β pathway is involved during infection. Overall these data are the first to show the significance of the NLS of the BKPyV minor capsid proteins during infection in a natural host cell. - Highlights: • Polyomaviruses must deliver their genome to the nucleus to replicate. • The minor capsid proteins have a well-conserved nuclear localization signal. • Mutation of this NLS diminishes, but does not completely inhibit, infection

  9. Imaging and Quantitation of a Succession of Transient Intermediates Reveal the Reversible Self-Assembly Pathway of a Simple Icosahedral Virus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, María; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Carrillo, Pablo J P; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2016-11-30

    Understanding the fundamental principles underlying supramolecular self-assembly may facilitate many developments, from novel antivirals to self-organized nanodevices. Icosahedral virus particles constitute paradigms to study self-assembly using a combination of theory and experiment. Unfortunately, assembly pathways of the structurally simplest virus capsids, those more accessible to detailed theoretical studies, have been difficult to study experimentally. We have enabled the in vitro self-assembly under close to physiological conditions of one of the simplest virus particles known, the minute virus of mice (MVM) capsid, and experimentally analyzed its pathways of assembly and disassembly. A combination of electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy was used to structurally characterize and quantify a succession of transient assembly and disassembly intermediates. The results provided an experiment-based model for the reversible self-assembly pathway of a most simple (T = 1) icosahedral protein shell. During assembly, trimeric capsid building blocks are sequentially added to the growing capsid, with pentamers of building blocks and incomplete capsids missing one building block as conspicuous intermediates. This study provided experimental verification of many features of self-assembly of a simple T = 1 capsid predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. It also demonstrated atomic force microscopy imaging and automated analysis, in combination with electron microscopy, as a powerful single-particle approach to characterize at high resolution and quantify transient intermediates during supramolecular self-assembly/disassembly reactions. Finally, the efficient in vitro self-assembly achieved for the oncotropic, cell nucleus-targeted MVM capsid may facilitate its development as a drug-encapsidating nanoparticle for anticancer targeted drug delivery.

  10. Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam (Indiana)

    2010-01-12

    In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

  11. Theiler's virus RNA and protein synthesis in the central nervous system of demyelinating mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, E.; Chamorro, M.; Brahic, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied Theiler's virus RNA and capsid protein synthesis in sections of mouse spinal cord using in situ hybridization coupled to immunoperoxidase. They found that the majority of infected cells contain 100 to 500 viral genomes and no detectable capsid antigens. Similarly, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are permissive to Theiler's virus, do not synthesize capsid if they contain less than 1000 viral genomes. The results demonstrate that virus multiplication is restricted in vivo at the level of RNA replication. They suggest that RNA restriction is sufficient to explain the lack of capsid antigen synthesis

  12. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Sik; Seo, Hyun Wook; Jung, Guhung

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H 2 O 2 and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H 2 O 2 facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H 2 O 2 and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90

  13. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Sik, E-mail: yumshak@naver.com; Seo, Hyun Wook, E-mail: suruk@naver.com; Jung, Guhung, E-mail: drjung@snu.ac.kr

    2015-02-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90.

  14. A physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein is required for genome-packaging specificity in an RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Rao, A L N

    2012-06-01

    Genome packaging is functionally coupled to replication in RNA viruses pathogenic to humans (Poliovirus), insects (Flock house virus [FHV]), and plants (Brome mosaic virus [BMV]). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have observed previously that in FHV and BMV, unlike ectopically expressed capsid protein (CP), packaging specificity results from RNA encapsidation by CP that has been translated from mRNA produced from replicating genomic RNA. Consequently, we hypothesize that a physical interaction with replicase increases the CP specificity for packaging viral RNAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the molecular interaction between replicase protein and CP using a FHV-Nicotiana benthamiana system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation in conjunction with fluorescent cellular protein markers and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FHV replicase (protein A) and CP physically interact at the mitochondrial site of replication and that this interaction requires the N-proximal region from either amino acids 1 to 31 or amino acids 32 to 50 of the CP. In contrast to the mitochondrial localization of CP derived from FHV replication, ectopic expression displayed a characteristic punctate pattern on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This pattern was altered to relocalize the CP throughout the cytoplasm when the C-proximal hydrophobic domain was deleted. Analysis of the packaging phenotypes of the CP mutants defective either in protein A-CP interactions or ER localization suggested that synchronization between protein A-CP interaction and its subcellular localization is imperative to confer packaging specificity.

  15. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ding Gao,1,2 Zhi-Ping Zhang,1 Feng Li,3 Dong Men,1 Jiao-Yu Deng,1 Hong-Ping Wei,1 Xian-En Zhang,1 Zong-Qiang Cui1 1State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 2Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 3Division of Nanobiomedicine and i-Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs can induce simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1 can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M, which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. Keywords: quantum dots, simian virus 40, self-assembly, encapsulation, virus-based nanoparticles

  16. How viral capsids adapt to mismatched cargoes—identifying mechanisms of morphology control with simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Oren

    2009-03-01

    During the replication of many viruses, hundreds to thousands of protein subunits assemble around the viral nucleic acid to form a protein shell called a capsid. Most viruses form one particular structure with astonishing fidelity; yet, recent experiments demonstrate that capsids can assemble with different sizes and morphologies to accommodate nucleic acids or other cargoes such as functionalized nanoparticles. In this talk, we will explore the mechanisms of simultaneous assembly and cargo encapsidation with a computational model that describes the assembly of icosahedral capsids around functionalized nanoparticles. With this model, we find parameter values for which subunits faithfully form empty capsids with a single morphology, but adaptively assemble into different icosahedral morphologies around nanoparticles with different diameters. Analyzing trajectories in which adaptation is or is not successful sheds light on the mechanisms by which capsid morphology may be controlled in vitro and in vivo, and suggests experiments to test these mechanisms. We compare the simulation results to recent experiments in which Brome Mosaic Virus capsid proteins assemble around functionalized nanoparticles, and describe how future experiments can test the model predictions.

  17. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28 QPVIV 32 , highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28 QPVIV 32 to 28 AAAAA 32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  18. Efficient Capsid Antigen Presentation From Adeno-Associated Virus Empty Virions In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaolei; Earley, Lauriel Freya; He, Yi; Chen, Xiaojing; Hall, Nikita Elexa; Samulski, Richard Jude; Li, Chengwen

    2018-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been successfully applied in clinical trials for hemophilic patients. Although promising, the clinical results suggest that the capsid-specific CD8+T cell response has a negative effect on therapeutic success. In an in vitro analysis using an engineered AAV virus carrying immune-dominant SIINFEKL peptide in the capsid backbone, we have previously demonstrated that capsid antigen presentation from full (genome containing) AAV capsids requires endosome escape and is proteasome dependent and that no capsid antigen presentation is induced from empty virions. In the present study, we examined capsid antigen presentation from administration of empty virions in animal models. In wild-type mice, similar to AAV full particles, capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty virion infection was dose dependent, and the kinetics studies showed that antigen presentation was detected from 2 to 40 days after AAV empty virion administration. In the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 deficient (TAP-/-) mice, capsid antigen presentation was inhibited from both AAV full and empty virions, but higher inhibition was achieved from AAV full particle administration than that from empty virions. This indicates that the pathway of capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction is dependent on proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV capsids (mainly for full particles) and that the endosomal pathway may also play a role in antigen presentation from empty particles but not full virions. The capsid antigen presentation efficiency from AAV preparations was positively correlated with the amount of empty virions contaminated with full particles. Collectively, the results indicate that contamination of AAV empty virions induces efficient antigen presentation in vivo and the mechanism of capsid antigen presentation from empty virions involves both endosomal and proteasomal pathways. The elucidation of capsid antigen presentation from AAV empty

  19. Outer capsid proteins induce the formation of pores in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M; Abad M; Michelangely, F; Charpilienne, A; Cohen, J

    1995-01-01

    Two mechanisms of entrance in cell of the rotavirus, during the infection, were proposed: a direct entrance through the plasmatic membrane or by means of endocytosis. In the two cases, a permeabilization mechanism of the membrane (cellular or of the endocytic vesicle, respectively) should occur. It has been shown that the rotavirus induces permeabilization of liposomes and of membrane vesicles. In this work, are studied the changes of intact cells permeability, measuring the entrance of e tide bromides. Viral particles of double capsid of the RF stump produce an increase of the cells membrane MA104 permeability, while the simple capsid ones don't induce effect. This phenomenon requires the particles trypsinization, and occurs in a means where the concentration of free Ca is lower to 1 micromolar. The temporary course of the fluorescence increase is sigmoid. The latency, the speed and the width depend on the relationship of virus / cell, and it can be observed up to 100% of permeabilization in relation to the effect of digitonin. The pores induced in the membrane by the rotavirus are irreversible. The permeabilizer effect of the rotavirus on the membrane was observed in other cellular lines as Hela and HT29, but not in the L929 ones. These results suggest that one or more proteins of the external capsid are responsible s of the effect. These could be involved in the penetration process of the virus towards the cytoplasm and could be one of the restrictive factor of the cell infection by means of the virus [es

  20. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  1. Herpesvirus capsid assembly and DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Jason D.; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome. The capsid shell of HSV-1 is built from four structural proteins: a major capsid protein, VP5, which forms the capsomers (hexons and pentons), the triplex consisting of VP19C and VP23 found between the capsomers, and VP26 which binds to VP5 on hexons but not pentons. In addition, the dodecameric pUL6 portal complex occupies one of the 12 capsid vertices, and the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC), a heterotrimer complex of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 binds specifically to the triplexes adjacent to each penton. The capsid is assembled in the nucleus where the viral genome is packaged into newly assembled closed capsid shells. Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA requires the seven viral proteins encoded by the UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33 genes. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the structure of the herpesvirus capsid and the function of several of the DNA packaging proteins by applying biochemical, genetic, and structural techniques. This review is a summary of recent advances with respect to the structure of the HSV-1 virion capsid and what is known about the function of the seven packaging proteins and their interactions with each other and with the capsid shell. PMID:28528442

  2. Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes Are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Eric A; Goodman, David A; Gorchels, Madeline E; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Viruses infecting the Archaea harbor a tremendous amount of genetic diversity. This is especially true for the spindle-shaped viruses of the family Fuselloviridae , where >90% of the viral genes do not have detectable homologs in public databases. This significantly limits our ability to elucidate the role of viral proteins in the infection cycle. To address this, we have developed genetic techniques to study the well-characterized fusellovirus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus in volcanic hot springs at 80°C and pH 3. Here, we present a new comparative genome analysis and a thorough genetic analysis of SSV1 using both specific and random mutagenesis and thereby generate mutations in all open reading frames. We demonstrate that almost half of the SSV1 genes are not essential for infectivity, and the requirement for a particular gene correlates well with its degree of conservation within the Fuselloviridae The major capsid gene vp1 is essential for SSV1 infectivity. However, the universally conserved minor capsid gene vp3 could be deleted without a loss in infectivity and results in virions with abnormal morphology. IMPORTANCE Most of the putative genes in the spindle-shaped archaeal hyperthermophile fuselloviruses have no sequences that are clearly similar to characterized genes. In order to determine which of these SSV genes are important for function, we disrupted all of the putative genes in the prototypical fusellovirus, SSV1. Surprisingly, about half of the genes could be disrupted without destroying virus function. Even deletions of one of the known structural protein genes that is present in all known fuselloviruses, vp3 , allows the production of infectious viruses. However, viruses lacking vp3 have abnormal shapes, indicating that the vp3 gene is important for virus structure. Identification of essential genes will allow focused research on minimal SSV genomes and further understanding of the structure of

  3. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  4. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  5. Interaction of the host protein NbDnaJ with Potato virus X minus-strand stem-loop 1 RNA and capsid protein affects viral replication and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Cho, Won Kyong; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-01-06

    Plant viruses must interact with host cellular components to replicate and move from cell to cell. In the case of Potato virus X (PVX), it carries stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA essential for viral replication and movement. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis northwestern blot analysis, we previously identified several host proteins that bind to SL1 RNA. Of those, we further characterized a DnaJ-like protein from Nicotiana benthamiana named NbDnaJ. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that NbDnaJ binds only to SL1 minus-strand RNA, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) indicated that NbDnaJ interacts with PVX capsid protein (CP). Using a series of deletion mutants, the C-terminal region of NbDnaJ was found to be essential for the interaction with PVX CP. The expression of NbDnaJ significantly changed upon infection with different plant viruses such as PVX, Tobacco mosaic virus, and Cucumber mosaic virus, but varied depending on the viral species. In transient experiments, both PVX replication and movement were inhibited in plants that over-expressed NbDnaJ but accelerated in plants in which NbDnaJ was silenced. In summary, we suggest that the newly identified NbDnaJ plays a role in PVX replication and movement by interacting with SL1(-) RNA and PVX CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of capsid proteins to ICG mass ratio on fluorescent quantum yield of virus-resembling optical nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.

  7. Identification of Factors Promoting HBV Capsid Self-Assembly by Assembly-Promoting Antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Soumya Lipsa; Liu, Huihui; Okazaki, Susumu; Shinoda, Wataru

    2018-02-26

    Around 270 million individuals currently live with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) are a family of antivirals that target the HBV capsid protein and induce aberrant self-assembly. The capsids formed resemble the native capsid structure but are unable to propagate the virus progeny because of a lack of RNA/DNA. Under normal conditions, self-assembly is initiated by the viral genome. The mode of action of HAPs, however, remains largely unknown. In this work, using molecular dynamics simulations, we attempted to understand the action of HAP by comparing the dynamics of capsid proteins with and without HAPs. We found that the inhibitor is more stable in higher oligomers. It retains its stability in the hexamer throughout 1 μs of simulation. Our results also show that the inhibitor might help in stabilizing the C-terminus, the HBc 149-183 arginine-rich domain of the capsid protein. The C-termini of dimers interact with each other, assisted by the HAP inhibitor. During capsid assembly, the termini are supposed to directly interact with the viral genome, thereby suggesting that the viral genome might work in a similar way to stabilize the capsid protein. Our results may help in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of HBV capsid self-assembly, which should be crucial for exploring new drug targets and structure-based drug design.

  8. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were

  9. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes ∼ 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-IIα). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-IIα triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins

  10. Application of the major capsid protein as a marker of the phylogenetic diversity of Emiliania huxleyi viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Janet M; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Gobena, Daniel; Wilson, William H; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2011-05-01

    Studies of the Phycodnaviridae have traditionally relied on the DNA polymerase (pol) gene as a biomarker. However, recent investigations have suggested that the major capsid protein (MCP) gene may be a reliable phylogenetic biomarker. We used MCP gene amplicons gathered across the North Atlantic to assess the diversity of Emiliania huxleyi-infecting Phycodnaviridae. Nucleotide sequences were examined across >6000 km of open ocean, with comparisons between concentrates of the virus-size fraction of seawater and of lysates generated by exposing host strains to these same virus concentrates. Analyses revealed that many sequences were only sampled once, while several were over-represented. Analyses also revealed nucleotide sequences distinct from previous coastal isolates. Examination of lysed cultures revealed a new richness in phylogeny, as MCP sequences previously unrepresented within the existing collection of E. huxleyi viruses (EhV) were associated with viruses lysing cultures. Sequences were compared with previously described EhV MCP sequences from the North Sea and a Norwegian Fjord, as well as from the Gulf of Maine. Principal component analysis indicates that location-specific distinctions exist despite the presence of sequences common across these environments. Overall, this investigation provides new sequence data and an assessment on the use of the MCP gene. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Mignaqui

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV. The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV.

  12. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  13. Protruding Features of Viral Capsids Are Clustered on Icosahedral Great Circles.

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    David P Wilson

    Full Text Available Spherical viruses are remarkably well characterized by the Triangulation (T number developed by Casper and Klug. The T-number specifies how many viral capsid proteins are required to cover the virus, as well as how they are further subdivided into pentamer and hexamer subunits. The T-number however does not constrain the orientations of these proteins within the subunits or dictate where the proteins should place their protruding features. These protrusions often take the form of loops, spires and helices, and are significant because they aid in stability of the capsid as well as recognition by the host organism. Until now there has be no overall understanding of the placement of protrusions for spherical viruses, other than they have icosahedral symmetry. We constructed a set of gauge points based upon the work affine extensions of Keef and Twarock, which have fixed relative angular locations with which to measure the locations of these features. This work adds a new element to our understanding of the geometric arrangement of spherical viral capsid proteins; chiefly that the locations of protruding features are not found stochastically distributed in an icosahedral manner across the viral surface, but instead these features are found only in specific locations along the 15 icosahedral great circles. We have found that this result holds true as the T number and viral capsids size increases, suggesting an underlying geometric constraint on their locations. This is in spite of the fact that the constraints on the pentamers and hexamer orientations change as a function of T-number, as you need to accommodate more hexamers in the same solid angle between pentamers. The existence of this angular constraint of viral capsids suggests that there is a fitness or energetic benefit to the virus placing its protrusions in this manner. This discovery may have profound impacts on identifying and eliminating viral pathogens, understanding evolutionary

  14. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

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    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  15. Ultrastructural Localization and Molecular Associations of HCV Capsid Protein in Jurkat T Cells

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    Cecilia Fernández-Ponce

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus core protein is a highly basic viral protein that multimerizes with itself to form the viral capsid. When expressed in CD4+ T lymphocytes, it can induce modifications in several essential cellular and biological networks. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alterations caused by the viral protein, we have analyzed HCV-core subcellular localization and its associations with host proteins in Jurkat T cells. In order to investigate the intracellular localization of Hepatitis C virus core protein, we have used a lentiviral system to transduce Jurkat T cells and subsequently localize the protein using immunoelectron microscopy techniques. We found that in Jurkat T cells, Hepatitis C virus core protein mostly localizes in the nucleus and specifically in the nucleolus. In addition, we performed pull-down assays combined with Mass Spectrometry Analysis, to identify proteins that associate with Hepatitis C virus core in Jurkat T cells. We found proteins such as NOLC1, PP1γ, ILF3, and C1QBP implicated in localization and/or traffic to the nucleolus. HCV-core associated proteins are implicated in RNA processing and RNA virus infection as well as in functions previously shown to be altered in Hepatitis C virus core expressing CD4+ T cells, such as cell cycle delay, decreased proliferation, and induction of a regulatory phenotype. Thus, in the current work, we show the ultrastructural localization of Hepatitis C virus core and the first profile of HCV core associated proteins in T cells, and we discuss the functions and interconnections of these proteins in molecular networks where relevant biological modifications have been described upon the expression of Hepatitis C virus core protein. Thereby, the current work constitutes a necessary step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying HCV core mediated alterations that had been described in relevant biological processes in CD4+ T cells.

  16. The Polerovirus Minor Capsid Protein Determines Vector Specificity and Intestinal Tropism in the Aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Véronique; Périgon, Sophie; Reinbold, Catherine; Erdinger, Monique; Scheidecker, Danièle; Herrbach, Etienne; Richards, Ken; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2005-01-01

    Aphid transmission of poleroviruses is highly specific, but the viral determinants governing this specificity are unknown. We used a gene exchange strategy between two poleroviruses with different vectors, Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), to analyze the role of the major and minor capsid proteins in vector specificity. Virus recombinants obtained by exchanging the sequence of the readthrough domain (RTD) between the two viruses replicated in plant protoplasts and in whole plants. The hybrid readthrough protein of chimeric viruses was incorporated into virions. Aphid transmission experiments using infected plants or purified virions revealed that vector specificity is driven by the nature of the RTD. BWYV and CABYV have specific intestinal sites in the vectors for endocytosis: the midgut for BWYV and both midgut and hindgut for CABYV. Localization of hybrid virions in aphids by transmission electron microscopy revealed that gut tropism is also determined by the viral origin of the RTD. PMID:16014930

  17. Curating viscoelastic properties of icosahedral viruses, virus-based nanomaterials, and protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; McDonald, Kaitlyn; Bothner, Brian

    2018-06-01

    The beauty, symmetry, and functionality of icosahedral virus capsids has attracted the attention of biologists, physicists, and mathematicians ever since they were first observed. Viruses and protein cages assemble into functional architectures in a range of sizes, shapes, and symmetries. To fulfill their biological roles, these structures must self-assemble, resist stress, and are often dynamic. The increasing use of icosahedral capsids and cages in materials science has driven the need to quantify them in terms of structural properties such as rigidity, stiffness, and viscoelasticity. In this study, we employed Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation technology (QCM-D) to characterize and compare the mechanical rigidity of different protein cages and viruses. We attempted to unveil the relationships between rigidity, radius, shell thickness, and triangulation number. We show that the rigidity and triangulation numbers are inversely related to each other and the comparison of rigidity and radius also follows the same trend. Our results suggest that subunit orientation, protein-protein interactions, and protein-nucleic acid interactions are important for the resistance to deformation of these complexes, however, the relationships are complex and need to be explored further. The QCM-D based viscoelastic measurements presented here help us elucidate these relationships and show the future prospect of this technique in the field of physical virology and nano-biotechnology.

  18. The Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulates Parvovirus Nuclear Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life

  19. Formation of RNA Granule-Derived Capsid Assembly Intermediates Appears To Be Conserved between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and the Nonprimate Lentivirus Feline Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jonathan C; Westergreen, Nick; Barajas, Brook C; Ressler, Dylan T B; Phuong, Daryl J; Swain, John V; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Lingappa, Jaisri R

    2018-05-01

    During immature capsid assembly in cells, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag co-opts a host RNA granule, forming a pathway of intracellular assembly intermediates containing host components, including two cellular facilitators of assembly, ABCE1 and DDX6. A similar assembly pathway has been observed for other primate lentiviruses. Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus, also forms RNA granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. First, we showed that the released FIV immature capsid and a large FIV Gag-containing intracellular complex are unstable during analysis, unlike for HIV-1. We identified harvest conditions, including in situ cross-linking, that overcame this problem, revealing a series of FIV Gag-containing complexes corresponding in size to HIV-1 assembly intermediates. Previously, we showed that assembly-defective HIV-1 Gag mutants are arrested at specific assembly intermediates; here we identified four assembly-defective FIV Gag mutants, including three not previously studied, and demonstrated that they appear to be arrested at the same intermediate as the cognate HIV-1 mutants. Further evidence that these FIV Gag-containing complexes correspond to assembly intermediates came from coimmunoprecipitations demonstrating that endogenous ABCE1 and the RNA granule protein DDX6 are associated with FIV Gag, as shown previously for HIV-1 Gag, but are not associated with a ribosomal protein, at steady state. Additionally, we showed that FIV Gag associates with another RNA granule protein, DCP2. Finally, we validated the FIV Gag-ABCE1 and FIV Gag-DCP2 interactions with proximity ligation assays demonstrating colocalization in situ Together, these data support a model in which primate and nonprimate lentiviruses form intracellular capsid assembly intermediates derived from nontranslating host RNA granules. IMPORTANCE Like HIV-1 Gag, FIV Gag assembles into immature capsids; however, it is not known whether

  20. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

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    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  1. Production of a recombinant capsid protein VP1 from a newly described polyomavirus (RacPyV for downstream use in virus characterization

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    Molly E. Church

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the methods for production of a recombinant viral capsid protein and subsequent use in an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and for use in production of a rabbit polyclonal antibody. These reagents were utilized in development and optimization of an ELISA, which established the extent of exposure of free ranging raccoons to a newly described polyomavirus (RacPyV [1]. Production of a polyclonal antibody has allowed for further characterization of RacPyV, including immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry techniques, in order to answer questions about pathogenesis of this virus.

  2. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  3. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Heather M; Feng, Kurtis H; Lee, Donald W; Allison, Andrew B; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan; Parrish, Colin R

    2017-01-15

    Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in infection or transduction

  4. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Heather M.; Feng, Kurtis H.; Lee, Donald W.; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. IMPORTANCE Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in

  5. Protein composition of the hepatitis A virus quasi-envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Kevin L; Xie, Ling; González-López, Olga; Rivera-Serrano, Efraín E; Chen, Xian; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-06-20

    The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation. Amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) with stable isotopes followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing and AACT quantitation of peptides provided unambiguous identification of proteins associated with eHAV versus unrelated extracellular vesicles with similar buoyant density. Multiple peptides were identified from HAV capsid proteins (53.7% coverage), but none from nonstructural proteins, indicating capsids are packaged as cargo into eHAV vesicles via a highly specific sorting process. Other eHAV-associated proteins ( n = 105) were significantly enriched for components of the endolysosomal system (>60%, P hepatitis A. No LC3-related peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. RNAi depletion studies confirmed that ESCRT-III proteins, particularly CHMP2A, function in eHAV biogenesis. In addition to identifying surface markers of eHAV vesicles, the results support an exosome-like mechanism of eHAV egress involving endosomal budding of HAV capsids into multivesicular bodies.

  6. Determining the Epitope Dominance on the Capsid of a Serotype SAT2 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Mutational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Pamela A.; Rotherham, Lia S.; Esterhuysen, Jan; Charleston, Bryan; Juleff, Nicholas; Capozzo, Alejandra V.; Theron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monoclonal-antibody (MAb)-resistant mutants were used to map antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which resulted in the identification of neutralizing epitopes in the flexible βG-βH loop in VP1. For FMDV SAT2 viruses, studies have shown that at least two antigenic sites exist. By use of an infectious SAT2 cDNA clone, 10 structurally exposed and highly variable loops were identified as putative antigenic sites on the VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid proteins of SAT2/Zimbabwe (ZIM)/7/83 (topotype II) and replaced with the corresponding regions of SAT2/Kruger National Park (KNP)/19/89 (topotype I). Virus neutralization assays using convalescent-phase antisera raised against the parental virus, SAT2/ZIM/7/83, indicated that the mutant virus containing the TQQS-to-ETPV mutation in the N-terminal part of the βG-βH loop of VP1 showed not only a significant increase in the neutralization titer but also an increase in the index of avidity to the convalescent-phase antisera. Furthermore, antigenic profiling of the epitope-replaced and parental viruses with nonneutralizing SAT2-specific MAbs led to the identification of two nonneutralizing antigenic regions. Both regions were mapped to incorporate residues 71 to 72 of VP2 as the major contact point. The binding footprint of one of the antigenic regions encompasses residues 71 to 72 and 133 to 134 of VP2 and residues 48 to 50 of VP1, and the second antigenic region encompasses residues 71 to 72 and 133 to 134 of VP2 and residues 84 to 86 and 109 to 11 of VP1. This is the first time that antigenic regions encompassing residues 71 to 72 of VP2 have been identified on the capsid of a SAT2 FMDV. IMPORTANCE Monoclonal-antibody-resistant mutants have traditionally been used to map antigenic sites on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). However, for SAT2-type viruses, which are responsible for most of the FMD outbreaks in Africa and are the most varied of all seven serotypes, only two antigenic sites have been

  7. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Stephanie M; Brendle, Sarah A; Tossi, Kerstin P; Biryukov, Jennifer; Meyers, Craig; Christensen, Neil D

    2017-11-10

    The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E) and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17-36). The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers.

  8. A theory for viral capsid assembly around electrostatic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Michael F.

    2009-03-01

    We develop equilibrium and kinetic theories that describe the assembly of viral capsid proteins on a charged central core, as seen in recent experiments in which brome mosaic virus capsids assemble around nanoparticles functionalized with polyelectrolyte. We model interactions between capsid proteins and nanoparticle surfaces as the interaction of polyelectrolyte brushes with opposite charge using the nonlinear Poisson Boltzmann equation. The models predict that there is a threshold density of functionalized charge, above which capsids efficiently assemble around nanoparticles, and that light scatter intensity increases rapidly at early times without the lag phase characteristic of empty capsid assembly. These predictions are consistent with and enable interpretation of preliminary experimental data. However, the models predict a stronger dependence of nanoparticle incorporation efficiency on functionalized charge density than measured in experiments and do not completely capture a logarithmic growth phase seen in experimental light scatter. These discrepancies may suggest the presence of metastable disordered states in the experimental system. In addition to discussing future experiments for nanoparticle-capsid systems, we discuss broader implications for understanding assembly around charged cores such as nucleic acids.

  9. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... region within the O1K B64 strain that inhibits replication in cattle. These chimeric infectious cDNA plasmids provide a basis for the analysis of FMDV pathogenicity and characterization of receptor utilization in vivo....

  10. Sequence analysis of malacoherpesvirus proteins: Pan-herpesvirus capsid module and replication enzymes with an ancient connection to "Megavirales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushegian, Arcady; Karin, Eli Levy; Pupko, Tal

    2018-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins. Herpesvirus DNA replication factors have complex evolutionary history: some are related to cellular proteins, but others are closer to homologs from large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the core replication machinery of herpesviruses may have been recruited from the same pool as in the case of other large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  12. Cross-serotype immunity induced by immunization with a conserved rhinovirus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Glanville

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (RV infections are the principle cause of common colds and precipitate asthma and COPD exacerbations. There is currently no RV vaccine, largely due to the existence of ∼150 strains. We aimed to define highly conserved areas of the RV proteome and test their usefulness as candidate antigens for a broadly cross-reactive vaccine, using a mouse infection model. Regions of the VP0 (VP4+VP2 capsid protein were identified as having high homology across RVs. Immunization with a recombinant VP0 combined with a Th1 promoting adjuvant induced systemic, antigen specific, cross-serotype, cellular and humoral immune responses. Similar cross-reactive responses were observed in the lungs of immunized mice after infection with heterologous RV strains. Immunization enhanced the generation of heterosubtypic neutralizing antibodies and lung memory T cells, and caused more rapid virus clearance. Conserved domains of the RV capsid therefore induce cross-reactive immune responses and represent candidates for a subunit RV vaccine.

  13. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV (∼ 5 log) and VSV (∼ 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells

  14. Antibody Competition Reveals Surface Location of HPV L2 Minor Capsid Protein Residues 17–36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Bywaters

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The currently available nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine exploits the highly antigenic L1 major capsid protein to promote high-titer neutralizing antibodies, but is limited to the HPV types included in the vaccine since the responses are highly type-specific. The limited cross-protection offered by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP vaccine warrants further investigation into cross-protective L2 epitopes. The L2 proteins are yet to be fully characterized as to their precise placement in the virion. Adding to the difficulties in localizing L2, studies have suggested that L2 epitopes are not well exposed on the surface of the mature capsid prior to cellular engagement. Using a series of competition assays between previously mapped anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs (H16.V5, H16.U4 and H16.7E and novel anti-L2 mAbs, we probed the capsid surface for the location of an L2 epitope (aa17–36. The previously characterized L1 epitopes together with our competition data is consistent with a proposed L2 epitope within the canyons of pentavalent capsomers.

  15. Lentiviral Gag assembly analyzed through the functional characterization of chimeric simian immunodeficiency viruses expressing different domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Esteva

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses.

  16. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  17. Identification of binding domains in the herpes simplex virus type 1 small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apcarian, Arin; Cunningham, Anthony L; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2010-11-01

    In this study, fragments of the small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were generated to identify binding domains for a number of known ligands. Analysis of the binding of dynein light chain subunits, DYNLT1 and DYNLT3, as well the HSV-1 structural proteins pUL19 (VP5) and pUL37 was then undertaken using the LexA yeast two-hybrid assay. The N-terminal half of pUL35, in particular residues 30-43, was identified as a common region for the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. Additional distinct regions in the C terminus of pUL35 also contribute to the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. In contrast, only the C-terminal half of pUL35 was found to mediate the binding of pUL19 and pUL37 through distinct regions. The relevance of this information to the role of pUL35 in viral transport and assembly is discussed.

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus pUL47 Modulates Tegumentation and Capsid Accumulation at the Viral Assembly Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadona, Ilaria; Villinger, Clarissa; Schutzius, Gabi; Mertens, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL47 is an interaction partner of pUL48 and highly conserved among herpesviruses. It is closely associated with the capsid and has an important function early in infection. Here, we report a specific role of pUL47 in the tegumentation of capsids in the cytoplasm. A newly generated mutant virus (TB-47stop), in which expression of pUL47 is blocked, exhibited a severe impairment in cell-to-cell spread and release of infectivity from infected cells. Ultrastructural analysis of TB-47stop-infected cells clearly showed cytoplasmic accumulations of nonenveloped capsids that were only partially tegumented, indicating that these capsids failed to complete tegumentation. Nevertheless, these accumulations were positive for HCMV inner tegument proteins pp150 and pUL48, suggesting that their attachment to capsids occurs independently of pUL47. Despite these morphological alterations, fully enveloped virus particles were found in the extracellular space and at the viral assembly complex (vAC) of TB-47stop-infected cells, indicating that pUL47 is not essential for the generation of virions. We confirmed findings that incorporation of pUL48 into virions is impaired in the absence of pUL47. Interestingly, pUL47 exhibited a strong nuclear localization in transfected cells, whereas it was found exclusively at the vAC in the context of virus infection. Colocalization of pUL47 and pUL48 at the vAC is consistent with their interaction. We also found a shift to a more nuclear localization of pUL47 when the expression of pUL48 was reduced. Summarizing our results, we hypothesize that pUL48 directs pUL47 to the vAC to promote tegumentation and secondary envelopment of capsids. IMPORTANCE Generation of infectious HCMV particles requires an organized and multistep process involving the action of several viral and cellular proteins as well as protein-protein interactions. A better understanding of these processes is important for

  19. Cyclophilins facilitate dissociation of the human papillomavirus type 16 capsid protein L1 from the L2/DNA complex following virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Williams, Carlyn; Kim, Seong Man; Garcea, Robert L; Sapp, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are composed of the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, that encapsidate a chromatinized, circular double-stranded DNA genome. At the outset of infection, the interaction of HPV type 16 (HPV16) (pseudo)virions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans triggers a conformational change in L2 that is facilitated by the host cell chaperone cyclophilin B (CyPB). This conformational change results in exposure of the L2 N terminus, which is required for infectious internalization. Following internalization, L2 facilitates egress of the viral genome from acidified endosomes, and the L2/DNA complex accumulates at PML nuclear bodies. We recently described a mutant virus that bypasses the requirement for cell surface CyPB but remains sensitive to cyclosporine for infection, indicating an additional role for CyP following endocytic uptake of virions. We now report that the L1 protein dissociates from the L2/DNA complex following infectious internalization. Inhibition and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CyPs blocked dissociation of L1 from the L2/DNA complex. In vitro, purified CyPs facilitated the dissociation of L1 pentamers from recombinant HPV11 L1/L2 complexes in a pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, CyPs released L1 capsomeres from partially disassembled HPV16 pseudovirions at slightly acidic pH. Taken together, these data suggest that CyPs mediate the dissociation of HPV L1 and L2 capsid proteins following acidification of endocytic vesicles.

  20. Atomic force microscopy investigation of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus capsid disruption and RNA extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. G.; McPherson, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV) was subjected to a variety of procedures which disrupted the protein capsids and produced exposure of the ssRNA genome. The results of the treatments were visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both in situ and ex situ freeze-thawing produced RNA emission, though at low efficiency. The RNA lost from such particles was evident, in some cases in the process of exiting the virions. More severe disruption of TYMV and extrusion of intact RNA onto the substrate were produced by drying the virus and rehydrating with neutral buffer. Similar products were also obtained by heating TYMV to 70-75 deg. C and by exposure to alkaline pH. Experiments showed the nucleic acid to have an elaborate secondary structure distributed linearly along its length

  1. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  2. Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer.   Materials and Methods: A total of 309 patients were recruited and cervical exfoliated cells were collected. Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed to detect the hTERC. Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. However, the expression of hTERC increased with the increase of the histological grade and positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The proportion of patients with L1(-/hTERC(+ was higher in patients with histological grade of CIN2 or higher than that in those with histological grade of CIN1. The L1(+/hTERC(- and L1(-/hTERC(- were negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. L1(-/hTERC(+ was positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The L1/hTERC ratio increased. The negative predictive value of both HPV L1 and hTERC was higher than that of HPV L1 or hTERC, but there was no marked difference in the screening efficacy of cervical cancer among HPV L1, hTERC and HPV L1+hTERC. Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical lesions. The increase in L1/hTERC ratio reflects the progression of cervical lesions to a certain extent.

  3. Vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus - Importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) displays several independent B cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. Some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. The site A on VP1 is the most prominent...

  4. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  5. Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of herpes simplex virus capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Radtke, K.; Kniesmeijer, E.G.R.; Geertsema, H.J.; Sodeik, B.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) capsids undergo extensive structural changes during maturation and DNA packaging. As a result, they become more stable and competent for nuclear egress. To further elucidate this stabilization process, we used biochemical and nanoindentation approaches to analyze

  6. Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of Herpes Simplex Virus capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Radtke, K.; Kniesmeijer, E.; Geertsema, H.J.; Sodeik, B.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) capsids undergo extensive structural changes during maturation and DNA packaging. As a result, they become more stable and competent for nuclear egress. To further elucidate this stabilization process, we used biochemical and nanoindentation approaches to analyze

  7. Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein induces cell death in PK15 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, Rupali; Dardari, Rkia, E-mail: rdardari@ucalgary.ca; Chaiyakul, Mark; Czub, Markus

    2014-11-15

    Studies have shown that Porcine circovirus (PCV)-2 induces apoptosis in PK15 cells. Here we report that cell death is induced in PCV2b-infected PK15 cells that express Capsid (Cap) protein and this effect is enhanced in interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-treated cells. We further show that transient PCV2a and 2b-Cap protein expression induces cell death in PK15 cells at rate similar to PCV2 infection, regardless of Cap protein localization. These data suggest that Cap protein may have the capacity to trigger different signaling pathways involved in cell death. Although further investigation is needed to gain deeper insights into the nature of the pathways involved in Cap-induced cell death, this study provides evidence that PCV2-induced cell death in kidney epithelial PK15 cells can be mapped to the Cap protein and establishes the need for future research regarding the role of Cap-induced cell death in PCV2 pathogenesis. - Highlights: • IFN-γ enhances PCV2 replication that leads to cell death in PK15 cells. • IFN-γ enhances nuclear localization of the PCV2 Capsid protein. • Transient PCV2a and 2b-Capsid protein expression induces cell death. • Cell death is not dictated by specific Capsid protein sub-localization.

  8. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: okazaki@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nakagawa, A. [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomoto, A. [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  9. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Nomoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10 6 all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it

  10. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Nomoto, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2014-10-01

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 106 all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  11. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenen, Antje [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Gillespie, Leah [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der [Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Khromykh, Alexander [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Mackenzie, Jason, E-mail: jason.mackenzie@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  12. Gaussian fluctuation of the diffusion exponent of virus capsid in a living cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itto, Yuichi

    2018-05-01

    In their work [4], Bosse et al. experimentally showed that virus capsid exhibits not only normal diffusion but also anomalous diffusion in nucleus of a living cell. There, it was found that the distribution of fluctuations of the diffusion exponent characterizing them takes the Gaussian form, which is, quite remarkably, the same form for two different types of the virus. This suggests high robustness of such fluctuations. Here, the statistical property of local fluctuations of the diffusion exponent of the virus capsid in the nucleus is studied. A maximum-entropy-principle approach (originally proposed for a different virus in a different cell) is applied for obtaining the fluctuation distribution of the exponent. Largeness of the number of blocks identified with local areas of interchromatin corrals is also examined based on the experimental data. It is shown that the Gaussian distribution of the local fluctuations can be derived, in accordance with the above form. In addition, it is quantified how the fluctuation distribution on a long time scale is different from the Gaussian distribution.

  13. Intracellular Distribution of Capsid-Associated pUL77 of Human Cytomegalovirus and Interactions with Packaging Proteins and pUL93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen-Rung, Pánja; Dittmer, Alexandra; Bogner, Elke

    2016-07-01

    DNA packaging into procapsids is a common multistep process during viral maturation in herpesviruses. In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the proteins involved in this process are terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89, which are responsible for site-specific cleavage and insertion of the DNA into the procapsid via portal protein pUL104. However, additional viral proteins are required for the DNA packaging process. We have shown previously that the plasmid that encodes capsid-associated pUL77 encodes another potential player during capsid maturation. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that pUL77 is stably expressed during HCMV infection. Time course analysis demonstrated that pUL77 is expressed in the early late part of the infectious cycle. The sequence of pUL77 was analyzed to find nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), revealing monopartite NLSm at the N terminus and bipartite NLSb in the middle of pUL77. The potential NLSs were inserted into plasmid pHM829, which encodes a chimeric protein with β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein. In contrast to pUL56, neither NLSm nor NLSb was sufficient for nuclear import. Furthermore, we investigated by coimmunoprecipitation whether packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, the homologue protein of herpes simplex virus 1 pUL17, are interaction partners of pUL77. The interactions between pUL77 and packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, were verified. We showed that the capsid-associated pUL77 is another potential player during capsid maturation of HCMV. Protein UL77 (pUL77) is a conserved core protein of HCMV. This study demonstrates for the first time that pUL77 has early-late expression kinetics during the infectious cycle and an intrinsic potential for nuclear translocation. According to its proposed functions in stabilization of the capsid and anchoring of the encapsidated DNA during packaging, interaction with further DNA packaging proteins is required. We identified physical interactions with terminase subunits pUL56 and p

  14. Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhi Zhang

    Full Text Available The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV, assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies showed that MMTV capsids accumulate around centrioles suggesting that, similar to M-PMV, the pericentriolar region may be a site for MMTV assembly. Together, the data imply that MMTV Gag targets the pericentriolar region as a result of the MMTV cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal, possibly aided by the Y box protein-1 required for the assembly of centrosomal microtubules.

  15. General Model for Retroviral Capsid Pattern Recognition by TRIM5 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Christensen, Devin E; Bhattacharya, Akash; Dawidziak, Daria M; Roganowicz, Marcin D; Wan, Yueping; Pumroy, Ruth A; Demeler, Borries; Ivanov, Dmitri N; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Sundquist, Wesley I; Pornillos, Owen

    2018-02-15

    Restriction factors are intrinsic cellular defense proteins that have evolved to block microbial infections. Retroviruses such as HIV-1 are restricted by TRIM5 proteins, which recognize the viral capsid shell that surrounds, organizes, and protects the viral genome. TRIM5α uses a SPRY domain to bind capsids with low intrinsic affinity ( K D of >1 mM) and therefore requires higher-order assembly into a hexagonal lattice to generate sufficient avidity for productive capsid recognition. TRIMCyp, on the other hand, binds HIV-1 capsids through a cyclophilin A domain, which has a well-defined binding site and higher affinity ( K D of ∼10 μM) for isolated capsid subunits. Therefore, it has been argued that TRIMCyp proteins have dispensed with the need for higher-order assembly to function as antiviral factors. Here, we show that, consistent with its high degree of sequence similarity with TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp B-box 2 domain shares the same ability to self-associate and facilitate assembly of a TRIMCyp hexagonal lattice that can wrap about the HIV-1 capsid. We also show that under stringent experimental conditions, TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1 is indeed dependent on higher-order assembly. Both forms of TRIM5 therefore use the same mechanism of avidity-driven capsid pattern recognition. IMPORTANCE Rhesus macaques and owl monkeys are highly resistant to HIV-1 infection due to the activity of TRIM5 restriction factors. The rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein blocks HIV-1 through a mechanism that requires self-assembly of a hexagonal TRIM5α lattice around the invading viral core. Lattice assembly amplifies very weak interactions between the TRIM5α SPRY domain and the HIV-1 capsid. Assembly also promotes dimerization of the TRIM5α RING E3 ligase domain, resulting in synthesis of polyubiquitin chains that mediate downstream steps of restriction. In contrast to rhesus TRIM5α, the owl monkey TRIM5 homolog, TRIMCyp, binds isolated HIV-1 CA subunits much more tightly

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this

  17. A triclinic crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein with four molecules in the asymmetric unit reveals a novel packing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The triclinic structure of the HIV-1 capsid protein contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit that form a novel packing interface that could conceivably resemble an intermediate structure that is involved in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs

  18. Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2014-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.

  19. A novel fusion protein domain III-capsid from dengue-2, in a highly aggregated form, induces a functional immune response and protection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, Iris; Bernardo, Lidice; Gil, Lazaro; Pavon, Alekis; Lazo, Laura; Lopez, Carlos; Romero, Yaremis; Menendez, Ivon; Falcon, Viviana; Betancourt, Lazaro; Martin, Jorge; Chinea, Glay; Silva, Ricardo; Guzman, Maria G.; Guillen, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2009-01-01

    Based on the immunogenicity of domain III from the Envelope protein of dengue virus as well as the proven protective capacity of the capsid antigen, we have designed a novel domain III-capsid chimeric protein with the goal of obtaining a molecule potentially able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). After expression of the recombinant gene in Escherichia coli, the domain III moiety retained its antigenicity as evaluated with anti-dengue sera. In order to explore alternatives for modulating the immunogenicity of the protein, it was mixed with oligodeoxynucleotides in order to obtain particulated aggregates and then immunologically evaluated in mice in comparison with non-aggregated controls. Although the humoral immune response induced by both forms of the protein was equivalent, the aggregated variant resulted in a much stronger CMI as measured by in vitro IFN-γ secretion and protection experiments, mediated by CD4 + and CD8 + cells. The present work provides additional evidence in support for a crucial role of CMI in protection against dengue virus and describes a novel vaccine candidate against the disease based on a recombinant protein that can stimulate both arms of the acquired immune system.

  20. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine adenovirus type 3 containing heterologous protein in the C-terminus of minor capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchouk, Alexander; Connors, Wayne; Van Kessel, Andrew; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Earlier, we detected pIX of BAdV-3 as a 14-kDa protein in purified virions. Analysis of BAdV-3 pIX using different region antibodies revealed that the N-terminus and central domain of the pIX contain immunogenic sites and are not exposed on the surface of BAdV-3 virion. This suggested that the C-terminus of BAdV-3 pIX (125 amino acid) may be exposed on the virion and may be used as a site for incorporation of heterologous peptides or proteins. We constructed recombinant BAV950 containing a small peptide (21 amino acid), including the RGD motif or recombinant BAV951 containing enhanced yellow-green fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused to the C-terminus of pIX. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the chimeric pIX-RGD was incorporated into virion capsids. Incorporation of the RGD motif into the pIX resulted in significant augmentation of BAdV-3 fiber knob-independent infection of the integrin-positive cells, suggesting that RGD motifs are displayed on the surface of virion capsids and are accessible for binding to integrins. Analysis of BAV951 revealed that the chimeric pIX is incorporated into virion capsids and EYFP containing the C-terminus of pIX is exposed on the surface of the virion. Moreover, insertion of chimeric pIXs was maintained without change through successive rounds of viral replication. These results suggested that in contrast to major capsid proteins (hexon, penton, fiber), the minor capsid protein IX can be use for the incorporation of targeting ligands based on either small peptides or longer polypeptides

  2. Enterovirus 71 viral capsid protein linear epitopes: Identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the human humoral immune response against enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection and map human epitopes on the viral capsid proteins. Methods A series of 256 peptides spanning the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 of BJ08 strain (genomic C4 were synthesized. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was carried out to detect anti-EV71 IgM and IgG in sera of infected children in acute or recovery phase. The partially overlapped peptides contained 12 amino acids and were coated in the plate as antigen (0.1 μg/μl. Sera from rabbits immunized with inactivated BJ08 virus were also used to screen the peptide panel. Results A total of 10 human anti-EV71 IgM epitopes (vp1-14 in VP1; vp2-6, 21, 40 and 50 in VP2 and vp3-10, 12, 15, 24 and 75 in VP3 were identified in acute phase sera. In contrast, only one anti-EV71 IgG epitope in VP1 (vp1-15 was identified in sera of recovery stage. Four rabbit anti-EV71 IgG epitopes (vp1-14, 31, 54 and 71 were identified and mapped to VP1. Conclusion These data suggested that human IgM epitopes were mainly mapped to VP2 and VP3 with multi-epitope responses occurred at acute infection, while the only IgG epitope located on protein VP1 was activated in recovery phase sera. The dynamic changes of humoral immune response at different stages of infection may have public health significance in evaluation of EV71 vaccine immunogenicity and the clinical application of diagnostic reagents.

  3. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2018-01-01

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus small capsid protein by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, Narayanan; Yuan Yan

    2010-01-01

    A systematic investigation of interactions amongst KSHV capsid proteins was undertaken in this study to comprehend lesser known KSHV capsid assembly mechanisms. Interestingly the interaction patterns of the KSHV small capsid protein, ORF65 suggested its plausible role in viral capsid assembly pathways. Towards further understanding this, ORF65-null recombinant mutants (BAC-Δ65 and BAC-stop65) employing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system were generated. No significant difference was found in both overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication between stable monolayers of 293T-BAC36 (wild-type) and 293T-BAC-ORF65-null upon induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, though the latter released 30-fold fewer virions to the medium than 293T-BAC36 cells. Sedimentation profiles of capsid proteins of ORF65-null recombinant mutants were non-reflective of their organization into the KSHV capsids and were also undetectable in cytoplasmic extracts compared to noticeable levels in nuclear extracts. These observations collectively suggested the pivotal role of ORF65 in the KSHV capsid assembly processes.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Dephosphorylation Occurs during Pregenomic RNA Encapsidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Hu, Zhanying; Cheng, Junjun; Wu, Shuo; Luo, Yue; Chang, Jinhong; Hu, Jianming; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2018-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein consists of an N-terminal assembly domain and a C-terminal domain (CTD) with seven conserved serines or threonines that are dynamically phosphorylated/dephosphorylated during the viral replication cycle. Sulfamoylbenzamide derivatives are small molecular core protein allosteric modulators (CpAMs) that bind to the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) pocket between the core protein dimer-dimer interfaces. CpAM binding alters the kinetics and pathway of capsid assembly and can result in the formation of morphologically "normal" capsids devoid of viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and DNA polymerase. In order to investigate the mechanism underlying CpAM inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation, we developed an immunoblotting assay that can resolve core protein based on its phosphorylation status and demonstrated, for the first time, that core protein is hyperphosphorylated in free dimers and empty capsids from both mock-treated and CpAM-treated cells but is hypophosphorylated in pgRNA- and DNA-containing nucleocapsids. Interestingly, inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation by a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor prevented core protein dephosphorylation. Moreover, core proteins with point mutations at the wall of the HAP pocket, V124A and V124W, assembled empty capsids and nucleocapsids with altered phosphorylation status. The results thus suggest that core protein dephosphorylation occurs in the assembly of pgRNA and that interference with the interaction between core protein subunits at dimer-dimer interfaces during nucleocapsid assembly alters not only capsid structure, but also core protein dephosphorylation. Hence, inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation by CpAMs might be due to disruption of core protein dephosphorylation during nucleocapsid assembly. IMPORTANCE Dynamic phosphorylation of HBV core protein regulates multiple steps of viral replication. However, the regulatory function was mainly investigated by phosphomimetic mutagenesis, which

  6. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: implications for replication and genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A L N

    2014-09-01

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein-protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  9. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of hepatitis B virus core fusion protein corresponding to octahedral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masaki; Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Kikkou, Tatsuhiko; Noguchi, Keiichi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi; Kawata, Masaaki; Sato, Chikara; Matsumoto, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Novel hepatitis B virus-like particles of recombinant dimeric core–GFP fusion protein were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. Recombinant hepatitis B virus core proteins dimerize to form building blocks that are capable of self-assembly into a capsid. A core capsid protein dimer (CPD) linked to a green fluorescent protein variant, EGFP, at the C-terminus has been designed. The recombinant fusion CPD was expressed in Escherichia coli, assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), purified and crystallized. The single crystal diffracted to 2.15 Å resolution and belonged to the cubic space group F432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 219.7 Å. The fusion proteins assembled into icosahedral VLPs in aqueous solution, but were rearranged into octahedral symmetry through the crystal-packing process under the crystallization conditions

  11. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  12. Exploiting the yeast L-A viral capsid for the in vivo assembly of chimeric VLPs as platform in vaccine development and foreign protein expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Powilleit

    Full Text Available A novel expression system based on engineered variants of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus L-A was developed allowing the in vivo assembly of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs as a unique platform for a wide range of applications. We show that polypeptides fused to the viral capsid protein Gag self-assemble into isometric VLP chimeras carrying their cargo inside the capsid, thereby not only effectively preventing proteolytic degradation in the host cell cytosol, but also allowing the expression of a per se cytotoxic protein. Carboxyterminal extension of Gag by T cell epitopes from human cytomegalovirus pp65 resulted in the formation of hybrid VLPs that strongly activated antigen-specific CD8(+ memory T cells ex vivo. Besides being a carrier for polypeptides inducing antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, VLP chimeras were also shown to be effective in the expression and purification of (i a heterologous model protein (GFP, (ii a per se toxic protein (K28 alpha-subunit, and (iii a particle-associated and fully recyclable biotechnologically relevant enzyme (esterase A. Thus, yeast viral Gag represents a unique platform for the in vivo assembly of chimeric VLPs, equally attractive and useful in vaccine development and recombinant protein production.

  13. Evolution to pathogenicity of the parvovirus minute virus of mice in immunodeficient mice involves genetic heterogeneity at the capsid domain that determines tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bueno, Alberto; Segovia, José C; Bueren, Juan A; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Wang, Feng; Tattersall, Peter; Almendral, José M

    2008-02-01

    Very little is known about the role that evolutionary dynamics plays in diseases caused by mammalian DNA viruses. To address this issue in a natural host model, we compared the pathogenesis and genetics of the attenuated fibrotropic and the virulent lymphohematotropic strains of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM), and of two invasive fibrotropic MVM (MVMp) variants carrying the I362S or K368R change in the VP2 major capsid protein, in the infection of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. By 14 to 18 weeks after oronasal inoculation, the I362S and K368R viruses caused lethal leukopenia characterized by tissue damage and inclusion bodies in hemopoietic organs, a pattern of disease found by 7 weeks postinfection with the lymphohematotropic MVM (MVMi) strain. The MVMp populations emerging in leukopenic mice showed consensus sequence changes in the MVMi genotype at residues G321E and A551V of VP2 in the I362S virus infections or A551V and V575A changes in the K368R virus infections, as well as a high level of genetic heterogeneity within a capsid domain at the twofold depression where these residues lay. Amino acids forming this capsid domain are important MVM tropism determinants, as exemplified by the switch in MVMi host range toward mouse fibroblasts conferred by coordinated changes of some of these residues and by the essential character of glutamate at residue 321 for maintaining MVMi tropism toward primary hemopoietic precursors. The few viruses within the spectrum of mutants from mice that maintained the respective parental 321G and 575V residues were infectious in a plaque assay, whereas the viruses with the main consensus sequences exhibited low levels of fitness in culture. Consistent with this finding, a recombinant MVMp virus carrying the consensus sequence mutations arising in the K368R virus background in mice failed to initiate infection in cell lines of different tissue origins, even though it caused rapid-course lethal leukopenia in SCID

  14. Interaction of the Mouse Polyomavirus Capsid Proteins with Importins Is Required for Efficient Import of Viral DNA into the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Irina; Prilepskaja, Terezie; Abrahamyan, Levon; Forstová, Jitka; Huérfano, Sandra

    2018-03-31

    The mechanism used by mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) overcomes the crowded cytosol to reach the nucleus has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the involvement of importin α/β1 mediated transport in the delivery of MPyV genomes into the nucleus. Interactions of the virus with importin β1 were studied by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. For infectivity and nucleus delivery assays, the virus and its capsid proteins mutated in the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were prepared and produced. We found that at early times post infection, virions bound importin β1 in a time dependent manner with a peak of interactions at 6 h post infection. Mutation analysis revealed that only when the NLSs of both VP1 and VP2/3 were disrupted, virus did not bind efficiently to importin β1 and its infectivity remarkably decreased (by 80%). Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins was improved when VP1 and VP2 were co-expressed. VP1 and VP2 were effectively delivered into the nucleus, even when one of the NLS, either VP1 or VP2, was disrupted. Altogether, our results showed that MPyV virions can use VP1 and/or VP2/VP3 NLSs in concert or individually to bind importins to deliver their genomes into the cell nucleus.

  15. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  16. Fragment-derived inhibitors of human N-myristoyltransferase block capsid assembly and replication of the common cold virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnier, Aurélie; Bell, Andrew S.; Swieboda, Dawid P.; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Brannigan, James A.; Newman, Joseph; Ritzefeld, Markus; Hutton, Jennie A.; Guedán, Anabel; Asfor, Amin S.; Robinson, Sean W.; Hopkins-Navratilova, Iva; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.; Tuthill, Tobias J.; Solari, Roberto; Tate, Edward W.

    2018-06-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the pathogens most often responsible for the common cold, and are a frequent cause of exacerbations in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Here we report the discovery of IMP-1088, a picomolar dual inhibitor of the human N-myristoyltransferases NMT1 and NMT2, and use it to demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of host-cell N-myristoylation rapidly and completely prevents rhinoviral replication without inducing cytotoxicity. The identification of cooperative binding between weak-binding fragments led to rapid inhibitor optimization through fragment reconstruction, structure-guided fragment linking and conformational control over linker geometry. We show that inhibition of the co-translational myristoylation of a specific virus-encoded protein (VP0) by IMP-1088 potently blocks a key step in viral capsid assembly, to deliver a low nanomolar antiviral activity against multiple RV strains, poliovirus and foot and-mouth disease virus, and protection of cells against virus-induced killing, highlighting the potential of host myristoylation as a drug target in picornaviral infections.

  17. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of cell-free synthesized Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein capsids enables in vitro screening to identify novel antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broce, Sean; Hensley, Lisa; Sato, Tomoharu; Lehrer-Graiwer, Joshua; Essrich, Christian; Edwards, Katie J; Pajda, Jacqueline; Davis, Christopher J; Bhadresh, Rami; Hurt, Clarence R; Freeman, Beverly; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Kelleher, Colm A; Karpuj, Marcela V

    2016-05-14

    Viral capsid assembly involves the oligomerization of the capsid nucleoprotein (NP), which is an essential step in viral replication and may represent a potential antiviral target. An in vitro transcription-translation reaction using a wheat germ (WG) extract in combination with a sandwich ELISA assay has recently been used to identify small molecules with antiviral activity against the rabies virus. Here, we examined the application of this system to viruses with capsids with a different structure, such as the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the etiological agent of a severe emerging infectious disease. The biochemical and immunological characterization of the in vitro-generated RVFV NP assembly products enabled the distinction between intermediately and highly ordered capsid structures. This distinction was used to establish a screening method for the identification of potential antiviral drugs for RVFV countermeasures. These results indicated that this unique analytical system, which combines nucleoprotein oligomerization with the specific immune recognition of a highly ordered capsid structure, can be extended to various viral families and used both to study the early stages of NP assembly and to assist in the identification of potential antiviral drugs in a cost-efficient manner. Reviewed by Jeffry Skolnick and Noah Isakov. For the full reviews please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  18. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  19. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. PMID:20646322

  20. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  1. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  2. Ebselen, a Small-Molecule Capsid Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenin-Houssier, Suzie; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Pedro-Rosa, Laura; Brady, Angela; Richard, Audrey; Konnick, Briana; Opp, Silvana; Buffone, Cindy; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Kota, Smitha; Billack, Blase; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Tellinghuisen, Timothy; Choe, Hyeryun; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kojetin, Douglas J; Valente, Susana T

    2016-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid plays crucial roles in HIV-1 replication and thus represents an excellent drug target. We developed a high-throughput screening method based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (HTS-TR-FRET) assay, using the C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 capsid to identify inhibitors of capsid dimerization. This assay was used to screen a library of pharmacologically active compounds, composed of 1,280in vivo-active drugs, and identified ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one], an organoselenium compound, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid CTD dimerization. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the direct interaction of ebselen with the HIV-1 capsid CTD and dimer dissociation when ebselen is in 2-fold molar excess. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that ebselen covalently binds the HIV-1 capsid CTD, likely via a selenylsulfide linkage with Cys198 and Cys218. This compound presents anti-HIV activity in single and multiple rounds of infection in permissive cell lines as well as in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ebselen inhibits early viral postentry events of the HIV-1 life cycle by impairing the incoming capsid uncoating process. This compound also blocks infection of other retroviruses, such as Moloney murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus, but displays no inhibitory activity against hepatitis C and influenza viruses. This study reports the use of TR-FRET screening to successfully identify a novel capsid inhibitor, ebselen, validating HIV-1 capsid as a promising target for drug development. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Virus world as an evolutionary network of viruses and capsidless selfish elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2014-06-01

    Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus "self" that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral "hallmark genes" encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Screening of Potential Inhibitor against Coat Protein of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rituraj; Kumar, Sachin; Hallan, Vipin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed Coat protein (CP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), an important latent virus on Apple. Incidence of the virus is upto 60% in various apple cultivars, affecting yield losses of the order of 10-40% (depending upon the cultivar). CP plays an important role as the sole building block of the viral capsid. Homology approach was used to model 193 amino acid sequence of the coat protein. We used various servers such as ConSurf, TargetS, OSML, COACH, COFACTOR for the prediction of active site residues in coat protein. Virtual screening strategy was employed to search potential inhibitors for CP. Top twenty screened molecules considered for drugability, and toxicity analysis and one potential molecule was further analyzed by docking analysis. Here, we reported a potent molecule which could inhibit the formation of viron assembly by targeting the CP protein of virus.

  5. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of capsid protein from the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Pavel; Chmelík, Josef; Křížová, Ivana; Kadeřávek, P.; Padrta, P.; Žídek, L.; Wildová, Marcela; Hadravová, Romana; Chaloupková, R.; Pichová, Iva; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, Michaela; Sklenář, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 1 (2009), s. 100-114 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GA204/09/1388; GA ČR GESCO/06/E001 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; MŠk(CZ) LC06030 Program:1M; LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : M-PMV * betaretroviruses * capsid protein * NMR structure * internal dynamics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.871, year: 2009

  6. Assembly/disassembly of a complex icosahedral virus to incorporate heterologous nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P.; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2017-12-01

    Hollow protein containers are widespread in nature, and include virus capsids as well as eukaryotic and bacterial complexes. Protein cages are studied extensively for applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and materials science. Their inner and outer surfaces can be modified chemically or genetically, and the internal cavity can be used to template, store and/or arrange molecular cargos. Virus capsids and virus-like particles (VLP, noninfectious particles) provide versatile platforms for nanoscale bioengineering. Study of capsid protein self-assembly into monodispersed particles, and of VLP structure and biophysics is necessary not only to understand natural processes, but also to infer how these platforms can be redesigned to furnish novel functional VLP. Here we address the assembly dynamics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a complex icosahedral virus. IBDV has a ~70 nm-diameter T  =  13 capsid with VP2 trimers as the only structural subunits. During capsid assembly, VP2 is synthesized as a precursor (pVP2) whose C terminus is cleaved. The pVP2 C terminus has an amphipathic helix that controls VP2 polymorphism. In the absence of the VP3 scaffolding protein, necessary for control of assembly, 466/456-residue pVP2 intermediates bearing this helix assemble into VLP only when expressed with an N-terminal His6 tag (the HT-VP2-466 protein). HT-VP2-466 capsids are optimal for genetic insertion of proteins (cargo space ~78 000 nm3). We established an in vitro assembly/disassembly system of HT-VP2-466-based VLP for heterologous nucleic acid packaging and/or encapsulation of drugs and other molecules. HT-VP2-466 (empty) capsids were disassembled and reassembled by dialysis against low-salt/basic pH and high-salt/acid pH buffers, respectively, thus illustrating the reversibility in vitro of IBDV capsid assembly. HT-VP2-466 VLP also packed heterologous DNA by non-specific confinement during assembly. These and previous results establish the bases

  7. Novel Infectivity-Enhanced Oncolytic Adenovirus with a Capsid-Incorporated Dual-Imaging Moiety for Monitoring Virotherapy in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. Kimball

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to develop a cancer-targeted, infectivity-enhanced oncolytic adenovirus that embodies a capsid-labeling fusion for non-invasive dual-modality imaging of ovarian cancer virotherapy. A functional fusion protein composed of fluorescent and nuclear imaging tags was genetically incorporated into the capsid of an infectivity-enhanced conditionally replicative adenovirus. Incorporation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1 into the viral capsid and its genomic stability were verified by molecular analyses. Replication and oncolysis were evaluated in ovarian cancer cells. Fusion functionality was confirmed by in vitro gamma camera and fluorescent microscopy imaging. Comparison of tk-mRFP virus to single-modality controls revealed similar replication efficiency and oncolytic potency. Molecular fusion did not abolish enzymatic activity of HSV-tk as the virus effectively phosphorylated thymidine both ex vivo and in vitro. In vitro fluorescence imaging demonstrated a strong correlation between the intensity of fluorescent signal and cytopathic effect in infected ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that fluorescence can be used to monitor viral replication. We have in vitro validated a new infectivity-enhanced oncolytic adenovirus with a dual-imaging modality-labeled capsid, optimized for ovarian cancer virotherapy. The new agent could provide incremental gains toward climbing the barriers for achieving conditionally replicated adenovirus efficacy in human trials.

  8. Nanobodies targeting norovirus capsid reveal functional epitopes and potential mechanisms of neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D Koromyslova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs are important binding factors for infection and cell entry. Antibodies that bind at the HBGA pocket and block attachment to HBGAs are believed to neutralize the virus. However, additional neutralization epitopes elsewhere on the capsid likely exist and impeding the intrinsic structural dynamics of the capsid could be equally important. In the current study, we investigated a panel of Nanobodies in order to probe functional epitopes that could trigger capsid rearrangement and/ or interfere with HBGA binding interactions. The precise binding sites of six Nanobodies (Nano-4, Nano-14, Nano-26, Nano-27, Nano-32, and Nano-42 were identified using X-ray crystallography. We showed that these Nanobodies bound on the top, side, and bottom of the norovirus protruding domain. The impact of Nanobody binding on norovirus capsid morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We discovered that distinct Nanobody epitopes were associated with varied changes in particle structural integrity and assembly. Interestingly, certain Nanobody-induced capsid morphological changes lead to the capsid protein degradation and viral RNA exposure. Moreover, Nanobodies employed multiple inhibition mechanisms to prevent norovirus attachment to HBGAs, which included steric obstruction (Nano-14, allosteric interference (Nano-32, and violation of normal capsid morphology (Nano-26 and Nano-85. Finally, we showed that two Nanobodies (Nano-26 and Nano-85 not only compromised capsid integrity and inhibited VLPs attachment to HBGAs, but also recognized a broad panel of norovirus genotypes with high affinities. Consequently, Nano-26 and Nano-85 have a great

  9. Nanobodies targeting norovirus capsid reveal functional epitopes and potential mechanisms of neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry. Antibodies that bind at the HBGA pocket and block attachment to HBGAs are believed to neutralize the virus. However, additional neutralization epitopes elsewhere on the capsid likely exist and impeding the intrinsic structural dynamics of the capsid could be equally important. In the current study, we investigated a panel of Nanobodies in order to probe functional epitopes that could trigger capsid rearrangement and/ or interfere with HBGA binding interactions. The precise binding sites of six Nanobodies (Nano-4, Nano-14, Nano-26, Nano-27, Nano-32, and Nano-42) were identified using X-ray crystallography. We showed that these Nanobodies bound on the top, side, and bottom of the norovirus protruding domain. The impact of Nanobody binding on norovirus capsid morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We discovered that distinct Nanobody epitopes were associated with varied changes in particle structural integrity and assembly. Interestingly, certain Nanobody-induced capsid morphological changes lead to the capsid protein degradation and viral RNA exposure. Moreover, Nanobodies employed multiple inhibition mechanisms to prevent norovirus attachment to HBGAs, which included steric obstruction (Nano-14), allosteric interference (Nano-32), and violation of normal capsid morphology (Nano-26 and Nano-85). Finally, we showed that two Nanobodies (Nano-26 and Nano-85) not only compromised capsid integrity and inhibited VLPs attachment to HBGAs, but also recognized a broad panel of norovirus genotypes with high affinities. Consequently, Nano-26 and Nano-85 have a great potential to

  10. Effects of immunosuppression on circulating adeno-associated virus capsid-specific T cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Elizabeth M; Li, Hua; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Wu, Te-Lang; Podsakoff, Gregory M; High, Katherine A; Levine, Matthew H; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2013-04-01

    In humans adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer is followed by expansion of AAV capsid-specific T cells, evidence of cell damage, and loss of transgene product expression, implicating immunological rejection of vector-transduced cells, which may be prevented by immunosuppressive drugs. We undertook this study to assess the effect of immunosuppression (IS) used for organ transplantation on immune responses to AAV capsid antigens. Recipients of liver or kidney transplants were tested before and 4 weeks after induction of IS in comparison with matched samples from healthy human adults and an additional cohort with comorbid conditions similar to those of the transplant patients. Our data show that transplant patients and comorbid control subjects have markedly higher frequencies of circulating AAV capsid-specific T cells compared with healthy adults. On average, IS resulted in a reduction of AAV-specific CD4⁺ T cells, whereas numbers of circulating CD8⁺ effector and central memory T cells tended to increase. Independent of the type of transplant or the IS regimens, the trend of AAV capsid-specific T cell responses after drug treatment varied; in some patients responses were unaffected whereas others showed decreases or even pronounced increases, casting doubt on the usefulness of prophylactic IS for AAV vector recipients.

  11. HCIV-1 and Other Tailless Icosahedral Internal Membrane-Containing Viruses of the Family Sphaerolipoviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Demina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the virus family Sphaerolipoviridae include both archaeal viruses and bacteriophages that possess a tailless icosahedral capsid with an internal membrane. The genera Alpha- and Betasphaerolipovirus comprise viruses that infect halophilic euryarchaea, whereas viruses of thermophilic Thermus bacteria belong to the genus Gammasphaerolipovirus. Both sequence-based and structural clustering of the major capsid proteins and ATPases of sphaerolipoviruses yield three distinct clades corresponding to these three genera. Conserved virion architectural principles observed in sphaerolipoviruses suggest that these viruses belong to the PRD1-adenovirus structural lineage. Here we focus on archaeal alphasphaerolipoviruses and their related putative proviruses. The highest sequence similarities among alphasphaerolipoviruses are observed in the core structural elements of their virions: the two major capsid proteins, the major membrane protein, and a putative packaging ATPase. A recently described tailless icosahedral haloarchaeal virus, Haloarcula californiae icosahedral virus 1 (HCIV-1, has a double-stranded DNA genome and an internal membrane lining the capsid. HCIV-1 shares significant similarities with the other tailless icosahedral internal membrane-containing haloarchaeal viruses of the family Sphaerolipoviridae. The proposal to include a new virus species, Haloarcula virus HCIV1, into the genus Alphasphaerolipovirus was submitted to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV in 2016.

  12. Adeno-associated virus rep protein synthesis during productive infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redemann, B.E.; Mendelson, E.; Carter, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins mediate viral DNA replication and can regulate expression from AAV genes. The authors studied the kinetics of synthesis of the four Rep proteins, Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, and Rep40, during infection of human 293 or KB cells with AAV and helper adenovirus by in vivo labeling with [ 35 S]methionine, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Rep78 and Rep52 were readily detected concomitantly with detection of viral monomer duplex DNA replicating about 10 to 12 h after infection, and Rep68 and Rep40 were detected 2 h later. Rep78 and Rep52 were more abundant than Rep68 and Rep40 owing to a higher synthesis rate throughout the infectious cycle. In some experiments, very low levels of Rep78 could be detected as early as 4 h after infection. The synthesis rates of Rep proteins were maximal between 14 and 24 h and then decreased later after infection. Isotopic pulse-chase experiments showed that each of the Rep proteins was synthesized independently and was stable for at least 15 h. A slower-migrating, modified form of Rep78 was identified late after infection. AAV capsid protein synthesis was detected at 10 to 12 h after infection and also exhibited synthesis kinetics similar to those of the Rep proteins. AAV DNA replication showed at least two clearly defined stages. Bulk duplex replicating DNA accumulation began around 10 to 12 h and reached a maximum level at about 20 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis was maximal. Progeny single-stranded DNA accumulation began about 12 to 13 h, but most of this DNA accumulated after 24 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis had decreased

  13. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Miao, Ji, E-mail: jmiao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Qinjian, E-mail: qinjian_zhao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  14. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii The mean number of R7041(∆US3 virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii 98% of R7041(∆US3 virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(∆US3 yields were 2.37 × 108 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 108 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(∆US3 virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective.

  16. Detection of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus RNA and Capsid Protein in Lymphoid Tissues of Convalescent Pigs Does Not Indicate Existence of a Carrier State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Smoliga, G R; Bishop, E; Pauszek, S J; Hartwig, E J; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2016-04-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five FMDV strains within serotypes A, O and Asia-1. Furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from clinical or subclinical FMD. Despite lack of detection of infectious FMDV, there was a high prevalence of FMDV RNA detection in lymph nodes draining lesion sites harvested at 35 days post-infection, with the most frequent detection recorded in popliteal lymph nodes (positive detection in 88% of samples obtained from non-vaccinated pigs). Likewise, at 35 dpi, FMDV capsid antigen was localized within follicles of draining lymph nodes, but without concurrent detection of FMDV non-structural protein. There was a marked decline in the detection of FMDV RNA and antigen in tissue samples by 60 dpi, and no antigen or viral RNA could be detected in samples obtained at 100 dpi. The data presented herein provide the most extensive investigation of FMDV persistence in pigs. The overall conclusion is that domestic pigs are unlikely to be competent long-term carriers of infectious FMDV; however, transient persistence of FMDV protein and RNA in lymphoid tissues is common following clinical or subclinical infection. © Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Two-color fluorescence analysis of individual virions determines the distribution of the copy number of proteins in herpes simplex virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard W; Monnier, Nilah; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Dejian; Browne, Helena; Klenerman, David

    2007-08-15

    We present a single virion method to determine absolute distributions of copy number in the protein composition of viruses and apply it to herpes simplex virus type 1. Using two-color coincidence fluorescence spectroscopy, we determine the virion-to-virion variability in copy numbers of fluorescently labeled tegument and envelope proteins relative to a capsid protein by analyzing fluorescence intensity ratios for ensembles of individual dual-labeled virions and fitting the resulting histogram of ratios. Using EYFP-tagged capsid protein VP26 as a reference for fluorescence intensity, we are able to calculate the mean and also, for the first time to our knowledge, the variation in numbers of gD, VP16, and VP22 tegument. The measurement of the number of glycoprotein D molecules was in good agreement with independent measurements of average numbers of these glycoproteins in bulk virus preparations, validating the method. The accuracy, straightforward data processing, and high throughput of this technique make it widely applicable to the analysis of the molecular composition of large complexes in general, and it is particularly suited to providing insights into virus structure, assembly, and infectivity.

  18. Stabilization of the beta-hairpin in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein- a critical step for infectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obr, M.; Hadravová, Romana; Doležal, Michal; Křížová, Ivana; Papoušková, V.; Žídek, L.; Hrabal, R.; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 30 (2014), 94/1-94/14 ISSN 1742-4690 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S; GA MŠk LO1302 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union(XE) FP7-261863 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : retrovirus * assembly * M-PMV * capsid protein * maturation * beta-hairpin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.185, year: 2014 http://www.retrovirology.com/content/11/1/94

  19. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Brad L; Carlson, Darby J; Carlson, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs). The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c) comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles) and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions). Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  1. Effects of RNA branching on the electrostatic stabilization of viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Wagner, Jef; Schoot, Paul van der|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Podgornik, Rudolf; Zandi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Many single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses self assemble from capsid protein subunits and the nucleic acid to form an infectious virion. It is believed that the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged RNA and the positively charged viral capsid proteins drive the encapsidation, although

  2. Tunable protease-activatable virus nanonodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Justin; Ho, Michelle L; Tiwari, Abhinav; Gomez, Eric J; Dempsey, Christopher; Van Vliet, Kim; Igoshin, Oleg A; Silberg, Jonathan J; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Suh, Junghae

    2014-05-27

    We explored the unique signal integration properties of the self-assembling 60-mer protein capsid of adeno-associated virus (AAV), a clinically proven human gene therapy vector, by engineering proteolytic regulation of virus-receptor interactions such that processing of the capsid by proteases is required for infection. We find the transfer function of our engineered protease-activatable viruses (PAVs), relating the degree of proteolysis (input) to PAV activity (output), is highly nonlinear, likely due to increased polyvalency. By exploiting this dynamic polyvalency, in combination with the self-assembly properties of the virus capsid, we show that mosaic PAVs can be constructed that operate under a digital AND gate regime, where two different protease inputs are required for virus activation. These results show viruses can be engineered as signal-integrating nanoscale nodes whose functional properties are regulated by multiple proteolytic signals with easily tunable and predictable response surfaces, a promising development toward advanced control of gene delivery.

  3. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER

  4. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N., E-mail: arao@ucr.edu

    2014-09-15

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER.

  5. A Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategy in Cattle to Prevent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using a "Single-Cycle" Alphavirus Vector and Empty Capsid Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced...... in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When...... the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle...

  6. Interaction of Human Enteric Viruses with Microbial Compounds: Implication for Virus Persistence and Disinfection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Prunelle; Meseguer, Alba; Lucas, Françoise; Moulin, Laurent; Wurtzer, Sébastien

    2017-12-05

    Although the interaction between phages and bacteria has already been well described, it only recently emerged that human viruses also interact with bacteria in the mammalian gut. We studied whether this interaction could occur in tap water and thus confer enteric viruses protection against temperature and the classical disinfection treatments used in drinking water production. We demonstrated that the addition of lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan of bacterial origin to enterovirus provides thermal protection through stabilization of the viral capsid. This interaction plays a role when viruses are exposed to disinfection that targets the capsid, but less so when the virus genome is directly targeted. The interaction seems to be serotype-specific, suggesting that the capsid protein sequence could be important. The protection is linked to a direct association between viral particles and bacterial compounds as observed by microscopy. These results show that bacterial compounds present in the environment can affect virus inactivation.

  7. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission. PMID:26352137

  8. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kolb

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF, and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC. Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc derived capsid-like particles (CLPs to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.

  9. A general method to quantify quasi-equivalence in icosahedral viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, K V; Reddy, Vijay S; Johnson, John E; Brooks, Charles L

    2002-12-06

    A quantitative, atom-based, method is described for comparing protein subunit interfaces in icosahedral virus capsids with quasi-equivalent surface lattices. An integrated, normalized value (between 0 and 1) based on equivalent residue contacts (Q-score) is computed for every pair of subunit interactions and scores that are significantly above zero readily identify interfaces that are quasi-equivalent to each other. The method was applied to all quasi-equivalent capsid structures (T=3, 4, 7 and 13) in the Protein Data Bank and the Q-scores were interpreted in terms of their structural underpinnings. The analysis allowed classification of T=3 structures into three groups with architectures that resemble different polyhedra with icosahedral symmetry. The preference of subunits to form dimers in the T=4 human Hepatitis B virus capsid (HBV) was clearly reflected in high Q-scores of quasi-equivalent dimers. Interesting differences between the classical T=7 capsid and polyoma-like capsids were also identified. Application of the method to the outer-shell of the T=13 Blue tongue virus core (BTVC) highlighted the modest distortion between the interfaces of the general trimers and the strict trimers of VP7 subunits. Furthermore, the method identified the quasi 2-fold symmetry in the inner capsids of the BTV and reovirus cores. The results show that the Q-scores of various quasi-symmetries represent a "fingerprint" for a particular virus capsid architecture allowing particle classification into groups based on their underlying structural and geometric features.

  10. Crystal Structure of the Full-Length Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Capsid Protein Shows an N-Terminal β-Hairpin in the Absence of N-Terminal Proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Folio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA drives the assembly of the viral particle, which is a critical step in the viral replication cycle. Here, the first atomic structure of full-length FIV CA to 1.67 Å resolution is determined. The crystallized protein exhibits an original tetrameric assembly, composed of dimers which are stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge induced by the crystallogenesis conditions. The FIV CA displays a standard α-helical CA topology with two domains, separated by a linker shorter than other retroviral CAs. The β-hairpin motif at its amino terminal end, which interacts with nucleotides in HIV-1, is unusually long in FIV CA. Interestingly, this functional β-motif is formed in this construct in the absence of the conserved N-terminal proline. The FIV CA exhibits a cis Arg–Pro bond in the CypA-binding loop, which is absent in known structures of lentiviral CAs. This structure represents the first tri-dimensional structure of a functional, full-length FIV CA.

  11. Fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the driving force of codon usage bias in the hepatitis A virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Lluís; Guix, Susana; Ribes, Enric; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M

    2010-03-05

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the prototype of genus Hepatovirus, has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish it from other members of the Picornaviridae family. Among these, the need for an intact eIF4G factor for the initiation of translation results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis by a mechanism similar to that of other picornaviruses. Consequently, HAV must inefficiently compete for the cellular translational machinery and this may explain its poor growth in cell culture. In this context of virus/cell competition, HAV has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. With the aim to optimize its codon usage the virus was adapted to propagate in cells with impaired protein synthesis, in order to make tRNA pools more available for the virus. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness.

  12. Fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the driving force of codon usage bias in the hepatitis A virus capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Aragonès

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the prototype of genus Hepatovirus, has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish it from other members of the Picornaviridae family. Among these, the need for an intact eIF4G factor for the initiation of translation results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis by a mechanism similar to that of other picornaviruses. Consequently, HAV must inefficiently compete for the cellular translational machinery and this may explain its poor growth in cell culture. In this context of virus/cell competition, HAV has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. With the aim to optimize its codon usage the virus was adapted to propagate in cells with impaired protein synthesis, in order to make tRNA pools more available for the virus. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness.

  13. Packaging signals in single-stranded RNA viruses: nature's alternative to a purely electrostatic assembly mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun; Bakker, Saskia E; Barker, Amy M; Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric; Ford, Robert J; Pearson, Arwen R; Phillips, Simon E V; Ranson, Neil A; Tuma, Roman

    2013-03-01

    The formation of a protective protein container is an essential step in the life-cycle of most viruses. In the case of single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, this step occurs in parallel with genome packaging in a co-assembly process. Previously, it had been thought that this process can be explained entirely by electrostatics. Inspired by recent single-molecule fluorescence experiments that recapitulate the RNA packaging specificity seen in vivo for two model viruses, we present an alternative theory, which recognizes the important cooperative roles played by RNA-coat protein interactions, at sites we have termed packaging signals. The hypothesis is that multiple copies of packaging signals, repeated according to capsid symmetry, aid formation of the required capsid protein conformers at defined positions, resulting in significantly enhanced assembly efficiency. The precise mechanistic roles of packaging signal interactions may vary between viruses, as we have demonstrated for MS2 and STNV. We quantify the impact of packaging signals on capsid assembly efficiency using a dodecahedral model system, showing that heterogeneous affinity distributions of packaging signals for capsid protein out-compete those of homogeneous affinities. These insights pave the way to a new anti-viral therapy, reducing capsid assembly efficiency by targeting of the vital roles of the packaging signals, and opens up new avenues for the efficient construction of protein nanocontainers in bionanotechnology.

  14. The tripartite capsid gene of Salmonella phage Gifsy-2 yields a capsid assembly pathway engaging features from HK97 and λ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effantin, Gregory; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Schoehn, Guy; Bossi, Lionello; Conway, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Phage Gifsy-2, a lambdoid phage infecting Salmonella, has an unusually large composite gene coding for its major capsid protein (mcp) at the C-terminal end, a ClpP-like protease at the N-terminus, and a ∼ 200 residue central domain of unknown function but which may have a scaffolding role. This combination of functions on a single coding region is more extensive than those observed in other phages such as HK97 (scaffold-capsid fusion) and λ (protease-scaffold fusion). To study the structural phenotype of the unique Gifsy-2 capsid gene, we have purified Gifsy-2 particles and visualized capsids and procapsids by cryoelectron microscopy, determining structures to resolutions up to 12 A. The capsids have lambdoid T = 7 geometry and are well modeled with the atomic structures of HK97 mcp and phage λ gpD decoration protein. Thus, the unique Gifsy-2 capsid protein gene yields a capsid maturation pathway engaging features from both phages HK97 and λ.

  15. Capsid coding region diversity of re-emerging lineage C foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Biswal, Jitendra K; Mahajan, Sonalika; Misri, Jyoti; Dash, Bana B; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 was first reported in India in 1951, where three major genetic lineages (B, C and D) of this serotype have been described until now. In this study, the capsid protein coding region of serotype Asia1 viruses (n = 99) from India were analyzed, giving importance to the viruses circulating since 2007. All of the isolates (n = 50) recovered during 2007-2013 were found to group within the re-emerging cluster of lineage C (designated as sublineage C(R)). The evolutionary rate of sublineage C(R) was estimated to be slightly higher than that of the serotype as a whole, and the time of the most recent common ancestor for this cluster was estimated to be approximately 2001. In comparison to the older isolates of lineage C (1993-2001), the re-emerging viruses showed variation at eight amino acid positions, including substitutions at the antigenically critical residues VP279 and VP2131. However, no direct correlation was found between sequence variations and antigenic relationships. The number of codons under positive selection and the nature of the selection pressure varied widely among the structural proteins, implying a heterogeneous pattern of evolution in serotype Asia1. While episodic diversifying selection appears to play a major role in shaping the evolution of VP1 and VP3, selection pressure acting on codons of VP2 is largely pervasive. Further, episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for the early diversification of lineage C. Recombination events identified in the structural protein coding region indicates its probable role in adaptive evolution of serotype Asia1 viruses.

  16. Breaking Symmetry in Viral Icosahedral Capsids as Seen through the Lenses of X-ray Crystallography and Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N. Parent

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of viruses on Earth form capsids built by multiple copies of one or more types of a coat protein arranged with 532 symmetry, generating an icosahedral shell. This highly repetitive structure is ideal to closely pack identical protein subunits and to enclose the nucleic acid genomes. However, the icosahedral capsid is not merely a passive cage but undergoes dynamic events to promote packaging, maturation and the transfer of the viral genome into the host. These essential processes are often mediated by proteinaceous complexes that interrupt the shell’s icosahedral symmetry, providing a gateway through the capsid. In this review, we take an inventory of molecular structures observed either internally, or at the 5-fold vertices of icosahedral DNA viruses that infect bacteria, archea and eukaryotes. Taking advantage of the recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and building upon a wealth of crystallographic structures of individual components, we review the design principles of non-icosahedral structural components that interrupt icosahedral symmetry and discuss how these macromolecules play vital roles in genome packaging, ejection and host receptor-binding.

  17. Structural transitions in Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepold, Lars O.; Revis, Jennifer; Allen, Mark; Oltrogge, Luke; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-12-01

    Viral capsids act as molecular containers for the encapsulation of genomic nucleic acid. These protein cages can also be used as constrained reaction vessels for packaging and entrapment of synthetic cargos. The icosahedral Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is an excellent model for understanding the encapsulation and packaging of both genomic and synthetic materials. High-resolution structural information of the CCMV capsid has been invaluable for evaluating structure-function relationships in the assembled capsid but does not allow insight into the capsid dynamics. The dynamic nature of the CCMV capsid might play an important role in the biological function of the virus. The CCMV capsid undergoes a pH and metal ion dependent reversible structural transition where 60 separate pores in the capsid open or close, exposing the interior of the protein cage to the bulk medium. In addition, the highly basic N-terminal domain of the capsid, which is disordered in the crystal structure, plays a significant role in packaging the viral cargo. Interestingly, in limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry experiments the N-terminal domain is the first part of the subunit to be cleaved, confirming its dynamic nature. Based on our fundamental understanding of the capsid dynamics in CCMV, we have utilized these aspects to direct packaging of a range of synthetic materials including drugs and inorganic nanoparticles.

  18. Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ∼10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

  19. Effects of two amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins on the interaction of two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O with heparan sulfate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Sun, Pu; Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Xie, Baoxia; Chen, Yingli; Li, Dong; Luo, Jianxun; Liu, Zaixin

    2014-07-24

    encoding Gln-2080 → Leu in VP2 of O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc could bind to HS, but there was no expression of the 3A protein of these two viruses in WT-CHO cells. The results suggest that the cooperation of certain specific amino acid residues in the capsid proteins of these two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains is essential for viral infectivity, the heparin affinity and the capability on FMDV-HS interaction.

  20. Structure of viruses: a short history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction

  1. Intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bond formation is nonessential in adeno-associated viral capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Pulicherla

    Full Text Available The capsid proteins of adeno-associated viruses (AAV have five conserved cysteine residues. Structural analysis of AAV serotype 2 reveals that Cys289 and Cys361 are located adjacent to each other within each monomer, while Cys230 and Cys394 are located on opposite edges of each subunit and juxtaposed at the pentamer interface. The Cys482 residue is located at the base of a surface loop within the trimer region. Although plausible based on molecular dynamics simulations, intra- or inter-subunit disulfides have not been observed in structural studies. In the current study, we generated a panel of Cys-to-Ser mutants to interrogate the potential for disulfide bond formation in AAV capsids. The C289S, C361S and C482S mutants were similar to wild type AAV with regard to titer and transduction efficiency. However, AAV capsid protein subunits with C230S or C394S mutations were prone to proteasomal degradation within the host cells. Proteasomal inhibition partially blocked degradation of mutant capsid proteins, but failed to rescue infectious virions. While these results suggest that the Cys230/394 pair is critical, a C394V mutant was found viable, but not the corresponding C230V mutant. Although the exact nature of the structural contribution(s of Cys230 and Cys394 residues to AAV capsid formation remains to be determined, these results support the notion that disulfide bond formation within the Cys289/361 or Cys230/394 pair appears to be nonessential. These studies represent an important step towards understanding the role of inter-subunit interactions that drive AAV capsid assembly.

  2. Release of the herpes simplex virus 1 protease by self cleavage is required for proper conformation of the portal vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G.; Baines, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    We identify an NLS within herpes simplex virus scaffold proteins that is required for optimal nuclear import of these proteins into infected or uninfected nuclei, and is sufficient to mediate nuclear import of GFP. A virus lacking this NLS replicated to titers reduced by 1000-fold, but was able to make capsids containing both scaffold and portal proteins suggesting that other functions can complement the NLS in infected cells. We also show that Vp22a, the major scaffold protein, is sufficient to mediate the incorporation of portal protein into capsids, whereas proper portal immunoreactivity in the capsid requires the larger scaffold protein pU L 26. Finally, capsid angularization in infected cells did not require the HSV-1 protease unless full length pU L 26 was expressed. These data suggest that the HSV-1 portal undergoes conformational changes during capsid maturation, and reveal that full length pU L 26 is required for this conformational change.

  3. Release of the herpes simplex virus 1 protease by self cleavage is required for proper conformation of the portal vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Baines, Joel D., E-mail: jdb11@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We identify an NLS within herpes simplex virus scaffold proteins that is required for optimal nuclear import of these proteins into infected or uninfected nuclei, and is sufficient to mediate nuclear import of GFP. A virus lacking this NLS replicated to titers reduced by 1000-fold, but was able to make capsids containing both scaffold and portal proteins suggesting that other functions can complement the NLS in infected cells. We also show that Vp22a, the major scaffold protein, is sufficient to mediate the incorporation of portal protein into capsids, whereas proper portal immunoreactivity in the capsid requires the larger scaffold protein pU{sub L}26. Finally, capsid angularization in infected cells did not require the HSV-1 protease unless full length pU{sub L}26 was expressed. These data suggest that the HSV-1 portal undergoes conformational changes during capsid maturation, and reveal that full length pU{sub L}26 is required for this conformational change.

  4. α-Defensin HD5 Inhibits Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection via Capsid Stabilization and Redirection to the Lysosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayim E. Wiens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Defensins are an important class of abundant innate immune effectors that are potently antiviral against a number of nonenveloped viral pathogens; however, a common mechanism to explain their ability to block infection by these unrelated viruses is lacking. We previously found that human defensin 5 (HD5 blocks a critical host-mediated proteolytic processing step required for human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Here, we show that bypassing the requirement for this cleavage failed to abrogate HD5 inhibition. Instead, HD5 altered HPV trafficking in the cell. In the presence of an inhibitory concentration of HD5, HPV was internalized and reached the early endosome. The internalized capsid became permeable to antibodies and proteases; however, HD5 prevented dissociation of the viral capsid from the genome, reduced viral trafficking to the trans-Golgi network, redirected the incoming viral particle to the lysosome, and accelerated the degradation of internalized capsid proteins. This mechanism is equivalent to the mechanism by which HD5 inhibits human adenovirus. Thus, our data support capsid stabilization and redirection to the lysosome during infection as a general antiviral mechanism of α-defensins against nonenveloped viruses.

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbradt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  7. A Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A/B-Related Protein Binds to Single-Stranded DNA near the 5′ End or within the Genome of Feline Parvovirus and Can Modify Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Parrish, Colin R.

    1999-01-01

    Phage display of cDNA clones prepared from feline cells was used to identify host cell proteins that bound to DNA-containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) capsids but not to empty capsids. One gene found in several clones encoded a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-related protein (DBP40) that was very similar in sequence to the A/B-type hnRNP proteins. DBP40 bound specifically to oligonucleotides representing a sequence near the 5′ end of the genome which is exposed on the outside of the full capsid but did not bind most other terminal sequences. Adding purified DBP40 to an in vitro fill-in reaction using viral DNA as a template inhibited the production of the second strand after nucleotide (nt) 289 but prior to nt 469. DBP40 bound to various regions of the viral genome, including a region between nt 295 and 330 of the viral genome which has been associated with transcriptional attenuation of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, which is mediated by a stem-loop structure of the DNA and cellular proteins. Overexpression of the protein in feline cells from a plasmid vector made them largely resistant to FPV infection. Mutagenesis of the protein binding site within the 5′ end viral genome did not affect replication of the virus. PMID:10438866

  8. Oligonucleotide Length-Dependent Formation of Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Stan J; de Ruiter, Mark V; Lindhoud, Saskia; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2018-05-23

    Understanding the assembly pathway of viruses can contribute to creating monodisperse virus-based materials. In this study, the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to determine the interactions between the capsid proteins of viruses and their cargo. The assembly of the capsid proteins in the presence of different lengths of short, single-stranded (ss) DNA is studied at neutral pH, at which the protein-protein interactions are weak. Chromatography, electrophoresis, microscopy, and light scattering data show that the assembly efficiency and speed of the particles increase with increasing length of oligonucleotides. The minimal length required for assembly under the conditions used herein is 14 nucleotides. Assembly of particles containing such short strands of ssDNA can take almost a month. This slow assembly process enabled the study of intermediate states, which confirmed a low cooperative assembly for CCMV and allowed for further expansion of current assembly theories. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  10. Investigating the thermal dissociation of viral capsid by lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingzhi; Chevreuil, Maelenn; Combet, Sophie; Lansac, Yves; Tresset, Guillaume

    2017-11-01

    The dissociation of icosahedral viral capsids was investigated by a homogeneous and a heterogeneous lattice model. In thermal dissociation experiments with cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and probed by small-angle neutron scattering, we observed a slight shrinkage of viral capsids, which can be related to the strengthening of the hydrophobic interaction between subunits at increasing temperature. By considering the temperature dependence of hydrophobic interaction in the homogeneous lattice model, we were able to give a better estimate of the effective charge. In the heterogeneous lattice model, two sets of lattice sites represented different capsid subunits with asymmetric interaction strengths. In that case, the dissociation of capsids was found to shift from a sharp one-step transition to a gradual two-step transition by weakening the hydrophobic interaction between AB and CC subunits. We anticipate that such lattice models will shed further light on the statistical mechanics underlying virus assembly and disassembly.

  11. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  12. Exploring the role of genome and structural ions in preventing viral capsid collapse during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Natalia; Guérin Darvas, Sofía M.; Durana, Aritz; Marti, Gerardo A.; Guérin, Diego M. A.; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2018-03-01

    Even though viruses evolve mainly in liquid milieu, their horizontal transmission routes often include episodes of dry environment. Along their life cycle, some insect viruses, such as viruses from the Dicistroviridae family, withstand dehydrated conditions with presently unknown consequences to their structural stability. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to monitor the structural changes of viral particles of Triatoma virus (TrV) after desiccation. Our results demonstrate that TrV capsids preserve their genome inside, conserving their height after exposure to dehydrating conditions, which is in stark contrast with other viruses that expel their genome when desiccated. Moreover, empty capsids (without genome) resulted in collapsed particles after desiccation. We also explored the role of structural ions in the dehydration process of the virions (capsid containing genome) by chelating the accessible cations from the external solvent milieu. We observed that ion suppression helps to keep the virus height upon desiccation. Our results show that under drying conditions, the genome of TrV prevents the capsid from collapsing during dehydration, while the structural ions are responsible for promoting solvent exchange through the virion wall.

  13. Influence of minor displacements in loops of the porcine parvovirus VP2 capsid on virus-like particles assembly and the induction of antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qunxing; He, Kongwang; Wang, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    An antigen-delivery system based on hybrid virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus (PPV) and expressing foreign peptides offers an alternative method for vaccination. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the PPV capsid protein and surface loops deletion mutants were analyzed to define essential domains in PPV VP2 for the assembly of VLPs. Electron microscopic analysis and SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of abundant VLPs in a loop2 deletion mutant of expected size and appropriate morphology. Loop4 and loop2-loop4 deletion mutants, however, resulted in a lower number of particles and the morphology of the particles was not well preserved. Furthermore, the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene was used as a model. GFP was observed at the same level in displacements mutants. However, GFP displacement mutants in loop2 construct allowed better adaptation for the fusion GFP to be further displayed on the surface of the capsid-like structure. Immunogenicity study showed that there is no obvious difference in mice inoculated with rAd-VP2(Δloop2), rAd-VP2(Δloop4), rAd-VP2(Δloop2-Δloop4), and PPV inactivated vaccine. The results suggested the possibility of inserting simultaneously B and T cell epitopes in the surface loop2 and the N-terminus. The combination of different types of epitopes (B, CD4+, and CD8+) in different positions of the PPV particles opens the way to the development of highly efficient vaccines, able to stimulate at the same time the different branches of the immune system.

  14. Emerging viruses in the genus Comovirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Koloniuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 290-292 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Capsid proteins * plant virus * Radish mosaic virus * Turnip ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2010

  15. A single amino acid of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid protein affects conformation of two external loops and viral sensitivity to TRIM5α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Miyamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 carrying alanine or glutamine but not proline at position 120 of the capsid protein (CA could grow in the presence of anti-viral factor TRIM5α of cynomolgus monkey (CM. To elucidate details of the interaction between the CA and TRIM5α, we generated mutant HIV-2 viruses, each carrying one of the remaining 17 possible amino acid residues, and examined their sensitivity to CM TRIM5α-mediated restriction. Results showed that hydrophobic residues or those with ring structures were associated with sensitivity, while those with small side chains or amide groups conferred resistance. Molecular dynamics simulation study revealed a structural basis for the differential TRIM5α sensitivities. The mutations at position 120 in the loop between helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 affected conformation of the neighboring loop between helices 4 and 5 (L4/5, and sensitive viruses had a common L4/5 conformation. In addition, the common L4/5 structures of the sensitive viruses were associated with a decreased probability of hydrogen bond formation between the 97th aspartic acid in L4/5 and the 119th arginine in L6/7. When we introduced aspartic acid-to-alanine substitution at position 97 (D97A of the resistant virus carrying glutamine at position 120 to disrupt hydrogen bond formation, the resultant virus became moderately sensitive. Interestingly, the virus carrying glutamic acid at position 120 showed resistance, while its predicted L4/5 conformation was similar to those of sensitive viruses. The D97A substitution failed to alter the resistance of this particular virus, indicating that the 120th amino acid residue itself is also involved in sensitivity regardless of the L4/5 conformation. These results suggested that a hydrogen bond between the L4/5 and L6/7 modulates the overall structure of the exposed surface of the CA, but the amino acid residue at position 120 is also directly involved in CM TRIM5

  16. Direct transfer of viral and cellular proteins from varicella-zoster virus-infected non-neuronal cells to human axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Sergei; Yee, Michael B; Glick, Yair; Gerber, Doron; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Yang, In Hong; Kinchington, Paul R; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), the alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and Herpes zoster (shingles) following reactivation in latently infected neurons, is known to be fusogenic. It forms polynuclear syncytia in culture, in varicella skin lesions and in infected fetal human ganglia xenografted to mice. After axonal infection using VZV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in compartmentalized microfluidic cultures there is diffuse filling of axons with GFP as well as punctate fluorescence corresponding to capsids. Use of viruses with fluorescent fusions to VZV proteins reveals that both proteins encoded by VZV genes and those of the infecting cell are transferred in bulk from infecting non-neuronal cells to axons. Similar transfer of protein to axons was observed following cell associated HSV1 infection. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments provide evidence that this transfer is by diffusion of proteins from the infecting cells into axons. Time-lapse movies and immunocytochemical experiments in co-cultures demonstrate that non-neuronal cells fuse with neuronal somata and proteins from both cell types are present in the syncytia formed. The fusogenic nature of VZV therefore may enable not only conventional entry of virions and capsids into axonal endings in the skin by classical entry mechanisms, but also by cytoplasmic fusion that permits viral protein transfer to neurons in bulk.

  17. Antimicrobial peptide capsids of de novo design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Emiliana; Alkassem, Hasan; Lamarre, Baptiste; Faruqui, Nilofar; Bella, Angelo; Noble, James E; Micale, Nicola; Ray, Santanu; Burns, Jonathan R; Yon, Alexander R; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2017-12-22

    The spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses the need for antimicrobial discovery. With traditional search paradigms being exhausted, approaches that are altogether different from antibiotics may offer promising and creative solutions. Here, we introduce a de novo peptide topology that-by emulating the virus architecture-assembles into discrete antimicrobial capsids. Using the combination of high-resolution and real-time imaging, we demonstrate that these artificial capsids assemble as 20-nm hollow shells that attack bacterial membranes and upon landing on phospholipid bilayers instantaneously (seconds) convert into rapidly expanding pores causing membrane lysis (minutes). The designed capsids show broad antimicrobial activities, thus executing one primary function-they destroy bacteria on contact.

  18. A comparison of PCR assays for beak and feather disease virus and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis of replicase associated protein and capsid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhagata; Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2016-11-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) threatens a wide range of endangered psittacine birds worldwide. In this study, we assessed a novel PCR assay and genetic screening method using high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis for BFDV targeting the capsid (Cap) gene (HRM-Cap) alongside conventional PCR detection as well as a PCR method that targets a much smaller fragment of the virus genome in the replicase initiator protein (Rep) gene (HRM-Rep). Limits of detection, sensitivity, specificity and discriminatory power for differentiating BFDV sequences were compared. HRM-Cap had a high positive predictive value and could readily differentiate between a reference genotype and 17 other diverse BFDV genomes with more discriminatory power (genotype confidence percentage) than HRM-Rep. Melt curve profiles generated by HRM-Cap correlated with unique DNA sequence profiles for each individual test genome. The limit of detection of HRM-Cap was lower (2×10 -5 ng/reaction or 48 viral copies) than that for both HRM-Rep and conventional BFDV PCR which had similar sensitivity (2×10 -6 ng or 13 viral copies/reaction). However, when used in a diagnostic setting with 348 clinical samples there was strong agreement between HRM-Cap and conventional PCR (kappa=0.87, PHRM-Cap demonstrated higher specificity (99.9%) than HRM-Rep (80.3%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterization of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV isolated from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farmed in Ceará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônyca Coelho-Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important species in world aquaculture, has seriously affected by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV that causes up to 70% mortalities. With the aim of improving the development of new strategies for rapid and reliable diagnosis, we isolated IMNV, from L. vannamei farmed in Brazil, through a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sequenced cDNA fragment encoding the major capsid protein from this virus. Nucleotides sequences corresponding to the viral capsid protein was obtained by RT-PCR and confirmed by automatic sequencing. Comparison with sequences which encode the capsid protein obtained from Indonesia isolates showed a high identity.

  20. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pzdemir, Z.O.; Bulut, E.K.; Mustafeva, Z.; Karahan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  1. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Ball

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV. The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA and C-terminal domains (CtDCA of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA. Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN-CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold.

  2. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Pollard, Dominic J.; Goldstone, David C.; Ramos, Andres; Müllers, Erik; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Taylor, William R.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV). The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA) and C-terminal domains (CtDCA) of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA). Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN—CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold. PMID:27829070

  3. Virulent variants emerging in mice infected with the apathogenic prototype strain of the parvovirus minute virus of mice exhibit a capsid with low avidity for a primary receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Mari-Paz; López-Bueno, Alberto; Almendral, José M

    2005-09-01

    The mechanisms involved in the emergence of virulent mammalian viruses were investigated in the adult immunodeficient SCID mouse infected by the attenuated prototype strain of the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp). Cloned MVMp intravenously inoculated in mice consistently evolved during weeks of subclinical infection to variants showing altered plaque phenotypes. All the isolated large-plaque variants spread systemically from the oronasal cavity and replicated in major organs (brain, kidney, liver), in sharp contrast to the absolute inability of the MVMp and small-plaque variants to productively invade SCID organs by this natural route of infection. The virulent variants retained the MVMp capacity to infect mouse fibroblasts, consistent with the lack of genetic changes across the 220-to-335 amino acid sequence of VP2, a capsid domain containing main determinants of MVM tropism. However, the capsid of the virulent variants shared a lower affinity than the wild type for a primary receptor used in the cytotoxic infection. The capsid gene of a virulent variant engineered in the MVMp background endowed the recombinant virus with a large-plaque phenotype, lower affinity for the receptor, and productive invasiveness by the oronasal route in SCID mice, eventually leading to 100% mortality. In the analysis of virulence in mice, both MVMp and the recombinant virus similarly gained the bloodstream 1 to 2 days postoronasal inoculation and remained infectious when adsorbed to blood cells in vitro. However, the wild-type MVMp was cleared from circulation a few days afterwards, in contrast to the viremia of the recombinant virus, which was sustained for life. Significantly, attachment to an abundant receptor of primary mouse kidney epithelial cells by both viruses could be quantitatively competed by wild-type MVMp capsids, indicating that virulence is not due to an extended receptor usage in target tissues. We conclude that the selection of capsid-receptor interactions of

  4. Characterisation of Structural Proteins from Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV Using Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Chevin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is the etiological agent of chronic paralysis, an infectious and contagious disease in adult honeybees. CBPV is a positive single-stranded RNA virus which contains two major viral RNA fragments. RNA 1 (3674 nt and RNA 2 (2305 nt encode three and four putative open reading frames (ORFs, respectively. RNA 1 is thought to encode the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp since the amino acid sequence derived from ORF 3 shares similarities with the RdRP of families Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae. The genomic organization of CBPV and in silico analyses have suggested that RNA 1 encodes non-structural proteins, while RNA 2 encodes structural proteins, which are probably encoded by ORFs 2 and 3. In this study, purified CBPV particles were used to characterize virion proteins by mass spectrometry. Several polypeptides corresponding to proteins encoded by ORF 2 and 3 on RNA 2 were detected. Their role in the formation of the viral capsid is discussed.

  5. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignment of the N-terminal domainof Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein, CA 1-140

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Pavel; Žídek, L.; Rumlová, Michaela; Pichová, Iva; Sklenář, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 43-45 ISSN 1874-2718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nmr * assignment * capsid protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.015, year: 2008

  6. Low levels of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease expression are required to achieve optimal capsid protein expression and processing in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polacek, Charlotta; Gullberg, Maria; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    transient-expression assays, within mammalian cells, it is possible to modify the relative amounts of the substrate and protease. It has now been shown that optimal production of the processed capsid proteins from P1-2A is achieved with reduced levels of 3Cpro expression, relative to the P1-2A, compared...... detected by FMDV antigen detection assays. Furthermore, the P1-2A and the processed forms each bind to the integrin αvβ6, the major FMDV receptor. These results contribute to the development of systems which efficiently express the components of empty capsid particles and may represent the basis for safer...... production of diagnostic reagents and improved vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease....

  7. Hepatitis A Virus Genome Organization and Replication Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Kevin L; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-02

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-strand RNA virus classified in the genus Hepatovirus of the family Picornaviridae It is an ancient virus with a long evolutionary history and multiple features of its capsid structure, genome organization, and replication cycle that distinguish it from other mammalian picornaviruses. HAV proteins are produced by cap-independent translation of a single, long open reading frame under direction of an inefficient, upstream internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Genome replication occurs slowly and is noncytopathic, with transcription likely primed by a uridylated protein primer as in other picornaviruses. Newly produced quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are released from cells in a nonlytic fashion in a unique process mediated by interactions of capsid proteins with components of the host cell endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) system. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Specific in vitro cleavage of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein: evidence for a potential role of retroviral protease in early stages of infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, T.; Pohl, J.; Pichová, Iva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 310, - (2003), s. 310-318 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1241; GA AV ČR IAB4055202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : M-PMV protease * HIV-1 capsid protein * HIV-1 protease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2003

  9. 'Let the phage do the work': Using the phage P22 coat protein structures as a framework to understand its folding and assembly mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.

    2010-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of viral capsid proteins contains information about their folding, structure and self-assembly processes. While some viruses assemble from small preformed oligomers of coat proteins, other viruses such as phage P22 and herpesvirus assemble from monomeric proteins (Fuller and King, 1980). The subunit assembly process is strictly controlled through protein:protein interactions such that icosahedral structures are formed with specific symmetries, rather than aberrant structures. dsDNA viruses commonly assemble by first forming a precursor capsid that serves as a DNA packaging machine. DNA packaging is accompanied by a conformational transition of the small precursor procapsid into a larger capsid for isometric viruses. Here we highlight the pseudo-atomic structures of phage P22 coat protein and rationalize several decades of data about P22 coat protein folding, assembly and maturation generated from a combination of genetics and biochemistry.

  10. Structural Characterization of H-1 Parvovirus: Comparison of Infectious Virions to Empty Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an α-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The β-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ∼12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors. PMID:23449783

  11. Dengue Virus Genome Uncoating Requires Ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Laura A; Iglesias, Néstor G; De Maio, Federico A; Gebhard, Leopoldo G; Rossi, Mario; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2016-06-28

    The process of genome release or uncoating after viral entry is one of the least-studied steps in the flavivirus life cycle. Flaviviruses are mainly arthropod-borne viruses, including emerging and reemerging pathogens such as dengue, Zika, and West Nile viruses. Currently, dengue virus is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and is responsible for about 390 million infections every year around the world. Here, we examined for the first time molecular aspects of dengue virus genome uncoating. We followed the fate of the capsid protein and RNA genome early during infection and found that capsid is degraded after viral internalization by the host ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, proteasome activity and capsid degradation were not necessary to free the genome for initial viral translation. Unexpectedly, genome uncoating was blocked by inhibiting ubiquitination. Using different assays to bypass entry and evaluate the first rounds of viral translation, a narrow window of time during infection that requires ubiquitination but not proteasome activity was identified. In this regard, ubiquitin E1-activating enzyme inhibition was sufficient to stabilize the incoming viral genome in the cytoplasm of infected cells, causing its retention in either endosomes or nucleocapsids. Our data support a model in which dengue virus genome uncoating requires a nondegradative ubiquitination step, providing new insights into this crucial but understudied viral process. Dengue is the most significant arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Although the number of cases increases every year, there are no approved therapeutics available for the treatment of dengue infection, and many basic aspects of the viral biology remain elusive. After entry, the viral membrane must fuse with the endosomal membrane to deliver the viral genome into the cytoplasm for translation and replication. A great deal of information has been obtained in the last decade

  12. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  13. Venture from the Interior-Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Susanne M.

    2017-11-25

    Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress.

  14. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  15. Two separable functional domains of simian virus 40 large T antigen: carboxyl-terminal region of simian virus 40 large T antigen is required for efficient capsid protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Polvino-Bodnar, M; Santangelo, G; Cole, C N

    1985-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminal portion of simian virus 40 large T antigen is essential for productive infection of CV-1 and CV-1p green monkey kidney cells. Mutant dlA2459, lacking 14 base pairs at 0.193 map units, was positive for viral DNA replication, but unable to form plaques in CV-1p cells (J. Tornow and C.N. Cole, J. Virol. 47:487-494, 1983). In this report, the defect of dlA2459 is further defined. Simian virus 40 late mRNAs were transcribed, polyadenylated, spliced, and transported in dlA2459-infected cells, but the level of capsid proteins produced in infected CV-1 green monkey kidney cells was extremely low. dlA2459 large T antigen lacks those residues known to be required for adenovirus helper function, and the block to productive infection by dlA2459 occurs at the same stage of infection as the block to productive adenovirus infection of CV-1 cells. These results suggest that the adenovirus helper function is required for productive infection by simian virus 40. Mutant dlA2459 was able to grow on the Vero and BSC-1 lines of African green monkey kidney cells. Additional mutants affecting the carboxyl-terminal portion of large T were prepared. Mutant inv2408 contains an inversion of the DNA between the BamHI and BclI sites (0.144 to 0.189 map units). This inversion causes transposition of the carboxyl-terminal 26 amino acids of large T antigen and the carboxyl-terminal 18 amino acids of VP1. This mutant was viable, even though the essential information absent from dlA2459 large T antigen has been transferred to the carboxyl terminus of VP1 of inv2408. The VP1 polypeptide carrying this carboxyl-terminal portion of large T could overcome the defect of dlA2459. This indicates that the carboxyl terminus of large T antigen is a separate and separable functional domain. Images PMID:2982029

  16. Polarized DNA Ejection from the Herpesvirus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Homa, Fred L.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of DNA from the capsid is an early step in infection by all herpesviruses. Ejection or DNA uncoating occurs after a parental capsid has entered the host cell cytoplasm, migrated to the nucleus and bound to a nuclear pore. DNA exits the capsid through the portal vertex and proceeds by way of the nuclear pore complex into the nucleoplasm where it is transcribed and replicated. Here we describe use of an in vitro uncoating system to determine which genome end exits first from the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) capsid. Purified DNA-containing capsids were bound to a solid surface and warmed under conditions in which some, but not all, of the DNA was ejected. Restriction endonuclease digestion was then used to identify the genomic origin of the ejected DNA. The results support the view that the S segment end exits the capsid first. Preferential release at the S end demonstrates that herpesvirus DNA uncoating conforms to the paradigm in dsDNA bacteriophage where the last end packaged is the first to be ejected. Release of HSV-1 DNA beginning at the S end causes the first gene to enter the host cell nucleus to be α4, a transcription factor required for expression of early genes. PMID:19631662

  17. Electrostatics and the assembly of an RNA virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Bruinsma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions play a central role in the assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses. Under physiological conditions of salinity and acidity, virus capsid assembly requires the presence of genomic material that is oppositely charged to the core proteins. In this paper we apply basic polymer

  18. Identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Fowler, Veronica L; Barnett, Paul V; Gold, Sarah; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. A major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) use RGD-dependent integrins as receptors, whereas cell culture adaptation often selects for variants with altered receptor preferences. Previously, two independent sites on the capsid have been identified where mutations are associated with improved cell culture growth. One is a shallow depression formed by the three major structural proteins (VP1-VP3) where mutations create a heparan sulphate (HS)-binding site (the canonical HS-binding site). The other involves residues of VP1 and is located at the fivefold symmetry axis. For some viruses, changes at this site result in HS binding; for others, the receptors are unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel site on VP2 where mutations resulted in an expanded cell tropism of a vaccine variant of A/IRN/87 (called A - ). Furthermore, we show that introducing the same mutations into a different type A field virus (A/TUR/2/2006) resulted in the same expanded cell culture tropism as the A/IRN/87 A -  vaccine variant. These observations add to the evidence for multiple cell attachment mechanisms for FMDV and may be useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves difficult.

  19. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Panjwani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  20. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C; Miller, W Allen

    2016-11-18

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus , Luteoviridae ) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus , Tombusviridae ) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum , and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  1. In vitro assembly into virus-like particles is an intrinsic quality of Pichia pastoris derived HCV core protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Rivero, Nelson; Rodriguez, Armando; Musacchio, Alexis; Falcon, Viviana; Suarez, Viana M.; Martinez, Gillian; Guerra, Ivis; Paz-Lago, Dalila; Morera, Yanelys; Rosa, Maria C. de la; Morales-Grillo, Juan; Duenas-Carrera, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Different variants of hepatitis C virus core protein (HCcAg) have proved to self-assemble in vitro into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, difficulties in obtaining purified mature HCcAg have limited these studies. In this study, a high degree of monomeric HCcAg purification was accomplished using chromatographic procedures under denaturing conditions. Size exclusion chromatography and sucrose density gradient centrifugation of renatured HCcAg (in the absence of structured RNA) under reducing conditions suggested that it assembled into empty capsids. The electron microscopy analysis of renatured HCcAg showed the presence of spherical VLPs with irregular shapes and an average diameter of 35 nm. Data indicated that HCcAg monomers assembled in vitro into VLPs in the absence of structured RNA, suggesting that recombinant HCcAg used in this work contains all the information necessary for the assembly process. However, they also suggest that some cellular factors might be required for the proper in vitro assembly of capsids

  2. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Doumayrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits.

  3. [Satellite RNA (RNA3) of tomato black ring virus is found with one of the 2 major RNAs (RNA2) in a new capsid nucleoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doz, B; Dunez, J; Bove, J M

    1977-12-19

    Tomato Black Ring Virus (TBRV) like other NEPOviruses posseses two nucleoproteins M and B and two major RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2 respectively distributed in B and M. A new nucleoprotein has just been discovered and comprises one molecule of RNA2 associated with one molecule of RNA3. RNA3 is a small RNA of molecular weight 500,000 d considered to be a satellite RNA. Its level appears to depend on the infection stage, local or systemic. RNA3 is able to modify the relative proportions of nucleoproteins M and B and their respective RNAs. The satellite RNA, might be part of the genome and represent a monocistronic mRNA for protein capsid synthesis. However it seems perhaps more tempting to correlate TBRV-RNA3 with satellite RNA5 of certain strains of Cucumber mosaic virus.

  4. Deep sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus reveals RNA sequences involved in genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grace; Newman, Joseph; Wright, Caroline F; Lasecka-Dykes, Lidia; Haydon, Daniel T; Cottam, Eleanor M; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2017-10-18

    Non-enveloped viruses protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. Packaging and capsid assembly in RNA viruses can involve interactions between capsid proteins and secondary structures in the viral genome as exemplified by the RNA bacteriophage MS2 and as proposed for other RNA viruses of plants, animals and human. In the picornavirus family of non-enveloped RNA viruses, the requirements for genome packaging remain poorly understood. Here we show a novel and simple approach to identify predicted RNA secondary structures involved in genome packaging in the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). By interrogating deep sequencing data generated from both packaged and unpackaged populations of RNA we have determined multiple regions of the genome with constrained variation in the packaged population. Predicted secondary structures of these regions revealed stem loops with conservation of structure and a common motif at the loop. Disruption of these features resulted in attenuation of virus growth in cell culture due to a reduction in assembly of mature virions. This study provides evidence for the involvement of predicted RNA structures in picornavirus packaging and offers a readily transferable methodology for identifying packaging requirements in many other viruses. Importance In order to transmit their genetic material to a new host, non-enveloped viruses must protect their genomes by packaging them into an outer shell or capsid of virus-encoded proteins. For many non-enveloped RNA viruses the requirements for this critical part of the viral life cycle remain poorly understood. We have identified RNA sequences involved in genome packaging of the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus. This virus causes an economically devastating disease of livestock affecting both the developed and developing world. The experimental methods developed to carry out this work are novel, simple and transferable to the

  5. Duck hepatitis A virus structural proteins expressed in insect cells self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anping; Gu, Lingling; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Shanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a non-enveloped ssRNA virus, can cause a highly contagious disease in young ducklings. The three capsid proteins of VP0, VP1 and VP3 are translated within a single large open reading frame (ORF) and hydrolyzed by protease 3CD. However, little is known on whether the recombinant viral structural proteins (VPs) expressed in insect cells could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and whether these VLPs could induce protective immunity in young ducklings. To address these issues, the structural polyprotein precursor gene P1 and the protease gene 3CD were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures and immunogenicity. The recombinant proteins expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant proteins spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells. Western blot analysis of the purified VLPs revealed that the VLPs were composed with the three structural proteins. In addition, vaccination with the VLPs induced high humoral immune response and provided strong protection. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of duck viral hepatitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ?procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: a...

  7. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Lauren M; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni; Baker, Timothy S; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-10-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants of the required capsid

  8. Transient expression of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein using a plum pox virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamencayová, M; Košík, I; Hunková, J; Subr, Z W

    2014-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus (IAV) was cloned in a plum pox virus (PPV) genome-based vector and attempts to express it in biolistically transfected Nicotiana benthamiana plants were performed. The vector-insert construct replicated in infected plants properly and was stable during repeated passage by mechanical inoculation, as demonstrated by disease symptoms and immunoblot detection of PPV capsid protein, while PB1-F2-specific band was more faint. We showed that it was due its low solubility. Modification of sample preparation (denaturation/solubilization preceding the centrifugation of cell debris) led to substantial signal enhancement. Maximal level of PB1-F2 expression in plants was observed 12 days post inoculation (dpi). Only 1% SDS properly solubilized the protein, other detergents were much less efficient. Solubilization with 8M urea released approximately 50% of PB1-F2 from the plant tissues, thus the treatment with this removable chaotropic agent may be a good starting point for the purification of the protein for eventual functional studies in the future.

  9. TensorCalculator: exploring the evolution of mechanical stress in the CCMV capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Maksudov, Farkhad; Marx, Kenneth A.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2018-01-01

    A new computational methodology for the accurate numerical calculation of the Cauchy stress tensor, stress invariants, principal stress components, von Mises and Tresca tensors is developed. The methodology is based on the atomic stress approach which permits the calculation of stress tensors, widely used in continuum mechanics modeling of materials properties, using the output from the MD simulations of discrete atomic and C_α -based coarse-grained structural models of biological particles. The methodology mapped into the software package TensorCalculator was successfully applied to the empty cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) shell to explore the evolution of mechanical stress in this mechanically-tested specific example of a soft virus capsid. We found an inhomogeneous stress distribution in various portions of the CCMV structure and stress transfer from one portion of the virus structure to another, which also points to the importance of entropic effects, often ignored in finite element analysis and elastic network modeling. We formulate a criterion for elastic deformation using the first principal stress components. Furthermore, we show that von Mises and Tresca stress tensors can be used to predict the onset of a viral capsid’s mechanical failure, which leads to total structural collapse. TensorCalculator can be used to study stress evolution and dynamics of defects in viral capsids and other large-size protein assemblies.

  10. Adenovirus structural protein IIIa is involved in the serotype specificity of viral DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Hearing, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    The packaging of the adenovirus (Ad) genome into a capsid displays serotype specificity. This specificity has been attributed to viral packaging proteins, the IVa2 protein and the L1-52/55K protein. We previously found that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus, whereas two other Ad17 packaging proteins, IVa2 and L4-22K, could complement the growth of Ad5 viruses with mutations in the respective genes. In this report, we investigated why the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein was not able to complement the Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus. We demonstrate that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein binds to the Ad5 IVa2 protein in vitro and the Ad5 packaging domain in vivo, activities previously associated with packaging function. The Ad17 L1-52/55K protein also associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Interestingly, we find that the Ad17 L1-52/55K protein is able to complement the growth of an Ad5 L1-52/55K mutant virus in conjunction with the Ad17 structural protein IIIa. The same result was found with the L1-52/55K and IIIa proteins of several other Ad serotypes, including Ad3 and Ad4. The Ad17 IIIa protein associates with empty Ad5 capsids. Consistent with the complementation results, we find that the IIIa protein interacts with the L1-52/55K protein in vitro and associates with the viral packaging domain in vivo. These results underscore the complex nature of virus assembly and genome encapsidation and provide a new model for how the viral genome may tether to the empty capsid during the encapsidation process.

  11. In vivo interactions between the proteins of infectious bursal disease virus: capsid protein VP3 interacts with the RNA dependent polymerase VP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.G.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the intermolecular interactions between the viral proteins of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). By using the yeast two-hybrid system, which allows the detection of protein-protein interactions in vivo, all possible interactions were tested by fusing the viral proteins to

  12. Interactions in vivo between the proteins of infectious bursal disease virus: capsid protein VP3 interacts with the RNA-dependent polymerase, VP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.G.J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the intermolecular interactions between the viral proteins of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). By using the yeast two-hybrid system, which allows the detection of protein-protein interactions in vivo, all possible interactions were tested by fusing the viral proteins to

  13. Requirements for capsid-binding and an effector function in TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Vandegraaff, Nick; Li Yuan; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Stremlau, Matthew; Welikala, Sohanya; Si Zhihai; Engelman, Alan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    In owl monkeys, a retrotransposition event replaced the gene encoding the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5α with one encoding TRIMCyp, a fusion between the RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains of TRIM5 and cyclophilin A. TRIMCyp restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection by a mechanism dependent on the interaction of the cyclophilin A moiety and the HIV-1 capsid protein. Here, we show that infection by retroviruses other than HIV-1 can be restricted by TRIMCyp, providing an explanation for the evolutionary retention of the TRIMCyp gene in owl monkey lineages. The TRIMCyp-mediated block to HIV-1 infection occurs before the earliest step of reverse transcription. TRIMCyp-mediated restriction involves at least two functions: (1) capsid binding, which occurs most efficiently for trimeric TRIMCyp proteins that retain the coiled-coil and cyclophilin A domains, and (2) an effector function that depends upon the B-box 2 domain

  14. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 angstrom resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schur, F. K. M.; Hagen, W. J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, T.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Briggs, J. A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 7535 (2015), s. 505-508 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : retrovirus * HIV * M-PMV * capsid protein * CA * assembly * immature particles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  15. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of the 2AB protein from hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Damià; Vives-Adrián, Laia; Buxaderas, Mònica; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Almeida, Bruno; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Verdaguer, Núria

    2011-01-01

    The 2AB protein derived from the nonstructural P2 region of hepatitis A virus has been cloned, purified and crystallized. The preliminary characterization of native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals is reported. The Picornaviridae family contains a large number of human pathogens such as rhinovirus, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is an infectious disease that causes liver inflammation. It is highly endemic in developing countries with poor sanitation, where infections often occur in children. As in other picornaviruses, the genome of HAV contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that is subsequently processed by viral proteinases to originate mature viral proteins during and after the translation process. In the polyprotein, the N-terminal P1 region generates the four capsid proteins, while the C-terminal P2 and P3 regions contain the enzymes, precursors and accessory proteins essential for polyprotein processing and virus replication. Here, the first crystals of protein 2AB of HAV are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P4 1 or P4 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.42, c = 73.43 Å, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.7 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively

  16. Nanofluidic Devices with Two Pores in Series for Resistive-Pulse Sensing of Single Virus Capsids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Zachary D.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André

    2011-01-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of nanochannel devices with two nanopores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids. The nanochannel and two pores are patterned by electron beam lithography between two microchannels and etched by reactive ion etching....... The two nanopores are 50-nm wide, 50-nm deep, and 40-nm long and are spaced 2.0-μm apart. The nanochannel that brackets the two pores is 20 wider (1 μm) to reduce the electrical resistance adjacent to the two pores and to ensure the current returns to its baseline value between resistive-pulse events...

  17. A Molecular Staple: D-Loops in the I Domain of Bacteriophage P22 Coat Protein Make Important Intercapsomer Contacts Required for Procapsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Nadia G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophage P22, a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus, has a nonconserved 124-amino-acid accessory domain inserted into its coat protein, which has the canonical HK97 protein fold. This I domain is involved in virus capsid size determination and stability, as well as protein folding. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of the I domain revealed the presence of a D-loop, which was hypothesized to make important intersubunit contacts between coat proteins in adjacent capsomers. Here we show that amino acid substitutions of residues near the tip of the D-loop result in aberrant assembly products, including tubes and broken particles, highlighting the significance of the D-loops in proper procapsid assembly. Using disulfide cross-linking, we showed that the tips of the D-loops are positioned directly across from each other both in the procapsid and the mature virion, suggesting their importance in both states. Our results indicate that D-loop interactions act as “molecular staples” at the icosahedral 2-fold symmetry axis and significantly contribute to stabilizing the P22 capsid for DNA packaging. IMPORTANCE Many dsDNA viruses have morphogenic pathways utilizing an intermediate capsid, known as a procapsid. These procapsids are assembled from a coat protein having the HK97 fold in a reaction driven by scaffolding proteins or delta domains. Maturation of the capsid occurs during DNA packaging. Bacteriophage HK97 uniquely stabilizes its capsid during maturation by intercapsomer cross-linking, but most virus capsids are stabilized by alternate means. Here we show that the I domain that is inserted into the coat protein of bacteriophage P22 is important in the process of proper procapsid assembly. Specifically, the I domain allows for stabilizing interactions across the capsid 2-fold axis of symmetry via a D-loop. When amino acid residues at the tip of the D-loop are mutated, aberrant assembly products, including tubes, are formed instead

  18. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. → All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. → The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  19. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  20. Comparative physicochemical and biological properties of two strains of Kilham rat virus, a non-defective parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Snyder, C.E.; Bates, R.C.; Banerjee, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Two antigenically indistinguishable strains, 171 and 308, of Kilham rat virus (KRV) have distinct host ranges and contain capsid proteins of identical size, but with different isoelectric points. The single-stranded DNA genomes of the viruses are also the same size but appear to have different secondary and tertiary structures. The genomes of the two strains have nearly identical cleavage maps for 11 restriction endonucleases. However, there is a lack of extended heteroloy in the nucleotide sequence of the two virus genomes, as judged by electron microscopic analysis of the heteroduplex of the two virus DNAs. This suggests that very subtle differences in the sequences of the genome, and possibly of the capsid proteins, may play a role in the host specificity without affecting the antigenic similarity of KRV strains.

  1. Viral capsid is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern in adenovirus keratitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish V Chintakuntlawar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human adenovirus (HAdV infection of the human eye, in particular serotypes 8, 19 and 37, induces the formation of corneal subepithelial leukocytic infiltrates. Using a unique mouse model of adenovirus keratitis, we studied the role of various virus-associated molecular patterns in subsequent innate immune responses of resident corneal cells to HAdV-37 infection. We found that neither viral DNA, viral gene expression, or viral replication was necessary for the development of keratitis. In contrast, empty viral capsid induced keratitis and a chemokine profile similar to intact virus. Transfected viral DNA did not induce leukocyte infiltration despite CCL2 expression similar to levels in virus infected corneas. Mice without toll-like receptor 9 (Tlr9 signaling developed clinical keratitis upon HAdV-37 infection similar to wild type mice, although the absolute numbers of activated monocytes in the cornea were less in Tlr9(-/- mice. Virus induced leukocytic infiltrates and chemokine expression in mouse cornea could be blocked by treatment with a peptide containing arginine glycine aspartic acid (RGD. These results demonstrate that adenovirus infection of the cornea induces chemokine expression and subsequent infiltration by leukocytes principally through RGD contact between viral capsid and the host cell, possibly through direct interaction between the viral capsid penton base and host cell integrins.

  2. Dengue Virus Genome Uncoating Requires Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Byk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of genome release or uncoating after viral entry is one of the least-studied steps in the flavivirus life cycle. Flaviviruses are mainly arthropod-borne viruses, including emerging and reemerging pathogens such as dengue, Zika, and West Nile viruses. Currently, dengue virus is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and is responsible for about 390 million infections every year around the world. Here, we examined for the first time molecular aspects of dengue virus genome uncoating. We followed the fate of the capsid protein and RNA genome early during infection and found that capsid is degraded after viral internalization by the host ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, proteasome activity and capsid degradation were not necessary to free the genome for initial viral translation. Unexpectedly, genome uncoating was blocked by inhibiting ubiquitination. Using different assays to bypass entry and evaluate the first rounds of viral translation, a narrow window of time during infection that requires ubiquitination but not proteasome activity was identified. In this regard, ubiquitin E1-activating enzyme inhibition was sufficient to stabilize the incoming viral genome in the cytoplasm of infected cells, causing its retention in either endosomes or nucleocapsids. Our data support a model in which dengue virus genome uncoating requires a nondegradative ubiquitination step, providing new insights into this crucial but understudied viral process.

  3. Metal-ion-induced formation and stabilization of protein cages based on the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Wilke, Koos D.M.; Hendriks, Linda J.A.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a versatile building block for the construction of nanoreactors and functional materials. Upon RNA removal, the capsid can be reversibly assembled and disassembed by adjusting the pH. At pH 5.0 the capsid is in the native assembled conformation, while at

  4. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Half of the Traffic Controller UL37 from Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsberg, Andrea L.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.

    2017-08-02

    Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs also have divergent virus-specific functions. Accurate dissection of UL37 functions requires detailed maps in the form of atomic-resolution structures. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the N-terminal half of UL37 (UL37N) from PRV. Here, we report the crystal structure of HSV-1 UL37N. Comparison of the two structures reveals that UL37 homologs differ in their overall shapes, distributions of surface charges, and locations of projecting loops. In contrast, the previously identified R2 surface region is structurally conserved. We propose that within the N-terminal half of UL37, functional conservation is centered within the R2 surface region, whereas divergent structural elements pinpoint regions mediating virus-specific functions and may engage different binding partners. Together, the two structures can now serve as templates for a structure-guided exploration of both conserved and virus-specific functions of UL37.

    IMPORTANCEThe ability to move efficiently within host cell cytoplasm is essential for replication in all viruses. It is especially important in the neuroinvasive alphaherpesviruses, such as human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and veterinarian pseudorabies virus (PRV), that infect the peripheral nervous system and have to travel long distances along axons. Capsid movement in these viruses is controlled by capsid-associated tegument proteins, yet their specific roles have not yet been defined. Systematic exploration of the roles of tegument proteins in capsid trafficking requires

  5. Partial characterization of the lettuce infectious yellows virus genomic RNAs, identification of the coat protein gene and comparison of its amino acid sequence with those of other filamentous RNA plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, V A; Boeshore, M; Dolja, V V; Falk, B W

    1994-07-01

    Purified virions of lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), a tentative member of the closterovirus group, contained two RNAs of approximately 8500 and 7300 nucleotides (RNAs 1 and 2 respectively) and a single coat protein species with M(r) of approximately 28,000. LIYV-infected plants contained multiple dsRNAs. The two largest were the correct size for the replicative forms of LIYV virion RNAs 1 and 2. To assess the relationships between LIYV RNAs 1 and 2, cDNAs corresponding to the virion RNAs were cloned. Northern blot hybridization analysis showed no detectable sequence homology between these RNAs. A partial amino acid sequence obtained from purified LIYV coat protein was found to align in the most upstream of four complete open reading frames (ORFs) identified in a LIYV RNA 2 cDNA clone. The identity of this ORF was confirmed as the LIYV coat protein gene by immunological analysis of the gene product expressed in vitro and in Escherichia coli. Computer analysis of the LIYV coat protein amino acid sequence indicated that it belongs to a large family of proteins forming filamentous capsids of RNA plant viruses. The LIYV coat protein appears to be most closely related to the coat proteins of two closteroviruses, beet yellows virus and citrus tristeza virus.

  6. Thermodynamic characterization of the peptide assembly inhibitor binding to HIV-1 capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Milan; Durčák, Jindřich; Konvalinka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, Suppl. 1 (2013), S37-S37 ISSN 1742-4690. [Frontiers of Retrovirology: Complex retorviruses, retroelements and their hosts. 16.09.2013-18.09.2013, Cambridge] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 capsid protein * CAI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.retrovirology.com/content/10/S1/P108

  7. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein localized to the nucleus restores HBx-deficient virus replication in HepG2 cells and in vivo in hydrodynamically-injected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keasler, Victor V.; Hodgson, Amanda J.; Madden, Charles R.; Slagle, Betty L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the requirements for the regulatory HBx protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is an important goal. A plasmid-based HBV replication assay was used to evaluate whether HBx subcellular localization influences its ability to promote virus replication, as measured by real time PCR quantitation of viral capsid-associated DNA. HBx targeted to the nucleus by a nuclear localization signal (NLS-HBx) was able to restore HBx-deficient HBV replication, while HBx containing a nuclear export signal (NES-HBx) was not. Both NLS-HBx and NES-HBx were expressed at similar levels (by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting), and proper localization of the signal sequence-tagged proteins was confirmed by deconvolution microscopy using HBx, NLS-HBx, and NES-HBx proteins fused to GFP. Importantly, these findings were confirmed in vivo by hydrodynamic injection into mice. Our results demonstrate that in these HBV replication assays, at least one function of HBx requires its localization to the nucleus.

  8. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  9. Single Amino Acid Modification of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Changes Transduction and Humoral Immune Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E.; Hirsch, Matthew L.; Monahan, Paul E.; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration. PMID:22593151

  10. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  11. Interactions of Prototype Foamy Virus Capsids with Host Cell Polo-Like Kinases Are Important for Efficient Viral DNA Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zurnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike for other retroviruses, only a few host cell factors that aid the replication of foamy viruses (FVs via interaction with viral structural components are known. Using a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H screen with prototype FV (PFV Gag protein as bait we identified human polo-like kinase 2 (hPLK2, a member of cell cycle regulatory kinases, as a new interactor of PFV capsids. Further Y2H studies confirmed interaction of PFV Gag with several PLKs of both human and rat origin. A consensus Ser-Thr/Ser-Pro (S-T/S-P motif in Gag, which is conserved among primate FVs and phosphorylated in PFV virions, was essential for recognition by PLKs. In the case of rat PLK2, functional kinase and polo-box domains were required for interaction with PFV Gag. Fluorescently-tagged PFV Gag, through its chromatin tethering function, selectively relocalized ectopically expressed eGFP-tagged PLK proteins to mitotic chromosomes in a Gag STP motif-dependent manner, confirming a specific and dominant nature of the Gag-PLK interaction in mammalian cells. The functional relevance of the Gag-PLK interaction was examined in the context of replication-competent FVs and single-round PFV vectors. Although STP motif mutated viruses displayed wild type (wt particle release, RNA packaging and intra-particle reverse transcription, their replication capacity was decreased 3-fold in single-cycle infections, and up to 20-fold in spreading infections over an extended time period. Strikingly similar defects were observed when cells infected with single-round wt Gag PFV vectors were treated with a pan PLK inhibitor. Analysis of entry kinetics of the mutant viruses indicated a post-fusion defect resulting in delayed and reduced integration, which was accompanied with an enhanced preference to integrate into heterochromatin. We conclude that interaction between PFV Gag and cellular PLK proteins is important for early replication steps of PFV within host cells.

  12. Complete genome sequence of switchgrass mosaic virus, a member of a proposed new species in the genus Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agindotan, Bright O; Gray, Michael E; Hammond, Rosemarie W; Bradley, Carl A

    2012-09-01

    The complete genome sequence of a virus recently detected in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was determined and found to be closely related to that of maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), genus Marafivirus, family Tymoviridae. The genomic RNA is 6408 nucleotides long. It contains three predicted open reading frames (ORFs 1-3), encoding proteins of 227 kDa, 43.9 kDa, and 31.5 kDa, compared to two ORFs (1 and 2) for MRFV. The complete genome shares 76 % sequence identity with MRFV. The nucleotide sequence of ORF2 of this virus and the amino acid sequence of its encoded protein are 49 % and 77 % identical, respectively, to those of MRFV. The virus-encoded polyprotein and capsid protein aa sequences are 83 % and 74-80 % identical, respectively, to those of MRFV. Although closely related to MRFV, the amino acid sequence of its capsid protein (CP) forms a clade that is separate from that of MRFV. Based on the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) sequence-related criteria for delineation of species within the genus Marafivirus, the virus qualifies as a member of a new species, and the name Switchgrass mosaic virus (SwMV) is proposed.

  13. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. QA prime-boost vaccination strategy in prevent serotype O FMDV infection using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Introduction Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines based on chemically inactivated FMDV, are imperfect and there is a need for new, safe...... and effective vaccines to control FMD. There is no cross protection between the 7 serotypes but serotype O is the most abundant globally. Material and methods The FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa has been expressed with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a “single cycle” packaged...... alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Purified O1 Manisa empty capsid particles (ECs) have been prepared using a recombinant vaccinia virus expression system. Cattle have been vaccinated with the SFV-FMDV vectors and boosted subsequently with the ECs and then challenged...

  15. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  16. A Comprehensive Study of Neutralizing Antigenic Sites on the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Capsid by Constructing, Clustering, and Characterizing a Tool Box*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Li, Xiao-Jing; Tang, Zi-Min; Yang, Fan; Wang, Si-Ling; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Xia, Ning-Shao; Zheng, Zi-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF2 encodes a single structural capsid protein. The E2s domain (amino acids 459–606) of the capsid protein has been identified as the major immune target. All identified neutralizing epitopes are located on this domain; however, a comprehensive characterization of antigenic sites on the domain is lacking due to its high degree of conformation dependence. Here, we used the statistical software SPSS to analyze cELISA (competitive ELISA) data to classify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which recognized conformational epitopes on E2s domain. Using this novel analysis method, we identified various conformational mAbs that recognized the E2s domain. These mAbs were distributed into 6 independent groups, suggesting the presence of at least 6 epitopes. Twelve representative mAbs covering the six groups were selected as a tool box to further map functional antigenic sites on the E2s domain. By combining functional and location information of the 12 representative mAbs, this study provided a complete picture of potential neutralizing epitope regions and immune-dominant determinants on E2s domain. One epitope region is located on top of the E2s domain close to the monomer interface; the other is located on the monomer side of the E2s dimer around the groove zone. Besides, two non-neutralizing epitopes were also identified on E2s domain that did not stimulate neutralizing antibodies. Our results help further the understanding of protective mechanisms induced by the HEV vaccine. Furthermore, the tool box with 12 representative mAbs will be useful for studying the HEV infection process. PMID:26085097

  17. Exploiting Fluorescent Polymers To Probe the Self-Assembly of Virus-like Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caden-Nava, Ruben D.; Hu, Yufang; Garmann, Rees F.

    2011-01-01

    , for example, poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), forming virus-like particles (VLPs). We have demonstrated recently that the VLPs formed from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid protein increase in size (from T = 2 to T = 3 structures) upon increase in PSS molecular weight (from 400 kDa to 3.4MDa...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of different immunogenic viral nanoconstructs from rotavirus VP6 inner capsid protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugli F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Bugli,1 Valeria Caprettini,2 Margherita Cacaci,1 Cecilia Martini,1 Francesco Paroni Sterbini,1 Riccardo Torelli,1 Stefano Della Longa,3 Massimiliano Papi,4 Valentina Palmieri,4 Bruno Giardina,5 Brunella Posteraro,1 Maurizio Sanguinetti,1 Alessandro Arcovito5 1Istituto di Microbiologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 2Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, 3Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica, Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università dell’Aquila, L’Aquila, 4Istituto di Fisica, 5Istituto di Biochimica e Biochimica Clinica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy Abstract: In order to deliver low-cost viral capsomeres from a large amount of soluble viral VP6 protein from human rotavirus, we developed and optimized a biotechnological platform in Escherichia coli. Specifically, three different expression protocols were compared, differing in their genetic constructs, ie, a simple native histidine-tagged VP6 sequence, VP6 fused to thioredoxin, and VP6 obtained with the newly described small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO fusion system. Our results demonstrate that the histidine-tagged protein does not escape the accumulation in the inclusion bodies, and that SUMO is largely superior to the thioredoxin-fusion tag in enhancing the expression and solubility of VP6 protein. Moreover, the VP6 protein produced according to the SUMO fusion tag displays well-known assembly properties, as observed in both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images, giving rise to either VP6 trimers, 60 nm spherical virus-like particles, or nanotubes a few micron long. This different quaternary organization of VP6 shows a higher level of immunogenicity for the elongated structures with respect to the spheres or the protein trimers. Therefore, the expression and purification strategy presented here – providing a large amount of the viral capsid protein in the native

  19. The C-terminus of the Polerovirus P5 readthrough domain limits virus infection to the phloem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most plant viruses, poleroviruses are restricted to vascular phloem tissues, from which they are transmitted by their aphid vectors. Phloem limitation has been attributed to the absence of virus proteins facilitating movement or counteracting plant defense. The polerovirus capsid is composed ...

  20. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fan Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV, we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1-147 containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1-147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex.

  1. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Lin; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Shu; Shih, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV), we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1–147) containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD) failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1–147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex. PMID

  2. Viable adenovirus vaccine prototypes: High-level production of a papillomavirus capsid antigen from the major late transcriptional unit

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Michael; DiFatta, Julie; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Schlegel, Richard; Ketner, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Safe, effective, orally delivered, live adenovirus vaccines have been in use for three decades. Recombinant derivatives of the live adenovirus vaccines may prove an economical alternative to current vaccines for a variety of diseases. To explore that possibility, we constructed a series of recombinants that express the major capsid protein (L1) of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), a model for mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) composed ...

  3. Retargeting of rat parvovirus H-1PV to cancer cells through genetic engineering of the viral capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaume, Xavier; El-Andaloussi, Nazim; Leuchs, Barbara; Bonifati, Serena; Kulkarni, Amit; Marttila, Tiina; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    The rat parvovirus H-1PV is a promising anticancer agent given its oncosuppressive properties and the absence of known side effects in humans. H-1PV replicates preferentially in transformed cells, but the virus can enter both normal and cancer cells. Uptake by normal cells sequesters a significant portion of the administered viral dose away from the tumor target. Hence, targeting H-1PV entry specifically to tumor cells is important to increase the efficacy of parvovirus-based treatments. In this study, we first found that sialic acid plays a key role in H-1PV entry. We then genetically engineered the H-1PV capsid to improve its affinity for human tumor cells. By analogy with the resolved crystal structure of the closely related parvovirus minute virus of mice, we developed an in silico three-dimensional (3D) model of the H-1PV wild-type capsid. Based on this model, we identified putative amino acids involved in cell membrane recognition and virus entry at the level of the 2-fold axis of symmetry of the capsid, within the so-called dimple region. In situ mutagenesis of these residues significantly reduced the binding and entry of H-1PV into permissive cells. We then engineered an entry-deficient viral capsid and inserted a cyclic RGD-4C peptide at the level of its 3-fold axis spike. This peptide binds α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) integrins, which are overexpressed in cancer cells and growing blood vessels. The insertion of the peptide rescued viral infectivity toward cells overexpressing α(v)β(5) integrins, resulting in the efficient killing of these cells by the reengineered virus. This work demonstrates that H-1PV can be genetically retargeted through the modification of its capsid, showing great promise for a more efficient use of this virus in cancer therapy.

  4. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.

  5. Role of Bovine Adenovirus-3 33K protein in viral replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, Vikas; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2004-01-01

    The L6 region of bovine adenovirus type (BAdV)-3 encodes a nonstructural protein named 33K. To identify and characterize the 33K protein, rabbit polyclonal antiserum was raised against a 33K-GST fusion protein expressed in bacteria. Anti-33K serum immunoprecipitated a protein of 42 kDa in in vitro translated and transcribed mRNA of 33K. However, three proteins of 42, 38, and 33 kDa were detected in BAdV-3 infected cells. To determine the role of this protein in virus replication, a recombinant BAV-33S1 containing insertional inactivation of 33K (a stop codon created at the seventh amino acid of 33K ORF) was constructed. Although BAV-33S1 could be isolated, the mutant showed a severe defect in the production of progeny virus. Inactivation of the 33K gene showed no effect on early and late viral gene expression in cells infected with BAV-33S1. However, formation of mature virions was significantly reduced in cells infected with BAV-33S1. Surprisingly, insertional inactivation of 33K at amino acid 97 (pFBAV-33.KS2) proved lethal for virus production. Although expression of early or late genes was not affected, no capsid formation could be observed in mutant DNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that 33K is required for capsid assembly and efficient DNA capsid interaction

  6. Stability and assembly in vitro of bacteriophage PP7 virus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peabody David S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stability of a virus-like particle (VLP is an important consideration for its use in nanobiotechnology. The icosahedral capsid of the RNA bacteriophage PP7 is cross-linked by disulfide bonds between coat protein dimers at its 5-fold and quasi-6-fold symmetry axes. This work determined the effects of these disulfides on the VLP's thermal stability. Results Measurements of the thermal denaturation behavior of PP7 VLPs in the presence and absence of a reducing agent show that disulfide cross-links substantially stabilize them against thermal denaturation. Although dimers in the capsid are linked to one another by disulfides, the two subunits of dimers themselves are held together only by non-covalent interactions. In an effort to confer even greater stability a new cross-link was introduced by genetically fusing two coat protein monomers, thus producing a "single-chain dimer" that assembles normally into a completely cross-linked VLP. However, subunit fusion failed to increase the thermal stability of the particles, even though it stabilized the isolated dimer. As a step toward gaining control of the internal composition of the capsid, conditions that promote the assembly of PP7 coat protein dimers into virus-like particles in vitro were established. Conclusion The presence of inter-dimer disulfide bonds greatly stabilizes the PP7 virus-like particle against thermal denaturation. Covalently cross-linking the subunits of the dimers themselves by genetically fusing them through a dipeptide linker sequence, offers no further stabilization of the VLP, although it does stabilize the dimer. PP7 capsids readily assemble in vitro in a reaction that requires RNA.

  7. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  8. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2006-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles

  9. O-GlcNAc modification of the coat protein of the potyvirus Plum pox virus enhances viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José de Jesús; Udeshi, Namrata D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Ciordia, Sergio; Juárez, Silvia; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E; Hunt, Donald F; García, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic protein modification which has been studied mainly in metazoans. We reported previously that an Arabidopsis thaliana O-GlcNAc transferase modifies at least two threonine residues of the Plum pox virus (PPV) capsid protein (CP). Now, six additional residues were shown to be involved in O-GlcNAc modification of PPV CP. CP O-GlcNAcylation was abolished in the PPV CP7-T/A mutant, in which seven threonines were mutated. PPV CP7-T/A infected Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Prunus persica without noticeable defects. However, defects in infection of A. thaliana were readily apparent. In mixed infections of wild-type arabidopsis, the CP7-T/A mutant was outcompeted by wild-type virus. These results indicate that CP O-GlcNAcylation has a major role in the infection process. O-GlcNAc modification may have a role in virion assembly and/or stability as the CP of PPV CP7-T/A was more sensitive to protease digestion than that of the wild-type virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclophilin A Levels Dictate Infection Efficiency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid Escape Mutants A92E and G94D ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Laura M. J.; Schaller, Torsten; Price, Amanda; Fletcher, Adam J.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; James, Leo C.; Towers, Greg J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an important human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cofactor in human cells. HIV-1 A92E and G94D capsid escape mutants arise during CypA inhibition and in certain cell lines are dependent on CypA inhibition. Here we show that dependence on CypA inhibition is due to high CypA levels. Restricted HIV-1 is stable, and remarkably, restriction is augmented by arresting cell division. Nuclear entry is not inhibited. We propose that high CypA levels and capsid mutations combine to disturb uncoating, leading to poor infectivity, particularly in arrested cells. Our data suggest a role for CypA in uncoating the core of HIV-1 to facilitate integration. PMID:19073742

  11. Identification of structural similarities between putative transmission proteins of Polymyxa and Spongospora transmitted bymoviruses and furoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, J T; Meyer, M

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence and hydropathy profiles shows conserved, structural similarities between the capsid readthrough protein of potato mop top virus (transmitted by Spongospora subterranea) and furovirus and bymovirus proteins implicated in transmission by Polymyxa spp. This suggests that these proteins have a common ancestry and are involved in a common biological process: virus transmission by plasmodiophorid fungi.

  12. Mapping the Structural Determinants Responsible for Enhanced T Cell Activation to the Immunogenic Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid from Isolate Rhesus 32.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Lauren E.; Wang, Lili; Tenney, Rebeca; Bell, Peter; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Lin, Jianping; Gurda, Brittney; Van Vliet, Kim; Mikals, Kyle; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2013-01-01

    Avoiding activation of immunity to vector-encoded proteins is critical to the safe and effective use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy. While commonly used serotypes, such as AAV serotypes 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, are often associated with minimal and/or dysfunctional CD8+ T cell responses in mice, the threshold for immune activation appears to be lower in higher-order species. We have modeled this discrepancy within the mouse by identifying two capsid variants with differential immune activation profiles: AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) and a hybrid between natural rhesus isolates AAVrh32 and AAVrh33 (AAVrh32.33). Here, we aimed to characterize the structural determinants of the AAVrh32.33 capsid that augment cellular immunity to vector-encoded proteins or those of AAV8 that may induce tolerance. We hypothesized that the structural domain responsible for differential immune activation could be mapped to surface-exposed regions of the capsid, such as hypervariable regions (HVRs) I to IX of VP3. To test this, a series of hybrid AAV capsids was constructed by swapping domains between AAV8 and AAVrh32.33. By comparing their ability to generate transgene-specific T cells in vivo versus the stability of transgene expression in the muscle, we confirmed that the functional domain lies within the VP3 portion of the capsid. Our studies were able to exclude the regions of VP3 which are not sufficient for augmenting the cellular immune response, notably, HVRs I, II, and V. We have also identified HVR IV as a region of interest in conferring the efficiency and stability of muscle transduction to AAVrh32.33. PMID:23720715

  13. Nucleic Acid Binding by Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA Promotes Virus Assembly and Genome Packaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Füzik, T.; Píchalová, R.; Schur, F. K. M.; Strohalmová, Karolína; Křížová, Ivana; Hadravová, Romana; Rumlová, Michaela; Briggs, J. A. G.; Ulbrich, P.; Ruml, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 9 (2016), s. 4593-4603 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S; GA MŠk LO1302; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : M-PMV * virus assembly * capsid protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  14. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiangtao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE, and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ. Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P P Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection.

  15. Overcoming preexisting humoral immunity to AAV using capsid decoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingozzi, Federico; Anguela, Xavier M; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J; Hui, Daniel J; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser; High, Katherine A

    2013-07-17

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery.

  16. Characterization and construction of functional cDNA clones of Pariacoto virus, the first Alphanodavirus isolated outside Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K N; Zeddam, J L; Ball, L A

    2000-06-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). PaV particles are isometric, nonenveloped, and about 30 nm in diameter. The virus has a bipartite RNA genome and a single major capsid protein with a molecular mass of 39.0 kDa, features that support its classification as a Nodavirus. As such, PaV is the first Alphanodavirus to have been isolated from outside Australasia. Here we report that PaV replicates in wax moth larvae and that PaV genomic RNAs replicate when transfected into cultured baby hamster kidney cells. The complete nucleotide sequences of both segments of the bipartite RNA genome were determined. The larger genome segment, RNA1, is 3,011 nucleotides long and contains a 973-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF) encoding protein A, the viral contribution to the RNA replicase. During replication, a 414-nucleotide long subgenomic RNA (RNA3) is synthesized which is coterminal with the 3' end of RNA1. RNA3 contains a small ORF which could encode a protein of 90 amino acids similar to the B2 protein of other alphanodaviruses. RNA2 contains 1,311 nucleotides and encodes the 401 amino acids of the capsid protein precursor alpha. The amino acid sequences of the PaV capsid protein and the replicase subunit share 41 and 26% identity with homologous proteins of Flock house virus, the best characterized of the alphanodaviruses. These and other sequence comparisons indicate that PaV is evolutionarily the most distant of the alphanodaviruses described to date, consistent with its novel geographic origin. Although the PaV capsid precursor is cleaved into the two mature capsid proteins beta and gamma, the amino acid sequence at the cleavage site, which is Asn/Ala in all other alphanodaviruses, is Asn/Ser in PaV. To facilitate the investigation of PaV replication in cultured cells, we constructed plasmids that transcribed full-length PaV RNAs with authentic 5' and 3' termini. Transcription of these plasmids in cells

  17. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coil using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most....... Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques...

  18. Epitope design of L1 protein for vaccine production against Human Papilloma Virus types 16 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, Sunanda; Das, Rasel; Kabir, Md Golam; Arifuzzaman, Md

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer accounts for about two-thirds of all cancer cases linked etiologically to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). 15 oncogenic HPV types can cause cervical cancer, of which HPV16 and HPV18 combinedly account for about 70% of it. So, effective epitope design for the clinically relevant HPV types 16 and 18 would be of major medical benefit. Here, a comprehensive analysis is carried out to predict the epitopes against HPV types 16 and 18 through "reverse vaccinology" approach. We attempted to identify the evolutionarily conserved regions of major capsid protein (L1) as well as minor capsid protein (L2) of HPV and designed epitopes within these regions. In this study, we analyzed about 49 and 27 sequences of HPV L2 and L1 proteins respectively. Since we found that the intertype variability of L2 is higher than for L1 proteins, our analysis was emphasized on epitopes of L1 of HPV types 16 and 18. We had selected HLA-A*0201, DRB1*1501, DQB1*0602, DRB1*0401 and DQB1*0301 alleles for the prediction of T cell epitopes of L1 of HPV 16 and 18. Finally, we reported that predicted epitope sequences EEYDLQFIFQLCKITLTA, and RHGEEYDLQFIFQLCKITLTA of L1 protein of HPV 16, and LPDPNKF, PETQRLVWAC, PVPGQYDA, YNPETQRLVWAC, DTGYGAMD, PVPGQYDATK, KQDIPKVSAYQYRVFRV, RDNVSVDYKQTQLCI and YSRHVEEYDLQFIF of L1 protein of HPV 18 could be therapeutic tools for vaccine design against HPV.

  19. Bacterial surface-displayed GII.4 human norovirus capsid proteins bound to surface of Romaine lettuce through HBGA-like molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein (INP) mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein (G...

  20. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S.F. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Staniewski, M.A. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Short, C.M. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Long, A.M. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada); Chaban, Y.V. [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Short, S.M., E-mail: steven.short@utoronto.ca [Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6 (Canada); Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, S.F.; Staniewski, M.A.; Short, C.M.; Long, A.M.; Chaban, Y.V.; Short, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145 nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485 kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva's abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1's abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history. - Highlights: • A virus infecting the algae C. parva was isolated from Lake Ontario. • Virus characteristics demonstrated that this novel virus is an NCLDV. • The virus's polB sequence suggests taxonomic affiliation with the Phycodnaviridae. • The virus's capsid protein sequences also suggest Mimiviridae ancestry. • Surveys of host and virus natural abundances revealed complex host–virus dynamics.

  3. Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections may have an

  4. Gammasphaerolipovirus, a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family Sphaerolipoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Alice; Rissanen, Ilona; Bamford, Jaana K H; Krupovic, Mart; Jalasvuori, Matti

    2014-06-01

    A new family of viruses named Sphaerolipoviridae has been proposed recently. It comprises icosahedral, tailless haloarchaeal viruses with an internal lipid membrane located between the protein capsid and the dsDNA genome. The proposed family Sphaerolipoviridae was divided into two genera: Alphasphaerolipovirus, including Haloarcula hispanica viruses SH1, PH1 and HHIV-2, and Betasphaerolipovirus, including Natrinema virus SNJ1. Here, we propose to expand the family Sphaerolipoviridae to include a group of bacteriophages infecting extreme thermophilic Thermus thermophilus and sharing a number of structural and genomic properties with archaeal sphaerolipoviruses. This new group comprises two members, lytic phage P23-77 and temperate phage IN93, as well as putative members P23-72 and P23-65H. In addition, several related proviruses have been discovered as integrated elements in bacterial genomes of the families Thermus and Meiothermus. Morphology of the virus particles and the overall capsid architecture of these bacteriophages resembles that of archaeal members of the Sphaerolipoviridae, including an unusual capsid arrangement in a T = 28 dextro lattice. Alpha- and betasphaerolipoviruses share with P23-77-like bacteriophages a conserved block of core genes that encode a putative genome-packaging ATPase and the two major capsid proteins (MCPs). The recently determined X-ray structure of the small and large MCPs of P23-77 revealed a single beta-barrel (jelly-roll) fold that is superimposable with the cryo-EM density maps of the SH1 capsomers. Given the common features of these viruses, we propose to include the so far unclassified P23-77-like bacteriophages into a new genus, "Gammasphaerolipovirus", within the family Sphaerolipoviridae.

  5. Optimizing the Targeting of Mouse Parvovirus 1 to Murine Melanoma Selects for Recombinant Genomes and Novel Mutations in the Viral Capsid Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Marr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining virus-enhanced immunogenicity with direct delivery of immunomodulatory molecules would represent a novel treatment modality for melanoma, and would require development of new viral vectors capable of targeting melanoma cells preferentially. Here we explore the use of rodent protoparvoviruses targeting cells of the murine melanoma model B16F10. An uncloned stock of mouse parvovirus 1 (MPV1 showed some efficacy, which was substantially enhanced following serial passage in the target cell. Molecular cloning of the genes of both starter and selected virus pools revealed considerable sequence diversity. Chimera analysis mapped the majority of the improved infectivity to the product of the major coat protein gene, VP2, in which linked blocks of amino acid changes and one or other of two apparently spontaneous mutations were selected. Intragenic chimeras showed that these represented separable components, both contributing to enhanced infection. Comparison of biochemical parameters of infection by clonal viruses indicated that the enhancement due to changes in VP2 operates after the virus has bound to the cell surface and penetrated into the cell. Construction of an in silico homology model for MPV1 allowed placement of these changes within the capsid shell, and revealed aspects of the capsid involved in infection initiation that had not been previously recognized.

  6. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  7. Genetically Thermo-Stabilised, Immunogenic Poliovirus Empty Capsids; a Strategy for Non-replicating Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fox

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While wild type polio has been nearly eradicated there will be a need to continue immunisation programmes for some time because of the possibility of re-emergence and the existence of long term excreters of poliovirus. All vaccines in current use depend on growth of virus and most of the non-replicating (inactivated vaccines involve wild type viruses known to cause poliomyelitis. The attenuated vaccine strains involved in the eradication programme have been used to develop new inactivated vaccines as production is thought safer. However it is known that the Sabin vaccine strains are genetically unstable and can revert to a virulent transmissible form. A possible solution to the need for virus growth would be to generate empty viral capsids by recombinant technology, but hitherto such particles are so unstable as to be unusable. We report here the genetic manipulation of the virus to generate stable empty capsids for all three serotypes. The particles are shown to be extremely stable and to generate high levels of protective antibodies in animal models.

  8. Minor Capsid Protein L2 Polytope Induces Broad Protection against Oncogenic and Mucosal Human Papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Spagnoli, Gloria; Bulli, Lorenzo; Balz, Kathrin; Yang, Fan; Odenwald, Caroline; Seitz, Hanna; Mariz, Filipe C; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralization epitope which provides the basis for the development of a broadly protecting HPV vaccine. A wide range of protection against different HPV types would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial, L1-based prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we have reported that insertion of the L2 epitope into a scaffold composed of bacterial thioredoxin protein generates a potent antigen inducing comprehensive protection against different animal and human papillomaviruses. We also reported, however, that although protection is broad, some oncogenic HPV types escape the neutralizing antibody response, if L2 epitopes from single HPV types are used as immunogen. We were able to compensate for this by applying a mix of thioredoxin proteins carrying L2 epitopes from HPV16, -31, and -51. As the development of a cost-efficient HPV prophylactic vaccines is one of our objectives, this approach is not feasible as it requires the development of multiple good manufacturing production processes in combination with a complex vaccine formulation. Here, we report the development of a thermostable thioredoxin-based single-peptide vaccine carrying an L2 polytope of up to 11 different HPV types. The L2 polytope antigens have excellent abilities in respect to broadness of protection and robustness of induced immune responses. To further increase immunogenicity, we fused the thioredoxin L2 polytope antigen with a heptamerization domain. In the final vaccine design, we achieve protective responses against all 14 oncogenic HPV types that we have analyzed plus the low-risk HPVs 6 and 11 and a number of cutaneous HPVs. IMPORTANCE Infections by a large number of human papillomaviruses lead to malignant and nonmalignant disease. Current commercial vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively protect against some HPV types but fail to do so for most others. Further, only

  9. AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, Rebeca M.; Bell, Christie L.; Wilson, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8's robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 – a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII and IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype. - Highlights: • We construct chimeric vectors to identify determinants of AAV8 liver transduction. • An AAV2-based vector with 17 AAV8 residues exhibited high liver transduction in mice. • This vector also surpassed AAV2 in cell entry, nuclear entry and onset of expression. • Most chimeric vector particles were uncoated at 6 weeks, like AAV8 and unlike AAV2. • Chimera retained heparin binding and was antigenically distinct from AAV2 and AAV8

  10. AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, Rebeca M.; Bell, Christie L.; Wilson, James M., E-mail: wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-04-15

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8's robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 – a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII and IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype. - Highlights: • We construct chimeric vectors to identify determinants of AAV8 liver transduction. • An AAV2-based vector with 17 AAV8 residues exhibited high liver transduction in mice. • This vector also surpassed AAV2 in cell entry, nuclear entry and onset of expression. • Most chimeric vector particles were uncoated at 6 weeks, like AAV8 and unlike AAV2. • Chimera retained heparin binding and was antigenically distinct from AAV2 and AAV8.

  11. Structure of deformed wing virus, a major honey bee pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škubník, Karel; Nováček, Jiří; Füzik, Tibor; Přidal, Antonín; Paxton, Robert J; Plevka, Pavel

    2017-03-21

    The worldwide population of western honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) is under pressure from habitat loss, environmental stress, and pathogens, particularly viruses that cause lethal epidemics. Deformed wing virus (DWV) from the family Iflaviridae , together with its vector, the mite Varroa destructor , is likely the major threat to the world's honey bees. However, lack of knowledge of the atomic structures of iflaviruses has hindered the development of effective treatments against them. Here, we present the virion structures of DWV determined to a resolution of 3.1 Å using cryo-electron microscopy and 3.8 Å by X-ray crystallography. The C-terminal extension of capsid protein VP3 folds into a globular protruding (P) domain, exposed on the virion surface. The P domain contains an Asp-His-Ser catalytic triad that is, together with five residues that are spatially close, conserved among iflaviruses. These residues may participate in receptor binding or provide the protease, lipase, or esterase activity required for entry of the virus into a host cell. Furthermore, nucleotides of the DWV RNA genome interact with VP3 subunits. The capsid protein residues involved in the RNA binding are conserved among honey bee iflaviruses, suggesting a putative role of the genome in stabilizing the virion or facilitating capsid assembly. Identifying the RNA-binding and putative catalytic sites within the DWV virion structure enables future analyses of how DWV and other iflaviruses infect insect cells and also opens up possibilities for the development of antiviral treatments.

  12. Towards the directed evolution of virus-like particles derived from polyomaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are assemblies of viral structural proteins. These particles resemble the native viral capsid in structure, tropism, and transduction efficiency, but do not contain any viral genetic material. This makes them a safer alternative to viral vectors for gene therapy, and

  13. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Bøtner, Anette

    2015-01-01

    -scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self...

  14. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  15. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

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    Akos Gellért

    Full Text Available Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  16. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellért, Akos; Salánki, Katalin; Tombácz, Kata; Tuboly, Tamás; Balázs, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  17. Correlation of Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Resistance to DEB025 with Capsid Amino Acid Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Rosenwirth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DEB025 (alisporivir is a synthetic cyclosporine with inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV. It binds to cyclophilin A (CypA and blocks essential functions of CypA in the viral replication cycles of both viruses. DEB025 inhibits clinical HIV-1 isolates in vitro and decreases HIV-1 virus load in the majority of patients. HIV-1 isolates being naturally resistant to DEB025 have been detected in vitro and in nonresponder patients. By sequence analysis of their capsid protein (CA region, two amino acid polymorphisms that correlated with DEB025 resistance were identified: H87Q and I91N, both located in the CypA-binding loop of the CA protein of HIV-1. The H87Q change was by far more abundant than I91N. Additional polymorphisms in the CypA-binding loop (positions 86, 91 and 96, as well as in the N-terminal loop of CA were detected in resistant isolates and are assumed to contribute to the degree of resistance. These amino acid changes may modulate the conformation of the CypA-binding loop of CA in such a way that binding and/or isomerase function of CypA are no longer necessary for virus replication. The resistant HIV-1 isolates thus are CypA-independent.

  18. Synthesis of dispersive iron or iron–silver nanoparticles on engineered capsid pVIII of M13 virus with electronegative terminal peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Zhang, Shu-liang; Yu, Hui-min, E-mail: yuhm@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Industrial Biocatalysis of the Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-10-15

    M13 is a filamentous Escherichia coli virus covered with five types of capsid proteins, in which pVIII with ∼2700 copies was around the cylindered surface and pIII with five copies located at one end of the phage particle. The pIII-engineered M13 phages with enhanced binding specificity toward Fe were screened after five rounds of biopanning, and the one containing ATPTVAMSLSPL peptide at pIII-terminus was selected for mediated synthesis of zero valent (ZV) Fe nanoparticles (NPs) with the wild M13 as control. Under a reducing environment, uniformly dispersed ZVFeNPs with diameter of 5–10 nm were both synthesized and the morphologies after annealing were confirmed to be face-centered cubic type. The synthesized FeNPs mediated by the two phages showed no significant difference, revealing that the pVIII capsid did dominant contribution to metal binding in comparison with the pIII. A novel pVIII-engineered M13 containing AAEEEDPAK at terminus, named as 4ED-pVIII-M13, was constructed and it carried one more negatively charged residue than the wild one (AEGDDPAK). Metal adsorption quantification showed that the binding affinity of the 4ED-pVIII-M13 toward Ag and Ni ions improved to 62 and 18 % from original 21 and 6 %, respectively. The binding affinity toward Fe remained constant (∼85 %). ZVFe–Ag bi-NPs were successfully synthesized through mediation of 4ED-pVIII-M13. Particularly, the Fe:Ag ratio in the bi-NPs was conveniently controlled through changing the molar concentration of FeCl{sub 2} and AgNO{sub 3} solution before reduction.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment

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    Rina Barouch-Bentov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses commonly utilize late-domain motifs, sometimes cooperatively with ubiquitin, to hijack the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery for budding at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms underlying budding of viruses lacking defined late-domain motifs and budding into intracellular compartments are poorly characterized. Here, we map a network of hepatitis C virus (HCV protein interactions with the ESCRT machinery using a mammalian-cell-based protein interaction screen and reveal nine novel interactions. We identify HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, an ESCRT-0 complex component, as an important entry point for HCV into the ESCRT pathway and validate its interactions with the HCV nonstructural (NS proteins NS2 and NS5A in HCV-infected cells. Infectivity assays indicate that HRS is an important factor for efficient HCV assembly. Specifically, by integrating capsid oligomerization assays, biophysical analysis of intracellular viral particles by continuous gradient centrifugations, proteolytic digestion protection, and RNase digestion protection assays, we show that HCV co-opts HRS to mediate a late assembly step, namely, envelopment. In the absence of defined late-domain motifs, K63-linked polyubiquitinated lysine residues in the HCV NS2 protein bind the HRS ubiquitin-interacting motif to facilitate assembly. Finally, ESCRT-III and VPS/VTA1 components are also recruited by HCV proteins to mediate assembly. These data uncover involvement of ESCRT proteins in intracellular budding of a virus lacking defined late-domain motifs and a novel mechanism by which HCV gains entry into the ESCRT network, with potential implications for other viruses.

  20. Nuclear export and import of human hepatitis B virus capsid protein and particles.

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    Hung-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what determines the subcellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein (HBc and particles. To address this fundamental issue, we have identified four distinct HBc localization signals in the arginine rich domain (ARD of HBc, using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and fractionation/Western blot analysis. ARD consists of four tight clustering arginine-rich subdomains. ARD-I and ARD-III are associated with two co-dependent nuclear localization signals (NLS, while ARD-II and ARD-IV behave like two independent nuclear export signals (NES. This conclusion is based on five independent lines of experimental evidence: i Using an HBV replication system in hepatoma cells, we demonstrated in a double-blind manner that only the HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV, among a total of 15 ARD mutants, can predominantly localize to the nucleus. ii These results were confirmed using a chimera reporter system by placing mutant or wild type HBc trafficking signals in the heterologous context of SV40 large T antigen (LT. iii By a heterokaryon or homokaryon analysis, the fusion protein of SV40 LT-HBc ARD appeared to transport from nuclei of transfected donor cells to nuclei of recipient cells, suggesting the existence of an NES in HBc ARD. This putative NES is leptomycin B resistant. iv We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that HBc ARD can physically interact with a cellular factor TAP/NXF1 (Tip-associated protein/nuclear export factor-1, which is known to be important for nuclear export of mRNA and proteins. Treatment with a TAP-specific siRNA strikingly shifted cytoplasmic HBc to nucleus, and led to a near 7-fold reduction of viral replication, and a near 10-fold reduction in HBsAg secretion. v HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV was accumulated predominantly in the nucleus in a mouse model by hydrodynamic delivery. In addition to the revised map of NLS, our results suggest that HBc could shuttle rapidly between nucleus and cytoplasm via a novel

  1. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Sun, Ya-Ni [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Shanxi, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Taishan Medical College, Shandong, Taian 271000 (China); Zhu, Yan-Li [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Jiang, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjjiang@sdau.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China)

    2013-02-05

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  2. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin; Sun, Ya-Ni; Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Shi-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1–17 and 18–36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  3. Development and application of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant truncated Cap protein for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus-like virus P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li-bin; Wen, Shi-fu; He, Kong-wang

    2016-01-19

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a newly discovered virus. To date, there has been no specific serological assay for use in the diagnosis of P1 infection. Because P1 has high homology to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) at the nucleotide level, the C-terminal portion of the capsid protein (amino acids 73-114), a discriminative antigen, was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant product (rctCap), composed of three identical repeated domains, was shown to be strongly immunoreactive to P1-specific serum. This assay was validated by comparison with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the rctCap enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in this study are 93.6% and 98.3%, respectively, compared with the results from IFAs on 450 sera samples from pigs. The indirect ELISA that we developed with rctCap, the recombinant capsid fragment containing the 217-342 nt repeat domain, was sensitive, specific, and suitable for the large-scale detection of P1 infections in swine.

  4. Calcium ions affect the hepatitis B virus core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yongwook; Gyoo Park, Sung; Yoo, Jun-hi; Jung, Guhung

    2005-01-01

    Previous report showed that cytosolic Ca 2+ induced by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) promotes HBV replication. In this study, in vitro experiments showed that (i) HBV core assembly in vitro was promoted by Ca 2+ through the sucrose density gradient and the analytical ultracentrifuge analysis. Also (ii) transmission electron microscope analysis demonstrated these assembled HBV core particles were the capsids. Ex vivo experiments showed that the treatment of BAPTA-AM and cyclosporine A (CsA) reduced HBV capsids in the transfected HepG2 cells. In addition to that, the treatment of Thapsigargin (TG) increased HBV capsids in the transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we investigated the increased HBV core assembly by HBx. The results show that the increased cytosolic calcium ions by HBx promote the HBV core assembly

  5. Morphogenesis of mimivirus and its viral factories: an atomic force microscopy study of infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yuri G; Klose, Thomas; Rossmann, Michael; McPherson, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Amoebas infected with mimivirus were disrupted at sequential stages of virus production and were visualized by atomic force microscopy. The development of virus factories proceeded over 3 to 4 h postinfection and resulted from the coalescence of 0.5- to 2-μm vesicles, possibly bearing nucleic acid, derived from either the nuclear membrane or the closely associated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Virus factories actively producing virus capsids on their surfaces were imaged, and this allowed the morphogenesis of the capsids to be delineated. The first feature to appear on a virus factory surface when a new capsid is born is the center of a stargate, which is a pentameric protein oligomer. As the arms of the stargate grow from the pentamer, a rough disk the diameter of a capsid thickens around it. This marks the initial emergence of a protein-coated membrane vesicle. The capsid self-assembles on the vesicle. Hillocks capped by different pentameric proteins spontaneously appear on the emerging vesicle at positions that are ultimately occupied by 5-fold icosahedral vertices. A lattice of coat protein nucleates at each of the 5-fold vertices, but not at the stargate, and then spreads outward from the vertices over the surface, merging seamlessly to complete the icosahedral capsid. Filling with DNA and associated proteins occurs by the transfer of nucleic acid from the interior of the virus factory into the nearly completed capsids. The portal, through which the DNA enters, is sealed by a plug of protein having a diameter of about 40 nm. A layer of integument protein that anchors the surface fibers is acquired by the passage of capsids through a membrane enriched in the protein. The coating of surface fibers is similarly acquired when the integument protein-coated capsids pass through a second membrane that has a forest of surface fibers embedded on one side.

  6. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2013-02-14

    Mimicking and exploiting virus properties and physicochemical and physical characteristics holds promise to provide solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges. The sheer range and types of viruses coupled with their intriguing properties potentially give endless opportunities for applications in virus-based technologies. Viruses have the ability to self- assemble into particles with discrete shape and size, specificity of symmetry, polyvalence, and stable properties under a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. Not surprisingly, with such a remarkable range of properties, viruses are proposed for use in biomaterials, vaccines, electronic materials, chemical tools, and molecular electronic containers. In order to utilize viruses in nanotechnology, they must be modified from their natural forms to impart new functions. This challenging process can be performed through several mechanisms including genetic modification of the viral genome and chemically attaching foreign or desired molecules to the virus particle reactive groups. The ability to modify a virus primarily depends upon the physiochemical and physical properties of the virus. In addition, the genetic or physiochemical modifications need to be performed without adversely affecting the virus native structure and virus function. Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) coat proteins self-assemble in Escherichia coli producing stable and empty VLPs that are stabilized by protein-protein interactions and that can be used in virus-based technologies applications. VLPs produced in tobacco plants were examined as a scaffold on which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed. Here, we describe the steps to 1) determine which of the solvent-accessible cysteines in a virus capsid are available for modification, and 2) bioconjugate peptides to the modified capsids. By using native or mutationally-inserted amino acid residues and standard coupling technologies, a wide variety of materials have been

  7. KLONING GEN PUTATIVE CLEAVAGE PROTEIN 1 (PCP-1 PADA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei YANG TERSERANG INFECTIOUS MYONECROSIS VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessy Novita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penanggulangan penyakit ikan dapat dilakukan dengan cara meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh ikan melalui program vaksinasi. Namun vaksinasi tidak tepat untuk udang, karena udang tidak mempunyai immunological memory seperti ikan. Oleh karena itu, perlindungan udang terhadap serangan penyakit viral dengan menggunakan RNA interference (RNAi. Teknologi RNAi digunakan untuk menghalangi (interfere proses replikasi infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV pada udang vaname dengan cara menon-aktifkan gen putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1, yang berfungsi dalam pembentukan capsid dan proses transkripsi RNA IMNV. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan kloning gen putative cleavage protein 1 dalam rangka perakitan teknologi RNAi untuk pengendalian penyakit IMNV pada udang vaname. Tahapan penelitian meliputi koleksi sampel, isolasi RNA, sintesis cDNA, amplifikasi PCR, purifikasi DNA, transformasi, isolasi plasmid, serta sekuensing dan analisis data. Hasil isolasi plasmid cDNA PCP-1 memperlihatkan semua koloni bakteri terseleksi ternyata membawa plasmid hasil insersi DNA gen PCP–1, hasil sekuen dengan nilai homologinya mencapai 100% dan 99% yang dibandingkan dengan sekuen di Genebank. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kloning gen putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1 dari udang vaname yang terserang Infectious Myonecrosis Virus berhasil dikloning yang nantinya digunakan untuk perakitan RNAi. The prevention of fish diseases can be done by increasing of the fish immune through vaccination programs. However, the vaccination can not be done for the shrimp,due to the absence of  immunological memory. Therefore, the protection of shrimp against viral diseases was done by using of RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi technology is used to interfere infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV replication process on white shrimp by disabling of putative cleavage protein 1 (PCP-1gene, which functions in capsid formation and RNA transcription process. The study was conducted to perform putative

  8. Structural organization of DNA in chlorella viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Wulfmeyer

    Full Text Available Chlorella viruses have icosahedral capsids with an internal membrane enclosing their large dsDNA genomes and associated proteins. Their genomes are packaged in the particles with a predicted DNA density of ca. 0.2 bp nm(-3. Occasionally infection of an algal cell by an individual particle fails and the viral DNA is dynamically ejected from the capsid. This shows that the release of the DNA generates a force, which can aid in the transfer of the genome into the host in a successful infection. Imaging of ejected viral DNA indicates that it is intimately associated with proteins in a periodic fashion. The bulk of the protein particles detected by atomic force microscopy have a size of ∼60 kDa and two proteins (A278L and A282L of about this size are among 6 basic putative DNA binding proteins found in a proteomic analysis of DNA binding proteins packaged in the virion. A combination of fluorescence images of ejected DNA and a bioinformatics analysis of the DNA reveal periodic patterns in the viral DNA. The periodic distribution of GC rich regions in the genome provides potential binding sites for basic proteins. This DNA/protein aggregation could be responsible for the periodic concentration of fluorescently labeled DNA observed in ejected viral DNA. Collectively the data indicate that the large chlorella viruses have a DNA packaging strategy that differs from bacteriophages; it involves proteins and share similarities to that of chromatin structure in eukaryotes.

  9. Quantitative characterization of all single amino acid variants of a viral capsid-based drug delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Emily C; Jakobson, Christopher M; Favor, Andrew H; Lobba, Marco J; Álvarez-Benedicto, Ester; Francis, Matthew B; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2018-04-11

    Self-assembling proteins are critical to biological systems and industrial technologies, but predicting how mutations affect self-assembly remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a technique, termed SyMAPS (Systematic Mutation and Assembled Particle Selection), that can be used to characterize the assembly competency of all single amino acid variants of a self-assembling viral structural protein. SyMAPS studies on the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein revealed a high-resolution fitness landscape that challenges some conventional assumptions of protein engineering. An additional round of selection identified a previously unknown variant (CP[T71H]) that is stable at neutral pH but less tolerant to acidic conditions than the wild-type coat protein. The capsids formed by this variant could be more amenable to disassembly in late endosomes or early lysosomes-a feature that is advantageous for delivery applications. In addition to providing a mutability blueprint for virus-like particles, SyMAPS can be readily applied to other self-assembling proteins.

  10. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsham GJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kalvehave, Denmark Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world's most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes. The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate “empty capsid” particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. Such particles can be “designed” to improve their stability or modify their antigenicity and can be produced without “high containment” facilities. The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease. Keywords: picornavirus, diagnostic assays, virus structure, infection, immune responses

  11. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  13. The effect of RNA stiffness on the self-assembly of virus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyu; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; van der Schoot, Paul; Zandi, Roya

    2018-01-01

    Under many in vitro conditions, some small viruses spontaneously encapsidate a single stranded (ss) RNA into a protein shell called the capsid. While viral RNAs are found to be compact and highly branched because of long distance base-pairing between nucleotides, recent experiments reveal that in a head-to-head competition between an ssRNA with no secondary or higher order structure and a viral RNA, the capsid proteins preferentially encapsulate the linear polymer! In this paper, we study the impact of genome stiffness on the encapsidation free energy of the complex of RNA and capsid proteins. We show that an increase in effective chain stiffness because of base-pairing could be the reason why under certain conditions linear chains have an advantage over branched chains when it comes to encapsidation efficiency. While branching makes the genome more compact, RNA base-pairing increases the effective Kuhn length of the RNA molecule, which could result in an increase of the free energy of RNA confinement, that is, the work required to encapsidate RNA, and thus less efficient packaging.

  14. Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Di Nardo, Antonello; Wadsworth, Jemma; Henry, Elisabeth K M; Parlak, Ünal; Timina, Anna; Mischenko, Alexey; Qasim, Ibrahim Ahmad; Abdollahi, Darab; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar; King, Donald P; Knowles, Nick J

    2018-06-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses in the Middle East during 2015-2016 identified viruses belonging to the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage, which originated in the Indian subcontinent. Changes in a critical antigenic site within capsid viral protein 1 suggest possible evolutionary pressure caused by an intensive vaccination program.

  15. Dengue Virus Non-structural Protein 1 Modulates Infectious Particle Production via Interaction with the Structural Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaturro

    Full Text Available Non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is one of the most enigmatic proteins of the Dengue virus (DENV, playing distinct functions in immune evasion, pathogenesis and viral replication. The recently reported crystal structure of DENV NS1 revealed its peculiar three-dimensional fold; however, detailed information on NS1 function at different steps of the viral replication cycle is still missing. By using the recently reported crystal structure, as well as amino acid sequence conservation, as a guide for a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we discovered that in addition to being essential for RNA replication, DENV NS1 is also critically required for the production of infectious virus particles. Taking advantage of a trans-complementation approach based on fully functional epitope-tagged NS1 variants, we identified previously unreported interactions between NS1 and the structural proteins Envelope (E and precursor Membrane (prM. Interestingly, coimmunoprecipitation revealed an additional association with capsid, arguing that NS1 interacts via the structural glycoproteins with DENV particles. Results obtained with mutations residing either in the NS1 Wing domain or in the β-ladder domain suggest that NS1 might have two distinct functions in the assembly of DENV particles. By using a trans-complementation approach with a C-terminally KDEL-tagged ER-resident NS1, we demonstrate that the secretion of NS1 is dispensable for both RNA replication and infectious particle production. In conclusion, our results provide an extensive genetic map of NS1 determinants essential for viral RNA replication and identify a novel role of NS1 in virion production that is mediated via interaction with the structural proteins. These studies extend the list of NS1 functions and argue for a central role in coordinating replication and assembly/release of infectious DENV particles.

  16. A duplex real-time RT-PCR system with an internal control offers sensitive and reliable broad spectrum detection of Squash mosaic virus variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) is a seed-borne virus, belonging to the genus Commovirus in the subfamily Comoviridae of family Secoviridae. SqMV has a bipartite single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome (RNA1 and RNA2) encapsidated separately with two capsid proteins. Two serotypes (genotypes) of ...

  17. siRNAs Targeting Viral Protein 5: The Major Capsid Protein of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether siRNA targeting viral protein 5 (VP5) can become a new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods: Flow cytometry was performed to determine the ratio of siRNA and lipo2000 to reach the highest transfection efficiency. Western blot and q-PCR were performed to determine ...

  18. Novel antibody binding determinants on the capsid surface of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, Amin S.; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Knowles, Nick J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Five neutralizing antigenic sites have been described for serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) based on monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies. However, a mutant virus selected to escape neutralization of mAb binding at all five sites was previously shown to confer complete cross-protection with the parental virus in guinea pig challenge studies, suggesting that amino acid residues outside the mAb binding sites contribute to antibody-mediated in vivo neutralization of FMDV. Comparison of the ability of bovine antisera to neutralize a panel of serotype O FMDV identified three novel putative sites at VP2-74, VP2-191 and VP3-85, where amino acid substitutions correlated with changes in sero-reactivity. The impact of these positions was tested using site-directed mutagenesis to effect substitutions at critical amino acid residues within an infectious copy of FMDV O1 Kaufbeuren (O1K). Recovered viruses containing additional mutations at VP2-74 and VP2-191 exhibited greater resistance to neutralization with both O1K guinea pig and O BFS bovine antisera than a virus that was engineered to include only mutations at the five known antigenic sites. The changes at VP2-74 and VP3-85 are adjacent to critical amino acids that define antigenic sites 2 and 4, respectively. However VP2-191 (17 Å away from VP2-72), located at the threefold axis and more distant from previously identified antigenic sites, exhibited the most profound effect. These findings extend our knowledge of the surface features of the FMDV capsid known to elicit neutralizing antibodies, and will improve our strategies for vaccine strain selection and rational vaccine design. PMID:24584474

  19. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of ∼7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed. PMID:21917964

  20. Role of Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA-NC Spacer Peptide-Like Domain in Assembly of Immature Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strohalmová-Böhmová, Karolína; Spiwok, V.; Lepšík, Martin; Hadravová, Romana; Křížová, Ivana; Ulbrich, P.; Pichová, Iva; Bednárová, Lucie; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 24 (2014), s. 14148-14160 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S; GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human immunodeficiency virus * HIV-1 capsid protein * murine leukemia virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2014

  1. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J.P.M.; Brennan, F.R.; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1...

  2. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  3. New positions for peptide presentation in Potato virus X capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculík, Petr; Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 133-141 ISSN 2391-5412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1761 Grant - others:OP Praha Konkurenceschopnost(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Bacterial expression * Potato virus X * Human papillomavirus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  5. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  6. Analysis of the functional compatibility of SIV capsid sequences in the context of the FIV gag precursor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Ovejero

    Full Text Available The formation of immature lentiviral particles is dependent on the multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells. One key player in the virus assembly process is the capsid (CA domain of Gag, which establishes the protein-protein interactions that give rise to the hexagonal lattice of Gag molecules in the immature virion. To gain a better understanding of the functional equivalence between the CA proteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we generated a series of chimeric FIV Gag proteins in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by its SIV counterpart. All the FIV Gag chimeras were found to be assembly-defective; however, all of them are able to interact with wild-type SIV Gag and be recruited into extracellular virus-like particles, regardless of the SIV CA sequences present in the chimeric FIV Gag. The results presented here markedly contrast with our previous findings showing that chimeric SIVs carrying FIV CA-derived sequences are assembly-competent. Overall, our data support the notion that although the SIV and FIV CA proteins share 51% amino acid sequence similarity and exhibit a similar organization, i.e., an N-terminal domain joined by a flexible linker to a C-terminal domain, their functional exchange between these different lentiviruses is strictly dependent on the context of the recipient Gag precursor.

  7. Human rhinovirus capsid dynamics is controlled by canyon flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Thomas, John J.; Katpally, Umesh; Chase, Elaine; Harris, Ken; Siuzdak, Gary; Smith, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative enzyme accessibility experiments using nano liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry combined with limited proteolysis and isotope-labeling was used to examine the dynamic nature of the human rhinovirus (HRV) capsid in the presence of three antiviral compounds, a neutralizing Fab, and drug binding cavity mutations. Using these methods, it was found that the antivirals WIN 52084 and picovir (pleconaril) stabilized the capsid, while dansylaziridine caused destabilization. Site-directed mutations in the drug-binding cavity were found to stabilize the HRV14 capsid against proteolytic digestion in a manner similar to WIN 52084 and pleconaril. Antibodies that bind to the NIm-IA antigenic site and penetrate the canyon were also observed to protect the virion against proteolytic cleavage. These results demonstrate that quantifying the effects of antiviral ligands on protein 'breathing' can be used to compare their mode of action and efficacy. In this case, it is apparent that hydrophobic antiviral agents, antibodies, or mutations in the canyon region block viral breathing. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that mobility in the canyon region is a major determinant in capsid breathing

  8. Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.

  9. Regulation of c-myc and c-fos mRNA levels by polyomavirus: distinct roles for the capsid protein VP1 and the viral early proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zullo, J.; Stiles, C.D.; Garcea, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP 1 protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP 1 protein stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation in a dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane at the onset of infection to increase the levels of mRNA for the cellular genes associated with cell competence for DNA replication, and subsequently these levels are maintained by the action of the early viral proteins

  10. A Cell Internalizing Antibody Targeting Capsid Protein (p24 Inhibits the Replication of HIV-1 in T Cells Lines and PBMCs: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A Ali

    Full Text Available There remains a need for newer therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS. Viral capsid protein p24 plays important roles in HIV pathogenesis. Peptides and small molecule inhibitors targeting p24 have shown to inhibit virus replication in treated cell. High specificity and biological stability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs make them an attractive contender for in vivo treatments. However, mAbs do not enter into cells, thus are restricted to target surface molecules. This also makes targeting intracellular HIV-1 p24 a challenge. A mAb specific to p24 that can internalize into the HIV-infected cells is hypothesized to inhibit the virus replication. We selected a mAb that has previously shown to inhibit p24 polymerization in an in vitro assay and chemically conjugated it with cell penetrating peptides (CPP to generate cell internalizing anti-p24 mAbs. Out of 8 CPPs tested, κFGF-MTS -conjugated mAbs internalized T cells most efficiently. At nontoxic concentration, the κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs reduced the HIV-1 replication up to 73 and 49% in T-lymphocyte and PBMCs respectively. Marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in relevant cells by κFGF-MTS-anti-p24-mAbs represents a viable strategy to target HIV proteins present inside the cells.

  11. The effect of temperature on the in vitro transcriptase reaction of bluetongue virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and African horsesickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H.

    1982-01-01

    Virions of bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and African horsesickness virus (AHSV) can be converted to core particles by treatment with chymotrypsin and magnesium. The conversion is characterized by the removal of the 2 outer capsid polypeptides of the virion. The loss of these 2 proteins results in an increase in density from 1,36 g/ml to 1,40 g/ml on CsCl gradients. The BTV, EHDV and AHSV core particles have an associated double-stranded RNA dependent RNA transcriptase that appears to transcribe mRNA optimally at 28 degrees Celsius. It was found, at least in the case of BTV, that this low temperature preference is not an intrinsic characteristic of the transcriptase, but is due to a temperature-dependent inhibition of transcription at high core concentrations

  12. Mimicry of the immunodominant conformation-dependent antigenic site of hepatitis A virus by motifs selected from synthetic peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, S; Imberti, L; Stellini, R; Primi, D

    1995-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-strand RNA virus with a genome length of approximately 7,480 nucleotides. Although HAV morphogenesis is thought to be similar to that of poliovirus, the prototype picornavirus, the complete characterization of the antigenic structure of this virus remains elusive. All the available evidences, however, support the existence, on HAV virions and empty capsids, of an immunodominant neutralization antigenic site which is conformation dependent and whose structure involves residues of both VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins. This particular feature and the difficulty of obtaining high virus yield in tissue cultures make HAV an ideal target for developing synthetic peptides that simulate the structure of its main antigenic determinant. To this end we utilized, in the present work, the divide-couple-recombine approach to generate a random library composed of millions of different hexapeptides. This vast library was screened with a well-characterized anti-HAV monoclonal antibody. By this strategy we identified a peptide that reacted specifically with monoclonal and polyclonal anti-HAV antibodies and, in mice, induced a specific anti-virus immune response. Furthermore, the peptide could also be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for revealing a primary immunoglobulin M immune response in sera of acutely infected human patients. Interestingly, no sequence homology was found between the identified peptide and the HAV capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Collectively, these data represent an additional important paradigm of a mimotope capable of mimicking an antigenic determinant with unknown tertiary structure.

  13. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Funk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary

  14. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  15. Diverse circular replication-associated protein encoding viruses circulating in invertebrates within a lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaram, Anisha; Galatowitsch, Mark L; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Harding, Jon S; Roumagnac, Philippe; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Over the last five years next-generation sequencing has become a cost effective and efficient method for identifying known and unknown microorganisms. Access to this technique has dramatically changed the field of virology, enabling a wide range of environmental viral metagenome studies to be undertaken of organisms and environmental samples from polar to tropical regions. These studies have led to the discovery of hundreds of highly divergent single stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus-like sequences encoding replication-associated proteins. Yet, few studies have explored how viruses might be shared in an ecosystem through feeding relationships. Here we identify 169 circular molecules (160 CRESS DNA molecules, nine circular molecules) recovered from a New Zealand freshwater lake, that we have tentatively classified into 51 putatively novel species and five previously described species (DflaCV-3, -5, -6, -8, -10). The CRESS DNA viruses identified in this study were recovered from molluscs (Echyridella menzeisii, Musculium novaezelandiae, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physella acuta) and insect larvae (Procordulia grayi, Xanthocnemis zealandica, and Chironomus zealandicus) collected from Lake Sarah, as well as from the lake water and benthic sediments. Extensive diversity was observed across most CRESS DNA molecules recovered. The putative capsid protein of one viral species was found to be most similar to those of members of the Tombusviridae family, thus expanding the number of known RNA-DNA hybrid viruses in nature. We noted a strong association between the CRESS DNA viruses and circular molecules identified in the water and browser organisms (C. zealandicus, P. antipodarum and P. acuta), and between water sediments and undefended prey species (C. zealandicus). However, we were unable to find any significant correlation of viral assemblages to the potential feeding relationships of the host aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional structure and stoichiometry of Helmintosporium victoriae190S totivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, Jose R.; Luque, Daniel; Trus, Benes L.; Rivas, German; Alfonso, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Carrascosa, Jose L.; Annamalai, Padmanaban; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2006-01-01

    Most double-stranded RNA viruses have a characteristic capsid consisting of 60 asymmetric coat protein dimers in a so-called T = 2 organization, a feature probably related to their unique life cycle. These capsids organize the replicative complex(es) that is actively involved in genome transcription and replication. Available structural data indicate that their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is packaged as an integral capsid component, either as a replicative complex at the pentameric vertex (as in reovirus capsids) or as a fusion protein with the coat protein (as in some totivirus). In contrast with members of the family Reoviridae, there are two well-established capsid arrangements for dsRNA fungal viruses, exemplified by the totiviruses L-A and UmV and the chrysovirus PcV. Whereas L-A and UmV have a canonical T = 2 capsid, the PcV capsid is based on a T = 1 lattice composed of 60 capsid proteins. We used cryo-electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and hydrodynamic analysis to determine the structure at 13.8 A resolution of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV), a totivirus isolated from a filamentous fungus. The Hv190SV capsid has a smooth surface and is based on a T = 2 lattice with 60 equivalent dimers. Unlike the RDRP of some other totiviruses, which are expressed as a capsid protein-RDRP fusion protein, the Hv190SV RDRP is incorporated into the capsid as a separate, nonfused protein, free or non-covalently associated to the capsid interior

  17. Display of neutralizing epitopes of Canine parvovirus and a T-cell epitope of the fusion protein of Canine distemper virus on chimeric tymovirus-like particles and its use as a vaccine candidate both against Canine parvo and Canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dev; Shahana, Pallichera Vijayan; Rani, Gudavelli Sudha; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Shankar, Chinchkar Ramchandra; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-12-10

    Expression of Physalis mottle tymovirus coat protein in Escherichia coli was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that were nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. Amino acid substitutions were made at the N-terminus of wild-type Physalis mottle virus coat protein with neutralizing epitopes of Canine parvovirus containing the antigenic sites 1-2, 4 and 6-7 and T-cell epitope of the fusion protein of Canine distemper virus in various combinations to yield PhMV1, PhMV2, PhMV3, PhMV4 and PhMV5. These constructs were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The chimeric proteins self-assembled into chimeric tymovirus-like particles (TVLPs) as determined by electron microscopy. The TVLPs were purified by ultracentrifugation and injected into guinea pigs and dogs to determine their immunogenicity. Initial immunogenicity studies in guinea pigs indicated that PhMV3 gave a higher response in comparison to the other TVLPs for both CPV and CDV and hence all further experiments in dogs were done with PhMV3. HI was done against different isolates obtained from various parts of the country. Protective titres indicated the broad spectrum of the vaccine. In conclusion the study indicated that the above chimeric VLP based vaccine could be used in dogs to generate a protective immune response against diseases caused by both Canine parvo and Canine distemper virus.

  18. Human Adenovirus Core Protein V Is Targeted by the Host SUMOylation Machinery To Limit Essential Viral Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, Nora; Meyer, Tina; Groitl, Peter; Dobner, Thomas; Schreiner, Sabrina

    2018-02-15

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are nonenveloped viruses containing a linear, double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. To allow proper viral replication, the genome is imported through the nuclear pore complex associated with viral core proteins. Until now, the role of these incoming virion proteins during the early phase of infection was poorly understood. The core protein V is speculated to bridge the core and the surrounding capsid. It binds the genome in a sequence-independent manner and localizes in the nucleus of infected cells, accumulating at nucleoli. Here, we show that protein V contains conserved SUMO conjugation motifs (SCMs). Mutation of these consensus motifs resulted in reduced SUMOylation of the protein; thus, protein V represents a novel target of the host SUMOylation machinery. To understand the role of protein V SUMO posttranslational modification during productive HAdV infection, we generated a replication-competent HAdV with SCM mutations within the protein V coding sequence. Phenotypic analyses revealed that these SCM mutations are beneficial for adenoviral replication. Blocking protein V SUMOylation at specific sites shifts the onset of viral DNA replication to earlier time points during infection and promotes viral gene expression. Simultaneously, the altered kinetics within the viral life cycle are accompanied by more efficient proteasomal degradation of host determinants and increased virus progeny production than that observed during wild-type infection. Taken together, our studies show that protein V SUMOylation reduces virus growth; hence, protein V SUMOylation represents an important novel aspect of the host antiviral strategy to limit virus replication and thereby points to potential intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Many decades of research have revealed that HAdV structural proteins promote viral entry and mainly physical stability of the viral genome in the capsid. Our work over the last years showed that this

  19. Structure, Immunogenicity, and Protective Mechanism of an Engineered Enterovirus 71-Like Particle Vaccine Mimicking 80S Empty Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhuan; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Zhenglin; Jin, Xia; Cong, Yao; Huang, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, which affects millions of young children in the Asia-Pacific region annually. In this study, we engineered a novel EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) that lacks VP4 (therefore designated VLP ΔVP4 ) and investigated its structure, antigenicity, and vaccine potential. The cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of VLP ΔVP4 was reconstructed to 3.71-Å resolution. Results from structural and biochemical analyses revealed that VLP ΔVP4 resembles the end product of the viral uncoating process, the 80S empty capsid. VLP ΔVP4 is able to elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies and to fully protect mice against lethal viral challenge. Mechanistic studies showed that, at the cellular level, the anti-VLP ΔVP4 sera exert neutralization effects at both pre- and postattachment stages by inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization, and at the molecular level, the antisera can block multiple interactions between EV71 and its key receptors. Our study gives a better understanding of EV71 capsid assembly and provides important information for the design and development of new-generation vaccines for EV71, and perhaps for other enteroviruses, as well. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, with significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge regarding EV71 particle assembly remains limited. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel EV71 virus-like particle that lacks the VP4 capsid subunit protein. This particle, termed VLP ΔVP4 , structurally mimics the 80S empty capsid, which is the end stage of EV71 uncoating. We further show that VLP ΔVP4 exhibits desirable immunogenicity and protective efficacy in proof-of-concept studies. In addition, the inhibitory mechanisms of the VLP ΔVP4 -induced antibodies are unraveled at both the cellular and molecular levels. Our work provides the first evidence of

  20. High-accuracy biodistribution analysis of adeno-associated virus variants by double barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Biodistribution analysis is a key step in the evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variants, whether natural isolates or produced by rational design or directed evolution. Indeed, when screening candidate vectors, accurate knowledge about which tissues are infected and how efficiently is essential. We describe the design, validation, and application of a new vector, pTR-UF50-BC, encoding a bioluminescent protein, a fluorescent protein and a DNA barcode, which can be used to visualize localization of transduction at the organism, organ, tissue, or cellular levels. In addition, by linking capsid variants to different barcoded versions of the vector and amplifying the barcode region from various tissue samples using barcoded primers, biodistribution of viral genomes can be analyzed with high accuracy and efficiency.

  1. The portal protein plays essential roles at different steps of the SPP1 DNA packaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Anabela; Henriques, Adriano O.; Tavares, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    A large number of viruses use a specialized portal for entry of DNA to the viral capsid and for its polarized exit at the beginning of infection. These families of viruses assemble an icosahedral procapsid containing a portal protein oligomer in one of its 12 vertices. The viral ATPase (terminase) interacts with the portal vertex to form a powerful molecular motor that translocates DNA to the procapsid interior against a steep concentration gradient. The portal protein is an essential component of this DNA packaging machine. Characterization of single amino acid substitutions in the portal protein gp6 of bacteriophage SPP1 that block DNA packaging identified sequential steps in the packaging mechanism that require its action. Gp6 is essential at early steps of DNA packaging and for DNA translocation to the capsid interior, it affects the efficiency of DNA packaging, it is a central component of the headful sensor that determines the size of the packaged DNA molecule, and is essential for closure of the portal pore by the head completion proteins to prevent exit of the DNA encapsidated. Functional regions of gp6 necessary at each step are identified within its primary structure. The similarity between the architecture of portal oligomers and between the DNA packaging strategies of viruses using portals strongly suggests that the portal protein plays the same roles in a large number of viruses

  2. Reflects the coat protein variability of apple mosaic virus host preference?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grimová, L.; Winkowska, L.; Ryšánek, P.; Svoboda, P.; Petrzik, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2013), s. 119-125 ISSN 0920-8569 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Positive selection tests * capsid protein * algae host Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2013

  3. Inclusion bodies of recombinant Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen p18 as potential immobilized antigens in enzyme immunoassays for detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun Shen; Goh, Siang Ling; Kariapper, Leena; Krishnan, Gopala; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Ng, Ching Ching

    2015-08-25

    Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often utilizes synthetic peptides or recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli as immobilized antigens. Because inclusion bodies (IBs) formed during recombinant protein expression in E. coli are commonly thought as misfolded aggregates, only refolded proteins from IBs are used to develop new or in-house diagnostic assays. However, the promising utilities of IBs as nanomaterials and immobilized enzymes as shown in recent studies have led us to explore the potential use of IBs of recombinant Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen p18 (VCA p18) as immobilized antigens in ELISAs for serologic detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Thioredoxin fusion VCA p18 (VCA-Trx) and IBs of VCA p18 without fusion tags (VCA-IBs) were purified from E. coli. The diagnostic performances of IgG/VCA-IBs, IgG/VCA-Denat-IBs (using VCA-IBs coated in 8mol/l urea), IgG/VCA-Trx, and IgG/VCA-Peptide assays were compared by screening 100 NPC case-control pairs. The IgG/VCA-Denat-IBs assay showed the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC: 0.802; p<0.05), while the AUCs for the IgG/VCA-IBs, IgG/VCA-Trx, and IgG/VCA-Peptide assays were comparable (AUC: 0.740, 0.727, and 0.741, respectively). We improved the diagnostic performance of the ELISA significantly using IBs of recombinant VCA p18. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with serum anti-thyroid antibodies and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen: a case report and one year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chun-Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies to certain subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Recent literatures have described anti-thyroid and infectious serology in this encephalitis but without follow-up. Case presentation A 17-year-old Chinese female patient presented with psychiatric symptoms, memory deficits, behavioral problems and seizures. She then progressed through unresponsiveness, dyskinesias, autonomic instability and central hypoventilation during treatment. Her conventional blood work on admission showed high titers of IgG antibodies to thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. An immature ovarian teratoma was found and removal of the tumor resulted in a full recovery. The final diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis was made by the identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in her cerebral spinal fluid. Pathology studies of the teratoma revealed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 positive ectopic immature nervous tissue and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. She was discharged with symptoms free, but titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies remained elevated. One year after discharge, her serum remained positive for anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies, but negative for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and IgM against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. Conclusions Persistent high titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies from admission to discharge and until one year later in this patient may suggest a propensity to autoimmunity in anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and support the idea that neuronal and thyroid autoimmunities represent a pathogenic spectrum. Enduring anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies from admission to one year

  5. The influence of ligand charge and length on the assembly of Brome mosaic virus derived virus-like particles with magnetic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieloch, Adam A.; Krecisz, Monika; Rybka, Jakub D.; Strugała, Aleksander; Krupiński, Michał; Urbanowicz, Anna; Kozak, Maciej; Skalski, Bohdan; Figlerowicz, Marek; Giersig, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have sparked a great interest in the field of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The introduction of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a core, provides potential use of VLPs in the hyperthermia therapy, MRI contrast agents and magnetically-powered delivery agents. Magnetite NPs also provide a significant improvement in terms of VLPs stability. Moreover employing viral structural proteins as self-assembling units has opened a new paths for targeted therapy, drug delivery systems, vaccines design, and many more. In many cases, the self-assembly of a virus strongly depends on electrostatic interactions between positively charged groups of the capsid proteins and negatively charged nucleic acid. This phenomenon imposes the negative net charge as a key requirement for the core nanoparticle. In our experiments, Brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid proteins isolated from infected plants Hordeum vulgare were used. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 15 nm in diameter were synthesized by thermal decomposition and functionalized with COOH-PEG-PL polymer or dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) in order to provide water solubility and negative charge required for the assembly. Nanoparticles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. TEM and DLS study were conducted to verify VLPs creation. This study demonstrates that the increase of negative surface charge is not a sufficient factor determining successful assembly. Additional steric interactions provided by longer ligands are crucial for the assembly of BMV SPION VLPs and may enhance the colloidal stability.

  6. The influence of ligand charge and length on the assembly of Brome mosaic virus derived virus-like particles with magnetic core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Mieloch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs have sparked a great interest in the field of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The introduction of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs as a core, provides potential use of VLPs in the hyperthermia therapy, MRI contrast agents and magnetically-powered delivery agents. Magnetite NPs also provide a significant improvement in terms of VLPs stability. Moreover employing viral structural proteins as self-assembling units has opened a new paths for targeted therapy, drug delivery systems, vaccines design, and many more. In many cases, the self-assembly of a virus strongly depends on electrostatic interactions between positively charged groups of the capsid proteins and negatively charged nucleic acid. This phenomenon imposes the negative net charge as a key requirement for the core nanoparticle. In our experiments, Brome mosaic virus (BMV capsid proteins isolated from infected plants Hordeum vulgare were used. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 with 15 nm in diameter were synthesized by thermal decomposition and functionalized with COOH-PEG-PL polymer or dihexadecylphosphate (DHP in order to provide water solubility and negative charge required for the assembly. Nanoparticles were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, Zeta Potential, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometry. TEM and DLS study were conducted to verify VLPs creation. This study demonstrates that the increase of negative surface charge is not a sufficient factor determining successful assembly. Additional steric interactions provided by longer ligands are crucial for the assembly of BMV SPION VLPs and may enhance the colloidal stability.

  7. Proteins and Peptides in Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Alfredo Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent advances and the main advantages of block copolymers for functional membrane protein reconstitution in biomimetic polymeric membranes. A rational approach to the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a functional form can be addressed by a more holistic view by using...... other kind of nonbiological amphiphilic molecules. An interesting possibility could be the use of self-assembled proteins in a lipid-free membrane mimicking the capside of some viruses. The membrane proteins that have been more actively used in combination with block copolymer membranes are gramicidin...

  8. Functional dissection of the alphavirus capsid protease: sequence requirements for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saijo; Rai, Jagdish; John, Lijo; Günther, Stephan; Drosten, Christian; Pützer, Brigitte M; Schaefer, Stephan

    2010-11-18

    The alphavirus capsid is multifunctional and plays a key role in the viral life cycle. The nucleocapsid domain is released by the self-cleavage activity of the serine protease domain within the capsid. All alphaviruses analyzed to date show this autocatalytic cleavage. Here we have analyzed the sequence requirements for the cleavage activity of Chikungunya virus capsid protease of genus alphavirus. Amongst alphaviruses, the C-terminal amino acid tryptophan (W261) is conserved and found to be important for the cleavage. Mutating tryptophan to alanine (W261A) completely inactivated the protease. Other amino acids near W261 were not having any effect on the activity of this protease. However, serine protease inhibitor AEBSF did not inhibit the activity. Through error-prone PCR we found that isoleucine 227 is important for the effective activity. The loss of activity was analyzed further by molecular modelling and comparison of WT and mutant structures. It was found that lysine introduced at position 227 is spatially very close to the catalytic triad and may disrupt electrostatic interactions in the catalytic site and thus inactivate the enzyme. We are also examining other sequence requirements for this protease activity. We analyzed various amino acid sequence requirements for the activity of ChikV capsid protease and found that amino acids outside the catalytic triads are important for the activity.

  9. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  10. A single amino acid substitution in the core protein of West Nile virus increases resistance to acidotropic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; de Oya, Nereida Jiménez; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Shi, Pei-Yong; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a worldwide distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus that naturally cycles between birds and mosquitoes, although it can infect multiple vertebrate hosts including horses and humans. This virus is responsible for recurrent epidemics of febrile illness and encephalitis, and has recently become a global concern. WNV requires to transit through intracellular acidic compartments at two different steps to complete its infectious cycle. These include fusion between the viral envelope and the membrane of endosomes during viral entry, and virus maturation in the trans-Golgi network. In this study, we followed a genetic approach to study the connections between viral components and acidic pH. A WNV mutant with increased resistance to the acidotropic compound NH4Cl, which blocks organelle acidification and inhibits WNV infection, was selected. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that this mutant displayed a single amino acid substitution (Lys 3 to Glu) on the highly basic internal capsid or core (C) protein. The functional role of this replacement was confirmed by its introduction into a WNV infectious clone. This single amino acid substitution also increased resistance to other acidification inhibitor (concanamycin A) and induced a reduction of the neurovirulence in mice. Interestingly, a naturally occurring accompanying mutation found on prM protein abolished the resistant phenotype, supporting the idea of a genetic crosstalk between the internal C protein and the external glycoproteins of the virion. The findings here reported unveil a non-previously assessed connection between the C viral protein and the acidic pH necessary for entry and proper exit of flaviviruses.

  11. A recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiang-Min; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Huan-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. The gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. In this study, a recombinant PRV, which could co-express protein precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of PPV, was constructed using PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/LacZ(+) mutant as the vector. After homologous recombination and plaque purification, recombinant virus PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/P1-2A-VP2 was acquired and identified. Immunogenicity, safety of the recombinant PRV and its protection against PRV were confirmed in a mouse model by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test. The results show that the recombinant PRV is a candidate vaccine strain to develop a novel trivalent vaccine against PRV, FMDV and PPV in swine.

  12. The kinase inhibitor SFV785 dislocates dengue virus envelope protein from the replication complex and blocks virus assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Anwar

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the etiologic agent for dengue fever, for which there is no approved vaccine or specific anti-viral drug. As a remedy for this, we explored the use of compounds that interfere with the action of required host factors and describe here the characterization of a kinase inhibitor (SFV785, which has selective effects on NTRK1 and MAPKAPK5 kinase activity, and anti-viral activity on Hepatitis C, DENV and yellow fever viruses. SFV785 inhibited DENV propagation without inhibiting DENV RNA synthesis or translation. The compound did not cause any changes in the cellular distribution of non-structural 3, a protein critical for DENV RNA synthesis, but altered the distribution of the structural envelope protein from a reticulate network to enlarged discrete vesicles, which altered the co-localization with the DENV replication complex. Ultrastructural electron microscopy analyses of DENV-infected SFV785-treated cells showed the presence of viral particles that were distinctly different from viable enveloped virions within enlarged ER cisternae. These viral particles were devoid of the dense nucleocapsid. The secretion of the viral particles was not inhibited by SFV785, however a reduction in the amount of secreted infectious virions, DENV RNA and capsid were observed. Collectively, these observations suggest that SFV785 inhibited the recruitment and assembly of the nucleocapsid in specific ER compartments during the DENV assembly process and hence the production of infectious DENV. SFV785 and derivative compounds could be useful biochemical probes to explore the DENV lifecycle and could also represent a new class of anti-virals.

  13. Immunogenicity of virus-like particles containing modified goose parvovirus VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Zhu, Yingqi; Wang, Binbin; Meng, Chunchun; Liu, Guangqing

    2012-10-01

    The major capsid protein VP2 of goose parvovirus (GPV) expressed using a baculovirus expression system (BES) assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). To optimize VP2 gene expression in Sf9 cells, we converted wild-type VP2 (VP2) codons into codons that are more common in insect genes. This change greatly increased VP2 protein production in Sf9 cells. The protein generated from the codon-optimized VP2 (optVP2) was detected by immunoblotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the formation of VLPs. These findings indicate that optVP2 yielded stable and high-quality VLPs. Immunogenicity assays revealed that the VLPs are highly immunogenic, elicit a high level of neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. The antibody levels appeared to be directly related to the number of GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes. The variation trends for GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes were similar in the vaccine groups. In comparison with the control group, the optVP2 VLPs groups exhibited obviously better responses. These data indicate that the VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Thus, GPV optVP2 appears to be a good candidate for the vaccination of goslings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Illustrating and homology modeling the proteins of the Zika virus [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo. ZIKV therefore epitomizes a neglected disease. Several suggested steps have been proposed which could be taken to initiate ZIKV antiviral drug discovery using both high throughput screens as well as structure-based design based on homology models for the key proteins. We now describe preliminary homology models created for NS5, FtsJ, NS4B, NS4A, HELICc, DEXDc, peptidase S7, NS2B, NS2A, NS1, E stem, glycoprotein M, propeptide, capsid and glycoprotein E using SWISS-MODEL. Eleven out of 15 models pass our model quality criteria for their further use. While a ZIKV glycoprotein E homology model was initially described in the immature conformation as a trimer, we now describe the mature dimer conformer which allowed the construction of an illustration of the complete virion. By comparing illustrations of ZIKV based on this new homology model and the dengue virus crystal structure we propose potential differences that could be exploited for antiviral and vaccine design. The prediction of sites for glycosylation on this protein may also be useful in this regard. While we await a cryo-EM structure of ZIKV and eventual crystal structures of the individual proteins, these homology models provide the community with a starting point for structure-based design of drugs and vaccines as well as a for computational virtual screening.

  15. Role of Electrostatics in the assembly pathway of a single-stranded RNA virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garmann, R.F.; Comas-Garcia, M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Knobler, C.M.; Gelbart, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently discovered (R. D. Cadena-Nava et al., J. Virol. 86:3318–3326, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06566-11) that the in vitro packaging of RNA by the capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is optimal when there is a significant excess of CP, specifically that complete packaging of

  16. Asymmetric Modification of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes by an Endogenous Cytidine Deaminase inside HBV Cores Informs a Model of Reverse Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Smita; Zlotnick, Adam

    2018-05-15

    Cytidine deaminases inhibit replication of a broad range of DNA viruses by deaminating cytidines on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to generate uracil. While several lines of evidence have revealed hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome editing by deamination, it is still unclear which nucleic acid intermediate of HBV is modified. Hepatitis B virus has a relaxed circular double-stranded DNA (rcDNA) genome that is reverse transcribed within virus cores from a RNA template. The HBV genome also persists as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of an infected cell. In the present study, we found that in HBV-producing HepAD38 and HepG2.2.15 cell lines, endogenous cytidine deaminases edited 10 to 25% of HBV rcDNA genomes, asymmetrically with almost all mutations on the 5' half of the minus strand. This region corresponds to the last half of the minus strand to be protected by plus-strand synthesis. Within this half of the genome, the number of mutations peaks in the middle. Overexpressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G could be packaged in HBV capsids but did not change the amount or distribution of mutations. We found no deamination on pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), indicating that an intact genome is encapsidated and deaminated during or after reverse transcription. The deamination pattern suggests a model of rcDNA synthesis in which pgRNA and then newly synthesized minus-sense single-stranded DNA are protected from deaminase by interaction with the virus capsid; during plus-strand synthesis, when enough dsDNA has been synthesized to displace the remaining minus strand from the capsid surface, the single-stranded DNA becomes deaminase sensitive. IMPORTANCE Host-induced mutation of the HBV genome by APOBEC proteins may be a path to clearing the virus. We examined cytidine-to-thymidine mutations in the genomes of HBV particles grown in the presence or absence of overexpressed APOBEC proteins. We found that genomes were subjected to deamination activity during reverse transcription

  17. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  18. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  19. Immunohistochemistry and Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection Human Papilloma Virus in Warts: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Sun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choo, Ji Yoon; Byun, Hee Jin; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most widely used methods for the detection of viruses. PCR is known to be a more sensitive and specific method than the immunohistochemical method at this time, but PCR has the disadvantages of high cost and skilled work to use widely. With the progress of technology, the immunohistochemical methods used in these days has come to be highly sensitive and actively used in the diagnostic fields. Objective To evaluate and compare the usefulness of immunohistochemistry and PCR for detection human papilloma virus (HPV) in wart lesions. Methods Nine biopsy samples of verruca vulgaris and 10 of condyloma accuminatum were examined. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody to HPV L1 capsid protein and PCR were done for the samples. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and HPV genotyping were also done. Results HPV detection rate was 78.9% (88.9% in verruca vulgaris, 70.0% in condyloma accuminatum) on immunohistochemistry and 100.0% for PCR. HPV-6 genotype showed a lower positivity rate on immunohistochemistry (50.0%) as compared to that of the other HPV genotypes. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein showed comparable sensitivity for detection HPV. Considering the high cost and great effort needed for the PCR methods, we can use immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein with the advantage of lower cost and simple methods for HPV detection. PMID:27489431

  20. Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Das, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Identification of different protein functions facilitates a mechanistic understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and opens novel means for drug development. Support vector machines (SVM), useful for predicting the functional class of distantly related proteins, is employed to ascribe a possible functional class to Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Our study from SVMProt and available JE virus sequences suggests that structural and nonstructural proteins of JEV genome possibly belong to diverse protein functions, are expected to occur in the life cycle of JE virus. Protein functions common to both structural and non-structural proteins are iron-binding, metal-binding, lipid-binding, copper-binding, transmembrane, outer membrane, channels/Pores - Pore-forming toxins (proteins and peptides) group of proteins. Non-structural proteins perform functions like actin binding, zinc-binding, calcium-binding, hydrolases, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases, P-type ATPase, proteins belonging to major facilitator family (MFS), secreting main terminal branch (MTB) family, phosphotransfer-driven group translocators and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family group of proteins. Whereas structural proteins besides belonging to same structural group of proteins (capsid, structural, envelope), they also perform functions like nuclear receptor, antibiotic resistance, RNA-binding, DNA-binding, magnesium-binding, isomerase (intra-molecular), oxidoreductase and participate in type II (general) secretory pathway (IISP).

  1. Labeling of multiple HIV-1 proteins with the biarsenical-tetracysteine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida F Pereira

    Full Text Available Due to its small size and versatility, the biarsenical-tetracysteine system is an attractive way to label viral proteins for live cell imaging. This study describes the genetic labeling of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 structural proteins (matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, enzymes (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAse H and integrase and envelope glycoprotein 120 with a tetracysteine tag in the context of a full-length virus. We measure the impact of these modifications on the natural virus infection and, most importantly, present the first infectious HIV-1 construct containing a fluorescently-labeled nucleocapsid protein. Furthermore, due to the high background levels normally associated with the labeling of tetracysteine-tagged proteins we have also optimized a metabolic labeling system that produces infectious virus containing the natural envelope glycoproteins and specifically labeled tetracysteine-tagged proteins that can easily be detected after virus infection of T-lymphocytes. This approach can be adapted to other viral systems for the visualization of the interplay between virus and host cell during infection.

  2. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Carroll, Miles [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, Wilts (United Kingdom); Rommelaere, Jean [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Division F010, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Almendral, Jose M., E-mail: jmalmendral@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-10

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  3. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther; Carroll, Miles; Rommelaere, Jean; Almendral, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  4. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jialing; Lazear, Helen M.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses.

  5. Diagnostic significance of DNA and antibodies against capsid antigens of anti-Epstein–Barr virus antibodies levels in blood plasma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from non-endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gurtsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a representative of the herpesvirus family, is the etiological agent for a number of benign and malignant human neoplasms. Among the latter, the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC occupies a special place. In NPC development EBV plays a key role stimulating the progression of the pathological process from precancerous lesions to the cancer development. For most NPC patients, elevated levels of humoral IgG and IgA antibodies against capsid and early EBV antigens are characteristic and their antibody titers rise to high levels long before the diagnosis of cancer. Using this phenomenon, virus-specific antibodies are used for many years as markers for NPC screening, especially in cases of undiagnosed primary lesion. In recent years, in endemic for NPC regions (South China, South-East Asia a great attention has been paid to the use of quantitative determination of EBV DNA copies in the blood plasma of patients with NPC as a method of early cancer detection and monitoring.The aim of this study was to compare clinical significance of EBV DNA and humoral antibodies levels in blood plasma of NPC patients in non-endemic region, Russia. The results obtained indicate that both markers DNA / EBV and IgA antibodies against capsid EBV antigens can be successfully used for diagnosis of NPC in non-endemic region. However, in comparison with the virus-specific antibody titers, the viral DNA levels in the patients plasma are more sensitive and specific as NPC marker reflecting the efficacy of the therapy, and the state of remission or relapse.

  6. L Particles Transmit Viral Proteins from Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Infected Mature Dendritic Cells to Uninfected Bystander Cells, Inducing CD83 Downmodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilingloh, Christiane S; Kummer, Mirko; Mühl-Zürbes, Petra; Drassner, Christina; Daniel, Christoph; Klewer, Monika; Steinkasserer, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Mature dendritic cells (mDCs) are known as the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) since they are also able to prime/induce naive T cells. Thus, mDCs play a pivotal role during the induction of antiviral immune responses. Remarkably, the cell surface molecule CD83, which was shown to have costimulatory properties, is targeted by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for viral immune escape. Infection of mDCs with HSV-1 results in downmodulation of CD83, resulting in reduced T cell stimulation. In this study, we report that not only infected mDCs but also uninfected bystander cells in an infected culture show a significant CD83 reduction. We demonstrate that this effect is independent of phagocytosis and transmissible from infected to uninfected mDCs. The presence of specific viral proteins found in these uninfected bystander cells led to the hypothesis that viral proteins are transferred from infected to uninfected cells via L particles. These L particles are generated during lytic replication in parallel with full virions, called H particles. L particles contain viral proteins but lack the viral capsid and DNA. Therefore, these particles are not infectious but are able to transfer several viral proteins. Incubation of mDCs with L particles indeed reduced CD83 expression on uninfected bystander DCs, providing for the first time evidence that functional viral proteins are transmitted via L particles from infected mDCs to uninfected bystander cells, thereby inducing CD83 downmodulation. HSV-1 has evolved a number of strategies to evade the host's immune system. Among others, HSV-1 infection of mDCs results in an inhibited T cell activation caused by degradation of CD83. Interestingly, CD83 is lost not only from HSV-1-infected mDCs but also from uninfected bystander cells. The release of so-called L particles, which contain several viral proteins but lack capsid and DNA, during infection is a common phenomenon observed among several viruses, such as human

  7. Structural insights into viral determinants of nematode mediated Grapevine fanleaf virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Schellenberger

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many animal and plant viruses rely on vectors for their transmission from host to host. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, a picorna-like virus from plants, is transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. The icosahedral capsid of GFLV, which consists of 60 identical coat protein subunits (CP, carries the determinants of this specificity. Here, we provide novel insight into GFLV transmission by nematodes through a comparative structural and functional analysis of two GFLV variants. We isolated a mutant GFLV strain (GFLV-TD poorly transmissible by nematodes, and showed that the transmission defect is due to a glycine to aspartate mutation at position 297 (Gly297Asp in the CP. We next determined the crystal structures of the wild-type GFLV strain F13 at 3.0 Å and of GFLV-TD at 2.7 Å resolution. The Gly297Asp mutation mapped to an exposed loop at the outer surface of the capsid and did not affect the conformation of the assembled capsid, nor of individual CP molecules. The loop is part of a positively charged pocket that includes a previously identified determinant of transmission. We propose that this pocket is a ligand-binding site with essential function in GFLV transmission by X. index. Our data suggest that perturbation of the electrostatic landscape of this pocket affects the interaction of the virion with specific receptors of the nematode's feeding apparatus, and thereby severely diminishes its transmission efficiency. These data provide a first structural insight into the interactions between a plant virus and a nematode vector.

  8. Structural protein relationships among eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1994-11-01

    We have re-evaluated the relationships among the polypeptides of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses using SDS-PAGE and peptide mapping of individual virion proteins. Four to five distinct polypeptide bands were detected upon SDS-PAGE analysis of viruses: the E1, E2 and C proteins normally associated with alphavirus virions, as well as an additional more rapidly-migrating E2-associated protein and a high M(r) (HMW) protein. In contrast with previous findings by others, the electrophoretic profiles of the virion proteins of EEE viruses displayed a marked correlation with serotype. The protein profiles of the 33 North American (NA)-serotype viruses examined were remarkably homogeneous, with variation detected only in the E1 protein of two isolates. In contrast, considerable heterogeneity was observed in the migration profiles of both the E1 and E2 glycoproteins of the 13 South American (SA)-type viruses examined. Peptide mapping of individual virion proteins using limited proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease confirmed that, in addition to the homogeneity evident among NA-type viruses and relative heterogeneity among SA-type viruses, the E1 and E2 proteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses exhibited serotype-specific structural variation. The C protein was highly conserved among isolates of both virus serotypes. Endoglycosidase analyses of intact virions did not reveal substantial glycosylation differences between the glycoproteins of NA- and SA-serotype viruses. Both the HMW protein and the E2 protein (doublet) of EEE virus appeared to contain, at least in part, high-mannose type N-linked oligosaccharides. No evidence of O-linked glycans was found on either the E1 or the E2 glycoprotein. Despite the observed structural differences between proteins of NA- and SA-type viruses, Western blot analyses utilizing polyclonal antibodies indicated that immunoreactive epitopes appeared to be conserved.

  9. Separation of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protein activities; identification of mutants that retain efficient self-processing activity but poorly induce eIF4G cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su Hua; Belsham, Graham J

    2017-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus is a picornavirus and its RNA genome encodes a large polyprotein. The N-terminal part of this polyprotein is the leader protein, a cysteine protease, termed Lpro. The virus causes the rapid inhibition of host cell cap-dependent protein synthesis within infected cells. This results from the Lpro-dependent cleavage of the cellular translation initiation factor eIF4G. Lpro also releases itself from the virus capsid precursor by cleaving the L/P1 junction. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the Lpro coding sequence, we have investigated the role of 51 separate amino acid residues in the functions of this protein. These selected residues either are highly conserved or are charged and exposed on the protein surface. Using transient expression assays, within BHK-21 cells, it was found that residues around the active site (W52, L53 and A149) of Lpro and others located elsewhere (K38, K39, R44, H138 and W159) are involved in the induction of eIF4G cleavage but not in the processing of the L/P1 junction. Modified viruses, encoding such amino acid substitutions within Lpro, can replicate in BHK-21 cells but did not grow well in primary bovine thyroid cells. This study characterizes mutant viruses that are deficient in blocking host cell responses to infection (e.g. interferon induction) and can assist in the rational design of antiviral agents targeting this process and in the production of attenuated viruses.

  10. A Novel Type of Polyhedral Viruses Infecting Hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2017-07-01

    Encapsidation of genetic material into polyhedral particles is one of the most common structural solutions employed by viruses infecting hosts in all three domains of life. Here, we describe a new virus of hyperthermophilic archaea, Sulfolobus polyhedral virus 1 (SPV1), which condenses its circular double-stranded DNA genome in a manner not previously observed for other known viruses. The genome complexed with virion proteins is wound up sinusoidally into a spherical coil which is surrounded by an envelope and further encased by an outer polyhedral capsid apparently composed of the 20-kDa virion protein. Lipids selectively acquired from the pool of host lipids are integral constituents of the virion. None of the major virion proteins of SPV1 show similarity to structural proteins of known viruses. However, minor structural proteins, which are predicted to mediate host recognition, are shared with other hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses infecting members of the order Sulfolobales The SPV1 genome consi