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Sample records for virus antibody 2g12

  1. A glycoconjugate antigen based on the recognition motif of a broadly neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus antibody, 2G12, is immunogenic but elicits antibodies unable to bind to the self glycans of gp120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astronomo, Rena D; Lee, Hing-Ken; Scanlan, Christopher N

    2008-01-01

    The glycan shield of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 contributes to viral evasion from humoral immune responses. However, the shield is recognized by the HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody (Ab), 2G12, at a relatively conserved cluster of oligomannose glycans. The discovery of 2G...... serum Ab titers to Man(4). However, these Abs are unable to bind gp120. Further analysis reveals that the elicited Abs bind a variety of unbranched and, to a lesser extent, branched Man(9) derivatives but not natural N-linked oligomannose containing the chitobiose core. These results suggest that Abs...

  2. Interrogation of side chain biases for oligomannose recognition by antibody 2G12 via structure-guided phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Yi; Lai, Jonathan R

    2017-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are essential reagents for deciphering gene or protein function and have been a fruitful source of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. However, developing anticarbohydrate antibodies to target glycans for those purposes has been less successful because the molecular basis for glycan-mAb interactions is poorly understood relative to protein- or peptide-binding mAbs. Here, we report our investigation on glycan-mAb interactions by using the unique architectural scaffold of 2G12, an antibody that targets oligomannoses on the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120, as the template for engineering highly specific mAbs to target glycans. We first analyzed 24 different X-ray structures of antiglycan mAbs from the Protein Data Bank to determine side chain amino acid distributions in of glycan-mAb interactions. We identified Tyr, Arg, Asn, Ser, Asp, and His as the six most prevalent residues in the glycan-mAb contacts. We then utilized this information to construct two phage display libraries ("Lib1" and "Lib2") in which positions on the heavy chain variable domains of 2G12 were allowed to vary in restricted manner among Tyr, Asp, Ser, His, Asn, Thr, Ala and Pro to interrogate the minimal physicochemical requirements for oligomannose recognition. We analyzed the sequences of 39 variants from Lib1 and 14 variants from Lib2 following selection against gp120, the results showed that there is a high degree of malleability within the 2G12 for glycan recognitions. We further characterized five unique phage clones from both libraries that exhibited a gp120-specific binding profile. Expression of two of these variants as soluble mAbs indicated that, while specificity of gp120-binding was retained, the affinity of these mutants was significantly reduced relative to WT 2G12. Nonetheless, the results indicate these is some malleability in the identity of contact residues and provide a novel insight into the nature of glycan-antibody interactions and how they may differ

  3. Rice endosperm produces an underglycosylated and potent form of the HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Twyman, Richard M; Murad, Andre Melro; Melnik, Stanislav; Teh, Audrey Yi-Hui; Arcalis, Elsa; Altmann, Friedrich; Stoger, Eva; Rech, Elibio; Ma, Julian K C; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Protein microbicides against HIV can help to prevent infection but they are required in large, repetitive doses. This makes current fermenter-based production systems prohibitively expensive. Plants are advantageous as production platforms because they offer a safe, economical and scalable alternative, and cereals such as rice are particularly attractive because they could allow pharmaceutical proteins to be produced economically and on a large scale in developing countries. Pharmaceutical proteins can also be stored as unprocessed seed, circumventing the need for a cold chain. Here, we report the development of transgenic rice plants expressing the HIV-neutralizing antibody 2G12 in the endosperm. Surprisingly for an antibody expressed in plants, the heavy chain was predominantly aglycosylated. Nevertheless, the heavy and light chains assembled into functional antibodies with more potent HIV-neutralizing activity than other plant-derived forms of 2G12 bearing typical high-mannose or plant complex-type glycans. Immunolocalization experiments showed that the assembled antibody accumulated predominantly in protein storage vacuoles but also induced the formation of novel, spherical storage compartments surrounded by ribosomes indicating that they originated from the endoplasmic reticulum. The comparison of wild-type and transgenic plants at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels indicated that endogenous genes related to starch biosynthesis were down-regulated in the endosperm of the transgenic plants, whereas genes encoding prolamin and glutaredoxin-C8 were up-regulated. Our data provide insight into factors that affect the functional efficacy of neutralizing antibodies in plants and the impact of recombinant proteins on endogenous gene expression. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Delphine C; Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS). Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4) infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  5. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine C Malherbe

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Envelope (Env protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS. Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  6. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malherbe, Delphine C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many

  7. The human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 differ in their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation: down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could improve antibody production in plant-based expression platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemer, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Torres Acosta, Juan Antonio; Verdianz, Maria; Henkel, Theresa; Loos, Andreas; Strasser, Richard; Maresch, Daniel; Rademacher, Thomas; Steinkellner, Herta; Mach, Lukas

    2014-04-01

    The tobacco-related species Nicotiana benthamiana has recently emerged as a promising host for the manufacturing of protein therapeutics. However, the production of recombinant proteins in N. benthamiana is frequently hampered by undesired proteolysis. Here, we show that the expression of the human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 in N. benthamiana leaves leads to the accumulation of discrete heavy chain-derived degradation products of 30-40 kDa. Incubation of purified 2F5 with N. benthamiana intercellular fluid resulted in rapid conversion into the 40-kDa fragment, whereas 2G12 proved largely resistant to degradation. Such a differential susceptibility to proteolytic attack was also observed when these two antibodies were exposed to various types of proteinases in vitro. While serine and cysteine proteinases are both capable of generating the 40-kDa 2F5 fragment, the 30-kDa polypeptide is most readily obtained by treatment with the latter class of enzymes. The principal cleavage sites reside within the antigen-binding domain, the VH -CH 1 linker segment and the hinge region of the antibodies. Collectively, these results indicate that down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could be used to improve the performance of plant-based expression platforms destined for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. antibodies against Herpes simplex virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types -1 and -2 in pregnant women in. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Cite as: Okonko IO, Cookey TI. Seropositivity and determinants of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ..... zadeh, Z. and Akbari, S. Seroepidemiology of Herpes. Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in ...

  9. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

  10. Introduction of germline residues improves the stability of anti-HIV mAb 2G12-IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromikova, Veronika; Mader, Alexander; Hofbauer, Stefan; Göbl, Christoph; Madl, Tobias; Gach, Johannes S.; Bauernfried, Stefan; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Forthal, Donald N.; Mach, Lukas; Obinger, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins M (IgMs) are gaining increasing attention as biopharmaceuticals since their multivalent mode of binding can give rise to high avidity. Furthermore, IgMs are potent activators of the complement system. However, they are frequently difficult to express recombinantly and can suffer from low conformational stability. Here, the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody 2G12 was class-switched to IgM and then further engineered by introduction of 17 germline residues. The impact of these changes on the structure and conformational stability of the antibody was then assessed using a range of biophysical techniques. We also investigated the effects of the class switch and germline substitutions on the ligand-binding properties of 2G12 and its capacity for HIV-1 neutralization. Our results demonstrate that the introduced germline residues improve the conformational and thermal stability of 2G12-IgM without altering its overall shape and ligand-binding properties. Interestingly, the engineered protein was found to exhibit much lower neutralization potency than its wild-type counterpart, indicating that potent antigen recognition is not solely responsible for IgM-mediated HIV-1 inactivation. PMID:25748881

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Send Us Your Feedback ... Antigen D, EA-D IgG Ab Formal Name Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies This article was last reviewed on ...

  12. Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, R; Krammer, F

    2017-04-01

    Current influenza virus vaccines are effective when well matched to the circulating strains. Unfortunately, antigenic drift and the high diversity of potential emerging zoonotic and pandemic viruses make it difficult to select the right strains for vaccine production. This problem causes vaccine mismatches, which lead to sharp drops in vaccine effectiveness and long response times to manufacture matched vaccines in case of novel pandemic viruses. To provide an overview of universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies in preclinical and clinical development. PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov were used as sources for this review. Universal influenza virus vaccines that target conserved regions of the influenza virus including the haemagglutinin stalk domain, the ectodomain of the M2 ion channel or the internal matrix and nucleoproteins are in late preclinical and clinical development. These vaccines could confer broad protection against all influenza A and B viruses including drift variants and thereby abolish the need for annual re-formulation and re-administration of influenza virus vaccines. In addition, these novel vaccines would enhance preparedness against emerging influenza virus pandemics. Finally, novel therapeutic antibodies against the same conserved targets are in clinical development and could become valuable tools in the fight against influenza virus infection. Both universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are potential future options for the control of human influenza infections. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus antibodies in SSPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, M.A.; Gut, W.; Kantoch, M. (Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1982-12-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was introduced for detecting measles virus IgG and IgM antibodies. The hyperimmune response to the measles virus could be demonstrated more accurately by RIA than by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). The ratio between RIA and HI antibody titres was decidedly higher in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis than in those of other groups tested.

  14. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....

  15. Dengue Virus-Specific Antibodies Enhance Brazilian Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanha, Priscila M S; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Braga, Cynthia; Cordeiro, Marli T; de Carvalho, Otávio V; de Mendonça, Leila R; Azevedo, Elisa A N; França, Rafael F O; Dhalia, Rafael; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2017-03-01

    Anti-Flavivirus antibodies are highly cross-reactive and may facilitate Zika virus (ZIKV) infection through the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism. We demonstrate that dengue-specific antibodies enhance the infection of a primary Brazilian ZIKV isolate in a FcγRII-expressing K562 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that serum samples from dengue-immune pregnant women enhanced ZIKV infection. These findings highlight the need for epidemiological studies and animal models to further confirm the role of ADE in the development of congenital and neurological complications associated with ZIKV infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Generation of recombinant human antibodies for EV71 virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Na; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, De-Xin; Liang, Mi-Fang

    2011-06-01

    To obtain recombinant human anti-EV71 antibodies from a EV71-associated hand-foot-and-mouth disease patient-derived antibody phage library. A combinatorial human scFv library to enterovirus 71 (EV71) virus was constructed using antibody genes harvested from the blood of EV71 virus patients. The library was panned and selected by using purified VP1 protein of EV71 virus with phage display. After that the specific antibody was converted to full human IgG antibody with recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system. One unique human scFv antibody specific for EV71 virus VP1 protein was obtained by ELISA, IFA and analysis of the antibody DNA sequence. The specific anti-VP1 human scFv antibody was converted to full human IgG antibody with recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system. The full human IgG antibody was tested in vitro for EV71 virus neutralization, resulting in no neutralizing activity with EV71 A type and EV71 C4 subtype. The obtained human anti-EV71 antibodies without neutralizing activity laid the foundation for diagnosis of human EV71-associated hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

  17. Analysis of immunoglobulins in chicken antibody to avian leucosis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, P.; Dougherty, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Fractionations of chicken sera containing antibody to the avian leucosis viruses, RAV—1 or RAV—6 were carried out. A small proportion of antibody activity was found in the serum IgM fractions from the majority of birds, but most of the antibody activity was recovered in the serum IgG fractions. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4339847

  18. Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Emily

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.

  19. Neutralizing Antibodies after Infection with Dengue 1 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mayling; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Bernardo, Lídice; Montes, Tibaire; Vazquez, Susana; Morier, Luis; Alvarez, Angel; Gould, Ernest A; Halstead, Scott B

    2007-01-01

    Severity of disease is markedly increased when infection with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) follows infection with DENV-1. Studies have shown that heterologous neutralizing antibody titers are inversely correlated with severity of a second infection. If this mechanism controlled disease severity in Cuba, heterotypic antibody titers should have declined over time. To determine whether phenotypic changes in dengue antibodies occur over time, we analyzed serum samples collected 4–8 and 20–22 years after DENV-1 infection. We found a significant increase in mean titer of homologous DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies and a significant decrease in heterologous antibodies to 1 of 2 genotypes of DENV-2 virus (the American genotype). Asian DENV-2 viruses were not neutralized during either interval; however, the American genotype underwent phenotypic changes in heterotypic viral neutralizing antibodies in the predicted direction. This finding may be related to the time-dependent changes in severity of disease found with secondary dengue infection. PMID:17479892

  20. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of consecutive human sera to neutralize sequentially obtained autologous virus isolates was studied. HIV-1 was isolated three times over a 48-164-week period from three individuals immediately after seroconversion and from two individuals in later stages of infection. Development...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....... of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...

  1. Assay of Serum Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay of Serum Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus in Local Chickens at Kaduna, Nigeria. ... NDV-HI Geometric mean titre of 18.4 was recorded showing a low level of antibody protectiveness to NDV attack due to natural infection. The result highlights the epizootic nature of the disease among local chickens in the ...

  2. Lack of Durable Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies Against Zika Virus from Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew H; McGowan, Eileen; Jadi, Ramesh; Young, Ellen; Lopez, Cesar A; Baric, Ralph S; Lazear, Helen M; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-05-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.

  3. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  4. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein- specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); S. Yüksel (Selma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe relative contribution of measles virus hemagglutinin (H)- or fusion protein (F)-specific antibodies to virus neutralization (VN) has not been demonstrated. We have depleted these specific antibodies from sera collected from young adults, who had been vaccinated during childhood, by

  5. Production of yam mosaic virus monoclonal antibodies in mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yam mosaic virus (YMV) is one of the most economically important virus infecting yams. Immunoassays are routinely used for laboratory diagnosis of YMV and for certification of planting materials. However, YMV antibodies, the key reagents, needed for these immunoassays are not readily available. We describe in this ...

  6. Production and potential use of monoclonal antibodies against polio viruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; G. van Steenis (Bert); A.G. Hazendonk

    1982-01-01

    textabstractLymphocyte hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against different strains of polio virus type 1, 2, or 3 have been produced. For this purpose Balb/C mice were immunized with purified and inactivated virus suspensions and their splenocytes were fused with P3X63Ag8 mouse myeloma

  7. Antibodies Against Henipa-Like Viruses in Brazilian Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; Lo, Michael K; Tamin, Azaibi; Ometto, Tatiana L; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Nardi, Marcello S; Hurtado, Renata F; Nava, Alessandra; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rota, Paul A; Durigon, Edison L

    2017-04-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts for many paramyxoviruses, some of which cause human and zoonotic diseases of public health importance. We developed a Nipah virus nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect cross-reactive antibodies in serum samples from several bat species in Brazil. Our results warrant further investigation of henipa-like virus reservoirs in the Western hemisphere.

  8. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in sera and eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seroprevalence and maternal antibody profiles to Newcastle disease virus infection of guinea fowls were studied using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) ... In addition, birds with titers ≤ 35.4 are partially immune and may shed the virus without a clinical disease when infected thereby becoming a risk to in-contact birds.

  9. 127 original article risk factors for hepatitis c virus antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulting to a chronic hepatitis. ... Objective: To determine the risk factors for Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Seropositivity among transfused children with. SCA in Ilorin. ..... impact on the spread of HCV infection. Furthermore ...

  10. High throughput discovery of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Chiu, Yi-Kai; Yu, Chung-Ming; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Tung, Chao-Ping; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Huang, Yi-Jen; Lin, Chia-Lung; Chen, Hong-Sen; Wang, Andrew H-J; Yang, An-Suei

    2017-10-31

    Pandemic and epidemic outbreaks of influenza A virus (IAV) infection pose severe challenges to human society. Passive immunotherapy with recombinant neutralizing antibodies can potentially mitigate the threats of IAV infection. With a high throughput neutralizing antibody discovery platform, we produced artificial anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IAV-neutralizing IgGs from phage-displayed synthetic scFv libraries without necessitating prior memory of antibody-antigen interactions or relying on affinity maturation essential for in vivo immune systems to generate highly specific neutralizing antibodies. At least two thirds of the epitope groups of the artificial anti-HA antibodies resemble those of natural protective anti-HA antibodies, providing alternatives to neutralizing antibodies from natural antibody repertoires. With continuing advancement in designing and constructing synthetic scFv libraries, this technological platform is useful in mitigating not only the threats of IAV pandemics but also those from other newly emerging viral infections.

  11. Antibodies to borna disease virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Serdal; Anlar, Banu; Turan, Nuri; Yilmaz, Hüseyin; Helps, Chris R; Harbour, Dave A

    2005-09-01

    Mechanisms causing persistence and reactivation of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are unknown. Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently causes latent or persistent infection in the nervous system. We investigated a possible association of these viruses in SSPE. Although BDV seropositivity was similar in SSPE and control groups, SSPE patients with high antibodies to BDV had earlier and more rapid disease. The findings suggest that BDV might be involved in the course, but not in the etiopathogenesis, of SSPE.

  12. Aptamer-facilitated Protection of Oncolytic Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemagic, Darija; Zamay, Anna; Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Evgin, Laura; Savitskaya, Anna; Bell, John C; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-06-03

    Oncolytic viruses promise to significantly improve current cancer treatments through their tumor-selective replication and multimodal attack against cancer cells. However, one of the biggest setbacks for oncolytic virus therapy is the intravenous delivery of the virus, as it can be cleared from the bloodstream by neutralizing antibodies before it reaches the tumor cells. We have selected DNA aptamers against an oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, using a competitive binding approach, as well as against the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of antivesicular stomatitis virus polyclonal antibodies, in order to shield the virus from nAbs and enhance its in vivo survival. We used flow cytometry to identify these aptamers and evaluated their efficiency to shield vesicular stomatitis virus in a cell-based plaque forming assay. These oligonucleotides were then modified to obtain multivalent binders, which led to a decrease of viral aggregation, an increase in its infectivity and an increase in its stability in serum. The aptamers were also incubated in nondiluted serum, showing their effectiveness under conditions mimicking those in vivo. With this approach, we were able to increase viral infectivity by more than 70% in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Thus, this method has the potential to enhance the delivery of vesicular stomatitis virus through the bloodstream without compromising the patient's immune system.

  13. Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus Epitope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Elsliger, Marc-André; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Throsby, Mark; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.; Scripps; Crucell

    2009-05-21

    Influenza virus presents an important and persistent threat to public health worldwide, and current vaccines provide immunity to viral isolates similar to the vaccine strain. High-affinity antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide immunity to the diverse influenza subtypes and protection against future pandemic viruses. Cocrystal structures were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 angstrom resolutions for broadly neutralizing human antibody CR6261 Fab in complexes with the major surface antigen (hemagglutinin, HA) from viruses responsible for the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic and a recent lethal case of H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to other structurally characterized influenza antibodies, CR6261 recognizes a highly conserved helical region in the membrane-proximal stem of HA1 and HA2. The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza.

  14. Antiphospholipid antibodies in Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Atta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C, a worldwide viral infection, is an important health problem in Brazil. The virus causes chronic infection, provoking B lymphocyte dysfunction, as represented by cryoglobulinemia, non-organ-specific autoantibody production, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this research was to screen for the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies in 109 Brazilian hepatitis C virus carriers without clinical history of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forty healthy individuals were used as the control group. IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and β2-glycoprotein I were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using a cut-off point of either 20 UPL or 20 SBU. While 24 (22.0% hepatitis C carriers had moderate titers of IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 22.5 MPL; 95%CI: 21.5-25.4 MPL, only three carriers (<3% had IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (median, 23 GPL; 95%CI: 20.5-25.5 GPL. Furthermore, IgA anticardiolipin antibodies were not detected in these individuals. Male gender and IgM anticardiolipin seropositivity were associated in the hepatitis C group (P = 0.0004. IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies were detected in 29 of 109 (27.0% hepatitis C carriers (median, 41 SAU; 95%CI: 52.7-103.9 SAU. Twenty patients (18.0% had IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (median, 27.6 SMU; 95%CI: 23.3-70.3 SMU, while two patients had IgG antibodies against this protein (titers, 33 and 78 SGU. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in only one healthy individual, who was seropositive for IgM anticardiolipin. We concluded that Brazilian individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus present a significant production of antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, which are not associated with clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  15. Neutralisation and binding of VHS virus by monovalent antibody fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupit, P.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; Strachan, G.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the cloning and characterisation of the heavy and light chain variable domain genes encoding three monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) that bind viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two of these antibodies, 3F1H10 and 3F1A2 both neutralised the virus though 3F1A2...... appeared to recognise a broader range of virus isolates. The variable domains of these two antibodies differ by only four residues (Lorenzen et al., 2000a. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10, 129-142). To further study the mechanism of neutralisation, Fab fragments as well as a series of recombinant bacterial...... by BIAcore analysis and found to correlate with the capacity of each molecule to neutralise DK-F1. These investigations, together with computer assisted molecular analysis of the theoretical influence of each mutation on antigen binding, led to the identification of a single mutation at position 35a...

  16. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56 ± 0.74 for ...

  17. Rapid detection of anti-Vaccinia virus neutralizing antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtfuss Gregor F

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing infections with Monkeypox and Cowpox viruses pose a continuous and growing threat to human health. The standard method for detecting poxvirus neutralizing antibodies is the plaque-reduction neutralization test that is specific but also time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, a rapid and reliable method was developed to determine neutralizing antibody titers within twelve hours. The new assay measures viral mRNA transcription as a marker for actively replicating virus after incomplete neutralization using real-time PCR.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Why Get Tested? To help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono); to distinguish between an Epstein-Barr virus ( ... initial infection occurs in adolescence, it can cause infectious mononucleosis, commonly called mono, a condition associated with fatigue, ...

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in cord blood, respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization, and recurrent wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization is associated with wheeze. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies in cord blood on RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze in infancy. METHODS: Among children from the Danish National Birth...

  20. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara P Blevins

    Full Text Available We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  1. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir using a BVDV specific indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety (90) serum samples collected from adult male and female camels were ...

  2. Serological Evidence of Bluetongue Virus Antibodies in Sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the presence and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection in sheep and goats at different geographical regions of North Somalia, a competitive enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in clinically healthy sheep and goats was carried out in Northern ...

  3. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 sera sample using Agar Gel precipitation test (AGPT). The results showed that local chickens had the highest distribution with 446 (9.58%) followed by ducks 218 (4.68%), guinea fowl 131 ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred ...

  5. Evaluation of IgG antibodies against Respiratory Syncytial Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of IgG antibodies against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and associated risk factors for severe respiratory tract infections in pre- school children in ... Conclusions: We report a high level of exposure to RSV in infancy and early childhood among children from a representative population in a major central ...

  6. Seroprevalence of Anti-Dengue Virus 2 Serocomplex antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: There has been a recent increase in the spread of dengue to rural areas. Rural parts of western kenya are naturally prone to mosquito-borne diseases, however, limited research has been documented on infections with dengue. This study therefore investigated the presence of antibodies against dengue virus ...

  7. Stable recombinant alpaca antibodies for detection of Tulip virus X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.

    2008-01-01

    For detection of the plant pathogenic Tulip virus X (TuVX), a panel of six recombinant antibodies was identified. To this end, a repertoire of variable domains from heavy-chain immunoglobulins (VHH) was cloned from an alpaca, which had been immunized with TuVX. Binding domains were selected by phage

  8. Serological Detection of Infectious Bursa Disease Virus Antibodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection and distribution of infectious Bursa disease (IBD) virus antibody among local species of birds was investigated in 4,655 ... imply that the birds have the potentials of becoming carriers and serve as source of spread of the disease to other ..... In Nigeria we have some militating factors against the infectious bursa ...

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus antibody among undergraduates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), among a healthy university undergraduate population in south-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Relevant medical information of students who underwent the post-admission screening exercise for the year ...

  10. The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus at two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus. (HCV) was detell1lined in 103 haemodialysis patients who attended two dialysis units in South Africa. With the use of a second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (UBI HCV EIA, Organon Teknika, The Netherlands) and a 4- recombinant immunoblot ...

  11. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mario Rodríguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Current Ebola virus (EBOV detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV.We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures.Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications.

  12. Intracellular delivery of antibodies by chimeric Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) virus like particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ambily Abraham; Usha Natraj; Anjali A. Karande; Ashutosh Gulati; Murthy, Mathur R. N.; Sathyabalan Murugesan; Pavithra Mukunda; Handanahal S. Savithri

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of antibodies has not been fully exploited as they fail to cross cell membrane. In this article, we have tested the possibility of using plant virus based nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antibodies. For this purpose, Sesbania mosaic virus coat protein (CP) was genetically engineered with the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) at the beta H-beta I loop, to generate SeMV loop B (SLB), which self-assembled to virus like particles (VLPs) with 4...

  13. Antibody escape kinetics of equine infectious anemia virus infection of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Nanda, Seema; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Lentivirus escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not well understood. In this work, we quantified antibody escape of a lentivirus, using antibody escape data from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. We calculated antibody blocking rates of wild-type virus, fitness costs of mutant virus, and growth rates of both viruses. These quantitative kinetic estimates of antibody escape are important for understanding lentiviral control by antibody neutralization and in developing NAb-eliciting vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Neutralizing Antibodies and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Stoll-Keller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. The interplay between the virus and host innate and adaptive immune responses determines the outcome of infection. There is increasing evidence that host neutralizing responses play a relevant role in the resulting pathogenesis. Furthermore, viral evasion from host neutralizing antibodies has been revealed to be an important contributor in leading both to viral persistence in acute liver graft infection following liver transplantation, and to chronic viral infection. The development of novel model systems to study HCV entry and neutralization has allowed a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions during antibody-mediated neutralization. The understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately contribute to the development of novel antiviral preventive strategies for liver graft infection and an urgently needed vaccine. This review summarizes recent concepts of the role of neutralizing antibodies in viral clearance and protection, and highlights consequences of viral escape from neutralizing antibodies in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  15. Worldwide epidemiology of neutralizing antibodies to adeno-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcedo, Roberto; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Gao, Guangping; Lin, Jianping; Wilson, James M

    2009-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have unique gene-transfer properties that speak to their potential as carriers for gene therapy or vaccine applications. However, the presence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV as a result of previous exposure can significantly limit effective gene transfer. In this study, we obtained 888 human serum samples from healthy volunteers in 10 countries around the world. Samples were assayed for neutralizing antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV7, and AAV8, as well as to a novel, structurally distinct AAV vector, rh32.33, in an in vitro transduction inhibition assay. Our data revealed that neutralizing antibodies to AAV2 were the most prevalent antibodies in all regions, followed by antibodies to AAV1. The seroprevalences of antibodies to AAV7 and to AAV8 were lower than that for antibodies to AAV1, and neutralization of AAVrh32.33 was only rarely detected. Our data also indicate a strong linkage of seroreactivity between apparently distinct serotypes that has not been predicted previously in animal models.

  16. The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization by...Henipavirus mediated membrane fusion, virus entry and targeted therapeutics. Viruses 4:280-308. and Bossart KN, Fusco DL, Broder CC. 2013. Paramyxovirus...of the hendra virus attachment G glycoprotein bound to a potent cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody. PLoS pathogens 9:e1003684

  17. Characterization and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies developed for typing influenza A and influenza B viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, H H; Harmon, M.W.; Slagle, J J; Stocksdale, C; Kendal, A P

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that are broadly reactive with influenza A or influenza B viruses were produced as stable reagents for typing influenza viruses. Monoclonal antibodies to influenza A were specific for either matrix protein or nucleoprotein. The antibodies to influenza B were specific for nucleoprotein or hemagglutinin protein. In an enzyme immunoassay procedure, influenza A antibodies detected H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains collected between 1934 and 1984. Each of the inf...

  18. Recurrent Potent Human Neutralizing Antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Khouri, Ricardo; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have e...

  19. Structural basis for antibody-mediated neutralization of Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Kathryn M; Zandonatti, Michelle A; Kleinfelter, Lara M; Heinrich, Megan L; Rowland, Megan M; Chandran, Kartik; Branco, Luis M; Robinson, James E; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2017-06-02

    The arenavirus Lassa causes severe hemorrhagic fever and a significant disease burden in West Africa every year. The glycoprotein, GPC, is the sole antigen expressed on the viral surface and the critical target for antibody-mediated neutralization. Here we present the crystal structure of the trimeric, prefusion ectodomain of Lassa GP bound to a neutralizing antibody from a human survivor at 3.2-angstrom resolution. The antibody extensively anchors two monomers together at the base of the trimer, and biochemical analysis suggests that it neutralizes by inhibiting conformational changes required for entry. This work illuminates pH-driven conformational changes in both receptor-binding and fusion subunits of Lassa virus, illustrates the unique assembly of the arenavirus glycoprotein spike, and provides a much-needed template for vaccine design against these threats to global health. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in bats from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Lili; Lu, Zongji; Xuan, Hua; Han, Xiaohu; Xia, Xianzhu; Zhao, Fuguang; Tu, Changchun

    2010-03-01

    Members of the Order Chiroptera are the natural reservoirs of lyssaviruses and play an important role in the transmission of rabies to animals and humans. In this present study, the seroprevalence for rabies virus was determined for bats sampled from four southern provinces on the Chinese mainland. A total of 685 bats of 8 species representing 4 families were collected from 10 sites, and were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated protein A/G mixture and viral neutralization test. Rabies antibody response was only detected from three bat species (Rousettus leschenaulti, Rhinolophus blythi, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The overall rabies seroconversion rate was only 2.2% (15/685). Of the 15 positive sera, 13 (12 fruit bats and 1 insectivorous bat) were indirect fluorescent antibody test positive, and two insectivorous bats were virus neutralization positive when tested by the modified fluorescent antibody viral neutralization test, albeit extremely low. To our knowledge, this is the first published report describing rabies seroprevalences from Chinese bats. These results suggest that bats may play a role in the ecology of lyssaviruses in China, and further surveillance for the presence of lyssaviruses in bats should be undertaken throughout the country and extended to other species.

  1. Arthropod-borne virus antibodies in sera of residents of Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekolu-John, E O; Fagbami, A H

    1983-01-01

    A survey for haemagglutination-inhibiting arthropod-borne virus antibody was carried out in the Kainji Lake area of Nigeria. Of 267 persons tested, 139 (52%) and 158 (59%) had alphavirus and flavivirus group HI antibody, respectively. The prevalence of antibody to individual virus antigen is as follows: Chikungunya, 45%; Semliki Forest, 25%; Sindbis, 33%, Yellow fever, 31%, Dengue type 2, 46%; and Zika 56%. The presence of high antibody rates to Chikungunya, Dengue type 2 and Yellow fever viruses is of public health significance. These viruses have been identified as the most important arthropod-borne viruses causing human infections in Nigeria.

  2. Dengue Virus Envelope Dimer Epitope Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Dengue Patients Are Protective against Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanstrom, J A; Plante, J A; Plante, K S; Young, E F; McGowan, E; Gallichotte, E N; Widman, D G; Heise, M T; de Silva, A M; Baric, R S

    2016-07-19

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for thousands of cases of severe fetal malformations and neurological disease since its introduction to Brazil in 2013. Antibodies to flaviviruses can be protective, resulting in lifelong immunity to reinfection by homologous virus. However, cross-reactive antibodies can complicate flavivirus diagnostics and promote more severe disease, as noted after serial dengue virus (DENV) infections. The endemic circulation of DENV in South America and elsewhere raises concerns that preexisting flavivirus immunity may modulate ZIKV disease and transmission potential. Here, we report on the ability of human monoclonal antibodies and immune sera derived from dengue patients to neutralize contemporary epidemic ZIKV strains. We demonstrate that a class of human monoclonal antibodies isolated from DENV patients neutralizes ZIKV in cell culture and is protective in a lethal murine model. We also tested a large panel of convalescent-phase immune sera from humans exposed to primary and repeat DENV infection. Although ZIKV is most closely related to DENV compared to other human-pathogenic flaviviruses, most DENV immune sera (73%) failed to neutralize ZIKV, while others had low (50% effective concentration [EC50], 1:100 serum dilution; 9%) levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies. Our results establish that ZIKV and DENV share epitopes that are targeted by neutralizing, protective human antibodies. The availability of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies provides an immunotherapeutic approach to control life-threatening ZIKV infection and also points to the possibility of repurposing DENV vaccines to induce cross-protective immunity to ZIKV. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus that has been associated with severe neurological birth defects and fetal loss in pregnant women and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Currently, there is no vaccine or therapeutic for ZIKV. The identification of a class of antibodies (envelope

  3. Intracellular delivery of antibodies by chimeric Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) virus like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ambily; Natraj, Usha; Karande, Anjali A; Gulati, Ashutosh; Murthy, Mathur R N; Murugesan, Sathyabalan; Mukunda, Pavithra; Savithri, Handanahal S

    2016-02-24

    The therapeutic potential of antibodies has not been fully exploited as they fail to cross cell membrane. In this article, we have tested the possibility of using plant virus based nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antibodies. For this purpose, Sesbania mosaic virus coat protein (CP) was genetically engineered with the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) at the βH-βI loop, to generate SeMV loop B (SLB), which self-assembled to virus like particles (VLPs) with 43 times higher affinity towards antibodies. CP and SLB could internalize into various types of mammalian cells and SLB could efficiently deliver three different monoclonal antibodies-D6F10 (targeting abrin), anti-α-tubulin (targeting intracellular tubulin) and Herclon (against HER2 receptor) inside the cells. Such a mode of delivery was much more effective than antibodies alone treatment. These results highlight the potential of SLB as a universal nanocarrier for intracellular delivery of antibodies.

  4. Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus.

  5. Virus antibody dynamics in primary and secondary dengue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P; Ambika, G

    2014-12-01

    Dengue viral infections show unique infection patterns arising from its four serotypes, (DENV-1,2,3,4). Its effects range from simple fever in primary infections to potentially fatal secondary infections. We analytically and numerically analyse virus dynamics and humoral response in a host during primary and secondary dengue infection for long periods using micro-epidemic models. The models presented here incorporate time delays, antibody dependent enhancement, a dynamic switch and a correlation factor between different DENV serotypes. We find that the viral load goes down to undetectable levels within 7-14 days as is observed for dengue infection, in both cases. For primary infection, the stability analysis of steady states shows interesting dependence on the time delay involved in the production of antibodies from plasma cells. We demonstrate the existence of a critical value for the immune response parameter, beyond which the infection gets completely cured. For secondary infections with a different serotype, the homologous antibody production is enhanced due to the influence of heterologous antibodies. The antibody production is also controlled by the correlation factor, which is a measure of similarities between the different DENV serotypes involved. Our results agree with clinically observed humoral responses for primary and secondary infections.

  6. Antibody-mediated enhancement of Wesselsbron virus in P388D1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbami, A H; Halstead, S B

    1986-01-01

    Antibody-mediated enhancement of Wesselsbron virus was investigated in P388D1 cell cultures. Virus infection was enhanced in culture by various dilutions of homologous and heterologous flavivirus antibody. Highest enhancement ratios and enhancing antibody titres were obtained with the homologous antibody. Enhancement of Wesselsbron virus infection in P388D1 cultures was also dependent on the multiplicity of infection (MOI) used; cultures infected at the lowest MOI produced the highest enhancement ratios. Of the four heterologous flavivirus IMAF tested for ability to enhance Wesselsbron virus infection, Potiskum virus antibody produced highest fold enhancement and possessed the highest enhancing antibody titre. Zika, Uganda S and Dakar bat IMAF produced lower fold enhancement and had lower enhancing antibody titres.

  7. Duration of Maternal Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus and Hendra Virus in Pteropid Bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Epstein

    Full Text Available Old World frugivorous bats have been identified as natural hosts for emerging zoonotic viruses of significant public health concern, including henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra virus, Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Epidemiological studies of these viruses in bats often utilize serology to describe viral dynamics, with particular attention paid to juveniles, whose birth increases the overall susceptibility of the population to a viral outbreak once maternal immunity wanes. However, little is understood about bat immunology, including the duration of maternal antibodies in neonates. Understanding duration of maternally derived immunity is critical for characterizing viral dynamics in bat populations, which may help assess the risk of spillover to humans. We conducted two separate studies of pregnant Pteropus bat species and their offspring to measure the half-life and duration of antibodies to 1 canine distemper virus antigen in vaccinated captive Pteropus hypomelanus; and 2 Hendra virus in wild-caught, naturally infected Pteropus alecto. Both of these pteropid bat species are known reservoirs for henipaviruses. We found that in both species, antibodies were transferred from dam to pup. In P. hypomelanus pups, titers against CDV waned over a mean period of 228.6 days (95% CI: 185.4-271.8 and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 96.0 days (CI 95%: 30.7-299.7. In P. alecto pups, antibodies waned over 255.13 days (95% CI: 221.0-289.3 and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 52.24 days (CI 95%: 33.76-80.83. Each species showed a duration of transferred maternal immunity of between 7.5 and 8.5 months, which was longer than has been previously estimated. These data will allow for more accurate interpretation of age-related Henipavirus serological data collected from wild pteropid bats.

  8. Duration of Maternal Antibodies against Canine Distemper Virus and Hendra Virus in Pteropid Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan H; Baker, Michelle L; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Middleton, Deborah; Barr, Jennifer A; Dubovi, Edward; Boyd, Victoria; Pope, Brian; Todd, Shawn; Crameri, Gary; Walsh, Allyson; Pelican, Katey; Fielder, Mark D; Davies, Angela J; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Old World frugivorous bats have been identified as natural hosts for emerging zoonotic viruses of significant public health concern, including henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra virus), Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Epidemiological studies of these viruses in bats often utilize serology to describe viral dynamics, with particular attention paid to juveniles, whose birth increases the overall susceptibility of the population to a viral outbreak once maternal immunity wanes. However, little is understood about bat immunology, including the duration of maternal antibodies in neonates. Understanding duration of maternally derived immunity is critical for characterizing viral dynamics in bat populations, which may help assess the risk of spillover to humans. We conducted two separate studies of pregnant Pteropus bat species and their offspring to measure the half-life and duration of antibodies to 1) canine distemper virus antigen in vaccinated captive Pteropus hypomelanus; and 2) Hendra virus in wild-caught, naturally infected Pteropus alecto. Both of these pteropid bat species are known reservoirs for henipaviruses. We found that in both species, antibodies were transferred from dam to pup. In P. hypomelanus pups, titers against CDV waned over a mean period of 228.6 days (95% CI: 185.4-271.8) and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 96.0 days (CI 95%: 30.7-299.7). In P. alecto pups, antibodies waned over 255.13 days (95% CI: 221.0-289.3) and had a mean terminal phase half-life of 52.24 days (CI 95%: 33.76-80.83). Each species showed a duration of transferred maternal immunity of between 7.5 and 8.5 months, which was longer than has been previously estimated. These data will allow for more accurate interpretation of age-related Henipavirus serological data collected from wild pteropid bats.

  9. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV, eastern (EEEV, western (WEEV and Venezuelan (VEEV equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3% were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3% for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9% were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8% for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4% for EEEV, one (0.4% for WEEV and three (1.3% for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1% and three (3.4%, respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  10. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  11. Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Supasa, Piyada; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Rouvinski, Alexander; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Duangchinda, Thaneeya; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Malasit, Prida; Rey, Felix A; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 and was thought to lead to relatively mild disease. The recent explosive outbreak of ZIKV in South America has led to widespread concern, with reports of neurological sequelae ranging from Guillain Barré syndrome to microcephaly. ZIKV infection has occurred in areas previously exposed to dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV. Here we investigated the serological cross-reaction between the two viruses. Plasma immune to DENV showed substantial cross-reaction to ZIKV and was able to drive antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ZIKV infection. Using a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to DENV, we showed that most antibodies that reacted to DENV envelope protein also reacted to ZIKV. Antibodies to linear epitopes, including the immunodominant fusion-loop epitope, were able to bind ZIKV but were unable to neutralize the virus and instead promoted ADE. Our data indicate that immunity to DENV might drive greater ZIKV replication and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and future vaccine programs for ZIKV and DENV.

  12. Efficient delivery of antibody into living cells using hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Miyata, Keizo; Kato, Fuminori

    2010-04-01

    This unit describes a novel method for antibody delivery into living cells using HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan) envelope, an inactivated Sendai virus particle. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  14. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  15. Dengue Virus Envelope Dimer Epitope Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Dengue Patients Are Protective against Zika Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swanstrom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for thousands of cases of severe fetal malformations and neurological disease since its introduction to Brazil in 2013. Antibodies to flaviviruses can be protective, resulting in lifelong immunity to reinfection by homologous virus. However, cross-reactive antibodies can complicate flavivirus diagnostics and promote more severe disease, as noted after serial dengue virus (DENV infections. The endemic circulation of DENV in South America and elsewhere raises concerns that preexisting flavivirus immunity may modulate ZIKV disease and transmission potential. Here, we report on the ability of human monoclonal antibodies and immune sera derived from dengue patients to neutralize contemporary epidemic ZIKV strains. We demonstrate that a class of human monoclonal antibodies isolated from DENV patients neutralizes ZIKV in cell culture and is protective in a lethal murine model. We also tested a large panel of convalescent-phase immune sera from humans exposed to primary and repeat DENV infection. Although ZIKV is most closely related to DENV compared to other human-pathogenic flaviviruses, most DENV immune sera (73% failed to neutralize ZIKV, while others had low (50% effective concentration [EC50], 1:100 serum dilution; 9% levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies. Our results establish that ZIKV and DENV share epitopes that are targeted by neutralizing, protective human antibodies. The availability of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies provides an immunotherapeutic approach to control life-threatening ZIKV infection and also points to the possibility of repurposing DENV vaccines to induce cross-protective immunity to ZIKV.

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies as Prophylactic and Therapeutic Agents Against Chikungunya Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, April M

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is responsible for considerable epidemics worldwide and recently emerged in the Americas in 2013. CHIKV may cause long-lasting arthralgia after acute infection. With currently no licensed vaccines or antivirals, the design of effective therapies to prevent or treat CHIKV infection is of utmost importance and will be facilitated by increased understanding of the dynamics of chikungunya. In this article, monoclonal antibodies against CHIKV as viable prophylactic and therapeutic agents will be discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Proteasome Inhibition Suppresses Dengue Virus Egress in Antibody Dependent Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly M Choy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV is a cause of significant global health burden, with an estimated 390 million infections occurring annually. However, no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for dengue is available. DENV interacts with host cell factors to complete its life cycle although this virus-host interplay remains to be fully elucidated. Many studies have identified the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP to be important for successful DENV production, but how the UPP contributes to DENV life cycle as host factors remains ill defined. We show here that proteasome inhibition decouples infectious virus production from viral RNA replication in antibody-dependent infection of THP-1 cells. Molecular and imaging analyses in β-lactone treated THP-1 cells suggest that proteasome function does not prevent virus assembly but rather DENV egress. Intriguingly, the licensed proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, is able to inhibit DENV titers at low nanomolar drug concentrations for different strains of all four serotypes of DENV in primary monocytes. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment of DENV-infected mice inhibited the spread of DENV in the spleen as well as the overall pathological changes. Our findings suggest that preventing DENV egress through proteasome inhibition could be a suitable therapeutic strategy against dengue.

  18. Epidemiological investigation of bluetongue virus antibodies in sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Azimi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bluetongue is a non-contagious, infectious viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants; which is believed to have originated in Africa. The epidemiology of Bluetongue virus infection is poorly defined in many parts of the world, including a wide range of Asia and the Middle East. This paper reports the results of a Bluetongue serological survey in sheep from some provinces of Iran during 2007-2008. Material and Methods: A total of 996 sheep sera were collected from 8 provinces in Iran and tested for Bluetongue virus specific using c-ELISA. Results: The results showed that the Bluetongue virus seroprevalence of sheep over the entire study areas was 34.93%, with the highest and lowest prevalence seen in West-Azerbaijan (64.86% and Qom (12.1% areas respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Bluetongue antibodies in Iranian sheep, giving serological evidence of extensive exposure to Bluetongue virus infection in some provinces of the country. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 122-125

  19. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K.; Schijf, Marcel A.; Coenjaerts, Frank E.; van der Schoot, Ellen C.; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M.

    2013-01-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to

  1. Coexistence of potent HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-sensitive viruses in a viremic controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Wang, Haoqing; Scharf, Louise; Nogueira, Lilian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Golijanin, Jovana; Sievers, Stuart A.; Sok, Devin; Cai, Hui; Cesar Lorenzi, Julio C.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Gristick, Harry B.; van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Gazumyan, Anna; Walker, Bruce D.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Some HIV-1-infected patients develop broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that when passively transferred to mice or macaques can treat or prevent infection. However, bNAbs typically fail to neutralize coexisting autologous viruses due to antibody-mediated selection against

  2. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  3. Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition Assay: A Novel Functional Assessment of Blocking Virus Attachment by Vaccine-Induced Antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asati, Atul; Kachurina, Olga; Karol, Alex; Dhir, Vipra; Nguyen, Michael; Parkhill, Robert; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Chumakov, Konstantin; Warren, William; Kachurin, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    .... Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies...

  4. A protective chimeric antibody to tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykov, Ivan K; Matveev, Andrey L; Stronin, Oleg V; Ryzhikov, Alexander B; Matveev, Leonid E; Kasakin, Marat F; Richter, Vladimir A; Tikunova, Nina V

    2014-06-17

    The efficiency of several mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) glycoprotein E in post-exposure prophylaxis was assessed, and mAb14D5 was shown to be the most active of all those studied. It was proven that the hybridoma cell line 14D5 produced one immunoglobulin H chain and two L chains. They were used to construct chimeric antibodies ch14D5a and ch14D5b, the affinity constants of which were 2.6 × 10(10)M(-1) and 1.0 × 10(7)M(-1), respectively, according to the SPR-based ProteOn biosensor assay. The neutralization index (IC50) of ch14D5a was 0.04 μg/ml in the focus reduction neutralization test. In in vivo experiments, ch14D5a at a dose of 10 μg/mouse resulted in a 100% survival of the mice infected with 240 LD50 of TBEV. This chimeric antibody is promising for further development of prevention and therapeutic drugs against TBEV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Basis of Zika Virus-Specific Antibody Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Fernandez, Estefania; Dowd, Kimberly A; Speer, Scott D; Platt, Derek J; Gorman, Matthew J; Govero, Jennifer; Nelson, Christopher A; Pierson, Theodore C; Diamond, Michael S; Fremont, Daved H

    2016-08-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has emerged as a global public health problem because of its ability to cause severe congenital disease. Here, we developed six mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against ZIKV including four (ZV-48, ZV-54, ZV-64, and ZV-67) that were ZIKV specific and neutralized infection of African, Asian, and American strains to varying degrees. X-ray crystallographic and competition binding analyses of Fab fragments and scFvs defined three spatially distinct epitopes in DIII of the envelope protein corresponding to the lateral ridge (ZV-54 and ZV-67), C-C' loop (ZV-48 and ZV-64), and ABDE sheet (ZV-2) regions. In vivo passive transfer studies revealed protective activity of DIII-lateral ridge specific neutralizing mAbs in a mouse model of ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that DIII is targeted by multiple type-specific antibodies with distinct neutralizing activity, which provides a path for developing prophylactic antibodies for use in pregnancy or designing epitope-specific vaccines against ZIKV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening for human immunodeficiency virus antibody in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, D C; Avins, A L; Haynes-Sanstad, K; Eversley, R; Woods, W J

    1995-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of an investigational test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope antibodies in urine. Matched blood and urine specimens were tested for HIV by two independent laboratories, both of which were blinded to all results at the other site. Duplicate positive enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) results were confirmed by immunofluorescent antibody or western blot. Six alcohol treatment centers in the San Francisco metropolitan area. Five hundred ninety-two recovering alcoholics. Diagnosis of HIV infection by blood and urine EIA and western blot. The experimental urine EIA, when confirmed by urine western blot, led to a correct diagnosis in all samples. One sample was negative by urine EIA screening, positive by blood EIA, and exhibited an indeterminate blood western blot pattern (p24 band only). We encountered no false positive or false negative results using an investigational HIV antibody test for urine samples. There are several important advantages to HIV testing of urine versus serum or blood; however, there are also cogent reasons for limiting the use of alternative specimens for HIV testing.

  7. Measurement of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus using a virus-free fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rackhyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kang Il; Namkoong, Sim; Choi, Seuk-Keun; Park, Songyong; Park, Hosun; Park, Junsoo

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test is regarded as the "gold standard" to detect protective antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Because the classic FAMA test uses an infectious virus for detection of antibodies to VZV, it is labor-intensive, and also requires special equipment for handling the virus. For this reason, we attempted to develop a simple and safe FAMA assay. Because VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is one of the major VZV glycoproteins, we used the gE protein for the FAMA test (gE FAMA). Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of gE in HEK293T cells can be used to measure antibodies in human serum, and that gE FAMA titers are closely correlated with gpEIA ELISA data. These results indicate that our gE FAMA test has the potential to measure antibodies to VZV.

  8. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits...... virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life....

  9. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  10. The human antibody repertoire specific for rabies virus glycoprotein as selected from immune libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, R. Arjen; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Visser, Therese J.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Bakker, Arjen Q.; de Jong, Maureen; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Backus, Harold H. J.; Rice, Amy B.; Weldon, William C.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; de Kruif, John

    2005-01-01

    Antibody phage display technology was used to identify human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize rabies virus (RV). A phage repertoire was constructed using antibody genes harvested from the blood of vaccinated donors. Selections using this repertoire and three different antigen formats of the RV

  11. Complement inhibition enables tumor delivery of LCMV glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses in the presence of antiviral antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Evgin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic delivery of therapeutic viruses, such as oncolytic viruses or vaccines, is limited by the generation of neutralizing antibodies. While pseudotyping of rhabdoviruses with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein has previously allowed for multiple rounds of delivery in mice, this strategy has not translated to other animal models. For the first time, we provide experimental evidence that antibodies generated against the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein mediate robust complement-dependent viral neutralization via activation of the classical pathway. We show that this phenotype can be capitalized upon to deliver maraba virus pseudotyped with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein in a Fischer rat model in the face of neutralizing antibody through the use of complement modulators. This finding changes the understanding of the humoral immune response to arenaviruses, and also describes methodology to deliver viral vectors to their therapeutic sites of action without the interference of neutralizing antibody.

  12. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  13. Potent Human Monoclonal Antibodies against SARS CoV, Nipah and Hendra Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, Ponraj; Zhongyu, Zhu; Xiao, Xiaodong; Biragyn, Arya; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Broder, Christopher C.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2009-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies have a century-old history of being effective against some viruses; recently, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have also shown success. The humanized mAb Synagis (palivizumab) remains still the only mAb against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recently, several potent human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) targeting the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated coronavirus (SARS CoV) S glycoproteins were developed quickly after the virus was identified in 2003. Among these antibodies, m396 and S230.15 exhibit exceptional potency and cross-reactivity as they neutralize isolates from the first and second outbreaks and from palm civets both in vitroand in mice. Similarly, the first fully hmAbs against two other paramyxoviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), which can cause up to 75% mortality, were recently developed; one of them, m102.4, shows exceptional cross-reactive potency against both NiV and HeV. Three-dimensional molecular structures of envelope glycoproteins from these viruses in complexes with antibodies and/or receptors were recently determined. Structural analyses along with other experiments have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of receptor recognition and antibody neutralization, and suggested that these antibodies alone or in combination could successfully fight the viruses’ heterogeneity and mutability which is a major problem in the development of effective therapeutic agents against viruses, including therapeutic antibodies. PMID:19216624

  14. Neutralizing antibody fails to impact the course of Ebola virus infection in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelien B Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This antibody was previously shown to fully protect guinea pigs from infection. Four rhesus macaques were given 50 mg/kg of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody KZ52 intravenously 1 d before challenge with 1,000 plaque-forming units of Ebola virus, followed by a second dose of 50 mg/kg antibody 4 d after challenge. A control animal was exposed to virus in the absence of antibody treatment. Passive transfer of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody not only failed to protect macaques against challenge with Ebola virus but also had a minimal effect on the explosive viral replication following infection. We show that the inability of antibody to impact infection was not due to neutralization escape. It appears that Ebola virus has a mechanism of infection propagation in vivo in macaques that is uniquely insensitive even to high concentrations of neutralizing antibody.

  15. Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert-; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2011-12-09

    The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against VP7 of bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Shi; Sun, En-Cheng; Liu, Ni-Hong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qing-Yuan; Qin, Yong-Li; Zhao, Jing; Feng, Yu-Fei; Li, Jun-Pin; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Cui-Yun; Wu, Dong-Lai

    2012-12-01

    VP7 is a major group-specific protein of the bluetongue virus (BTV), and is therefore a candidate for use as a diagnostic reagent. In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with BTV16, and the lymphocyte hybridoma technique and indirect ELISA screening method were employed to obtain two strains of hybridoma cells secreting specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV16. Eukaryotic recombinant plasmids coding for 10 segments of BTV16 separately were transfected into BHK-21 cells, respectively, followed by immunofluorescence, showing that two MAbs only reacted with BTV-VP7. Western blot analysis showed the same result. Indirect immunofluorescence results indicated that two of the MAbs present different response spectrums with BTV1~24 serotypes. These results indicate that these MAbs may be good candidates for a specific diagnostic method and functional exploration of the VP7 protein.

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Antibodies in Mexican Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Casal, Jordi; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of Hepatitis E, an enterically transmitted disease. HEV infections in pigs and humans have been reported worldwide, but data from Mexico are scarce. In the present study, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was investigated in a quite large number of swine from Mexico by means of an ELISA based on a recombinant open reading frame 2 protein of HEV genotype 3. Serum samples from 683 healthy pigs (1-48 months old), collected during 2010-2013 in 109 herds from 48 municipalities located in 9 states in the centre of the country were assayed. A 30.75 % (210/683) of the sera tested were positive, and they were distributed along all the states included in the study. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies varied widely between municipalities and herds, and it was higher in pigs 4-6 months of age. No relationships were detected between seroprevalences and farm characteristics. Forty individual faecal samples were analysed by RT-PCR and all resulted negative. These data indicate that HEV infection is widespread in Mexican pigs; thus, representing a potential zoonotic risk for humans.

  19. Seasonal variation of maternally derived respiratory syncytial virus antibodies and association with infant hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study used 459 prospectively sampled cord blood samples to examine the association between maternally derived respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-neutralizing antibodies and the RSV hospitalization season in Denmark. We found a clear temporal association and suggest that RSV...

  20. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K; Schijf, Marcel A; Coenjaerts, Frank E; van der Schoot, Ellen C; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M

    2013-07-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to the currently licensed palivizumab. While clearly beneficial during primary infections, preexisting antibodies might affect the onset of adaptive immune responses and the ability to resist subsequent RSV infections. Therefore, we addressed the question of how virus neutralizing antibodies influence the priming of subsequent adaptive immune responses. To test a possible role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in this process, we compared the responses in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and FcRn(-/-) mice. We observed substantial virus-specific T-cell priming and B-cell responses in mice primed with RSV IgG immune complexes resulting in predominantly Th1-type CD4(+) T-cell and IgG2c antibody responses upon live-virus challenge. RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells were primed as well. Activation of these adaptive immune responses was independent of FcRn. Thus, neutralizing antibodies that localize to the airways and prevent infection-related routes of antigen processing can still facilitate antigen presentation of neutralized virus particles and initiate adaptive immune responses against RSV.

  1. Human antibody repertoire after VSV-Ebola vaccination identifies novel targets and virus-neutralizing IgM antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Fuentes, Sandra; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Ravichandran, Supriya; Davey, Richard T; Beigel, John H

    2016-12-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against Ebola virus is of high priority. However, knowledge about potential correlates of protection and the durability of immune response after vaccination is limited. Here, we elucidate the human antibody repertoire after administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-Ebola vaccine at 3 million, 20 million and 100 million plaque-forming units (PFU) and homologous VSV-Ebola vaccine boost in healthy adult volunteers. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries, expressing linear and conformational epitopes of Ebola glycoprotein (GP), showed higher diversity of antibody epitopes in individuals vaccinated with 20 million PFU than in those vaccinated with 3 million or 100 million PFU. Surface plasmon resonance kinetics showed higher levels of GP-binding antibodies after a single vaccination with 20 million or 100 million PFU than with 3 million PFU, and these correlated strongly with neutralization titers. A second vaccination did not boost antibody or virus neutralization titers, which declined rapidly, and induced only minimal antibody affinity maturation. Isotype analysis revealed a predominant IgM response even after the second vaccination, which contributed substantially to virus neutralization in vitro. These findings may help identify new vaccine targets and aid development and evaluation of effective countermeasures against Ebola.

  2. Anti-JC virus antibody prevalence in a multinational multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Tomas; Achiron, Anat; Alfredsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is an opportunistic virus known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Anti-JC virus (Anti-JCV) antibody prevalence in a large, geographically diverse, multi-national multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort was compared in a cross-sectional study. Overall, anti-JCV antibody...... prevalence was 57.6%. Anti-JCV antibody prevalence in MS patients ranged from approximately 47% to 68% across these countries: Norway, 47.4%; Denmark, 52.6%; Israel, 56.6%; France, 57.6%; Italy, 58.3%; Sweden, 59.0%; Germany, 59.1%; Austria, 66.7% and Turkey, 67.7%. Prevalence increased with age (from 49...

  3. A weak neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein enhances virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Meyer

    Full Text Available We have completed a phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trial with hepatitis C virus (HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, with MF59 adjuvant as a candidate vaccine. Neutralizing activity to HCV genotype 1a was detected in approximately 25% of the vaccinee sera. In this study, we evaluated vaccinee sera from poor responders as a potential source of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE of HCV infection. Sera with poor neutralizing activity enhanced cell culture grown HCV genotype 1a or 2a, and surrogate VSV/HCV pseudotype infection titer, in a dilution dependent manner. Surrogate pseudotypes generated from individual HCV glycoproteins suggested that antibody to the E2 glycoprotein; but not the E1 glycoprotein, was the principle target for enhancing infection. Antibody specific to FcRII expressed on the hepatic cell surface or to the Fc portion of Ig blocked enhancement of HCV infection by vaccinee sera. Together, the results from in vitro studies suggested that enhancement of viral infectivity may occur in the absence of a strong antibody response to HCV envelope glycoproteins.

  4. Maternal Zika Virus Disease Severity, Virus Load, Prior Dengue Antibodies, and Their Relationship to Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Umme-Aiman; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Lopes; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Junior, Jose Paulo Pereira; de Araujo Zin, Andrea; Cherry, James; Gabaglia, Claudia Raja; Gaw, Stephanie L; Adachi, Kristina; Tsui, Irena; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Nogueira, Rita Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Brasil, Patricia

    2017-09-15

    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies, or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes. A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement, and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection. ZIKV-RNA load was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles in blood/ urine. Dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at baseline. Adverse outcomes were defined as fetal loss or a live infant with grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings. Regression models were used to study potential associations. 131 ZIKV-PCR positive pregnant women were scored for clinical disease severity, 6 (4.6%) had mild disease, 98 (74.8%) had moderate disease, and 27 (20.6%) severe manifestations of ZIKV infection. There were 58 (46.4%) abnormal outcomes with 9 fetal losses (7.2%) in 125 pregnancies. No associations were found between: disease severity and abnormal outcomes (P = .961; odds ratio [OR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.796-1.270); disease severity and viral load (P = .994); viral load and adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.922-1.135); or existence of prior dengue antibodies (88% subjects) with severity score, ZIKV-RNA load or adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.255-2.397). Congenital ZIKV syndrome does not appear to be associated with maternal disease severity, ZIKV-RNA load at time of infection or existence of prior dengue antibodies.

  5. A Recombinant Antibody-Expressing Influenza Virus Delays Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Hamilton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV has shown promise as an oncolytic agent. To improve IAV as an oncolytic virus, we sought to design a transgenic virus expressing an immune checkpoint-inhibiting antibody during the viral life cycle. To test whether it was possible to express an antibody during infection, an influenza virus was constructed encoding the heavy chain of an antibody on the PB1 segment and the light chain of an antibody on the PA segment. This antibody-expressing IAV grows to high titers, and the antibodies secreted from infected cells exhibit comparable functionality with hybridoma-produced antibodies. To enhance the anti-cancer activity of IAV, an influenza virus was engineered to express a single-chain antibody antagonizing the immune checkpoint CTLA4 (IAV-CTLA4. In mice implanted with the aggressive B16-F10 melanoma, intratumoral injection with IAV-CTLA4 delayed the growth of treated tumors, mediated an abscopal effect, and increased overall survival.

  6. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Portuguese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Pereira, Sara; Abreu-Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Joana; Nascimento, Maria São José

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has become a growing public health concern in industrialized countries. Most of the HEV seroprevalence studies have focused on adult populations, and reports regarding HEV seroepidemiology among children are scarce in these countries. The aims of this work were to perform a nationwide seroprevalence study on HEV infection in Portuguese children and to compare the HEV seropositivity in this 2015 children cohort with results in sera performed 20 years earlier. Sera (N = 352) from children collected in 2015 from all regions of Portugal were screened for anti-HEV IgG and IgM using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay recomWell HEV IgG/IgM (2015 version; Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany), and positive samples were retested by immunodot assay recomLine HEV IgG/IgM (2015 version; Mikrogen, Neuried, Germany). For the comparative assessment of HEV seropositivity of the 2 children cohorts, children's sera (N = 71) archived since 1995 were screened for anti-HEV IgG and results were compared with that of the 2015 cohort, matched by sex, age and region. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 4 children giving an overall HEV seroprevalence in the 2015 cohort of 1.1%. A healthy 10-15-year-old female was found positive for anti-HEV IgM indicating a current or recent HEV infection. No statistically significant difference was observed in HEV seroprevalence regarding gender, age group and region of residence. Comparison of the HEV seropositivity of the 2 children cohorts showed a statistical significant decrease with time (P = 0.024). This is the first national study of HEV seroprevalence in Portuguese children and the first to demonstrate a decrease of anti-HEV antibodies in this age group over time.

  7. Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Cay, B.; Zientara, S.; Steinbach, F.; Valarcher, J.F.; Botner, A.; Mars, M.H.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Schirrmeier, H.; Beer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, and

  8. Hepatitis B and A virus antibodies in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Henriksen, J

    1982-01-01

    Sera from 74 alcoholics with cirrhosis and 63 alcoholics with steatosis were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, to hepatitis B core antigen, and to hepatitis A virus by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant difference between the two groups...... was found between patients and controls concerning the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (46% v 40%). In patients with cirrhosis, no correlation between wedged hepatic vein pressure or wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure and any of the viral antibodies could be established. The present results...... suggest that hepatitis B virus does not play a major role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease, but longitudinal studies are needed to solve this problem. The reason for the increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus in these patients is unknown....

  9. Plant Virus Particles Carrying Tumour Antigen Activate TLR7 and Induce High Levels of Protective Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Jantipa Jobsri; Alex Allen; Deepa Rajagopal; Michael Shipton; Kostya Kanyuka; Lomonossoff, George P.; Christian Ottensmeier; Diebold, Sandra S.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Natalia Savelyeva

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a n...

  10. The cellular bases of antibody responses during dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yam-Puc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic or memory B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections.This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events like the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation and germinal centers (GCs formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs, till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  11. Neuropathogenesis of Zika Virus Infection : Potential Roles of Antibody-Mediated Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ikuo; Omura, Seiichi; Sato, Fumitaka; Kusunoki, Susumu; Fujita, Mitsugu; Park, Ah-Mee; Hasanovic, Faris; Yanagihara, Richard; Nagata, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, which includes many human and animal pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. In the original as well as subsequent experimental and clinical reports, ZIKV seems to have moderate neurotropism (in animal models) and neurovirulence (in human fetuses), but no neuroinvasiveness (in human adults). Intrauterine ZIKV infection (viral pathology) has been linked to an increased incidence of microcephaly, while increased Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following ZIKV infection is likely immune-mediated (immunopathology). Clinically, in ZIKV infection, antibodies against other flaviviruses, such as DENV, have been detected; these antibodies can cross-react with ZIKV without ZIKV neutralization. In theory, such non-neutralizing antibodies are generated at the expense of decreased production of neutralizing antibodies (“antigenic sin”), leading to poor viral clearance, while the non-neutralizing antibodies can also enhance viral replication in Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing cells via antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Here, we propose three potential roles of the antibody-mediated pathogenesis of ZIKV infection: 1) cross-reactive antibodies that recognize ZIKV and neural antigens cause GBS; 2) ZIKV-antibody complex is transported transplacentally via neonatal FcR (FcRn), resulting in fetal infection; and 3) ZIKV-antibody complex is taken up at peripheral nerve endings and transported to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), by which the virus can enter the CNS without crossing the blood-brain barrier. PMID:28428682

  12. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Borna Disease Virus in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.

    1985-05-01

    Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.

  13. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  14. Prevalence of Protective Measles Virus Antibody Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples in Catalonia, Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, Pedro; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela; Torner, Núria; Borras, Eva; Plasència, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of protective antibody levels (>160 mIU/ml) in neonates was 98.5%. The mean measles virus antibody level was 3,406 mIU/ml and increased with maternal age. Measles vaccination was reported by 42% of pregnant women and decreased with age. PMID:20164254

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus in Nova Scotia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, M. D.; Embil, J. A.; Garner, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples from 304 children aged 6 months to 16 years were tested by radioimmunoassay for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV). Of several factors examined for a possible association with the prevalence of anti-HAV--age, sex, race, geographic location and presence of malignant disease--only age showed a positive correlation with the prevalence of these antibodies. PMID:6301669

  16. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kimberly A; Netski, Dale M; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Cox, Andrea L; Ray, Stuart C

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent characterization of hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear to what extent immune pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives viral sequence evolution in vivo. This lack of understanding is particularly evident in acute infection, the phase when elimination or persistence of viral replication is determined and during which the importance of the humoral immune response has been largely discounted. We analyzed envelope glycoprotein sequence evolution and neutralization of sequential autologous hepatitis C virus pseudoparticles in 8 individuals throughout acute infection. Amino acid substitutions occurred throughout the envelope genes, primarily within the hypervariable region 1 of E2. When individualized pseudoparticles expressing sequential envelope sequences were used to measure neutralization by autologous sera, antibodies neutralizing earlier sequence variants were detected at earlier time points than antibodies neutralizing later variants, indicating clearance and evolution of viral variants in response to pressure from neutralizing antibodies. To demonstrate the effects of amino acid substitution on neutralization, site-directed mutagenesis of a pseudoparticle envelope sequence revealed amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region 1 that were responsible for a dramatic decrease in neutralization sensitivity over time. In addition, high-titer neutralizing antibodies peaked at the time of viral clearance in all spontaneous resolvers, whereas chronically evolving subjects displayed low-titer or absent neutralizing antibodies throughout early acute infection. These findings indicate that, during acute hepatitis C virus infection in vivo, virus-specific neutralizing antibodies drive sequence evolution and, in some individuals, play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  17. Hepatitis c virus antibodies in mother-infant blood pair in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in mother-infant pair, and risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV in ABUTH Zaria. Method: One hundred motherinfant pair had serological determination for HCV antibodies from birth to 28days and a repeat at 6weeks after delivery.

  18. Pan-ebolavirus and Pan-filovirus Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies: Protection against Ebola and Sudan Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Howell, Katie A; Patel, Sonal J; Gunn, Bronwyn; Karim, Marcus; Lai, Jonathan R; Frei, Julia C; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Zeitlin, Larry; Douglas, Robin; Fusco, Marnie L; Froude, Jeffrey W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Herbert, Andrew S; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Alter, Galit; Dye, John M; Glass, Pamela J; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad

    2015-10-14

    The unprecedented 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted the need for effective therapeutics against filoviruses. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails have shown great potential as EVD therapeutics; however, the existing protective MAbs are virus species specific. Here we report the development of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus antibodies generated by repeated immunization of mice with filovirus glycoproteins engineered to drive the B cell responses toward conserved epitopes. Multiple pan-ebolavirus antibodies were identified that react to the Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. A pan-filovirus antibody that was reactive to the receptor binding regions of all filovirus glycoproteins was also identified. Significant postexposure efficacy of several MAbs, including a novel antibody cocktail, was demonstrated. For the first time, we report cross-neutralization and in vivo protection against two highly divergent filovirus species, i.e., Ebola virus and Sudan virus, with a single antibody. Competition studies indicate that this antibody targets a previously unrecognized conserved neutralizing epitope that involves the glycan cap. Mechanistic studies indicated that, besides neutralization, innate immune cell effector functions may play a role in the antiviral activity of the antibodies. Our findings further suggest critical novel epitopes that can be utilized to design effective cocktails for broad protection against multiple filovirus species. Filoviruses represent a major public health threat in Africa and an emerging global concern. Largely driven by the U.S. biodefense funding programs and reinforced by the 2014 outbreaks, current immunotherapeutics are primarily focused on a single filovirus species called Ebola virus (EBOV) (formerly Zaire Ebola virus). However, other filoviruses including Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Marburg viruses have caused human outbreaks with mortality rates as high as 90%. Thus, cross

  19. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of specific IgA antibodies to mumps virus

    OpenAIRE

    Halevy, Benjamin; Sarov, Israel

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for detection of IgA antibodies to mumps virus. Specific mumps IgA antibodies could be demonstrated in 10 patients with mumps virus infections. No specific mumps IgA antibodies (titres

  1. In-depth analysis of the antibody response of individuals exposed to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruklanthi de Alwis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans who experience a primary dengue virus (DENV infection develop antibodies that preferentially neutralize the homologous serotype responsible for infection. Affected individuals also generate cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous DENV serotypes, which are non-neutralizing. Dengue cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibodies can enhance infection of Fc receptor bearing cells and, potentially, exacerbate disease. The actual binding sites of human antibody on the DENV particle are not well defined. We characterized the specificity and neutralization potency of polyclonal serum antibodies and memory B-cell derived monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs from 2 individuals exposed to primary DENV infections. Most DENV-specific hMAbs were serotype cross-reactive and weakly neutralizing. Moreover, many hMAbs bound to the viral pre-membrane protein and other sites on the virus that were not preserved when the viral envelope protein was produced as a soluble, recombinant antigen (rE protein. Nonetheless, by modifying the screening procedure to detect rare antibodies that bound to rE, we were able to isolate and map human antibodies that strongly neutralized the homologous serotype of DENV. Our MAbs results indicate that, in these two individuals exposed to primary DENV infections, a small fraction of the total antibody response was responsible for virus neutralization.

  2. In-Depth Analysis of the Antibody Response of Individuals Exposed to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Beltramello, Martina; Messer, William B.; Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Wahala, Wahala M. P. B.; Kraus, Annette; Olivarez, Nicholas P.; Pham, Quang; Brian, James; Tsai, Wen-Yang; Wang, Wei-Kung; Halstead, Scott; Kliks, Srisakul; Diamond, Michael S.; Baric, Ralph; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sallusto, Federica; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Humans who experience a primary dengue virus (DENV) infection develop antibodies that preferentially neutralize the homologous serotype responsible for infection. Affected individuals also generate cross-reactive antibodies against heterologous DENV serotypes, which are non-neutralizing. Dengue cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibodies can enhance infection of Fc receptor bearing cells and, potentially, exacerbate disease. The actual binding sites of human antibody on the DENV particle are not well defined. We characterized the specificity and neutralization potency of polyclonal serum antibodies and memory B-cell derived monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) from 2 individuals exposed to primary DENV infections. Most DENV-specific hMAbs were serotype cross-reactive and weakly neutralizing. Moreover, many hMAbs bound to the viral pre-membrane protein and other sites on the virus that were not preserved when the viral envelope protein was produced as a soluble, recombinant antigen (rE protein). Nonetheless, by modifying the screening procedure to detect rare antibodies that bound to rE, we were able to isolate and map human antibodies that strongly neutralized the homologous serotype of DENV. Our MAbs results indicate that, in these two individuals exposed to primary DENV infections, a small fraction of the total antibody response was responsible for virus neutralization. PMID:21713020

  3. Comprehensive analysis of varicella-zoster virus proteins using a new monoclonal antibody collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Roviš (Tihana Lenac); S.M. Bailer (Susanne); V.R. Pothineni (Venkata R); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); H. Šimić (Hrvoje); M. Babić (Marina); K. Miklić (Karmela); S. Malić (Suzana); M.C. Verweij; M. Baiker (Martin); O. Gonzalez (Orland); A. Brunn (Albrecht von); R. Zimmer; K. Früh (Klaus); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); S. Jonjic (Stipan); J. Haasb (Jürgeni)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles. Due to the virus's restricted host and cell typetropism and the lack of tools for VZV proteomics, it is one of the least-characterized human herpesviruses. We generated 251monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)

  4. Single-Domain Antibodies as Tools to Perturb and Study RNA Viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanke, Leo

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I describe the generation and characterization of alpaca-derived, antiviral, single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs). The antiviral targets of the described VHHs are the nuclear proteins of influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The described VHHs protect cells

  5. peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus antibodies in african grey duiker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially wild small ruminants which are prominently hunted animals in this environment (Ogunsanmi et al., 2001). Table 1: Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) and. Rinderpest Virus (RPV) antibodies in the sera of grey duiker in Irewole Local Government Area. (LGA) Osun State, Nigeria. No. of samples. cELlSA.

  6. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells...

  7. Competitive Elisa Rinderpest Virus Antibody in Slaughtered Camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty camel sera were tested for presence of RP and Pestes des petits ruminants (PPR) antibodies in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of the sera tested, 20 (9.3%) were found to be positive for RP antibody. None of the sera tested positive for PPR antibody. Camels could ...

  8. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies recognize antigenic variants among isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.R.; Arakawa, C.N.; Lannan, C.N.; Fryer, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    eutralizing monoclonal antibodies were developed against strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri in the Deschutes River of Oregon, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Sacramento River of California, and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri reared in the Hagerman Valley of Idaho, USA. These antibodies were tested for neutralization of 12 IHNV isolates obtained from salmonids in Japan, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. The antibodies recognized antigenic variants among the isolates and could be used to separate the viruses into 4 groups. The members of each group tended to be related by geographic area rather than by source host species, virulence, or date of isolation.

  9. Development of a blocking ELISA for screening antibodies to porcine rubulavirus, La Piedad Michoacan Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordengrahn, A; Svenda, M; Moreno-Lopez, J; Bergvall, A; Hernandez, P; McNeilly, F; Allan, G; Merza, M

    1999-07-01

    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies to porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad Michoacan Virus [LPMV]) in serum samples from pigs. The test, based on a monoclonal antibody against the LPMV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein, had a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97%. The results of this test were in agreement with those obtained by an indirect ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition, indirect immunofluorescence, and virus neutralization tests. The blocking ELISA is considered the most suitable test for routine screening for antibodies against LPMV.

  10. The Use of Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Lanari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease at high risk of severe and potentially lethal course of the infection. This drug was reported to be safe, well tolerated and effective to decrease the hospitalization rate and mortality in these groups of infants by several clinical trials. In the present paper we report the development and the current use of monoclonal antibodies for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus.

  11. Enzyme immunoassay of mumps virus in cell culture with peroxidase-labelled virus specific monoclonal antibodies and its application for determination of antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, F.H. van; Kraaijeveld, C.A.; Baller, J.; Harmsen, T.; Oosterlaken, T.A.M.; Snippe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Mumps neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAs) were purified and labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used to detect virus-infected Vero cells, which were seeded as monolayers in wells of 96-well plates. This direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in cell culture proved to be a sensitive method for

  12. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  13. Serosurvey for West Nile Virus Antibodies in Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) Captured in Coastal California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elena; Hofmeister, Erik; Peery, M Zach

    2017-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-14 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird immunoglobulin G enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died.

  14. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  15. Hepatitis B and A virus antibodies in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Henriksen, J

    1982-01-01

    Sera from 74 alcoholics with cirrhosis and 63 alcoholics with steatosis were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, to hepatitis B core antigen, and to hepatitis A virus by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant difference between the two groups...... of alcoholics could be found concerning the prevalence of these antibodies. The total group of patients had antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B core antigen, or both, significantly (p less than 0.001) more often (26%) than sex- and age-matched controls (4%). No significant difference...... suggest that hepatitis B virus does not play a major role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease, but longitudinal studies are needed to solve this problem. The reason for the increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus in these patients is unknown....

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Vaccinia virus after smallpox vaccination in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Mike M; Alberini, Isabella; Midgley, Claire M; Manini, Ilaria; Montomoli, Emanuele; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2005-11-01

    Decades after smallpox was eradicated and vaccination discontinued, the level of residual immunity in today's population is largely unknown. This study describes an epidemiological assessment in Italians of antibodies against the intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular envelope virus (EEV) forms of Vaccinia virus. Serum samples (n = 642) were taken in 1993 and 2003 from people between 11 and 102 years old. Most citizens >27 years old were positive for antibodies to IMV and EEV. These antibodies were long-lasting and similar titres were present in citizens between 30 and 100 years old. Serum samples from 1993 and 2003 displayed very similar EEV- and IMV-specific antibody titres. By using these data and demographic considerations, it was predicted that, in 2003, 46 % of the Italian population were positive for both IMV and EEV, 42 % were negative for both and 12 % were positive for one antigen.

  17. Decay of Passively Acquired Maternal Antibodies against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoara, Corina; Zäch, Kristina; Trachsel, Daniel; Germann, Daniel; Matter, Lukas

    1999-01-01

    The decay of maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in Swiss infants was studied in order to determine the optimal time for vaccination. A total of 500 serum or plasma samples from infants up to 2 years of age were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent-antibody testing. The decline of antibody prevalence was slowest against the measles virus. By 9 to 12 months of age, only 5 of 58 (8.6%; 95% CI, 2.9 to 19.0) infants were antibody positive for the measles virus, and only 2 had levels above 200 mIU/ml. Mumps and rubella virus antibody seropositivity was lowest at 9 to 12 months of age with 3 of 58 (5.2%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.4) infants and at 12 to 15 months with 1 of 48 (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 11.1) infants, respectively. Concentrations of passively acquired antibodies decreased rapidly within the first 6 months of life. We observed no significant differences in antibody prevalence or concentration according to gender in any age group. In conclusion, MMR vaccination at 12 instead of 15 months of age could reduce the pool of susceptible subjects in infancy and support the efforts to eliminate these infections, particularly in combination with a second vaccine dose before school entry. PMID:10548578

  18. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Lynch, Rebecca; Zhou, Tongqing; Gao, Feng; Alam, S. Munir; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Jiang; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mullikin, James C.; Gnanakaran, S.; Hraber, Peter; Wiehe, Kevin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Guang; Xia, Shi-Mao; Montefiori, David C.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Scearce, Richard M.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Cohen, Myron; Kaminga, Gift; Louder, Mark K.; Tran, Lillan M.; Chen, Yue; Cai, Fangping; Chen, Sheri; Moquin, Stephanie; Du, Xiulian; Joyce, Gordon M.; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Korber, Bette T.M.; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Current HIV-1 vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in ~20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a roadmap for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized ~55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with gp120 revealed a novel loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the CH103-lineage unmutated common ancestor avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data elucidate the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies via vaccination. PMID:23552890

  19. A liquid phase blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA was developed for the detection and measurement of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. The purified and nonpurified virus used as antigen, the capture and detector antibodies, and the chicken hyperimmune sera were prepared and standardized for this purpose. A total of 156 sera from vaccinated and 100 from specific pathogen-free chickens with no recorded contact with the virus were tested. The respective serum titers obtained in the serum neutralization test (SNT were compared with those obtained in the LPB-ELISA. There was a high correlation (r2 = 0.8926 between the two tests. The LPB-ELISA represents a single test suitable for the rapid detection of antibodies against bronchitis virus in chicken sera, with good sensitivity (88%, specificity (100% and agreement (95.31%.

  20. Antibody Responses to Zika Virus Infections in Environments of Flavivirus Endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keasey, Sarah L; Pugh, Christine L; Jensen, Stig M R; Smith, Jessica L; Hontz, Robert D; Durbin, Anna P; Dudley, Dawn M; O'Connor, David H; Ulrich, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus cocirculate. The envelope (E) proteins of these closely related flaviviruses induce specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV, and YFV infections of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Using printed microarrays, we detected very specific antibody responses to primary infections with probes of recombinant E proteins from 15 species and lineages of flaviviruses pathogenic to humans, while high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and DENV was observed with 11 printed native viruses. Notably, antibodies from human primary ZIKV or secondary DENV infections that occurred in areas where flavivirus is endemic broadly recognized E proteins from many flaviviruses, especially DENV, indicating a strong influence of infection history on immune responses. A predictive algorithm was used to tentatively identify previous encounters with specific flaviviruses based on serum antibody interactions with the multispecies panel of E proteins. These results illustrate the potential impact of exposure to related viruses on the outcome of ZIKV infection and offer considerations for development of vaccines and diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Different isotype profiles of virus-specific antibodies in acute and persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Marker, O

    1985-01-01

    , that a significant proportion of these antibodies belong to IgG subclasses which are considered T-cell dependent. This finding, together with the fact that T-cell deficient mice made little or no LCMV-specific antibodies, makes it reasonable to infer that C3H carriers have not only virus-primed B cells, but also...... virus-primed T-helper cells. However, the isotype profiles of the virus-specific antibodies detected were markedly different in carriers and in immune mice. Firstly, much greater inter-individual variation was observed in the carrier population than in the immune mice. Secondly, in immune mice IgG2a...... antibodies dominated the humoral response, whereas in carriers the virus-specific activity in this subclass was very low. In contrast, LCMV-specific antibodies of the IgG1 subclass were present in similar titres in immune mice and in the majority of the carriers. Evaluation of the IgG2b response revealed...

  2. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  4. Use of monoclonal antibodies against Hendra and Nipah viruses in an antigen capture ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiropoulou Christina F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses have been reported starting in 1994 and 1998, respectively. Both viruses are capable of causing fatal disease in humans and effecting great economical loss in the livestock industry. Results Through screening of hybridomas derived from mice immunized with γ-irradiated Nipah virus, we identified two secreted antibodies; one reactive with the nucleocapsid (N protein and the other, the phosphoprotein (P of henipaviruses. Epitope mapping and protein sequence alignments between NiV and HeV suggest the last 14 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of the N protein is the target of the anti-N antibody. The anti-P antibody recognizes an epitope in the amino-terminal half of P protein. These monoclonal antibodies were used to develop two antigen capture ELISAs, one for virus detection and the other for differentiation between NiV and HeV. The lower limit of detection of the capture assay with both monoclonal antibodies was 400 pfu. The anti-N antibody was used to successfully detect NiV in a lung tissue suspension from an infected pig. Conclusion The antigen capture ELISA developed is potentially affordable tool to provide rapid detection and differentiation between the henipaviruses.

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies against Hendra and Nipah viruses in an antigen capture ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Feng; Lo, Michael K; Rota, Paul A; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rollin, Pierre E

    2010-06-03

    Outbreaks of Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses have been reported starting in 1994 and 1998, respectively. Both viruses are capable of causing fatal disease in humans and effecting great economical loss in the livestock industry. Through screening of hybridomas derived from mice immunized with gamma-irradiated Nipah virus, we identified two secreted antibodies; one reactive with the nucleocapsid (N) protein and the other, the phosphoprotein (P) of henipaviruses. Epitope mapping and protein sequence alignments between NiV and HeV suggest the last 14 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of the N protein is the target of the anti-N antibody. The anti-P antibody recognizes an epitope in the amino-terminal half of P protein. These monoclonal antibodies were used to develop two antigen capture ELISAs, one for virus detection and the other for differentiation between NiV and HeV. The lower limit of detection of the capture assay with both monoclonal antibodies was 400 pfu. The anti-N antibody was used to successfully detect NiV in a lung tissue suspension from an infected pig. The antigen capture ELISA developed is potentially affordable tool to provide rapid detection and differentiation between the henipaviruses.

  6. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  7. Antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein promote infectivity of immature dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia M da Silva Voorham

    Full Text Available Cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV antibodies directed against the envelope (E and precursor membrane (prM proteins are believed to contribute to the development of severe dengue disease by facilitating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. We and others recently demonstrated that anti-prM antibodies render essentially non-infectious immature DENV infectious in Fcγ-receptor-expressing cells. Immature DENV particles are abundantly present in standard (st virus preparations due to inefficient processing of prM to M during virus maturation. Structural analysis has revealed that the E protein is exposed in immature particles and this prompted us to investigate whether antibodies to E render immature particles infectious. To this end, we analyzed the enhancing properties of 27 anti-E antibodies directed against distinct structural domains. Of these, 23 bound to immature particles, and 15 enhanced infectivity of immature DENV in a furin-dependent manner. The significance of these findings was subsequently tested in vivo using the well-established West Nile virus (WNV mouse model. Remarkably, mice injected with immature WNV opsonized with anti-E mAbs or immune serum produced a lethal infection in a dose-dependent manner, whereas in the absence of antibody immature WNV virions caused no morbidity or mortality. Furthermore, enhancement infection studies with standard (st DENV preparations opsonized with anti-E mAbs in the presence or absence of furin inhibitor revealed that prM-containing particles present within st virus preparations contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Taken together, our results support the notion that antibodies against the structural proteins prM and E both can promote pathogenesis by enhancing infectivity of prM-containing immature and partially mature flavivirus particles.

  8. Detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses using an inactivated sheeppox virus ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiuk, S; Wallace, D B; Smith, S J; Bowden, T R; Dalman, B; Parkyn, G; Copps, J; Boyle, D B

    2009-05-01

    An indirect ELISA was developed to detect antibodies specific for capripoxviruses in goat, sheep and cattle sera. Heat-inactivated Nigerian sheeppox virus was used as the ELISA antigen. Sera obtained from sheep and goats that were experimentally infected with different capripoxvirus isolates were used to develop and evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA. Virus neutralization indexes were determined for the experimental sera in OA3.Ts cells. The specificity of the ELISA was determined using 231 sera from capripoxvirus naïve sheep and goats from Canada. In addition, the ELISA was tested for cross-reactivity to anti-orf virus antibodies using orf-reactive sera and no cross-reactivity was observed. Using experimentally generated sera obtained from animals infected with virulent sheeppox or goatpox virus isolates, the diagnostic sensitivity of the ELISA was 96% with a diagnostic specificity of 95%, where the diagnostic sensitivity of the virus neutralization assay was 96% with a diagnostic specificity of 100%. Further evaluation of this ELISA, using 276 cattle serum samples that were positive by virus neutralization assays, revealed a diagnostic sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 97%. These results indicated that the inactivated capripoxvirus ELISA can detect capripoxvirus-specific antibodies in sheep, goats and cattle that have been infected with virulent capripoxvirus isolates. Non-virulent capripoxvirus isolates, in contrast, did not elicit positive (>or=1.5 Log10 neutralization index) antibody responses.

  9. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells....... This inhibition was found in infection of both lymphocytic cells and monocytoid cells. Viruses tested included six HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates propagated in different cells, as well as infectious plasma from AIDS patients. The antiviral effect of anti-Tn MAbs occurred by specific binding of the MAb to the virus...

  10. Measurement of influenza virus-antibody reaction by quantitative electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, L; Frommhagen, L H; Glick, D

    1967-10-01

    Measurement of the weight of individual virus particles from untreated and antibody-treated populations was made by quantitative electron microscopy. The weight of antibody bound depended on the concentration of antibody in solution. One population of viruses exposed to an antibody concentration which resulted in 95% inhibition of hemagglutination showed a mass increase of 55%, corresponding to an absolute increase of 9.0 x 10(-17) g in the median value. Another population, whose hemagglutination inhibition assay was 64%, showed a 39% increase in mass corresponding to an absolute median increase of 7.3 x 10(-17) g. The larger viruses in each population bound a greater absolute amount of antibody than did the smaller ones, but the latter bound relatively more antibody in proportion to their mass. No cross-reactivity was found between the antibody to influenza A/PR8 and the influenza strain B/LEE. Influenza A/PR8 controls exposed to nonspecific gamma-globulin displayed a significant weight loss, at least in part owing to loss from the core, as judged from the electron micrographs.

  11. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, R; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C

    2008-01-01

    Viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. Hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (Canis lupus) in Spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and against canine parvovirus (CPV) by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against CPV in 17.2%. There was no difference in antibody prevalence to CDV between both species, even in the same region (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference in antibody prevalence to CPV between foxes (5.1%) and wolves (62.2%) (Pwolf populations there was significantly higher antibody prevalence against CPV (PIberian wolf population. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  13. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Bar

    Full Text Available Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC(50 selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1-V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical

  14. Global Dynamics of Virus Infection Model with Antibody Immune Response and Distributed Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present qualitative behavior of virus infection model with antibody immune response. The incidence rate of infection is given by saturation functional response. Two types of distributed delays are incorporated into the model to account for the time delay between the time when uninfected cells are contacted by the virus particle and the time when emission of infectious (matures virus particles. Using the method of Lyapunov functional, we have established that the global stability of the steady states of the model is determined by two threshold numbers, the basic reproduction number R0 and antibody immune response reproduction number R1. We have proven that if R0≤1, then the uninfected steady state is globally asymptotically stable (GAS, if R1≤11, then the infected steady state with antibody immune response is GAS.

  15. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis E Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Tallo, Tatjana; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-11-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series. A sample was considered antibody-positive if it tested positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other countries.

  16. Recurrent Potent Human Neutralizing Antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbiani, Davide F; Bozzacco, Leonia; Keeffe, Jennifer R; Khouri, Ricardo; Olsen, Priscilla C; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer-Babajew, Dennis; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Nogueira, Lilian; Patel, Roshni; Azzopardi, Stephanie A; Uhl, Lion F K; Saeed, Mohsan; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E; Agudelo, Marianna; Yao, Kai-Hui; Golijanin, Jovana; Gristick, Harry B; Lee, Yu E; Hurley, Arlene; Caskey, Marina; Pai, Joy; Oliveira, Thiago; Wunder, Elsio A; Sacramento, Gielson; Nery, Nivison; Orge, Cibele; Costa, Federico; Reis, Mitermayer G; Thomas, Neena M; Eisenreich, Thomas; Weinberger, Daniel M; de Almeida, Antonio R P; West, Anthony P; Rice, Charles M; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ko, Albert I; MacDonald, Margaret R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2017-05-04

    Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies: Principles and applications of immmunodiagnosis and immunotherapy for hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabll, Ashraf; Abbas, Aymn T; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; Wahid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem worldwide. Early detection of the infection will help better management of the infected cases. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of mice are predominantly used for the immunodiagnosis of several viral, bacterial, and parasitic antigens. Serological detection of HCV antigens and antibodies provide simple and rapid methods of detection but lack sensitivity specially in the window phase between the infection and antibody development. Human mAb are used in the immunotherapy of several blood malignancies, such as lymphoma and leukemia, as well as for autoimmune diseases. In this review article, we will discuss methods of mouse and human monoclonal antibody production. We will demonstrate the role of mouse mAb in the detection of HCV antigens as rapid and sensitive immunodiagnostic assays for the detection of HCV, which is a major health problem throughout the world, particularly in Egypt. We will discuss the value of HCV-neutralizing antibodies and their roles in the immunotherapy of HCV infections and in HCV vaccine development. We will also discuss the different mechanisms by which the virus escape the effect of neutralizing mAb. Finally, we will discuss available and new trends to produce antibodies, such as egg yolk-based antibodies (IgY), production in transgenic plants, and the synthetic antibody mimics approach. PMID:26464752

  18. Mechanisms of equine infectious anemia virus escape from neutralizing antibody responses define epitope specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, Brett A; Clark, Sandra K; Friedrich, Rachel A

    2012-08-01

    Determining mechanisms of viral escape to particular epitopes recognized by virus-neutralizing antibody can facilitate characterization of host-neutralizing antibody responses as type- versus group-specific, and provides necessary information for vaccine development. Our study reveals that a single N-glycan located in the 5' region of the Wyoming wild-type equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) principal neutralizing domain (PND) accounts for the differences in neutralization phenotype observed between PND variants, while variations in charged amino acids within the PND do not appear to play a key role in viral escape. Site-directed mutagenesis and peptide mapping of a conserved epitope to neutralizing antibody in the 3' region of the PND showed rapid selective pressure for acquisition of a 5' PND N-glycan responsible for defining the specificity of the neutralizing-antibody response.

  19. seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus antibodies amongst blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    HCV is a single stranded RNA virus which until. 1989 was named non A, non B hepatitis virus, was responsible for 80% of post transfusion hepatitis (1,2,3). The modes of transmission are sexual intercourse, accidental inoculation (as in intravenous drug use, tattooing, acupuncture) with HCV- contaminated instruments, ...

  20. Hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the hepatitis agents known to be transmitted through blood and blood products. Hepatitis C virus has been implicated as a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of determining the ...

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brynn; Hebblewhite, Mark; Ezenwa, Vanessa; Shury, Todd; Merrill, Evelyn H; Paquet, Paul C; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Seip, Dale; Skinner, Geoff; Webb, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. To determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (Canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in Banff and Jasper National Parks and surrounding areas of the Canadian Rockies. This population was the source for wolves reintroduced into the Northern Rockies of the US. Of 99 wolves sampled, 94 had detectable antibody to CPV (95%), 24 were antibody-positive for CDV (24%), and 24 had antibodies to both pathogens (24%). We tested whether antibody prevalences for CPV and CDV were higher closer to human activity (roads, town sites, First Nation reserves) and as a function of sex and age class. Wolves ≥2 yr old were more likely to be have antibodies to CPV. For CDV, male wolves, wolves ≥2 yr, and those closer to First Nation reserves were more likely to have antibodies. Overall, however, we found minimal support for human influence on antibody prevalence for CDV and CPV. The similarity between our antibody prevalence results and results from recent studies in Yellowstone National Park suggests that at least in the case of CDV, and perhaps CPV, these could be important pathogens with potential effects on wolf populations.

  2. Identifying the Conditions Under Which Antibodies Protect Against Infection by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa J. Schwartz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the conditions under which antibodies protect against viral infection would transform our approach to vaccine development. A more complete understanding is needed of antibody protection against lentivirus infection, as well as the role of mutation in resistance to an antibody vaccine. Recently, an example of antibody-mediated vaccine protection has been shown via passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies before equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV infection of horses with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. Viral dynamic modeling of antibody protection from EIAV infection in SCID horses may lead to insights into the mechanisms of control of infection by antibody vaccination. In this work, such a model is constructed in conjunction with data from EIAV infection of SCID horses to gain insights into multiple strain competition in the presence of antibody control. Conditions are determined under which wild-type infection is eradicated with the antibody vaccine. In addition, a three-strain competition model is considered in which a second mutant strain may coexist with the first mutant strain. The conditions that permit viral escape by the mutant strains are determined, as are the effects of variation in the model parameters. This work extends the current understanding of competition and antibody control in lentiviral infection, which may provide insights into the development of vaccines that stimulate the immune system to control infection effectively.

  3. Detection of salivary antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, A; Giannelli, C.; Pistello, M; Zaccaro, L; Pieracci, D; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    The saliva of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus was examined for total immunoglobulin content and antiviral antibodies. Seropositive cats showed an increase in salivary immunoglobulin G levels, which was only partly attributable to the enhanced prevalence of oral inflammatory lesions, compared with the levels in seronegative cats. Immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin M, levels in serum were also increased. Salivary antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluorescence a...

  4. Coexistence of potent HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-sensitive viruses in a viremic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Wang, Haoqing; Scharf, Louise; Nogueira, Lilian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bar-On, Yotam; Golijanin, Jovana; Sievers, Stuart A.; Sok, Devin; Cai, Hui; Cesar Lorenzi, Julio C.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Gristick, Harry B.; van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.; Gazumyan, Anna; Walker, Bruce D.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2017-01-01

    Some HIV-1–infected patients develop broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that when passively transferred to mice or macaques can treat or prevent infection. However, bNAbs typically fail to neutralize coexisting autologous viruses due to antibody-mediated selection against sensitive viral strains. We describe an HIV-1 controller expressing HLA-B57*01 and HLA-B27*05 who maintained low viral loads for 30 years after infection and developed broad and potent serologic activity against HIV-1. Neutralization was attributed to three different bNAbs targeting non-overlapping sites on the HIV-1 envelope trimer (Env). One of the three, BG18, an antibody directed against the glycan-V3 portion of Env, is the most potent member of this class reported to date and, as revealed by crystallography and electron microscopy, recognizes HIV-1 Env in a manner that is distinct from other bNAbs in this class. Single-genome sequencing of HIV-1 from serum samples obtained over a period of 9 years showed a diverse group of circulating viruses, 88.5%(31 of 35) of which remained sensitive to at least one of the temporally coincident autologous bNAbs and the individual’s serum. Thus, bNAb-sensitive strains of HIV-1 coexist with potent neutralizing antibodies that target the virus and may contribute to control in this individual. When administered as a mix, the three bNAbs controlled viremia in HIV-1YU2–infected humanized mice. Our finding suggests that combinations of bNAbs may contribute to control of HIV-1 infection. PMID:28100831

  5. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Kyeom Kim

    Full Text Available Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17 were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  6. Development and characterization of novel chimeric monoclonal antibodies for broad spectrum neutralization of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan Kyeom; Keum, Sun Ju; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Franka, Richard; Shin, Ji Young; Park, Sang Tae; Kim, Man Su; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Soo Young; Carson, William; Greenberg, Lauren; Yu, Pengcheng; Tao, Xiaoyan; Lihua, Wang; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong; Shampur, Madhusdana; Rupprecht, Charles E; Chang, Shin Jae

    2017-01-01

    Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody. Two antibodies were bound to antigenic site III and I/IV, respectively, and were able to neutralize 51 field isolates of rabies virus that were isolated at different times and places such as Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. These two antibodies neutralize rabies viruses with high efficacy in an in vivo test using Syrian hamster and mouse models and show low risk for adverse immunogenicity.

  7. Protection from avian influenza H5N1 virus infection with antibody-impregnated filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukamoto Masaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is worldwide concern over the possibility of a new influenza pandemic originating from the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses. We herein demonstrate that functional air filters impregnated with ostrich antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the H5N1 virus protect chickens from death by H5N1 transmission. These results suggest that the use of ostrich antibody-impregnated filters might be a powerful way to prevent the transmission of H5N1.

  8. Impaired antibody response causes persistence of prototypic T cell-contained virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bergthaler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T cells are recognized key players in control of persistent virus infections, but increasing evidence suggests that assistance from other immune mediators is also needed. Here, we investigated whether specific antibody responses contribute to control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, a prototypic mouse model of systemic persistent infection. Mice expressing transgenic B cell receptors of LCMV-unrelated specificity, and mice unable to produce soluble immunoglobulin M (IgM exhibited protracted viremia or failed to resolve LCMV. Virus control depended on immunoglobulin class switch, but neither on complement cascades nor on Fc receptor gamma chain or Fc gamma receptor IIB. Cessation of viremia concurred with the emergence of viral envelope-specific antibodies, rather than with neutralizing serum activity, and even early nonneutralizing IgM impeded viral persistence. This important role for virus-specific antibodies may be similarly underappreciated in other primarily T cell-controlled infections such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, and we suggest this contribution of antibodies be given consideration in future strategies for vaccination and immunotherapy.

  9. Influenza virus antigenic variation, host antibody production and new approach to control epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yi-Mo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza is an infectious disease and can lead to life-threatening complications like pneumonia. The disease is caused by three types of RNA viruses called influenza types A, B and C, each consisting of eight negative single-stranded RNA-segments encoding 11 proteins. Current annual vaccines contain two type A strains and one type B strain and are capable of inducing strong antibody responses to both the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase. While these vaccines are protective against vaccine viruses they are not effective against newly emerging viruses that contain antigenic variations known as antigenic drift and shift. In nature, environmental selection pressure generally plays a key role in selecting antigenic changes in the antigen determining spots of hemagglutinin, resulting in changes in the antigenicity of the virus. Recently, a new technology has been developed where influenza-specific IgG+ antibody-secreting plasma cells can be isolated and cloned directly from vaccinated humans and high affinity monoclonal antibodies can be produced within several weeks after vaccination. The new technology holds great promise for the development of effective passive antibody therapy to limit the spread of influenza viruses in a timely manner.

  10. Cloning the Antibody Response in Humans with Chronic Inflammatory Disease: Immunopanning of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) Brain Sections with Antibody Phage Libraries Prepared from SSPE Brain Enriches for Antibody Recognizing Measles Virus Antigens In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gregory P.; Williamson, R. Anthony; Burgoon, Mark P.; Ghausi, Omar; Burton, Dennis R.; Gilden, Donald H.

    2000-01-01

    In central nervous system (CNS) infectious and inflammatory diseases of known cause, oligoclonal bands represent antibody directed against the causative agent. To determine whether disease-relevant antibodies can be cloned from diseased brain, we prepared an antibody phage display library from the brain of a human with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and selected the library against SSPE brain sections. Antibodies that were retrieved reacted strongly with measles virus cell extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were specific for the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. These antibodies immunostained cells in different SSPE brains but not in control brain. Our data provide the first demonstration that diseased brain can be used to select in situ for antibodies directed against the causative agent of disease and point to the potential usefulness of this approach in identifying relevant antibodies in chronic CNS or systemic inflammatory diseases of unknown cause. PMID:10627565

  11. Antibody against extracellular vaccinia virus (EV protects mice through complement and Fc receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Cohen

    Full Text Available Protein-based subunit smallpox vaccines have shown their potential as effective alternatives to live virus vaccines in animal model challenge studies. We vaccinated mice with combinations of three different vaccinia virus (VACV proteins (A33, B5, L1 and examined how the combined antibody responses to these proteins cooperate to effectively neutralize the extracellular virus (EV infectious form of VACV. Antibodies against these targets were generated in the presence or absence of CpG adjuvant so that Th1-biased antibody responses could be compared to Th2-biased responses to the proteins with aluminum hydroxide alone, specifically with interest in looking at the ability of anti-B5 and anti-A33 polyclonal antibodies (pAb to utilize complement-mediated neutralization in vitro. We found that neutralization of EV by anti-A33 or anti-B5 pAb can be enhanced in the presence of complement if Th1-biased antibody (IgG2a is generated. Mechanistic differences found for complement-mediated neutralization showed that anti-A33 antibodies likely result in virolysis, while anti-B5 antibodies with complement can neutralize by opsonization (coating. In vivo studies found that mice lacking the C3 protein of complement were less protected than wild-type mice after passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or vaccination with B5. Passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or monoclonal antibody into mice lacking Fc receptors (FcRs found that FcRs were also important in mediating protection. These results demonstrate that both complement and FcRs are important effector mechanisms for antibody-mediated protection from VACV challenge in mice.

  12. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening and diagnostic performance of enzyme immunoassay for antibody to lymphadenopathy-associated virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Handsfield, H H; Wandell, M; Goldstein, L.; Shriver, K

    1987-01-01

    In a multicenter cooperative study, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using purified antigen of lymphadenopathy-associated virus was compared with radioimmune precipitation (RIP) for detection of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 634 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or related conditions, 687 apparently healthy persons at risk for HIV infection, 93 controls with cancer or autoimmune diseases, and 10,038 blood or plasma donors. Excluding the donors, the EIA was reacti...

  14. Differentiation of peanut clump virus serotypes by monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenot, C.; Givord, Louise; Sommermeyer, G.; Van Regenmortel, M.H.V.

    1989-01-01

    Des anticorps monoclonaux dirigés contre le virus du "clump" de l'arachide ont permis de caractériser 5 sérotypes du virus. La comparaison de 4 types de tests immunoenzymatiques ELISA a permis de sélectionner celui qui est le mieux adapté au diagnostic de routine et à la différenciation entre sérotypes du virus. La plupart des anticorps monoclonaux conservent leur activité après adsorption sur la phase solide en ELISA, et le même anticorps peut être utilisé comme capteur et comme anticorps bi...

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus specific serum antibodies in infants under six months of age: limited serological response upon infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Brandenburg (Afke); J. Groen (Jan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); E.C.J. Claas (Eric); Ph.H. Rothbarth (Philip); H.J. Neijens (Herman); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe decline of maternal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) specific serum antibodies was studied in 45 children during the first 6 months of life, using a virus neutralization assay and competition ELISAs measuring fusion protein and glycoprotein specific antibodies. In all children RSV

  16. Enhanced sensitivity in detection of antiviral antibody responses using biotinylation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary; Waters, Ryan A; Rieder, Elizabeth; Pega, Juan; Perez-Filguera, Mariano; Golde, William T

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the immune response to infection of livestock by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is most often reported as the serum antibody response to the virus. While measurement of neutralizing antibody has been sensitive and specific, measurements of the quality of the antibody response are less robust. Determining the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype of the serum antibody response provides a deeper understanding of the biology of the response and more sensitive methods for these assays will facilitate analyses of B cell mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that using the virus as the molecular probe could be achieved by adding tags to the surface of the FMDV capsid, and that would enhance sensitivity in assays for anti-FMDV antibody responses. The use of a FLAG-tagged virus in these assays failed to yield improvement whereas chemically biotinylating the virus capsid resulted in significant enhancement of the signal. Here we describe methods using biotinylated virus for measuring anti-viral antibody in serum and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in blood that are sensitive and specific. Finally, we describe using the biotinylated virus in flow cytometry where such assays should greatly enhance the analysis of anti-virus antibody producing B cells, allowing the investigator to focus on only the FMDV specific B cells when analyzing the development of the B cell response to either infection or vaccination. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  18. Neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in acute versus chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Steven G; Schweighardt, Becky; Wrin, Terri; Galovich, Justin; Hoh, Rebecca; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hunt, Peter; McCune, Joseph M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Petropoulos, Christos J; Hecht, Frederick M

    2006-06-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the rapid development of neutralization escape mutations. The degree to which viral evolution persists in chronic infection has not been well characterized, nor is it clear if all patients develop high-level neutralization antibody escape. We therefore measured neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in a cohort of acutely and chronically infected subjects (n = 65). Neutralizing antibody responses against both autologous virus and heterologous viruses were lower among individuals with acute infection than among those with chronic infection. Among chronically infected individuals, there was a negative correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against autologous virus and the level of viremia. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the level of neutralizing antibodies against a panel of heterologous viruses and the level of viremia. Viral evolution, as defined by the presence of higher neutralizing titers directed against earlier viruses than against contemporaneous viruses, was evident for subjects with recent infection but absent for those with chronic infection. In summary, neutralizing antibody responses against contemporaneous autologous viruses are absent in early HIV infection but can be detected at low levels in chronic infection, particularly among those controlling HIV in the absence of therapy. HIV replication either directly or indirectly drives the production of increasing levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize heterologous primary isolates. Collectively, these observations indicate that although HIV continuously drives the production of neutralizing antibodies, there may be limits to the capacity of the virus to evolve continuously in response to these antibodies. These observations also suggest that the neutralizing antibody response may contribute to the long-term control of HIV in some patients while protecting

  19. Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Wild and Farmed Crocodiles in Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Padilla-Paz, Sergio E.; Weber, Manuel; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa; Juarez-Ordaz, José Alfredo; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Ulloa, Armando; Wang, Chong; Garcia-Rejon, Julián; Blitvich, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Morelet’s crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) was conducted in Campeche State, Mexico, in 2007. Sera from 62 crocodiles (32 free-ranging and 30 captive) were assayed for antibodies to WNV by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 13 (41%) wild and nine (30%) captive crocodiles, and the overall antibody prevalence was 35%. Although evidence of WNV infection in captive crocodiles has been reported in Mexico, we provide the first evidence of WNV exposure in wild crocodiles in Mexico. PMID:23778623

  20. SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN BLOODDONORS AND PATIENTS IN UNIVERSITY CLINICAL CENTER MARIBOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božislava Majcen Vivod

    2008-04-01

    Seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies declined in last decades in European countries. Inour study 20 % blood donors had antibodies anti-HAV in the group younger than 35 yearsand among patient only 15 % of patients had antibodies in the same group.The use of a vaccine against hepatitis A virus has to be considered for the prevention ofsymptomatic hepatitis, especially in adults at risk for infection, such as those who travel toareas with poor sanitation. Furthermore, they should take into consideration the fact thatthe severity of the disease increases with age

  1. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  2. Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Fernandez, Estefania; Kose, Nurgun; Bin Cao; Fox, Julie M; Bombardi, Robin G; Zhao, Haiyan; Nelson, Christopher A; Bryan, Aubrey L; Barnes, Trevor; Davidson, Edgar; Mysorekar, Indira U; Fremont, Daved H; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Crowe, James E

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies from subjects that were previously infected with ZIKV. We show that a subset of antibodies recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibit potent neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory antibodies, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African and Asian-American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer-dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Monoclonal antibody treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal-fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts.

  3. Prevalence Estimates of Antibodies Towards Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Small Ruminants in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila Nina; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Muwanika, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda with control strategies focusing on vaccination of cattle, while small ruminants are largely ignored. In order for Uganda to establish effective control strategies, it is crucial that the epidemiology of the disease is fully understood. This study...... summarizes results of serological investigations of sheep and goats for antibodies to FMDV from four districts in 2006 following an FMD outbreak in the region and from an attempted comprehensive random sampling in two districts in 2007. Antibodies were quantified and serotyped using competitive ELISA...... for antibodies towards non-structural proteins (NSP) and structural proteins towards serotype O, and blocking ELISA for antibodies towards the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). In 2006, sheep and goats in Bushenyi and Isingiro districts were free from antibodies towards FMDV, while herds in Kasese and Mbarara...

  4. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  5. Human antibodies to the dengue virus E-dimer epitope have therapeutic activity against Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Estefania; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Cao, Bin; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Supasa, Piyada; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Esakky, Prabagaran; Drury, Andrea; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Moley, Kelle H; Mysorekar, Indira U; Screaton, Gavin R; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has resulted in congenital abnormalities in fetuses and neonates. Although some cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV)-specific antibodies can enhance ZIKV infection in mice, those recognizing the DENV E-dimer epitope (EDE) can neutralize ZIKV infection in cell culture. We evaluated the therapeutic activity of human monoclonal antibodies to DENV EDE for their ability to control ZIKV infection in the brains, testes, placentas, and fetuses of mice. A single dose of the EDE1-B10 antibody given 3 d after ZIKV infection protected against lethality, reduced ZIKV levels in brains and testes, and preserved sperm counts. In pregnant mice, wild-type or engineered LALA variants of EDE1-B10, which cannot engage Fcg receptors, diminished ZIKV burden in maternal and fetal tissues, and protected against fetal demise. Because neutralizing antibodies to EDE have therapeutic potential against ZIKV, in addition to their established inhibitory effects against DENV, it may be possible to develop therapies that control disease caused by both viruses.

  6. Efficient generation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotypes bearing morbilliviral glycoproteins and their use in quantifying virus neutralising antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Drew, Angharad A; Takahashi, Emi; McDonald, Michael; Baron, Michael D; Gilbert, Martin; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-02-03

    Morbillivirus neutralising antibodies are traditionally measured using either plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs) or live virus microneutralisation tests (micro-NTs). While both test formats provide a reliable assessment of the strength and specificity of the humoral response, they are restricted by the limited number of viral strains that can be studied and often present significant biological safety concerns to the operator. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of morbillivirus neutralising antibodies. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of canine distemper virus (CDV) on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Further, by exchanging the glycoprotein expression construct, responses against distinct viral strains or species may be measured. Using this technique, we demonstrate cross neutralisation between CDV and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). As an example of the value of the technique, we demonstrate that UK dogs vary in the breadth of immunity induced by CDV vaccination; in some dogs the neutralising response is CDV-specific while, in others, the neutralising response extends to the ruminant morbillivirus PPRV. This technique will facilitate a comprehensive comparison of cross-neutralisation to be conducted across the morbilliviruses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Affinity maturation to improve human monoclonal antibody neutralization potency and breadth against hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Keck, Zhen-yong; Saha, Anasuya; Xia, Jinming; Conrad, Fraser; Lou, Jianlong; Eckart, Michael; Marks, James D; Foung, Steven K H

    2011-12-23

    A potent neutralizing antibody to a conserved hepatitis C virus (HCV) epitope might overcome its extreme variability, allowing immunotherapy. The human monoclonal antibody HC-1 recognizes a conformational epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein. Previous studies showed that HC-1 neutralizes most HCV genotypes but has modest potency. To improve neutralization, we affinity-matured HC-1 by constructing a library of yeast-displayed HC-1 single chain Fv (scFv) mutants, using for selection an E2 antigen from one of the poorly neutralized HCVpp. We developed an approach by parallel mutagenesis of the heavy chain variable (VH) and κ-chain variable (Vk) genes separately, then combining the optimized VH and Vk mutants. This resulted in the generation of HC-1-related scFv variants exhibiting improved affinities. The best scFv variant had a 92-fold improved affinity. After conversion to IgG1, some of the antibodies exhibited a 30-fold improvement in neutralization activity. Both surface plasmon resonance and solution kinetic exclusion analysis showed that the increase in affinity was largely due to a lowering of the dissociation rate constant, Koff. Neutralization against a panel of HCV pseudoparticles and infectious 2a HCV virus improved with the affinity-matured IgG1 antibodies. Interestingly, some of these antibodies neutralized a viral isolate that was not neutralized by wild-type HC-1. Moreover, propagating 2a HCVcc under the selective pressure of WT HC-1 or affinity-matured HC-1 antibodies yielded no viral escape mutants and, with the affinity-matured IgG1, needed 100-fold less antibody to achieve complete virus elimination. Taken together, these findings suggest that affinity-matured HC-1 antibodies are excellent candidates for therapeutic development.

  8. Development of VHH Antibodies against Dengue Virus Type 2 NS1 and Comparison with Monoclonal Antibodies for Use in Immunological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Aneela; Wang, Haiying; Kang, Keren; Xia, Liliang; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wei; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (VHH antibodies) as diagnostic tools for dengue virus (DENV) type 2 NS1 protein was investigated and compared with the use of conventional monoclonal antibodies. After successful expression of DENV type 2 NS1 protein, the genes of VHH antibodies against NS1 protein were biopanned from a non-immune llama library by phage display. VHH antibodies were then expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Simultaneously, monoclonal antibodies were obtained by the conventional route. Sequence analysis of the VHH antibodies revealed novel and long complementarity determining regions 3 (CDR3). Epitope mapping was performed via a phage display peptide library using purified VHH and monoclonal antibodies as targets. Interestingly, the same region of NS1, which comprises amino acids 224HWPKPHTLW232, was conserved for both kinds of antibodies displaying the consensus motif histidine-tryptophan-tryptophan or tryptophan-proline-tryptophan. The two types of antibodies were used to prepare rapid diagnostic kits based on immunochromatographic assay. The VHH antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit showed better sensitivity and specificity than the monoclonal antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit, which might be due to the long CDR3 regions of the VHH antibodies and their ability to bind to the pocket and cleft of the targeted antigen. This demonstrates that VHH antibodies are likely to be an option for developing point-of-care tests against DENV infection. PMID:24751715

  9. Antibody library display on a mammalian virus vector: combining the advantages of both phage and yeast display into one technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ernest S; Zauderer, Maurice

    2014-03-01

    Utilizing a vaccinia virus based library technology, we previously developed an antibody discovery platform that enabled efficient selection of fully functional IgG antibodies from highly diverse immunoglobulin gene libraries expressed on the surface of mammalian cells. Recently, we have further modified this platform to enable efficient expression of a library of fully human antibodies on the surface of vaccinia virus; an enveloped mammalian virus. Similar in concept to phage display, conditions are utilized under which each vaccinia virion expresses a single antibody specificity on its surface. Various panning and magnetic bead based methods have been developed to allow screening of a library of vaccinia- MAb virions and selection of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding specific antibodies. Upon infection of mammalian cells the antibody is not only incorporated into newly produced virus, it is also displayed on the surface of the host cell. Similar to methods utilized in yeast display, the cells displaying vaccinia encoded antibody can also be selected using a combination of magnetic beads and cell sorting, and the virus encoding the specific antibody heavy and light chains readily recovered and analyzed. This technology allows for rapid high throughput selection of vaccinia-MAb virions in a cell free panning system, followed by cell based screening for high specificity and fine selection of optimal antibodies.

  10. Prevalence of Avian Origin H5 and H7 Influenza Virus Antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of ongoing influenza surveillance efforts in livestock and companion animals in Nigeria, a study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of avian H5 and H7 influenza virus antibodies in exotic and Nigerian village dogs in Ibadan and Sagamu, two cities in Oyo and Ogun states respectively. One hundred and ...

  11. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; S. Losch; J. Mossong; C.P. Muller (Claude); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  12. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; B.E.E. Martina (Byron); S. Losch; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.P. Muller (Claude)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  13. Purification process monitoring in monoclonal antibody preparation: contamination with viruses, DNA and peptide growth factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. ter Avest (Anja); E.J.J. van Zoelen (Everardus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.F. van Kreyl; G. van Steenis (Bert); H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractAdministration in vivo of monoclonal antibodies to humans is challenged by considerations regarding their safety. Contamination with viruses, potentially oncogenic nucleic acids and biologically active components like growth factors and hormones forms a serious point of concern in this

  14. High Rates of Neutralizing Antibodies to Toscana and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Viruses in Livestock, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Taraku, Arber; Bërxholi, Kristaq; Charrel, Rémi N

    2017-06-01

    Toscana and sandfly fever Sicilian viruses (TOSV and SFSV, respectively), both transmitted by sand flies, are prominent human pathogens in the Old World. Of 1,086 serum samples collected from cattle and sheep during 2013 in various regions of Kosovo (Balkan Peninsula), 4.7% and 53.4% had neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, respectively.

  15. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and antibody markers in children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and antibody markers in children at a major paediatric hospital after the pentavalent DTP-HBV-Hib vaccination. ... Ghana Medical Journal ... Abstract. Objectives: The knowledge about outcomes of infant vaccination against HBV infections using the DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine in Ghana is limited.

  16. Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection is inhibited by SA-17, a doxorubicin derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayala Nunez, Vanesa; Jarupathirun, Patsaporn; Kaptein, Suzanne; Neyts, Johan; Smit, Jolanda

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to play a critical role in the exacerbation of dengue virus (DENV)-induced disease during a heterologous re-infection. Despite ADE's clinical impact, only a few antiviral compounds have been assessed for their anti-ADE activity. We reported earlier

  17. Hepatitis C virus epitope exposure and neutralization by antibodies is affected by time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Ray, Stuart C

    2012-01-01

    A recent study with flaviviruses suggested that structural dynamics of the virion impact antibody neutralization via exposure of ostensibly cryptic epitopes. To determine whether this holds true for the distantly related hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose neutralizing epitopes may be obscured...

  18. Viral gene expression, antibody production and immune complex formation in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. M.; Paul, D. A.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.; Goudsmit, J.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen (HIV-Ag) in polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitates and supernatants and HIV antibodies (HIV-Ab) to core and envelope antigens were studied in serial serum samples of three HIV-Ab seroconverters and 11 HIV-Ab seropositive men with a mean follow-up time of

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...

  20. rapid assessment of polio virus antibodies prevalence amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    northern Nigeria. There is paucity of information as it relates to polio antibody prevalence amongst children in the state. Periodic serologic assessment is needed to determine the quality and effectiveness of routine vaccination campaigns carried in the state to rapidly build immunity against poliovirus. Children were.

  1. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Necla; Ozsoy, Metin; Moroglu, Cigdem; Cagla Sonmezer, Meliha; Temocin, Fatih; Tuncer Ertem, Gunay; Sebnem Erdinc, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause significant pathology in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, HAV can be prevented by vaccination. The aim of this study was to determine the implication of vaccination against HAV vaccine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies was investigated in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected by commercially available ELISA kit. A total of 673 patients (354 males, 319 females with age range of 17-78 years) with chronic hepatitis B were included the study. Hepatitis A virus seropositivity rate was 34% in the patients younger than 20 years, 79% in the age group of 20 to 29 years, and 100% after 35 years of age. Hepatitis A virus vaccination may be recommended for young adult patients with chronic hepatitis B in Turkey. Tulek N, Ozsoy M, Moroglu C, Sonmezer MC, Temocin F, Ertem GT, Erdinc FS. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):95-97.

  2. Adjuvants and immunization strategies to induce influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Goff

    Full Text Available The global population remains vulnerable in the face of the next pandemic influenza virus outbreak, and reformulated vaccinations are administered annually to manage seasonal epidemics. Therefore, development of a new generation of vaccines is needed to generate broad and persistent immunity to influenza viruses. Here, we describe three adjuvants that enhance the induction of stalk-directed antibodies against heterologous and heterosubtypic influenza viruses when administered with chimeric HA proteins. Addavax, an MF59-like nanoemulsion, poly(I:C, and an RNA hairpin derived from Sendai virus (SeV Cantell were efficacious intramuscularly. The SeV RNA and poly(I:C also proved to be effective respiratory mucosal adjuvants. Although the quantity and quality of antibodies induced by the adjuvants varied, immunized mice demonstrated comparable levels of protection against challenge with influenza A viruses on the basis of HA stalk reactivity. Finally, we present that intranasally, but not intramuscularly, administered chimeric HA proteins induce mucosal IgA antibodies directed at the HA stalk.

  3. WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Eileen M; Walker, Edward D; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Krebs, Bethany L; Newman, Christina; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Levine, Rebecca S; Carrington, Mary E; McLean, Robert G; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-07-01

    Antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. Quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. We sampled free-ranging birds in Chicago, Illinois, US, from 2005 to 2011 and Atlanta, Georgia, US, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural WNV infection. Using serial dilutions in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified WNV antibody titer in repeated blood samples from individual birds over time. We quantified a rate of antibody decay for 23 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) of 0.198 natural log units per month and 24 individuals of other bird species of 0.178 natural log units per month. Our results suggest that juveniles had a higher rate of antibody decay than adults, which is consistent with nonlinear antibody decay at different times postexposure. Overall, most birds had undetectable titers 2 yr postexposure. Nonuniform WNV antibody decay rates in free-ranging birds underscore the need for cautious interpretation of avian serology results in the context of arbovirus surveillance and epidemiology.

  4. Serosurvey for West Nile virus antibodies in Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) captured in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elena; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Peery, M. Zach

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) conducted from 2011–2014 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird IgG enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died.

  5. Conformational changes in influenza virus haemagglutinin and its monomer detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, A N; White, D O; Jackson, D C

    1985-09-01

    Exposure of influenza virus haemagglutinin to pH 5 results in conformational changes occurring in the molecule which are accompanied by antigenic modifications. Furthermore, isolated haemagglutinin (HA) at a concentration of 0.1 nM undergoes dissociation from the trimeric to a monomeric form when exposed to pH 5. Whether present on intact virus or as the isolated monomer, each form of haemagglutinin from pH 5 exhibits similar alterations in antigenic characteristics. These forms of HA show modifications in the antigenic sites located in the hinge (site C), tip (site B) and subunit interface (site D) regions. Whereas binding of monoclonal antibodies recognizing the tip and interface is abrogated or diminished, binding of antibodies to the hinge region is greatly enhanced following exposure of virus or the monomeric form of HA to pH 5.

  6. Antibodies elicited by influenza virus hemagglutinin fail to bind to synthetic peptides representing putative antigenic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, A; Tregear, G W; Southwell, C N; Martyn, J; Murray, J M; White, D O; Jackson, D C

    1985-02-01

    A number of peptides of the hemagglutinin (HA) of X-31 influenza virus have been synthesised. The amino acid sequences of some of these peptides represent regions of HA which have been postulated [Wiley et al., Nature, Lond. 289, 373-378 (1981)] to form the antigenic sites of this molecule. Animals were immunized with free peptide or peptide conjugated to a carrier and the resulting antisera examined for their capacities to bind to homologous peptide, whole HA, reduced and alkylated HA, and intact virus. Not all peptides examined in this way were immunogenic. Only antibodies raised against the C-terminus of HA1 peptide displayed binding to virus. This antiserum bound to the intact HA but not to the reduced and alkylated form of the molecule. These results raise questions as to the feasibility of using synthetic peptides of the influenza HA in short linear sequences to elicit neutralising antibody.

  7. [Research of Human-mouse Chimeric Antibodies Against Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongping; Sun, Lina; Liu, Yang; Wu, Wei; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mifang; Qiu, Peihong

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus is highly infectious and can result in death in ≤ 90% of infected subjects. Detection of the Ebola virus and diagnosis of infection are extremely important for epidemic control. Presently, Chinese laboratories detect the nucleic acids of the Ebola virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, such detection takes a relatively long time and necessitates skilled personnel and expensive equipment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of serum is simple, easy to operate, and can be used to ascertain if a patient is infected with the Ebola virus as well as the degree of infection. Hence, ELISA can be used in epidemiological investigations and is a strong complement to detection of nucleic acids. Cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have not been documented in China, so quality-control material for positive serology is needed. Construction and expression of human-mouse chimeric antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the Ebola virus was carried out. Genes encoding variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains were extracted and amplified from murine hybridoma cells. Genes encoding the VH and VL chains of monoclonal antibodies were amplified by RT-PCR. According to sequence analyses, a primer was designed to amplify functional sequences relative to VH and VL chain. The eukaryotic expression vector HL51-14 carrying some human antibody heavy chain- and light chain-constant regions was used. IgG antibodies were obtained by transient transfection of 293T cells. Subsequently, immunological detection and immunological identification were identified by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. These results showed that we constructed and purified two human- mouse chimeric antibodies.

  8. Comprehensive Mapping Antigenic Epitopes of NS1 Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus with Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hong Hua

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5AIDITRK(11, (72RDELNVL(78, (251KSKHNRREGY(260, (269DENGIVLD(276, and (341DETTLVRS(348. Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  9. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  10. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  11. Risk factors for Hepatitis C virus antibody seropositivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) resulting to a chronic hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection constitutes a serious public health challenge in Nigeria where donor blood is not routinely screened for HCV. Patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) are considered a ...

  12. serological survey of infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    3%BSA/0.05%Tween 20 (pH7.2)). Fifty microlitres of each diluted sample was added to each well of IBD virus pre-coated microtitre plates and incubated for one hour at 380C. Positive control serum (Post IBD serum) and negative control serum ...

  13. Isotypes of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Marie Wulff; Draborg, Anette Holck; Troelsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the humoral immune response against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it with the two major autoantibody types in RA, plasma samples from 77 RA patients, 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 28 healthy controls...

  14. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was below OIE's advocated titre of ≥ 64 for conferment of specific immunity. These findings confirm endemicity of IBDV in Kaduna and indicate that field strains of IBDV still existing in local chickens serve as vehicles of transmission of the virus, thereby maintaining the infectious cycle amongst avian species in Kaduna.

  15. Sero-Prevalence of Cytomegalo Virus Antibodies in Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with cytomegalo virus (CMV), especially in pregnancy may cause pregnancy complications such as congenital infection, non-hereditary deafness, intrauterine growth restriction and other high defects. This study was to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinics at Maryam ...

  16. Role of antibodies in controlling dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Smit, Jolanda M.

    The incidence and disease burden of arthropod-borne flavivirus infections have dramatically increased during the last decades due to major societal and economic changes, including massive urbanization, lack of vector control, travel, and international trade. Specifically, in the case of dengue virus

  17. Associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus, antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I

    2008-07-01

    To measure associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), antibodies against BVDV, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus in calves. 1,782 calves from 61 beef herds. Calf serum samples were analyzed at weaning for antibodies against type 1 and type 2 BVDV and IBR virus. Skin biopsy specimens from 5,704 weaned calves were tested immunohistochemically to identify persistently infected (PI) calves. Herd production records and individual calf treatment and weaning weight records were collected. There was no association between the proportion of calves with antibodies against BVDV or IBR virus and herd prevalence of abortion, stillbirth, calf death, or nonpregnancy. Calf death risk was higher in herds in which a PI calf was detected, and PI calves were more likely to be treated and typically weighed substantially less than herdmates at weaning. Calves with high antibody titers suggesting exposure to BVDV typically weighed less than calves that had no evidence of exposure. BVDV infection, as indicated by the presence of PI calves and serologic evidence of infection in weaned calves, appeared to have the most substantial effect on productivity because of higher calf death risk and treatment risk and lower calf weaning weight.

  18. Henipavirus microsphere immuno-assays for detection of antibodies against Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Leanne; Barr, J; Crameri, G; Juzva, S; Riddell, S; Colling, A; Boyd, V; Broder, C; Wang, L-F; Lunt, R

    2014-05-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses (HeV and NiV) are closely related zoonotic pathogens of the Paramyxoviridae family. Both viruses belong to the Henipavirus genus and cause fatal disease in animals and humans, though only HeV is endemic in Australia. In general and due to the acute nature of the disease, agent detection by PCR and virus isolation are the primary tools for diagnostic investigations. Assays for the detection of antibodies against HeV are fit more readily for the purpose of surveillance testing in disease epidemiology and to meet certification requirements in the international movement of horses. The first generation indirect ELISA has been affected by non-specific reactions which must be resolved using virus neutralisation serology conducted at laboratory bio-safety level 4 containment (PC4). Recent developments have enabled improvements in the available serology assays. The production of an expressed recombinant truncated HeV G protein has been utilised in ELISA and in Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assays. In the latter format, two Luminex assays have been developed for use in henipavirus serology: a binding assay (designed for antibody detection and differentiation) and a blocking assay (designed as a surrogate for virus neutralisation). Equine and canine field sera were used to evaluate the two Luminex assays relative to ELISA and virus neutralisation serology. Results showed that Luminex assays can be effective as rapid, sensitive and specific tests for the detection of HeV antibody in horse and dog sera. The tests do not require PC4 containment and are appropriate for high throughput applications as might be required for disease investigations and other epidemiological surveillance. Also, the results show that the Luminex assays detect effectively HeV vaccine-induced antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurda, Brittney L.; DiMattia, Michael A.; Miller, Edward B.; Bennett, Antonette; McKenna, Robert; Weichert, Wendy S.; Nelson, Christian D.; Chen, Wei-jun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Olson, Norman H.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Chiorini, John A.; Zolotutkhin, Sergei; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Baker, Timothy S.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies. PMID:23760240

  20. Production of yam mosaic virus monoclonal antibodies in mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... (w/v) egg albumin, 0.005 mM PVP-40) was added to each well and incubated at 37°C for 2 h. Then 200 µl of ρ-nitrophenylphosphate substrate (ρNPP) (1 mg ml-1 in 10% diethanolamine, pH 9.8) was added into each of the wells to detect the antigen-antibody reactions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.

  1. Detection of early antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and radioimmunoprecipitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Saah, A J; Farzadegan, H; Fox, R; Nishanian, P; Rinaldo, C R; Phair, J P; Fahey, J L; Lee, T H; Polk, B F

    1987-01-01

    A current concept of the serological response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans is that antibodies to core antigens (p55, p24, and p15) are detectable earlier during initial stages of antibody production than antibodies against envelope antigens (gp160, gp120, and gp41). Comparative studies of Western blot (immunoblot), radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) during initial antibody production are limited to case reports and...

  2. Monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moekotte, A L; Huson, M A M; van der Ende, A J; Agnandji, S T; Huizenga, E; Goorhuis, A; Grobusch, M P

    2016-11-01

    To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa, significant progress has been made towards vaccine development but also towards specific treatment with convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Areas covered: We describe recent developments in monoclonal antibody treatment for EVD, encompassing mAb114 and the MB-003, ZMAb, ZMapp™ and MIL-77E cocktails. Expert opinion: Preventive measures, are, and will remain essential to curb EVD outbreaks; even more so with vaccine development progressing. However, research for treatment options must not be neglected. Small-scale animal and individual human case studies show that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be effective for EVD treatment; thus justifying exploration in clinical trials. Potential limitations are that high doses may be needed to yield clinical efficacy; epitope mutations might reduce efficacy; and constant evolution of (outbreak-specific) mAb mixtures might be required. Interim advice based on the clinical experience to date is that treatment of patients with mAbs is sensible, provided those could be made available in the necessary amounts in time.

  3. Loss of hepatitis A virus antibodies after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, E R; de Souza, V A U F; Cakmak, S; Machado, A F; Vilas Boas, L S; Machado, C M

    2006-07-01

    Reimmunization guidelines have recommended the inactivated HAV vaccine for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients living in or traveling to areas where hepatitis A is endemic. As a shift from high to medium hepatitis A endemicity has been observed in several countries in Latin America, we conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis A pre-bone marrow transplant (BMT) and the loss of specific antibodies in consecutive stored serum samples from 77 BMT recipients followed up from 82 to 1530 days. The prevalence of HAV antibodies was 92.2% before BMT. As vaccine was not available in Brazil when the samples were taken, it was assumed that this prevalence reflects natural infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of becoming seronegative was 4.5% (+/-2.6%), 7.9% (+/-3.4%), 10.1% (+/-4.0%), 23.4% (+/-9.6%) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after transplant, respectively. The loss of HAV antibodies was significantly associated with longer follow-up (P=0.0015), younger age (P=0.049) and acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.035). As most reimmunization protocols start around day +365, in developing countries with similar HAV endemicity, BMT recipients should have serological screening before HAV vaccination and the inactivated vaccine should be advised to those seronegative.

  4. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  5. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  6. A new method for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against mumps virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Keita; Fujino, Motoko; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Iwata, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Neutralization test is the most reliable method of evaluating immunity against viral diseases but there is no standard procedure for mumps virus, with tests differing in the infectivity of the challenge virus, 50% plaque reduction or complete inhibition of cytopathic effects (CPE), and usage of complement. A reliable, easy, and simple neutralization test for mumps virus was developed in this study. A recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP was generated as a challenge virus. Complement was added to the neutralizing mixture at 1∶200 when stocked serum samples were used. Neutralizing antibody titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that did not exceed two-fold of FU values (GFP expression) of the cell control wells. A total of 1,452 serum samples were assayed by inhibition of GFP expression in comparison with those examined by conventional 100% inhibition of CPE. 1,367 (94.1%) showed similar neutralizing antibody titers when examined by both methods. The GFP expression inhibition assay, using a recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP, is a simple and time- saving method.

  7. A new method for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against mumps virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Matsubara

    Full Text Available Neutralization test is the most reliable method of evaluating immunity against viral diseases but there is no standard procedure for mumps virus, with tests differing in the infectivity of the challenge virus, 50% plaque reduction or complete inhibition of cytopathic effects (CPE, and usage of complement. A reliable, easy, and simple neutralization test for mumps virus was developed in this study. A recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP was generated as a challenge virus. Complement was added to the neutralizing mixture at 1∶200 when stocked serum samples were used. Neutralizing antibody titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that did not exceed two-fold of FU values (GFP expression of the cell control wells. A total of 1,452 serum samples were assayed by inhibition of GFP expression in comparison with those examined by conventional 100% inhibition of CPE. 1,367 (94.1% showed similar neutralizing antibody titers when examined by both methods. The GFP expression inhibition assay, using a recombinant mumps virus expressing GFP, is a simple and time- saving method.

  8. [Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus serotypes in university students from Tabasco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Burgos, Gilma Guadalupe; López-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Castañeda-Desales, Deyanira; Ruiz-Gómez, Juan; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2008-01-01

    Determine the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus in students from the state university of Tabasco, Mexico. A transversal study was conducted of serum collected from students between September and November, 2005. The sera were screened for anti-dengue IgG and those that had evidence of dengue antibodies were analyzed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. Prevalence of anti-dengue IgG was 9.1%. The frequency of neutralizing antibodies was 100% for DENV-2, 68% for DENV-4, 20% for DENV-1, and 4 % for DENV-3. We found that in this population, DENV-2 circulates more than DENV-3 despite the fact that DENV-3 is more frequently isolated. Unexpectedly, neutralizing antibodies against DENV-4 were frequently found even though this serotype is almost extinct; thus, it is probable that cross-immunity could suppress DEN-4 transmission, as has been suggested.

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing and the Right of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-30

    cryptococcal meningitis (fungus), central nervous system toxoplasmosis (protozoan), cytomegalorius (a herpes family virus causes severe diarrhea...becomes weaker and weaker and eventually succumbs to one of the infections or to cancer such as Kaposi’s sarcoma. Technically it could be said that the...children; in adults chicken pox is not mild),or fatal but not contagious like cancer . Medical knowledge decides the threat of a disease to the public

  10. HIV-1 Cross-Reactive Primary Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response Elicited by Immunization in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing

    2017-11-01

    Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation.IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset

  11. Association between Haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies and protection against clade 6B viruses in 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sophia; Saborio, Saira; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Sanchez, Nery; Ojeda, Sergio; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Angel; Gordon, Aubree

    2017-10-27

    The epidemiology of the pandemic A(H1N1) virus has been changing as population immunity continues to co-evolve with the virus. The impact of genetic changes in the virus on human's susceptibility is an outstanding important question in vaccine design. In a community-based study, we aim to (1) determine the genetic characteristics of 2009-2015 pandemic H1N1 viruses, (2) assess antibody response following natural infections and (3) assess the correlation of A/California/07/09 antibody titers to protection in the 2013 and 2015 epidemics. In a household transmission study, serum specimens from 253 individuals in Managua, Nicaragua were analyzed. Combined nose and throat swabs were collected to detect RT-PCR confirmed influenza infection and virus sequencing. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were performed and the protective titer for circulating H1N1pdm was determined. Clade 6B pandemic H1N1 viruses predominated in Nicaragua during the 2013 and 2015 seasons. Our household transmission study detected a household secondary attack rate of 17% in 2013 and 33% in 2015. Infected individuals, including vaccinees, showed an apparent antibody response to A/California/07/09. Baseline titers of A/California/07/09 antibodies were found to associate with protection in both seasons. A titer of ≥1:40 correlated to a 44% protection in children, a 29% protection in adults 15-49years old and a 51% protection in adults 50-85years old. In 2013 and 2015, antibody titers to A/California/07/09 associated with an infection risk reduction amongst exposed household contacts. This is consistent with a detectable vaccine effectiveness reported in a number of studies. Genetic changes in clade 6B viruses might have led to a reduced immunity in some whereas others might have been less affected. The use of human serologic data is important in virus characterization and if performed in a timely manner, could assist in vaccine strain selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibodies against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has changed over the last two decades, indicating a declining incidence of HAV and HBV infections. Therefore, vaccinations against HAV and HBV are recommended for unimmunized people before traveling to an endemic area. Unfortunately, primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients can only obtain humoral immunity through intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement and not from vaccination because of a defect in antibody production. However, few studies have analyzed the titers of antibodies against HAV or HBV in IVIG products. In this study, the titers of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies were measured in nineteen lots of IVIG products from five manufacturers from three countries (A, B from Korea; C, D from Japan; and E from the USA), and trough titers in plasma were estimated. Concentrations of anti-HAV antibody ranged from 1,888-8,927 mIU/mL and estimated trough titers exceeded the minimal protective value in all evaluated IVIG products. Concentrations of anti-HBs antibody ranged from 438-965 mIU/mL in products A and B and were 157, 123, and 1,945 mIU/mL in products C, D, and E, respectively. Estimated trough titers in products A, B, and E exceeded the minimal protective value but those in products C and D did not reach this threshold. These data demonstrated that available IVIG products generally provide sufficient antibodies against HAV and HBV to protect patients with PAD, although the trough concentrations of anti-HBs antibody in two IVIG products did not reach the minimum protective value.

  13. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  14. Antibodies to henipavirus or henipa-like viruses in domestic pigs in Ghana, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97 tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es. Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.

  15. Induction of neutralising antibodies and cellular immune responses against SARS coronavirus by recombinant measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liniger, Matthias; Zuniga, Armando; Tamin, Azaibi; Azzouz-Morin, Teldja N; Knuchel, Marlyse; Marty, Rene R; Wiegand, Marian; Weibel, Sara; Kelvin, David; Rota, Paul A; Naim, Hussein Y

    2008-04-16

    Live attenuated recombinant measles viruses (rMV) expressing a codon-optimised spike glycoprotein (S) or nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were generated (rMV-S and rMV-N). Both recombinant viruses stably expressed the corresponding SARS-CoV proteins, grew to similar end titres as the parental strain and induced high antibody titres against MV and the vectored SARS-CoV antigens (S and N) in transgenic mice susceptible to measles infection. The antibodies induced by rMV-S had a high neutralising effect on SARS-CoV as well as on MV. Moreover, significant N-specific cellular immune responses were measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays. The pre-existence of anti-MV antibodies induced by the initial immunisation dose did not inhibit boost of anti-S and anti-N antibodies. Immunisations comprising a mixture of rMV-S and rMV-N induced immune responses similar in magnitude to that of vaccine components administered separately. These data support the suitability of MV as a bivalent candidate vaccine vector against MV and emerging viruses such as SARS-CoV.

  16. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  17. Development and application of antibody microarray for lymphocystis disease virus detection in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhan, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is the causative agent of lymphocystis disease affecting marine and freshwater fish worldwide. Here an antibody microarray was developed and employed to detect LCDV in fish. Rabbit anti-LCDV serum was arrayed on agarose gel-modified slides as capture antibody, and Cy3-conjugated anti-LCDV monoclonal antibody (MAbs) was added as detection antibody. The signals were imaged with a laser chip scanner and analyzed by corresponding software. To improve the sensitivity, different substrate binders (poly-L-lysine, MPTS, aldehyde, APES and agarose gel modified slides, and commercially available amino-modified slides), markers (fluorescein isothiocyanate, Cy3, horseradish peroxidase, biotin or colloidal gold) conjugated to anti-LCDV Mabs, and storage time of the antibody were assessed. The results showed that the antibody microarrays based on agarose gel-modified slides gave a lower detection limit of 0.55μg/ml of LCDV when Cy3 and HRP conjugated anti-LCDV MAbs were used as detection antibody; and the lowest detectable LCDV protein concentration was 0.0686 μg/ml when streptavidin-biotin conjugated to anti-LCDV MAbs served as detection antibody. The developed antibody microarray proved to have a high specificity for LCDV detection and a shelf-life of more than 8 months at -20°C. Furthermore, the LCDV detection results of the microarray in fish gills or fins (n=50) presented a concordance rate of 100% with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 98% with immunofluorescence assay technique (IFAT). These results revealed that the developed antibody microarray could serve as an effective tool for diagnostic and epidemiological studies of LCDV in fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of subtype-specific and heterosubtypic antibodies to the influenza A virus hemagglutinin after primary infection in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Burlington, D B; Wright, P F; van Wyke, K L; Phelan, M A; Mayner, R E; Murphy, B R

    1985-01-01

    Children undergoing primary infection with an H1N1 or H3N2 influenza A virus developed subtype-specific hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies to purified hemagglutinin (HA) of the infecting virus subtype. They also developed lower titered ELISA antibodies to the noninfecting H1 or H3 HA and to H8 (an avian strain) HA. Thus, after primary infection with an influenza A virus, children develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but not hemaggluti...

  19. Prevalence of serum anti-rubella virus antibodies among pregnant women in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calimeri, Sebastiano; Capua, Adele; La Fauci, Vincenza; Squeri, Raffaele; Grillo, Orazio C; Lo Giudice, Daniela

    2012-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of anti-rubella virus antibodies and the level of knowledge about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) among pregnant women living in southern Italy. A seroepidemiologic study was conducted between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007. Five-hundred women resident in Messina were enrolled in the study; the participants were in the 4th to 39th week of pregnancy. Anti-rubella virus antibodies were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Demographic details, vaccination history, and participants' knowledge of the potential risks of rubella infection during pregnancy were assessed via questionnaire. On the basis of the questionnaire results, 70.4% of women were classed as immune to rubella virus infection; however, the prevalence of IgG anti-rubella virus antibodies measured in the participants' serum was 85.8%. Although 55.2% of women had undergone pre-pregnancy rubella screening, only 81 participants reported that they had been vaccinated before becoming pregnant. The participants' general knowledge about CRS was poor, as was their understanding of the importance of undergoing screening. The number of women at risk of rubella infection fell short of the national target set for elimination of CRS. Increased involvement and collaboration by all healthcare workers are, therefore, required to disseminate the information necessary to prevent CRS. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  1. Anti-Borna disease virus antibody responses in psychiatric patients: long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Alexander; Adamaszek, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Data suggesting a pathogenetic role for Borna disease virus (BDV) in neuropsychiatric diseases are still inconclusive and it is unknown whether humans become persistently infected or clear the virus infection. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate long-term BDV-specific antibody responses in psychiatric patients in order to gain new insights into human BDV infection and its pathogenicity. BDV-specific antibody titers and associations with clinical conditions were studied retrospectively in 94 seropositive patients with schizophrenia (n = 46), affective disorders (n = 19) and other psychiatric disorders (n = 29) who had been repeatedly tested for the presence of BDV-specific antibodies on indirect immunofluorescence assay between 1985 and 2006. Long-term titer dynamics were studied in 46 patients followed up for a period of >36 months. A total of 25 of these 46 patients (54.3%) had persistent seropositivity, whereas seroreversion from positive to negative was observed in 21 (45.7%). Patients in the early course of schizophrenia had lower antibody titers compared to patients in the advanced course (P = 0.017), while a higher proportion of patients in the early course had titer increases (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in antibody titers between patient subgroups with clinically stable and acute psychiatric disorders. Persistent seropositivity in a subgroup of psychiatric patients in the long-term analysis suggests chronic BDV infection in humans.

  2. Plant virus particles carrying tumour antigen activate TLR7 and Induce high levels of protective antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantipa Jobsri

    Full Text Available Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP, which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the "gold standard" Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-α by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe "in-built" ssRNA adjuvant.

  3. Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E; Samuel, Michael D; Egstad, Kristina F; Griffin, Kathryn M; Nolden, Cherrie A; Karwal, Lovkesh; Ip, Hon S

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for < 1 year. Mesopredators may be sensitive indicators of West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers.

  4. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoproteins decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cristina W; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; O'Toole, Donal; Nicola, Anthony V; Aguilar, Hector C; Li, Hong

    2015-02-25

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vitro, SA-MCF research is hindered by the lack of in vitro tools to study viral constituents and specific host immune responses. As an alternative, in this study the neutralizing activity of antibodies against OvHV-2 glycoproteins gB and gH/gL was evaluated in vivo using rabbits. OvHV-2-specific antibodies were developed in rabbits by immunization using biolistic delivery of plasmids expressing the genes of interest. A lethal dose of OvHV-2 was incubated with the antisera and then nebulized into rabbits. Virus neutralization was assessed by measuring infection parameters associated with the virus infectious dose. Anti-gB or anti-gH/gL antibodies alone blocked infection in five out of six rabbits (83%), while a combination of anti-gB and anti-gH/gL antibodies protected all six rabbits (100%) from infection. These results indicate that antibodies to OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are capable of neutralizing virions, and consequently, reduce virus infectivity and prevent SA-MCF in rabbits. Thus, OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are suitable targets to be tested in a SA-MCF vaccine aimed at stimulating neutralizing antibody responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are coexpr......In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  6. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  7. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4......) and animals immunized with CV (n = 5) developed moderate to severe respiratory disease, whereas calves immunized with ISCOMS (17 = 5) remained clinically healthy. BRSV was re-isolated from the nasopharynx of all controls and from all calves immunized with CV, but from none of the calves immunized with ISCOMs...... of maternal antibodies in calves and induced strong clinical and virological protection against a BRSV challenge....

  8. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST LARYNGOTRACHEITIS VIRUS IN BROILERS AND LAYER BREEDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yauris S., Gabriela; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Icochea D’A., Eliana; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; González V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Falcón P., Néstor; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva,Facultad de Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima

    2012-01-01

    A total of 360 serum samples from eighteen flocks of broiler and layer breeders in phase of production were used in order to detect the presence of Laryngotracheitis virus (VLT) antibodies using a commercial ELISA test. The poultry farms were located in the region of Lima and in the northern coast of Peru. Samples were collected from July 2004 till September 2005 and were processed as a group. Eight samples out of 360 in 6 flocks were positive to antibodies against VLT. Due to the small numbe...

  9. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  11. Plant-produced anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies exhibit reduced antibody-dependent enhancement of infection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Paul, Amber M; Sun, Haiyan; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Ming; Esqueda, Adrian; Bai, Fengwei; Steinkellner, Herta; Chen, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The mAb E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian-cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo, and treated animals more susceptible to developing more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60. The mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamianaWT and a ∆XFT line, a glycosylation mutant lacking plant-specific N-glycan residues. The mAb was efficiently expressed and assembled in leaves and exhibited highly homogenous N-glycosylation profiles, i.e. GnGnXF3 or GnGn structures, depending on the expression host. Both E60 glycovariants demonstrated equivalent antigen-binding specificity and in vitro neutralization potency against DENV serotypes 2 and 4 compared with their mammalian-cell-produced counterpart. By contrast, plant-produced E60 exhibited reduced ADE activity in Fc gamma receptor expressing human cells. Our results suggest the ability of plant-produced antibodies to minimize ADE, which may lead to the development of safe and highly efficacious antibody-based therapeutics against DENV and other ADE-prone viral diseases. Our study provides so far unknown insight into the relationship between mAb N-glycosylation and ADE, which contributes to our understanding of how sugar moieties of antibodies modulate Fc-mediated functions and viral pathogenesis.

  12. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species.

  13. Destructive arthritis in a patient with chikungunya virus infection with persistent specific IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Receveur Marie-Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya fever is an emerging arboviral disease characterized by an algo-eruptive syndrome, inflammatory polyarthralgias, or tenosynovitis that can last for months to years. Up to now, the pathophysiology of the chronic stage is poorly understood. Case presentation We report the first case of CHIKV infection with chronic associated rheumatism in a patient who developed progressive erosive arthritis with expression of inflammatory mediators and persistence of specific IgM antibodies over 24 months following infection. Conclusions Understanding the specific features of chikungunya virus as well as how the virus interacts with its host are essential for the prevention, treatment or cure of chikungunya disease.

  14. Conserved epitope on influenza-virus hemagglutinin head defined by a vaccine-induced antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Donald D.; Bajic, Goran; Ferdman, Jack; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Settembre, Ethan C.; Moody, M. Anthony; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Harrison, Stephen C. (Duke-MED); (CH-Boston); (Seqirus)

    2017-12-18

    Antigenic variation requires frequent revision of annual influenza vaccines. Next-generation vaccine design strategies aim to elicit a broader immunity by directing the human immune response toward conserved sites on the principal viral surface protein, the hemagglutinin (HA). We describe a group of antibodies that recognize a hitherto unappreciated, conserved site on the HA of H1 subtype influenza viruses. Mutations in that site, which required a change in the H1 component of the 2017 vaccine, had not previously “taken over” among circulating H1 viruses. Our results encourage vaccine design strategies that resurface a protein to focus the immune response on a specific region.

  15. Spontaneous Mutation Rate of Measles Virus: Direct Estimation Based on Mutations Conferring Monoclonal Antibody Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Stephanie J.; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    1999-01-01

    High mutation rates typical of RNA viruses often generate a unique viral population structure consisting of a large number of genetic microvariants. In the case of viral pathogens, this can result in rapid evolution of antiviral resistance or vaccine-escape mutants. We determined a direct estimate of the mutation rate of measles virus, the next likely target for global elimination following poliovirus. In a laboratory tissue culture system, we used the fluctuation test method of estimating mutation rate, which involves screening a large number of independent populations initiated by a small number of viruses each for the presence or absence of a particular single point mutation. The mutation we focused on, which can be screened for phenotypically, confers resistance to a monoclonal antibody (MAb 80-III-B2). The entire H gene of a subset of mutants was sequenced to verify that the resistance phenotype was associated with single point mutations. The epitope conferring MAb resistance was further characterized by Western blot analysis. Based on this approach, measles virus was estimated to have a mutation rate of 9 × 10−5 per base per replication and a genomic mutation rate of 1.43 per replication. The mutation rates we estimated for measles virus are comparable to recent in vitro estimates for both poliovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In the field, however, measles virus shows marked genetic stability. We briefly discuss the evolutionary implications of these results. PMID:9847306

  16. Peptides designed to spatially depict the Epstein-Barr virus major virion glycoprotein gp350 neutralization epitope elicit antibodies that block virus-neutralizing antibody 72A1 interaction with the native gp350 molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Jerome E; Coinçon, Mathieu; Leblond, Valérie; Hu, Jing; Fang, Janey M; Sygusch, Jurgen; Alfieri, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis and the root cause of B-cell lymphoproliferative disease in individuals with a weakened immune system, as well as a principal cofactor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, various lymphomas, and other cancers. The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein gp350 is viewed as the best vaccine candidate to prevent infectious mononucleosis in healthy EBV-naive persons and EBV-related cancers in at-risk individuals. Previous epitope mapping of gp350 revealed only one dominant neutralizing epitope, which has been shown to be the target of the monoclonal antibody 72A1. Computer modeling of the 72A1 antibody interaction with the gp350 amino terminus was used to identify gp350 amino acids that could form strong ionic, electrostatic, or hydrogen bonds with the 72A1 antibody. Peptide DDRTTLQLAQNPVYIPETYPYIKWDN (designated peptide 2) and peptide GSAKPGNGSYFASVKTEMLGNEID (designated peptide 3) were designed to spatially represent the gp350 amino acids predicted to interact with the 72A1 antibody paratope. Peptide 2 bound to the 72A1 antibody and blocked 72A1 antibody recognition of the native gp350 molecule. Peptide 2 and peptide 3 were recognized by human IgG and shown to elicit murine antibodies that could target gp350 and block its recognition by the 72A1 antibody. This work provides a structural mapping of the interaction between the EBV-neutralizing antibody 72A1 and the major virion surface protein gp350. gp350 mimetic peptides that spatially depict the EBV-neutralizing epitope would be useful as a vaccine to focus the immune system exclusively to this important virus epitope. The production of virus-neutralizing antibodies targeting the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) major surface glycoprotein gp350 is important for the prevention of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-related cancers. The data presented here provide the first in silico map of the gp350 interaction with a virus-blocking monoclonal antibody

  17. Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dejnirattisai, W; Supasa, P; Wongwiwat, W.; Rouvinski, A.; Barba-Spaeth, G.; Duangchinda, T; Sakuntabhai, A; Cao-Lormeau, VM; Malasit, P; REY, FA; Mongkolsapaya, J; Screaton, GR

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 and was thought to lead to relatively mild disease. The recent explosive outbreak of ZIKV in South America has led to widespread concern, with reports of neurological sequelae ranging from Guillain Barr? syndrome to microcephaly. ZIKV infection has occurred in areas previously exposed to dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV. Here we investigated the serological cross-reaction between the two viruses. Plasma immune to DENV showed su...

  18. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao; Luo, Chenglong; Li, Xuewei; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    .... They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV...

  19. Characteristics of antibody responses in West Nile virus-seropositive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Paul J; Prince, Harry E; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Lanciotti, Robert; Tobler, Leslie H; Busch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the United States. Protection against infection is thought to be conferred in part by humoral immunity. An understanding of the durability and specificity of the humoral response is not well established. We studied the magnitude and specificity of antibody responses in 370 WNV-seropositive blood donors. We also recalled 18 donors who were infected in 2005 to compare their antibody responses at 6 months following infection versus at 5 years postinfection. There were no significant differences in IgG antibody levels based on age, sex, or recent infection (as evidenced by IgM positivity). Specific antibody responses by viral plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) were seen in 51/54 subjects evaluated. All donors who were seropositive in 2005 remained seropositive at 5 years and maintained neutralizing antibodies. IgG levels at 5 years postinfection showed fairly minimal decreases compared with the paired levels at 6 months postinfection (mean of paired differences,-0.54 signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) units [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.86 to -0.21 S/CO units]) and only minimal decreases in PRNT titers. WNV induces a significant antibody response that remains present even 5 years after infection.

  20. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies against simian virus 40 in healthy pregnant women in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 sequences have been detected in various human specimens and SV40 antibodies have been found in human sera from both healthy individuals and cancer patients. This study analyzed serum samples from healthy pregnant women as well as cord blood samples to determine the prevalence of SV40 antibodies in pregnancy.Serum samples were collected at the time of delivery from two groups of pregnant women as well as cord bloods from one group. The women were born between 1967 and 1993. Samples were assayed by two different serological methods, one group by neutralization of viral infectivity and the other by indirect ELISA employing specific SV40 mimotopes as antigens. Viral DNA assays by real-time polymerase chain reaction were carried out on blood samples.Neutralization and ELISA tests indicated that the pregnant women were SV40 antibody-positive with overall prevalences of 10.6% (13/123 and 12.7% (14/110, respectively. SV40 neutralizing antibodies were detected in a low number of cord blood samples. Antibody titers were generally low. No viral DNA was detected in either maternal or cord bloods.SV40-specific serum antibodies were detected in pregnant women at the time of delivery and in cord bloods. There was no evidence of transplacental transmission of SV40. These data indicate that SV40 is circulating at a low prevalence in the northern Italian population long after the use of contaminated vaccines.

  1. In vivo evaluation of the cross-genotype neutralizing activity of polyclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meuleman, Philip; Bukh, Jens; Verhoye, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    , the outcome of a homologous challenge is highly influenced by the amount of challenge virus injected. Depending on the viral genotype used, H06-antibodies were able to protect up to 50% of chimeric mice from a heterologous challenge. Animals in which the antibody pretreatment failed displayed a clear delay......Control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a huge challenge of global medical importance. Using a variety of in vitro approaches, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been identified in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C. The exact role these nAbs play in the resolution of acute...... genotypes (gt) in vivo. Following passive immunization with H06-antibodies, chimeric mice were challenged with the consensus strains H77C (gt1a), ED43 (gt4a), or HK6a (gt6a). In accordance with previous results, H06-antibodies prevented infection of chimeric mice with the autologous virus. However...

  2. Antibody quality and protection from lethal Ebola virus challenge in nonhuman primates immunized with rabies virus based bivalent vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Blaney

    Full Text Available We have previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV vaccine platform based on (a replication-competent rabies virus (RABV, (b replication-deficient RABV, or (c chemically inactivated RABV expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP. Mouse studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of these live or inactivated RABV/EBOV vaccines. Here, we evaluated these vaccines in nonhuman primates. Our results indicate that all three vaccines do induce potent immune responses against both RABV and EBOV, while the protection of immunized animals against EBOV was largely dependent on the quality of humoral immune response against EBOV GP. We also determined if the induced antibodies against EBOV GP differ in their target, affinity, or the isotype. Our results show that IgG1-biased humoral responses as well as high levels of GP-specific antibodies were beneficial for the control of EBOV infection after immunization. These results further support the concept that a successful EBOV vaccine needs to induce strong antibodies against EBOV. We also showed that a dual vaccine against RABV and filoviruses is achievable; therefore addressing concerns for the marketability of this urgently needed vaccine.

  3. Development of monoclonal antibodies and serological assays specific for Barley yellow dwarf virus GAV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2015-09-04

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses and belongs to a ubiquitous plant virus group. In China, four BYDV strains (GPV, GAV, PAV and RMV) have been identified based on their specific aphid vectors and serological properties. Among the four identified strains, the GAV is the most common BYDV strain in China. To diagnose, forecast of BYDV GAV, two reliable serological assays for BYDV GAV detection were established. We purified virion from a confirmed BYDV GAV source and used it as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies against the virus. Using the hybridoma technology, three highly specific murine monoclonal antibodies were produced and two serological assays [antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA)] were established for the BYDV GAV detection. All three monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly and specifically with the BYDV GAV strain in crude leaf extracts. Titers of the monoclonal antibodies in ascitic fluids were up to 10(-7) by indirect-ELISA. These three monoclonal antibodies (18A1, 18A9 and 12A11) all belonged to the isotype IgG1, kappa light chain. The highest dilution points for the three antibodies during the ACP-ELISA using infected crude leaf extracts were 1:163,840, 1:81,920 and 1:81,920 (w/v, g · mL(-1)), respectively. Result of dot-ELISA showed a successful detection of BYDV GAV strain in 1:5,120 (w/v, g · mL(-1)) diluted wheat leaf crude extracts. Analysis of 22 field wheat leaf samples and 33 aphid samples from the Shaanxi Province in China, using the two newly developed assays confirmed the presence of BYDV GAV in about 80 % of the wheat samples and 18 % of the aphid samples. All three monoclonal antibodies are highly sensitive and specific to the BYDV GAV. The two newly developed serological assays are simple and effective. These two assays, particularly the dot-ELISA, are useful for high throughput detection of

  4. Mechanism of Binding to Ebola Virus Glycoprotein by the ZMapp, ZMAb, and MB-003 Cocktail Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Edgar; Bryan, Christopher; Fong, Rachel H.; Barnes, Trevor; Pfaff, Jennifer M.; Mabila, Manu; Rucker, Joseph B.; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Cocktails of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that target the surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) are effective in nonhuman primate models and have been used under emergency compassionate-treatment protocols in human patients. However, the amino acids that form the detailed binding epitopes for the MAbs in the ZMapp, ZMAb, and the related MB-003 cocktails have yet to be identified. Other binding properties that define how each MAb functionally interacts with GP—such as affinity, epito...

  5. Diagnostic Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies in Urine: a Brazilian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Lowndes, Catherine M; Veríssimo Da Costa, Giovani C.; Morgado, Mariza G; Castello-Branco,Luiz Roberto R; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Alary, Michel; Bastos, Francisco I

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated, for the first time in Latin America, the performance of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Calypte Biomedical Corporation, Berkeley, Calif.) that detects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific antibodies in urine in comparison to standard serological assays (two commercial EIAs and a commercial Western blot [WB] assay). Paired serum and urine specimens were collected from two different groups of Brazilian patients: 225 drug users with unknown HIV status who att...

  6. A Simple Saliva-Based Test for Detecting Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus*

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Willfried; Angulo, Gustavo Barriga; Torres, Patricia Castillo; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the feasibility of using saliva as a diagnostic medium for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 under nonlaboratory conditions and to evaluate the performance characteristics of such a test. We developed for this purpose a self-contained kit (Saliva · Strip [ST]), which combines the collection and processing, as well as the analysis, of the specimen. The kit’s performance was eval...

  7. Prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in Kenyan wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVANS, A.; GAKUYA, F.; PAWESKA, J. T.; ROSTAL, M.; AKOOLO, L.; VAN VUREN, P. J.; MANYIBE, T.; MACHARIA, J. M.; KSIAZEK, T. G.; FEIKIN, D. R.; BREIMAN, R. F.; KARIUKI NJENGA, M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus associated with periodic outbreaks, mostly on the African continent, of febrile disease accompanied by abortion in livestock, and a severe, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in humans. However, the maintenance of the virus during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) when there is low or no disease activity detected in livestock or humans has not been determined. This study report prevalence of RVFV-neutralizing antibodies in sera (n=896) collected from 16 Kenyan wildlife species including at least 35% that were born during the 1999–2006 IEP. Specimens from seven species had detectable neutralizing antibodies against RVFV, including African buffalo, black rhino, lesser kudu, impala, African elephant, kongoni, and waterbuck. High RVFV antibody prevalence (>15%) was observed in black rhinos and ruminants (kudu, impala, buffalo, and waterbuck) with the highest titres (up to 1:1280) observed mostly in buffalo, including animals born during the IEP. All lions, giraffes, plains zebras, and warthogs tested were either negative or less than two animals in each species had low (⩽1:16) titres of RVFV antibodies. Of 249 sera collected from five wildlife species during the 2006–2007 outbreak, 16 out of 19 (84%) of the ruminant (gerenuk, waterbuck, and eland) specimens had RVFV-neutralizing titres ⩾1:80. These data provide evidence that wild ruminants are infected by RVFV but further studies are required to determine whether these animals play a role in the virus maintenance between outbreaks and virus amplification prior to a noticeable outbreak. PMID:17988425

  8. Defining Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antigenic Drift by Sequential Monoclonal Antibody Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Suman R.; Hensley, Scott E.; Ince, William L.; Brooke, Christopher B.; Subba, Anju; Delboy, Mark G.; Russ, Gustav; Gibbs, James S.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Human influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is limited by “antigenic drift,” rapid antibody-driven escape reflecting amino acid substitutions in the globular domain of hemagglutinin (HA), the viral attachment protein. To better understand drift, we used anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal Abs (mAbs) to sequentially select IAV escape mutants. Twelve selection steps, each resulting in a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin globular domain, were required to eliminate antigenicity defined ...

  9. Vaccine-induced cross-genotype reactive neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Gottwein, Judith M; Houghton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We detected cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees vaccinated with HCV-1 (genotype 1a) recombinant E1/E2 envelope glycoproteins. Five vaccinated chimpanzees, protected following HCV-1 challenge, were initially studied using the heterologous H77......a, with limited reactivity against 2a and 3a. Our study provides encouragement for the development of a recombinant envelope-based vaccine against hepatitis C....

  10. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY TO THE COAT PROTEIN OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS IN CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Nurhadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV is one of the most destructive diseases in many citrus growing areas of Indonesia. Effective strategies for controlling CTV depend on diagnostic procedure namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Study aimed to purify the CTV antigen and produced its polyclonal antibody. Virion of the severe CTV isolate designated UPM/ T-002 was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation combined with low speed centrifugation. Semipurified antigen was further purified by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The specific coat protein (CP band of CTV with molecular weight of 25 kD was excised and eluted using elution buffer containing 0.25 M Tris-HCl pH 6.8 + 0.1% SDS, then used as antigen for injection into 6-month-old female of White Leghorn chicken. Results, showed than the specific polyclonal antibody raised against the 25-kDa CP had a titer of approximately 104, gave low background reaction with healthy plant sap and reacted specifically with CTV isolates. The reaction was equally strong for a severe, a moderate, a mild, and a symptomless isolate, suggesting a broad reaction range of this antibody toward different CTV isolates. Optimal virus titer can be obtained since virus loss during purification could be minimized and the highly purified antigen as an immunogen could be obtained by cutting out the CP band from SDS-PAGE gels. Large amount of highly titer of CTV antibody can be produced in chicken egg. The simplicity of the procedure makes it economically acceptable and technically adoptable because the antibody can be produced in basic laboratory.

  11. Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody system for the detection of bluetongue virus from Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibur Rahman, A; Manickam, R

    1997-12-01

    A new system, the Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody (TFA) test in which the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes were used for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Culicoides midges, was developed. Twenty-seven pools of Culicoides midges were collected from bluetongue-prone areas of Tamil Nadu by use of the light-trap and suction-trap methods. A suspension of each pool was injected intrathoracically into T. splendens IV instar larvae and inoculated onto Vero cell monolayers. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique and an immunoperoxidase test were used to detect BTV antigen in smears of crushed midges, crushed larval head smears after incubation for 7 d at 28 degrees and cell monolayers showing cytopathic effects 48 h post inoculation. The suspensions were also injected intravenously into embryonated chicken eggs, and the characteristic BTV-induced lesion(s), viz. cherry-red appearance of embryos, were observed after 48 h. Virus was confirmed by a qualitative neutralization test conducted simultaneously in embryonated chicken eggs. A total of seven out of 27 samples (26%) were positive for the presence of BTV antigen in all the diagnostic systems used. Since BTV propagates readily in experimentally infected T. splendens larvae and the BTV antigen can be detected by the fluorescent antibody technique with a sensitivity comparable to that for virus propagated in tissue culture and embryonated eggs, the TFA system can be adopted as a new method for the isolation of BTV from vectors. The advantages of the TFA system are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among pigs in Bali and East Java, Indonesia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P Java.

  13. Detection of serum neutralizing antibodies to Simbu sero-group viruses in cattle in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Coletha; Klevar, S; Elbers, A R W; van der Poel, W H M; Kirkland, P D; Godfroid, J; Mdegela, R H; Mwamengele, G; Stokstad, M

    2015-08-15

    Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu sero-group occur worldwide, including the newly recognized Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. These viruses cause congenital malformations and reproductive losses in ruminants. Information on the presence of these viruses in Africa is scarce and the origin of SBV is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against SBV and closely related viruses in cattle in Tanzania, and their possible association with reproductive disorders. In a cross-sectional study, serum from 659 cattle from 202 herds collected in 2012/2013 were analyzed using a commercial kit for SBV ELISA, and 61 % were positive. Univariable logistic regression revealed significant association between ELISA seropositivity and reproductive disorders (OR = 1.9). Sera from the same area collected in 2008/2009, before the SBV epidemic in Europe, were also tested and 71 (54.6 %) of 130 were positive. To interpret the ELISA results, SBV virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed on 110 sera collected in 2012/2013, of which 51 % were positive. Of 71 sera from 2008/2009, 21 % were positive. To investigate potential cross reactivity with related viruses, 45 sera from 2012/2013 that were positive in SBV ELISA were analyzed in VNTs for Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda, Simbu and Tinaroo viruses. All 45 sera were positive for one or more of these viruses. Twenty-nine sera (64.4 %) were positive for SBV, and one had the highest titer for this virus. This is the first indication that Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda and Tinaroo viruses circulate and cause negative effect on reproductive performance in cattle in Tanzania. SBV or a closely related virus was present before the European epidemic. However, potential cross reactivity complicates the interpretation of serological studies in areas where several related viruses may circulate. Virus isolation and molecular characterization

  14. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  15. Challenges to the development of vaccines to hepatitis C virus that elicit neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Edelgard Drummer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. Hepatitis C virus encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor B class I. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the neutralizing antibody response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.

  16. Computational Identification of Antibody Epitopes on the Dengue Virus NS1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martina L; Legge, Fiona S; Lebani, Kebaneilwe; Mahler, Stephen M; Young, Paul R; Watterson, Daniel; Treutlein, Herbert R; Zeng, Jun

    2017-04-10

    We have previously described a method to predict antigenic epitopes on proteins recognized by specific antibodies. Here we have applied this method to identify epitopes on the NS1 proteins of the four Dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) that are bound by a small panel of monoclonal antibodies 1H7.4, 1G5.3 and Gus2. Several epitope regions were predicted for these antibodies and these were found to reflect the experimentally observed reactivities. The known binding epitopes on DENV2 for the antibodies 1H7.4 and 1G5.3 were identified, revealing the reasons for the serotype specificity of 1H7.4 and 1G5.3, and the non-selectivity of Gus2. As DENV NS1 is critical for virus replication and a key vaccine candidate, epitope prediction will be valuable in designing appropriate vaccine control strategies. The ability to predict potential epitopes by computational methods significantly reduces the amount of experimental work required to screen peptide libraries for epitope mapping.

  17. Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lianpan; Song, Jian; Lu, Xishan; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Musyoki, Abednego Moki; Cheng, Huijun; Zhang, Yanfang; Yuan, Yuan; Song, Hao; Haywood, Joel; Xiao, Haixia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a current global public health concern. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein is responsible for virus entry and represents a major target of neutralizing antibodies for other flaviviruses. Here, we report the structures of ZIKV E protein at 2.0 Å and in complex with a flavivirus broadly neutralizing murine antibody 2A10G6 at 3.0 Å. ZIKV-E resembles all the known flavivirus E structures but contains a unique, positively charged patch adjacent to the fusion loop region of the juxtaposed monomer, which may influence host attachment. The ZIKV-E-2A10G6 complex structure reveals antibody recognition of a highly conserved fusion loop. 2A10G6 binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity in vitro and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice. The E protein fusion loop epitope represents a potential candidate for therapeutic antibodies against ZIKV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular determinants of human neutralizing antibodies isolated from a patient infected with Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Yang, Huabing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lianpan; Ma, Tong; Qi, Jianxun; Wong, Gary; Peng, Ruchao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Junfu; Li, Shihua; Song, Jian; Liu, Jianying; He, Jianhua; Yuan, Hui; Xiong, Ying; Liao, Yong; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Jianping; Tong, Zhou; Griffin, Bryan D; Bi, Yuhai; Liang, Mifang; Xu, Xiaoning; Qin, Chuan; Cheng, Gong; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Peiyi; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary; Shi, Yi; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-12-14

    The 2015-2016 outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has affected many countries and is a major public health concern. ZIKV is associated with fetal microcephaly and neurological complications, and countermeasures are needed to treat and prevent ZIKV infection. We report the isolation of 13 specific human monoclonal antibodies from a single patient infected with ZIKV. Two of the isolated antibodies (Z23 and Z3L1) demonstrated potent ZIKV-specific neutralization in vitro without binding or neutralizing activity against strains 1 to 4 of dengue virus, the closest relative to ZIKV. These two antibodies provided postexposure protection to mice in vivo. Structural studies revealed that Z23 and Z3L1 bound to tertiary epitopes in envelope protein domain I, II, or III, indicating potential targets for ZIKV-specific therapy. Our results suggest the potential of antibody-based therapeutics and provide a structure-based rationale for the design of future ZIKV-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis E Virus Among Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a major public health problem in developing countries, which could progress to an acute self-limited hepatitis. Young adults and middle-aged people are more likely to be infected than children and elderly persons. The disease is usually mild in general population; severe infection is more seen among pregnant women and leads to a high rate of mortality in this population. Objectives This study aimed to assess seroprevalence of HEV infection and related risk factors among pregnant women referred to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 1050 pregnant women were included in this prospective cross-sectional study, conducted from 2010 to 2011. Anti-HEV specific IgG was measured with ELISA method. A questionnaire containing research purposes was also fulfilled for each participant. Results The mean age of pregnant women was 27.2 ± 5.6 years. The overall seroprevalence of anti-HEV was 7.4%. There was a significant association between anti-HEV seropositivity and age (P 0.05. Conclusions According to the results, 92.6% of pregnant women were anti-HEV negative. However, there is no available effective vaccine for its prevention in human yet. Therefore, education about environmental and personal hygiene before and during pregnancy may be helpful for decreasing the rate of HEV infection in this high risk population.

  20. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  1. A competitive ELISA for detection of group specific antibody to bluetongue virus using anti-core antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Karam; Biswas, Sanchay K; Pandey, Awadh B; Saxena, Arpit; Tewari, Neha; Mondal, Bimalendu

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges, which infects domestic and wild ruminants. In present study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) for the detection of serogroup-specific antibodies against VP7 protein of BTV has been developed. The assay measures the competition between a group specific antibody against core protein of BTV and a test serum to an optimized concentration of BTV recombinant-VP7 (r-VP7) antigen. Serum samples (n = 895) collected from small and large ruminants were used to optimize the C-ELISA. Percent inhibition (PI) values were used for estimation of the cut-off value for the C-ELISA. On receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, different cut-off values along with their diagnostic sensitivity (DSn) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) were obtained. Among these, >50% PI value was accepted as cut-off at which DSn and Dsp was achieved as 97.6% and 98.0% respectively, at >95% confidence interval. Results show the present C-ELISA assay described to be sensitive, specific and reliable and could be adopted for serological investigation of small and large ruminants. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nara, P. L.; Smit, L.; Dunlop, N.; Hatch, W.; Merges, M.; Waters, D.; Kelliher, J.; Gallo, R. C.; Fischinger, P. J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Emergence in two chimpanzees of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB variants resistant to neutralization by the preexisting antibody is described. Viruses isolated from the HIV-1 IIIB gp120-vaccinated and -challenged animal were more resistant to neutralization by the chimpanzee's own

  3. Comparison of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses to influenza A virus vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; Tavares, L; Kraaijeveld, CA; De Jong, JC

    A neutralization enzyme immunoassay (N-EIA) was used to determine the neutralizing serum antibody titers to influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) and Beijing/353/89 (H3N2) viruses after vaccination of 51 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected individuals and 10 healthy noninfected controls

  4. Cooperativity in virus neutralization by human monoclonal antibodies to two adjacent regions located at the amino terminus of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Zhenyong; Wang, Wenyan; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is defining conserved epitopes that induce protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. An envelope glycoprotein (E2) segment located at amino acids (aa) 412 to 423 contains highly conserved neutralizing epitopes. While...

  5. Transgenic expression in citrus of single-chain antibody fragments specific to Citrus tristeza virus confers virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Esteban, Olga; Gil, Maite; Gorris, M Teresa; Martínez, M Carmen; Peña, Leandro; Cambra, Mariano

    2010-12-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) causes one of the most destructive viral diseases of citrus worldwide. Generation of resistant citrus genotypes through genetic engineering could be a good alternative to control CTV. To study whether production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in citrus could interfere and immunomodulate CTV infection, transgenic Mexican lime plants expressing two different scFv constructs, separately and simultaneously, were generated. These constructs derived from the well-referenced monoclonal antibodies 3DF1 and 3CA5, specific against CTV p25 major coat protein, whose mixture is able to detect all CTV isolates characterized so far. ScFv accumulation levels were low and could be readily detected just in four transgenic lines. Twelve homogeneous and vigorous lines were propagated and CTV-challenged by graft inoculation with an aggressive CTV strain. A clear protective effect was observed in most transgenic lines, which showed resistance in up to 40-60% of propagations. Besides, both a delay in symptom appearance and attenuation of symptom intensity were observed in infected transgenic plants compared with control plants. This effect was more evident in lines carrying the 3DF1scFv transgene, being probably related to the biological functions of the epitope recognized by this antibody. This is the first report describing successful protection against a pathogen in woody transgenic plants by ectopic expression of scFv recombinant antibodies.

  6. Prefusion F, postfusion F, G antibodies and disease severity in infants and young children with acute respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Cristina; Chaiwatpongsakorn, Supranee; Gorrell, Erin; Risch, Zachary A; Ye, Fang; Mertz, Sara E; Johnson, Sara M; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Ramilo, Octavio; Mejias, Asuncion; Peeples, Mark E

    2017-09-26

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Maternally-derived RSV-specific antibodies play a role in protection against RSV infection in early life, but data regarding the concentration and specificity of those antibodies are incomplete. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of previously healthy infants and young children hospitalized (n=45) or evaluated as outpatients (n=20) for RSV infection, and healthy non-infected age-matched controls (n=18). Serum samples were obtained at enrollment to quantify the concentrations and neutralizing activity of serum IgG antibodies to the RSV prefusion (pre-F), postfusion (post-F), and G glycoproteins. We also assessed the associations between antibody concentrations and clinical disease severity. Concentrations of pre-F antibodies were ≥3-fold higher than post-F antibodies, and >30-fold higher than G antibodies in serum from infants with acute RSV infection. Antibody concentrations and neutralizing activity inversely correlated with age. Pre-F antibodies displayed the greatest neutralizing activity (55-100%), followed by G (0-45%) and post-F (0-29%) antibodies. Higher concentrations of pre-F and G antibodies, but not post-F antibodies, were associated with lower clinical disease severity scores. Maternal antibodies directed to pre-F, followed by antibodies directed to G, can modulate RSV disease severity in young infants.

  7. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Meret E; Vielle, Nathalie J; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4(+) T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value.

  8. Interaction of plum pox virus with specific colloidal gold-labeled antibodies and development of immunochromatographic assay of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzova, N A; Safenkova, I V; Chirkov, S N; Avdienko, V G; Guseva, A N; Mitrofanova, I V; Zherdev, A V; Dzantiev, B B; Atabekov, J G

    2010-11-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (mABs) raised against plum pox virus (PPV) were shown to recognize its D, M, and C strains. Conjugates of the antibodies with colloidal gold (CG) nanoparticles averaging 26 nm in diameter were synthesized. The binding constants of PPV with both the native and conjugated mABs were determined using a Biacore X device. The complexes between the CG-mAB conjugates and plum pox virions were examined by means of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Using the conjugates with optimal component ratio, an express immunochromatographic assay of PPV was developed with a detection limit of 3 ng/ml and duration of 10 min. The assay was tested for PPV detection in samples of stone fruit tree leaves and demonstrated a good compatibility with the data obtained by "sandwich"-ELISA. The developed assay can be used in the field and applied for monitoring viral infection and for quarantine purposes.

  9. Validation of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies in clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostense, Stefan; Moore, Susan; Companjen, Arjen; Bakker, Alexander B. H.; Marissen, Wilfred E.; von Eyben, Rie; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Hanlon, Cathleen; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are successful biologics in treating a variety of diseases, including the prevention or treatment of viral infections. CL184 is a 1:1 combination of two human monoclonal IgG1 antibodies (CR57 and CR4098) against rabies virus, produced in the PER.C6 human cell line. The two

  10. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...

  11. Enhancement of toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity of single-domain antibody fragments by N-glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Smits, C.B.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) have several beneficial properties as compared to conventional antibody fragments. However, their small size complicates their toxin- and virus-neutralizing capacity. We isolated 27 VHHs binding Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and expressed these in

  12. Antibody responses against epitopes on the F protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus differ in infected or vaccinated cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Hensen, E.J.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Daus, F.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1997-01-01

    The fusion protein F of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important target for humoral and cellular immune responses, and antibodies against the F protein have been associated with protection. However, the F protein can induce antibodies with different biological activity, possibly

  13. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells upon dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C.; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected dendritic cells (DCs) thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody

  14. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus E2 protein bind discontinuous epitopes and inhibit infection at a postattachment step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Prentoe, Jannick

    2011-01-01

    The E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediates viral attachment and entry into target hepatocytes and elicits neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. To characterize the structural and functional basis of HCV neutralization, we generated a novel panel of 78 monoclonal antibodies (M...

  15. Recombinant Jembrana disease virus proteins as antigens for the detection of antibody to bovine lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkala, E J; Narayani, I; Hartaningsih, N; Kertayadnya, G; Berryman, D I; Wilcox, G E

    1998-09-01

    Jembrana disease virus (JDV) is a recently identified bovine lentivirus causing an acute severe disease syndrome in banteng cattle (Bos javanicus) and a milder disease syndrome in Bos taurus cattle in Indonesia. The virus is closely related genetically to the previously identified bovine lentivirus, bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). Recombinant clones were produced which contained the capsid (CA) and transmembrane (TM) subunits of the respective gag and env open reading frames of JDV. The proteins were expressed as fusions to the glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzyme in Escherichia coli and purification was achieved using affinity chromatography via immobilized reduced glutathione. The soluble recombinant CA and TM antigens of JDV were reacted in western immunoblots with both serum antibodies from JDV-infected Bos javanicus cattle and Bos taurus cattle immunized with BIV. The recombinant CA protein of JDV reacted equally well with both the JDV and BIV antisera. The recombinant TM protein of JDV also reacted with antibody from the JDV infected cattle and with the BIV antisera. The results indicated conservation of immunogenic epitopes of the CA and TM proteins of the two viruses. The production of the recombinant proteins should enable the development of rapid and sensitive serological tests for JDV and BIV, and tools for further study of the immune response to JDV and the differential epidemiology of JDV infections in cattle.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Varicella-Zoster Virus Proteins Using a New Monoclonal Antibody Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenac Roviš, Tihana; Bailer, Susanne M.; Pothineni, Venkata R.; Ouwendijk, Werner J. D.; Šimić, Hrvoje; Babić, Marina; Miklić, Karmela; Malić, Suzana; Verweij, Marieke C.; Baiker, Armin; Gonzalez, Orland; von Brunn, Albrecht; Zimmer, Ralf; Früh, Klaus; Verjans, Georges M. G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of chickenpox and shingles. Due to the virus's restricted host and cell type tropism and the lack of tools for VZV proteomics, it is one of the least-characterized human herpesviruses. We generated 251 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against 59 of the 71 (83%) currently known unique VZV proteins to characterize VZV protein expression in vitro and in situ. Using this new set of MAbs, 44 viral proteins were detected by Western blotting (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IF); 13 were detected by WB only, and 2 were detected by IF only. A large proportion of viral proteins was analyzed for the first time in the context of virus infection. Our study revealed the subcellular localization of 46 proteins, 14 of which were analyzed in detail by confocal microscopy. Seven viral proteins were analyzed in time course experiments and showed a cascade-like temporal gene expression pattern similar to those of other herpesviruses. Furthermore, selected MAbs tested positive on human skin lesions by using immunohistochemistry, demonstrating the wide applicability of the MAb collection. Finally, a significant portion of the VZV-specific antibodies reacted with orthologs of simian varicella virus (SVV), thus enabling the systematic analysis of varicella in a nonhuman primate model system. In summary, this study provides insight into the potential function of numerous VZV proteins and novel tools to systematically study VZV and SVV pathogenesis. PMID:23596286

  17. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4...

  18. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  19. Rapid detection of Hendra virus antibodies: an integrated device with nanoparticle assay and chaotic micromixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, K; Metcalfe, G; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Best, M; Lester, D; Zhu, Y

    2016-12-20

    Current diagnosis of infectious diseases such as Hendra virus (HeV) relies mostly on laboratory-based tests. There is an urgent demand for rapid diagnosis technology to detect and identify these diseases in humans and animals so that disease spread can be controlled. In this study, an integrated lab-on-a-chip device using a magnetic nanoparticle immunoassay is developed. The key features of the device are the chaotic fluid mixing, achieved by magnetically driven motion of nanoparticles with the optimal mixing protocol developed using chaotic transport theory, and the automatic liquid handling system for loading reagents and samples. The device has been demonstrated to detect Hendra virus antibodies in dilute horse serum samples within a short time of 15 minutes and the limit of detection is about 0.48 ng ml -1 . The device platform can potentially be used for field detection of viruses and other biological and chemical substances.

  20. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable.

  1. Neutralization of Zika virus by germline-like human monoclonal antibodies targeting cryptic epitopes on envelope domain III

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanling; Li, Shun; Du, Lanying; Wang, Chunyu; Zou, Peng; Hong, Binbin; Yuan, Mengjiao; Ren, Xiaonan; Tai, Wanbo; Kong, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Jiang, Shibo; Ying, Tianlei

    2017-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has emerged as a global public health concern. Pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against other flaviviruses could modulate immune responses to ZIKV infection by antibody-dependent enhancement, highlighting the importance of understanding the immunogenicity of the ZIKV envelope protein. In this study, we identified a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target domain III (DIII) of the ZIKV envelope protein fr...

  2. Epitope dampening monotypic measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein results in resistance to cocktail of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J; Tobin, Gregory J; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P; Russell, Stephen J; Nara, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs.

  3. Sero-prevalence of virus neutralizing antibodies for rabies in different groups of dogs following vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimburage, R M S; Gunatilake, M; Wimalaratne, O; Balasuriya, A; Perera, K A D N

    2017-05-18

    Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka. The dogs were vaccinated with a monovalent inactivated vaccine intramuscularly and serum antibody titres on days 0, 30, 180 and 360 were determined by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The results indicated, a single dose of anti-rabies vaccination fails to generate a protective level of immunity (0.5 IU/ml) which lasts until 1 year in 40.42% of dogs without owners and 57.14% of previously unvaccinated juvenile (age: 3 months to 1 year) dogs with owners. More than one vaccination would help to maintain antibody titres above the protective level in the majority of dogs. The pattern of antibody titre development in annually vaccinated and irregularly vaccinated (not annual) adult dogs with owners is closely similar irrespective of regularity in vaccination. Previously vaccinated animals have higher (2 IU/ml) antibody titres to begin with and have a higher antibody titre on day 360 too. They show a very good antibody titre by day 180. Unvaccinated animals start with low antibody titre and return to low titres by day 360, but have a satisfactory antibody titre by day 180. A single dose of anti-rabies vaccination is not sufficient for the maintenance of antibody titres for a period of 1 year in puppies, juvenile dogs with owners and in dogs without owners. Maternal antibodies do not provide adequate protection to puppies of previously vaccinated dams and puppies of previously unvaccinated dams. Immunity development after vaccination seems to be closely similar in both the groups

  4. Mapping the Human Memory B Cell and Serum Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Dengue Virus Serotype 4 Infection and Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivarthi, Usha K; Kose, Nurgun; Sapparapu, Gopal; Widman, Douglas; Gallichotte, Emily; Pfaff, Jennifer M; Doranz, Benjamin J; Weiskopf, Daniela; Sette, Alessandro; Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Steve S; Baric, Ralph; Crowe, James E; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2017-03-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne flaviviruses responsible for dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to DENV develop antibodies (Abs) that strongly neutralize the serotype responsible for infection. Historically, infection with DENV serotype 4 (DENV4) has been less common and less studied than infections with the other three serotypes. However, DENV4 has been responsible for recent large and sustained epidemics in Asia and Latin America. The neutralizing antibody responses and the epitopes targeted against DENV4 have not been characterized in human infection. In this study, we mapped and characterized epitopes on DENV4 recognized by neutralizing antibodies in people previously exposed to DENV4 infections or to a live attenuated DENV4 vaccine. To study the fine specificity of DENV4 neutralizing human antibodies, B cells from two people exposed to DENV4 were immortalized and screened to identify DENV-specific clones. Two human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralized DENV4 were isolated, and their epitopes were finely mapped using recombinant viruses and alanine scan mutation array techniques. Both antibodies bound to quaternary structure epitopes near the hinge region between envelope protein domain I (EDI) and EDII. In parallel, to characterize the serum neutralizing antibody responses, convalescence-phase serum samples from people previously exposed to primary DENV4 natural infections or a monovalent DENV4 vaccine were analyzed. Natural infection and vaccination also induced serum-neutralizing antibodies that targeted similar epitope domains at the EDI/II hinge region. These studies defined a target of neutralizing antigenic site on DENV4 targeted by human antibodies following natural infection or vaccination. IMPORTANCE The four serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to primary DENV infections develop long-term neutralizing antibody responses

  5. Distribution and Quantity of Sites of John Cunningham Virus Persistence in Immunologically Healthy Patients: Correlation With John Cunningham Virus Antibody and Urine John Cunningham Virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph R; Miller, Craig S; Danaher, Robert J; Doyle, Kathryn; Simon, Kenneth J; Norton, Elizabeth; Gorelik, Leonid; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen; Singhal, Divya; Hack, Nawaz; Owens, Joseph Ryan; Nelson, Peter T; Neltner, Janna H

    2017-04-01

    Although seroepidemiological studies indicate that greater than 50% of the population has been infected with John Cunningham virus (JCV), the sites of JCV persistence remain incompletely characterized. To determine sites of JCV persistence in immunologically healthy individuals. Tissue specimens from multiple sites including brain, renal, and nonrenal tissues were obtained at autopsy performed in the Department of Pathology at the University of Kentucky from 12 immunologically healthy patients between February 9, 2011, and November 27, 2012. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on the tissue specimens and urine. Serum JCV antibody status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The detection and quantification of JCV from the tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction illuminated sites of viral persistence. These results were correlated with JCV antibody levels. Autopsies were performed on 12 individuals, 10 men and 2 women, ranging in age from 25 to 75 years (mean, 55.3 years). Seven of 12 individuals were JCV antibody seropositive based on absorbance units. Serostatus was associated with amounts of JCV DNA in urine and its tissue distribution. John Cunningham virus DNA was found in 75% of genitourinary tissue samples from donors (18 of 24) with high JCV antibody levels, 13.3% of donors with low levels i(4 of 30), and 0% of seronegative persons (0 of 32). In nongenitourinary tissues, JCV DNA was detected in 45.1% of tissue samples of donors (32 of 71) with high JCV, 2.2% of donors with low JCV serostatus (2 of 93), and 0% of seronegative persons (0 of 43). Genitourinary tissues had higher copy numbers than other sites. John Cunningham virus DNA was detected in urine of seronegative individuals in a research-grade assay. Persistent (latent or actively replicating) JCV infection mostly predominates in genitourinary tissues but distributes in other tissues at low copy number. The distribution and copy numbers of the virus appear to

  6. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  7. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  8. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  9. Pathogenesis of Borna Disease Virus: Granulocyte Fractions of Psychiatric Patients Harbor Infectious Virus in the Absence of Antiviral Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planz, Oliver; Rentzsch, Christine; Batra, Anil; Batra, Arvind; Winkler, Tanja; Büttner, Mathias; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim; Stitz, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals. PMID:10400715

  10. Production of monoclonal antibodies with a controlled N-glycosylation pattern in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Andreas; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Hillmer, Stefan; Grass, Josephine; Kunert, Renate; Cao, Jingyuan; Robinson, David G; Depicker, Ann; Steinkellner, Herta

    2011-02-01

    Seed-specific expression is an appealing alternative technology for the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. Whereas attractive yields of recombinant proteins have been achieved by this method, little attention has been paid to the intracellular deposition and the quality of such products. Here, we demonstrate a comparative study of two antiviral monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (HA78 against Hepatitis A virus; 2G12 against HIV) expressed in seeds of Arabidopsis wild-type (wt) plants and glycosylation mutants lacking plant specific N-glycan residues. We demonstrate that 2G12 is produced with complex N-glycans at great uniformity in the wt as well as in the glycosylation mutant, carrying a single dominant glycosylation species, GnGnXF and GnGn, respectively. HA78 in contrast, contains additionally to complex N-glycans significant amounts of oligo-mannosidic structures, which are typical for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retained proteins. A detailed subcellular localization study demonstrated the deposition of both antibodies virtually exclusively in the extracellular space, illustrating their efficient secretion. In addition, although a KDEL-tagged version of 2G12 exhibited an ER-typical N-glycosylation pattern, it was surprisingly detected in protein storage vacuoles. The different antibody variants showed different levels of degradation with hardly any degradation products detectable for HA78 carrying GnGnXF glycans. Finally, we demonstrate functional integrity of the HA78 and 2G12 glycoforms using viral inhibition assays. Our data therefore demonstrate the usability of transgenic seeds for the generation of mAbs with a controlled N-glycosylation pattern, thus expanding the possibilities for the production of optimally glycosylated proteins with enhanced biological activities for the use as human therapeutics. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell

  11. Immunodiagnosis of Citrus leprosis virus C using a polyclonal antibody to an expressed putative coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Guillermo, Leon M; Picton, D D; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2013-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent for citrus leprosis disease, is present in South and Central America and is a threat for introduction into the U.S. citrus industry. A specific, inexpensive and reliable antibody based detection system is needed for the rapid identification of CiLV-C. The CiLV-C is very labile and has not been purified in sufficient amount for antibody production. The p29 gene of CiLV-C genome that codes for the putative coat protein (PCP) was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and synthesized in vitro. The optimized gene was sub-cloned into the bacterial expression vector pDEST17 and transferred into E. coli BL21AI competent cells. The expression of PCP containing N-terminal His-tag was optimized by induction with l-arabinose. Induced cells were disrupted by sonication and expressed PCP was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose. The purified expressed PCP was then used as an immunogen for injections into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb specific to the expressed PCP was identified using Western blotting. The antibody was successfully used to detect CiLV-C in the symptomatic CiLV-C infected tissues using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent (DAS-ELISA), indirect ELISA and dot-blot immunoassay (DBIA) formats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus antibody test in a dialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Aviles, Diego H; Vehaskari, V Matti

    2004-05-01

    A patient developed end-stage renal disease secondary to p-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA) positive rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He subsequently had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 antibody screening performed as part of a pre-transplant evaluation. The HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) antibody test was repeatedly reactive. The HIV-1 western blot was indeterminate. The western blot pattern revealed "non-specific staining obscuring bands in that region." Another sample of serum was sent and the results were identical to the first result. An HIV-1 proviral qualitative polymerase chain reaction test was then performed several months later and no HIV-1 DNA was detected. One year later, an HIV-1 RNA test was negative. Thus, the positive antibody EIA test and the indeterminate western blot represent a false-positive result, most likely due to cross-reacting antigens in the patient's serum with various HIV antibodies. Throughout this period and thereafter, the patient has exhibited no symptoms of HIV infection.

  13. A humanised murine monoclonal antibody protects mice from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Everglades virus and Mucambo virus when administered up to 48 h after airborne challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Lyn M., E-mail: lmobrien@dstl.gov.uk; Goodchild, Sarah A.; Phillpotts, Robert J.; Perkins, Stuart D.

    2012-05-10

    Currently there are no licensed antiviral treatments for the Alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Everglades virus and Mucambo virus. We previously developed a humanised version of the mouse monoclonal antibody 1A3B-7 (Hu1A3B-7) which exhibited a wide range of reactivity in vitro and was able to protect mice from infection with VEEV. Continued work with the humanised antibody has now demonstrated that it has the potential to be a new human therapeutic. Hu1A3B-7 successfully protected mice from infection with multiple Alphaviruses. The effectiveness of the humanisation process was determined by assessing proliferation responses in human T-cells to peptides derived from the murine and humanised versions of the V{sub H} and V{sub L} domains. This analysis showed that the number of human T-cell epitopes within the humanised antibody had been substantially reduced, indicating that Hu1A3B-7 may have reduced immunogenicity in vivo.

  14. A competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies to the group antigen of bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, J J; Reddington, G M; MacLachlan, N J

    1991-04-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed to detect antibodies to the group antigen of bluetongue virus (BTV). The epitope recognized by the BTV-specific monoclonal antibody was confirmed, by immunofluorescence staining of monolayers of virus-infected Vero cells, to be present on BTV serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17 but not on epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2. Sera from BTV-inoculated ruminants and rabbits were used to evaluate the cELISA and to compare its specificity and sensitivity with that of the conventional BTV-specific agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and serum neutralization (SN) tests. Rabbit antisera to the 5 serotypes of BTV present in the United States had cELISA titers (inverse of the final dilution of serum that gave greater than 20% inhibition) that ranged from 32 to greater than 1.024. Seroconversion of the 8 calves and lambs inoculated with BTV was detected by all 3 serologic tests (SN, AGID, cELISA) by 6 weeks after inoculation. Specificity of the cELISA test was confirmed with bovine sera that contained neutralizing antibodies to EHDV but not to the 5 serotypes of BTV present in the United States; these sera gave positive results by AGID test but were negative by cELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA test was further confirmed by analysis of a panel of bovine test sera supplied by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, indicating that the cELISA is a superior test for detection of BTV group-specific antibodies in sera from ruminants in the United States.

  15. An evaluation of circulating bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 maternal antibody level and response to vaccination in Angus calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, E D; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against viruses has been shown to help prevent bovine respiratory disease in cattle. However, both passively acquired maternal antibody concentration and calf age have been shown to impact the ability of the immune system of a calf to respond to vaccination. The objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate environmental and management factors that affect 1) passively acquired bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 antibody level, 2) decay rate of passively acquired BVDV type 2 antibody level, and 3) responses to BVDV type 2 vaccinations. A 2-shot modified live vaccine was administered to 1,004 Angus calves that were weaned at either the initial vaccination (n = 508) or the booster vaccination (n = 496). Calves weaned at the initial vaccination averaged 139 d whereas calves weaned at booster vaccination averaged 128 d of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 antibodies were measured in 3 approximately 21-d intervals, serially collected serum samples to quantify antibody levels at initiation and end of vaccination protocol in addition to responses to initial, booster, and overall vaccination protocol. Amount of passively transferred antibody in the calf increased as dam age increased from 2 to 6 yr (P 0.05). Calf age nested within birth year-season and dam age affected both initial and final antibody level, initial response, booster response, and overall antibody response to vaccination. The level of circulating, passively acquired maternal antibodies present at the time of vaccination had a significant (P calf to mount an overall antibody response to vaccination, maternal antibodies in circulation need to be less than 3.12 titers. However, the age at which a calf reached this antibody threshold was dependent on dam age. This information will help cattle managers and consultants design vaccination protocols to successfully mount an antibody response to vaccination.

  16. Molecular profile of a human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment specific for Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugli, F; Bastidas, R; Burton, D R; Williamson, R A; Clementi, M; Burioni, R

    2001-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates Epstein Barr virus (EBV) envelope glycoprotein gp350/220 elicits a potent virus neutralizing response in the infected human host that may play an important role in restricting viral pathogenesis. In this study, we report the molecular cloning in combinatorial phage display vectors, of the IgG1 repertoire of an individual naturally infected with EBV, and describe the recovery and characterization of a monoclonal antibody recognizing gp350/220. A detailed understanding of the human antibody response in EBV infection will identify antibodies of potential use in anti-viral prophylaxis and will advance the production of more effective vaccine candidates.

  17. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yang [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Sasaki, Tadahiro [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yuji [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yasugi, Mayo [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Izumisano, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Akifumi; Ramadhany, Ririn; Arai, Yasuha [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Du, Anariwa [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi (Thailand); JST/JICA, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), Tokyo (Japan); Ibrahim, Madiha S. [Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour (Egypt); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  18. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Sack, Markus; Stadlmann, Johannes; Quendler, Heribert; Fischer, Rainer; Lomonossoff, George P

    2010-11-12

    The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product. To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue) of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-produced 2G12. Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for biopharmaceutical development

  19. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  20. Plant Virus Particles Carrying Tumour Antigen Activate TLR7 and Induce High Levels of Protective Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobsri, Jantipa; Allen, Alex; Rajagopal, Deepa; Shipton, Michael; Kanyuka, Kostya; Lomonossoff, George P.; Ottensmeier, Christian; Diebold, Sandra S.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Savelyeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Induction of potent antibody is the goal of many vaccines targeted against infections or cancer. Modern vaccine designs that use virus-like particles (VLP) have shown efficacy for prophylactic vaccination against virus-associated cancer in the clinic. Here we used plant viral particles (PVP), which are structurally analogous to VLP, coupled to a weak idiotypic (Id) tumour antigen, as a conjugate vaccine to induce antibody against a murine B-cell malignancy. The Id-PVP vaccine incorporates a natural adjuvant, the viral ssRNA, which acts via TLR7. It induced potent protective anti-Id antibody responses in an in vivo mouse model, superior to the “gold standard” Id vaccine, with prevalence of the IgG2a isotype. Combination with alum further increased antibody levels and maintained the IgG2a bias. Engagement of TLR7 in vivo was followed by secretion of IFN-α by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and by activation of splenic CD11chi conventional dendritic cells. The latter was apparent from up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and from secretion of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including the Th1-governing cytokine IL-12, in keeping with the IgG2a antibody isotype distribution. PVP conjugates are a novel cancer vaccine design, offering an attractive molecular form, similar to VLP, and providing T-cell help. In contrast to VLP, they also incorporate a safe “in-built” ssRNA adjuvant. PMID:25692288

  1. Generation of Recombinant Schmallenberg Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Yeast and Development of Virus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Lazutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, discovered in continental Europe in late 2011, causes mild clinical signs in adult ruminants, including diarrhoea and reduced milk yield. However, fetal infection can lead to severe malformation in newborn offspring. To develop improved reagents for SBV serology, a high-level yeast expression system was employed to produce recombinant SBV nucleocapsid (N protein. Recombinant SBV N protein was investigated as an antigen in SBV-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and used for generation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Yeast-expressed SBV N protein was reactive with anti-SBV IgG-positive cow serum specimens collected from different farms of Lithuania. After immunization of mice with recombinant SBV N protein, four MAbs were generated. The MAbs raised against recombinant SBV N protein reacted with native viral nucleocapsids in SBV-infected BHK cells by immunofluorescence assay. The reactivity of recombinant N protein with SBV-positive cow serum specimens and the ability of the MAbs to recognize virus-infected cells confirm the antigenic similarity between yeast-expressed SBV N protein and native viral nucleocapsids. Our study demonstrates that yeast expression system is suitable for high-level production of recombinant SBV N protein and provides the first evidence on the presence of SBV-specific antibodies in cow serum specimens collected in Lithuania.

  2. Fusion Peptide Improves Stability and Bioactivity of Single Chain Antibody against Rabies Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Shi, Linqing; Zhang, Renxia; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-04-28

    The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application. Therefore, an acidic tail of synuclein (ATS) derived from the C-terminal acidic tail of human alpha-synuclein protein was fused to the C-terminus of scFv57R in order to help it resist adverse stress and improve the stability and halflife. The tail showed no apparent effect on the preparation procedure and affinity of the protein, nor did it change the neutralizing potency in vitro. In the ELISA test of molecular stability, the ATS fusion form of the protein, scFv57R-ATS, showed an increase in thermal stability and longer half-life in serum than scFv57R. The protection against fatal rabies virus challenge improved after fusing the tail to the scFv, which may be attributed to the improved stability. Thus, the ATS fusion approach presented here is easily implemented and can be used as a new strategy to improve the stability and half-life of engineered antibody proteins for practical applications.

  3. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (Novartis); (US-FDA); (Duke)

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  4. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  5. Usutu Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors and Healthy Forestry Workers in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivalle, Elena; Sassera, Davide; Rovida, Francesca; Isernia, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Marone, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0.23% seroprevalence in blood donors. In this study, antibodies against USUV were measured in 3 consecutive blood samples collected from October 2014 to December 2015 from 33 forestry workers in the Po river valley, while samples from 200 blood donors from the same geographical area were tested in parallel. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies were found in six forestry workers (18.1%) and in two blood donors (1%). Our results indicate that USUV circulation in the examined area, part of a highly populated region in Northern Italy, is higher than expected. Healthy subjects exhibit a higher prevalence than what was found in a previous report in an adjoining region (0.23%), while the population at risk shows a much higher prevalence value (18.1%).

  6. Validation of ELISA for the detection of African horse sickness virus antigens and antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Cubillo, M A; Hooghuis, H; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Diaz-Laviada, M; Plateau, E; Zientara, S; Crucière, C; Hamblin, C

    1998-01-01

    The mortality rate in susceptible populations of horses during an epizootic of African horse sickness (AHS) may be in excess of 90%. Rapid and reliable assays are therefore essential for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and to enable control strategies to be implemented without undue delay. One of the major objectives of a recent European Union funded project was the validation of newly developed diagnostic assays which are rapid, sensitive, highly reproducible and inexpensive, for the detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) antigens and antibodies. The Laboratorio de Sanidad y Produccion Animal (LSPA) in Algete, Spain was charged with the responsibility of co-ordinating and supplying samples of viruses and antisera to the participating laboratories in Spain, France and the United Kingdom. The panels comprised 76 antigen samples for assay by indirect sandwich ELISAs and 53 serum samples for antibody detection by either indirect or competitive ELISAs. Results generated by ELISA for each laboratory were analysed in LSPA in terms of their relative sensitivities and specificities. There was a good agreement between the ELISAs used for either antigen or antibody detection. The participating groups agreed that any field sample giving a doubtful result would always be retested by ELISA and an alternative assay.

  7. Fitness landscape of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein that is targeted by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Raymond H Y; Kaczorowski, Kevin J; Barton, John P; Chakraborty, Arup K; McKay, Matthew R

    2018-01-08

    HIV is a highly mutable virus, and over 30 years after its discovery, a vaccine or cure is still not available. The isolation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) from HIV-infected patients has led to renewed hope for a prophylactic vaccine capable of combating the scourge of HIV. A major challenge is the design of immunogens and vaccination protocols that can elicit bnAbs that target regions of the virus's spike proteins where the likelihood of mutational escape is low due to the high fitness cost of mutations. Related challenges include the choice of combinations of bnAbs for therapy. An accurate representation of viral fitness as a function of its protein sequences (a fitness landscape), with explicit accounting of the effects of coupling between mutations, could help address these challenges. We describe a computational approach that has allowed us to infer a fitness landscape for gp160, the HIV polyprotein that comprises the viral spike that is targeted by antibodies. We validate the inferred landscape through comparisons with experimental fitness measurements, and various other metrics. We show that an effective antibody that prevents immune escape must selectively bind to high escape cost residues that are surrounded by those where mutations incur a low fitness cost, motivating future applications of our landscape for immunogen design. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  8. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  9. Kinetic plots in aqueous size exclusion chromatography of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Judith; Conze, Werner; Müller, Egbert

    2015-12-24

    The growing importance of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles has led to a pressure for faster size exclusion chromatography. In recent years, numerous small particle columns for size exclusion chromatography of biologicals have been introduced. Small particles are a strategy to reduce analysis time. In the following study, opportunities of small particles in size exclusion chromatography of large biomolecules are investigated. Poppe plots reveal that the lower particle size limit depends on the size of the sample molecule. Hydrodynamic radii of monoclonal antibody monomer, aggregates and H1N1 as well as the diffusion coefficients were determined. Considering this sample compound dependency, kinetic plots referring to the resolution of a distinct compound pair instead of the plate number of a single analyte are more meaningful. Plate times were found to be equivalent with 4 and 2μm particles for a monoclonal antibody aggregate separation at resolutions smaller than 1.8. Quantification of a H1N1 in clarified cell culture can be accomplished with 17μm and 13μm particles at equal plate times at resolutions smaller than 2.5. Virus polydispersity is likely to be affected by run times of several hours at room temperature and shear forces resulting from particles smaller than 10μm. Comparatively high flow rates should be applied in size exclusion chromatography of the 100nm H1N1 virions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges for bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibody detection in bulk milk by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays due to changes in milk production levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Stockmarr, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is considered eradicated from Denmark. Currently, very few (if any) Danish cattle herds could be infected with BVD virus (BVDV). The Danish antibody blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been successfully used during the Danish BVD...

  11. The Complexity of Antibody Responses Elicited against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Glycoproteins in Hospitalized Children Younger than 2 Years

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    Alfonsina Trento

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis. A strong negative correlation was found between the titre of circulating ELISA antibodies directed against either prefusion or postfusion F in the acute phase, but not age, and their fold change at convalescence. These changes correlated also with the level of circulating neutralizing antibodies in sera. As reported in adults, most neutralizing antibodies in a subset of tested sera could not be depleted with postfusion F, suggesting that they were mostly directed against prefusion-specific epitopes. In contrast, a weak negative association was found for group-specific anti-G antibodies in the acute phase and their fold change at convalescence only after correcting for the antigenic group of the infecting virus. In addition, large discrepancies were observed in some individuals between the antibody responses specific for F and G glycoproteins. These results illustrate the complexity of the anti-hRSV antibody responses in children experiencing a primary severe infection and the influence of preexisting maternal antibodies on the host response, factors that should influence hRSV serological studies as well as vaccine development.

  12. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural......Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...... antibodies. High prevalences of antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins of FMDV serotype O were demonstrated in herds with typical visible clinical signs of FMD, while prevalences were low in herds without clinical signs of FMD. Antibody titres were higher against serotype O than...... against serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in the sera investigated for serotype-specific antibodies. Only FMDV serotype O virus was isolated from one probang sample. This study shows that the majority of the FMD outbreaks in 2006 in the region studied were caused by FMDV serotype O; however, there was also...

  13. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  14. Virus-like particles derived from Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue virus type 1 glycoprotein elicit homotypic virus-neutralizing envelope domain III-directed antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Ankur; Ramasamy, Viswanathan; Shukla, Rahul; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Arora, Upasana; Jain, Swatantra K; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2016-06-14

    Four antigenically distinct serotypes (1-4) of dengue viruses (DENVs) cause dengue disease. Antibodies to any one DENV serotype have the potential to predispose an individual to more severe disease upon infection with a different DENV serotype. A dengue vaccine must elicit homotypic neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV serotypes to avoid the risk of such antibody-dependent enhancement in the vaccine recipient. This is a formidable challenge as evident from the lack of protective efficacy against DENV-2 by a tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine that has completed phase III trials recently. These trial data underscore the need to explore non-replicating subunit vaccine alternatives. Recently, using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, we showed that DENV-2 and DENV-3 envelope (E) glycoproteins, expressed in absence of prM, implicated in causing severe dengue disease, self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs), which elicit predominantly virus-neutralizing antibodies and confer significant protection against lethal DENV challenge in an animal model. The current study extends this work to a third DENV serotype. We cloned and expressed DENV-1 E antigen in P. pastoris, and purified it to near homogeneity. Recombinant DENV-1 E underwent post-translational processing, namely, signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation. Purified DENV-1 E self-assembled into stable VLPs, based on electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. Epitope mapping with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the VLPs retained the overall antigenic integrity of the virion particles despite the absence of prM. Subtle changes accompanied the efficient display of E domain III (EDIII), which contains type-specific neutralizing epitopes. These VLPs were immunogenic, eliciting predominantly homotypic EDIII-directed DENV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies. This work demonstrates the inherent potential of P. pastoris-expressed DENV-1 E glycoprotein to self-assemble into VLPs

  15. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Schmallenberg virus antibody in equine population of Northern and Northeast of Iran

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    M. Rasekh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Schmallenberg virus (SBV is a newly emerging virus in Simbu group that 1st time is reported in 2011 in Germany and now spread to Europe. The clinical signs of infection to this virus are fever, loss of appetite, reduced milk yield and in some cases, diarrhea and in pregnant animals congenital malformations in calves, lambs, and kid goats. Materials and Methods: In this study for a serologic survey of SBV, blood samples from 200 horse in different rural areas of the northern and northeast of Iran with the high equine population collected and were analyzed using an indirect ELISA test. Results: Based on our results 5% (n=10 of total 200 samples were positive for SBV antibody and 2% (n=4 was doubtful and 93% (n=186 was negative. There were no significant differences between age and sex and breed properties (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of antibodies against the SBV on horse populations in Iran. The high population and activity of Culicoides biting midges and their proper living conditions, especially the areas of temperate and humid environmental conditions, are the possible causes of arboviruses related diseases seen in this country.

  17. Screening and diagnostic performance of enzyme immunoassay for antibody to lymphadenopathy-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, H H; Wandell, M; Goldstein, L; Shriver, K

    1987-05-01

    In a multicenter cooperative study, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using purified antigen of lymphadenopathy-associated virus was compared with radioimmune precipitation (RIP) for detection of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 634 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or related conditions, 687 apparently healthy persons at risk for HIV infection, 93 controls with cancer or autoimmune diseases, and 10,038 blood or plasma donors. Excluding the donors, the EIA was reactive in 875 (61.9%) of 1,414 subjects; compared with RIP, the sensitivity and specificity of EIA both were 99.8%. There was one false-positive EIA among 148 intravenous drug abusers and two false-negative EIAs among 472 apparently healthy homosexual men; no other discordant results between EIA and RIP occurred in these subjects. The EIA was repeatably reactive in 20 donors (0.2%), among whom 13 (65%) were positive by RIP; none of 529 randomly selected EIA-negative donors was RIP positive. In addition to its utility as a screening test in low-risk populations, the EIA for antibody to lymphadenopathy-associated virus is useful as a diagnostic test in persons with clinical evidence of or at risk for HIV infection.

  18. [Prevalence of antibodies against Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus in dogs from Saxony, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Anneliese; Beer, Martin; Gniel, Dieter; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important tick-transmitted viral disease in Europe and is caused by the TBE virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. In Germany, the vast majority of human TBE cases occurs in the south in so-called risk areas. However, in areas with only sporadic TBE cases, the respective risk assessment is hard to achieve. We therefore intend to use the prevalence of antibodies against TBEV in dogs as an indicator to trace such TBE endemic areas. Between August 2012 and March 2014, a total of 331 blood sera were collected from dogs all over Saxony, which hadn't left the state for the past five years. For the detection of antibodies against TBE-virus a commercial ELISA was used. Ten sera with positive or borderline ELISA results were retested by serum neutralization test. All seven ELISA-positive serum samples could be verified to contain TBE-virus-specific antibodieswith SNT titres between 1:15 and more than 1:40. We therefore found 2.1% seroprevalence in our samples. We conclude, that dogs can very well be used as sentinels, especially in areas with only sporadic TBE cases, although larger sample sizes are desired.

  19. Sufficient virus-neutralizing antibody in the central nerve system improves the survival of rabid rats

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    Liao Pi-Hung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is known to be lethal in human. Treatment with passive immunity for the rabies is effective only when the patients have not shown the central nerve system (CNS signs. The blood–brain barrier (BBB is a complex functional barrier that may compromise the therapeutic development in neurological diseases. The goal of this study is to determine the change of BBB integrity and to assess the therapeutic possibility of enhancing BBB permeability combined with passive immunity in the late stage of rabies virus infection. Methods The integrity of BBB permeability in rats was measured by quantitative ELISA for total IgG and albumin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and by exogenously applying Evans blue as a tracer. Western blotting of occludin and ZO-1, two tight junction proteins, was used to assess the molecular change of BBB structure. The breakdown of BBB with hypertonic arabinose, recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-γ, and focused ultrasound (FUS were used to compare the extent of BBB disruption with rabies virus infection. Specific humoral immunity was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 8-10E was administered to rats with hypertonic breakdown of BBB as a passive immunotherapy to prevent the death from rabies. Results The BBB permeability was altered on day 7 post-infection. Increased BBB permeability induced by rabies virus infection was observed primarily in the cerebellum and spinal cord. Occludin was significantly decreased in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The rabies virus-specific antibody was not strongly elicited even in the presence of clinical signs. Disruption of BBB had no direct association with the lethal outcome of rabies. Passive immunotherapy with virus-neutralizing mAb 8-10E with the hypertonic breakdown of BBB prolonged the survival of rabies virus-infected rats. Conclusions We demonstrated

  20. Characterization of the Outer Domain of the gp120 Glycoprotein from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinzhen; Tomov, Vesko; Kurteva, Svetla; Wang, Liping; Ren, Xinping; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The core of the gp120 glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is comprised of three major structural domains: the outer domain, the inner domain, and the bridging sheet. The outer domain is exposed on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer and contains binding surfaces for neutralizing antibodies such as 2G12, immunoglobulin G1b12, and anti-V3 antibodies. We expressed the outer domain of HIV-1YU2 gp120 as an independent protein, termed OD1. OD1 efficiently bound 2G12 and a large number of anti-V3 antibodies, indicating its structural integrity. Immunochemical studies with OD1 indicated that antibody responses against the outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein are rare in HIV-1-infected human sera that potently neutralize the virus. Surprisingly, such outer-domain-directed antibody responses are commonly elicited by immunization with recombinant monomeric gp120. Immunization with soluble, stabilized HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers elicited antibody responses that more closely resembled those in the sera of HIV-1-infected individuals. These results underscore the qualitatively different humoral immune responses elicited during natural infection and after gp120 vaccination and help to explain the failure of gp120 as an effective vaccine. PMID:15542649

  1. CROSSREACTIVE ANTIBODIES AND MEMORY T CELLS TO HUMAN AND ZOONOTIC INFLUENZA A VIRUSES IN VOLUNTEERS

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    I. V. Losev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a real hazard of transferring zoonotic influenza A viruses, either swine, or avian, into human population. In such case, severity of such pandemics depends on the pathogen-specific immunity in the population. Virtual absence of such immunity in humans was declared in the literature. In this work, we assessed systemic, local, and T-cell immunity to potentially pandemic H3N2sw, H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H7N9 and H2N2 influenza A viruses in a group of healthy adults of different age. Our results indicate that these subjects develop the following immune reactions: (i local (i.e., nasal IgA and cellular (CD4+ and CD8v memory T cells heterosubtypic immunity, in absence of detectable virus-specific serum antibodies to avian influenza A viruses; (ii Local immune responses (as nasal IgA to human A (H2N2 virus which circulated in 1957-1968 were detected both in subjects who could be primed at that time, but also in subjects born after 1968; (iii full-scale systemic and local immunity to potentially pandemic А (H3N2sw swine virus was found in the group. Conclusion. In order of proper epidemiological forecasts and planning appropriate preventive measures for potentially pandemic Influenza A viruses, a regular monitoring of collective immunity should be performed using different adaptive markers. In this respect, any conclusion based on molecular analysis only could lead to considerable mistakes, and should be accomplished by the mentioned immunological studies.

  2. Antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus proteins BFRF3 and BRRF2 cross-react with human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, J William

    2017-09-15

    We hypothesize that the immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) drives the autoimmune damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated whether antibodies to two EBV proteins targeted by MS patients cross-react with self proteins. Using affinity columns, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry, we found that antibodies to the EBV protein BFRF3 cross-react with the cytoplasmic protein septin-9, and antibodies to BRRF2 also bind mitochondrial proteins. Using Western blots and ELISA, we demonstrated that MS patients were more likely to have high levels of antibodies to one or another of these self antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Four Serological Tests for Detecting Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus after Vaccination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515

  4. The mechanistic role of antibodies to dengue virus in protection and disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Esther Shuyi; Ting, Donald Heng Rong; Chan, Kuan Rong

    2017-02-01

    Dengue is a prevalent disease in tropical and subtropical countries with an estimated 400 million people infected annually. While significant advancement has been made in the chase for an effective dengue vaccine, the recently licensed Sanofi vaccine was, in contrast to in vitro data, only partially protective. Areas covered: This suggests that our understanding of the serological correlates for dengue is currently inadequate. With growing evidence supporting the role of fragment crystalizable gamma receptors (FcγRs) in antibody-mediated neutralization or antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection, FcγR-expressing cells have been increasingly used for measuring neutralizing antibody responses elicited by dengue vaccines. Here, we review the mechanisms of how FcγRs modulates both DENV neutralization and enhanced infections via its interactions with antibodies. Expert commentary: This review provides insights on the importance of factoring FcγRs for in vitro neutralization assays. Bridging the gap between in vitro and clinical observations would allow researchers to more accurately predict in vivo vaccine efficacy.

  5. Oral mucosal lesions: association with the presence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, S L; Engel, D; Truelove, E; DeRouen, T; Morton, T; Schubert, M; Dunphy, C; Wood, R W

    1989-07-01

    To assess the relationship between oral lesions and antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus, oral examinations of 803 homosexual males were conducted at the time of serologic testing. Nineteen percent were HIV seropositive. Thirty percent of antibody-positive subjects had one or more oral lesion(s), as compared with 7% of antibody-negative subjects (p less than 0.001). The presence of oral lesions was significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: a subject was 5.7 times as likely to have serum antibodies if he had one or more oral lesions (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 9.1; p less than 0.001). This significant association with HIV seropositivity was only partially explained by cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio 3.1; 1.4-6.8; less than 0.006). Specific conditions that were significantly associated with seropositivity included candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, periodontal disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Other diseases identified included acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, mucocutaneous ulcerations, and oral warts. Oral findings may occur earlier in the natural history of infection than previously reported.

  6. Vaccination of calves against common respiratory viruses in the face of maternally derived antibodies(IFOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Woolums, Amelia; Walz, Paul H

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination of calves in the face of maternal antibodies (IFOMA) often does not result in seroconversion as maternally derived immunity interferes with the activation of adequate antibody responses to vaccination; however, it can prime T and B cell memory responses that protect calves against clinical disease when maternal immunity has decayed. The activation of B and T cell memory responses in calves vaccinated IFOMA varies and is affected by several factors, including age, level of maternal immunity, type of vaccine, and route of administration. These factors influence the adequate priming of humoral and cell mediated immune responses and the outcome of vaccination. The failure to adequately prime immune memory after vaccination IFOMA could result in lack of clinical protection and increased risk of viremia and/or virus shedding.

  7. High prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus among captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Thawornsuk, Nutchanart; Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can infect not only humans but also several other nonhuman primates. This study has been conducted to evaluate the comprehensive anti-HAV seroprevalence in captive nonhuman primate populations in Thailand. The prevalence of antibodies against HAV in 96 captive nonhuman primates of 11 species was evaluated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). HAV antibodies were found in 64.7% (11/17) of macaques, 85.7% (6/7) of langurs, 28.4% (10/35) of gibbons, and 94.6% (35/37) of orangutans. However, anti-HAV IgM was not found in any sera. These results indicate that the majority of captive nonhuman primates in Thailand were exposed to HAV. It is possible that some of the animals were infected prior to capture.

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies against Zika Virus: Therapeutics and Their Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu

    2017-10-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused global concern due to its association with neurological complications in newborns and adults. Although no vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV infection have been approved to date, hundreds of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed in a short period. Here, we first present a complete picture of the ZIKV MAbs and then focus on the neutralizing mechanisms and immune hot spots uncovered through structural studies, which provide insight for therapeutics and vaccine design. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Clinical Performance Evaluation of Four Automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassays for Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Detection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sinyoung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Yoon, Seoyoung; Park, Youn-Hee; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Various automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) analyzers for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are now commercially available in clinical laboratories and are replacing conventional enzyme immunoassays. We investigated the performance of four anti-HCV CLIAs (the Architect Anti-HCV assay on the Architect i2000 system, the Vitros Anti-HCV assay on the Vitros ECiQ Immunodiagnostic System, the Access HCV Ab PLUS assay on the UniCel DxI 800 analyzer, and the newly deve...

  10. Neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus in perinatally infected children followed up prospectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Bukh, Jens; Diaz, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    reactive NtAbs of maternal origin did not prevent vertical HCV transmission or progression to chronicity. NtAbs against homologous genotype or subtype appeared during the chronic phase and were more abundant and sustained in children with acute hepatitis. Cross-reactive NtAbs were present in both groups......Little is known about the presence and role of neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) in perinatal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Using HCV pseudoparticles, NtAbs were studied longitudinally in 12 HCV-infected children with or without evidence of acute hepatitis during the first year of life. Broadly...

  11. Illness severity, viral shedding, and antibody responses in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter F; Gruber, William C; Peters, Melissa; Reed, George; Zhu, Yuwei; Robinson, Frances; Coleman-Dockery, Shanita; Graham, Barney S

    2002-04-15

    The relationships between host factors, viral shedding, illness severity, and antibody response in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis are poorly defined. These relationships were prospectively evaluated in 77 infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis in multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of RSV immunoglobulin therapy. Severity of illness was influenced by age and host risk factors but was not influenced by RSV neutralizing antibody titer or by the amount of virus in nasal secretions at enrollment. Virus recovery in nasal secretions was variable but was highest at enrollment. Viral shedding was not influenced by primary diagnosis, antibody titer, age, or duration of acute respiratory illness before enrollment. In intubated patients, the amounts of virus recovered in nasal secretions and endotracheal aspirates were highly correlated. A serum neutralizing antibody response was seen in 64% of subjects who received placebo. The response was not influenced by age, primary diagnosis, amount of virus recovered, or severity of illness but was suppressed by preexisting antibody.

  12. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  13. Detection of antibody to canine distemper virus in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hitoshi; Kameo, Yuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Uni, Shigehiko; Shibasaki, Takahiro; Maeda, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a lethal disease among members of the Carnivora. To clarify the distribution of CDV in wild animals, we examined 106 raccoon sera collected from two prefectures in Japan, Hyogo and Osaka, from 2005 to 2007. Among them, 34 raccoons (32.1%) possessed a virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody to KDK-1 strain (genotype Asia-1). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of CDV regardless of places, gender, and body weights. In Hyogo, a geometric mean of VN titers to KDK-1 was significantly higher than that to Onderstepoort (vaccine strain), indicating that KDK-1-like CDV different from vaccine strain might have spread among raccoon population in Hyogo. In conclusion, CDV is epidemic among feral raccoons in Japan, suggesting that CDV might have been spreading among Japanese wild animals.

  14. THE PASSAGE AND DURATION OF ANTIBODIES TO WEST NILE VIRUS IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Andrew C; Dubovi, Edward; Erb, Hollis N; Georoff, Timothy A; Abou-Madi, Noha

    2017-03-01

    West Nile virus (genus Flavivirus) outbreaks and mortality events have been documented in both wild and captive avian species, including penguins. Serologic response to vaccination in avian species has varied and appears to be largely species dependent; however, Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) previously showed excellent rates of seroconversion. The goal of this study was to determine virus neutralization titers of 17 Humboldt penguin hens and their subsequent eggs, chicks, or both following vaccination with a killed West Nile vaccine. Chicks were also vaccinated at 56, 70, and 84 days old. Titers were measured from 10-346 days prior to lay as well as serially in seven chicks. Data collected showed positive rank correlation between maternal titers and yolk titers (ρ = 0.90, P penguin chicks based on a time-dependent decline in maternal antibody titers. Cell-mediated immunity and experimental challenge following vaccination have not yet been investigated in this species.

  15. Antigenic determinants of influenza virus hemagglutinin. XI. Conformational changes detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D C; Nestorowicz, A

    1985-08-01

    At pH 5 influenza virus hemagglutinin undergoes an irreversible conformational change (J.J. Skehel, P. M. Bayley, E. B. Brown, S. R. Martin, M. D. Waterfield, J. M. White, I. A. Wilson, and D. C. Wiley (1982). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 968-972) which parallels the appearance of fusion activity of this molecule. This paper describes experiments which explore the conformational change using a panel of monoclonal antibodies which define four of the major antigenic sites of this protein. The results indicate that three of the major antigenic sites of hemagglutinin undergo changes when exposed to acid pH. These changes have little effect on the binding avidity of influenza virus to glycophorin, the major receptor present on the red blood cell surface. These findings have been used to postulate a mechanism where the molecule flexes around a central region resulting in rearrangement in space of its component domains on exposure to low pH.

  16. Antigenic Fingerprinting of Antibody Response in Humans following Exposure to Highly Pathogenic H7N7 Avian Influenza Virus: Evidence for Anti-PA-X Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka Yan; Coyle, Elizabeth M.; Meijer, Adam; Golding, Hana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infections with H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses remain a major public health concern. Adaptation of low-pathogenic H7N7 to highly pathogenic H7N7 in Europe in 2015 raised further alarm for a potential pandemic. An in-depth understanding of antibody responses to HPAI H7 virus following infection in humans could provide important insight into virus gene expression as well as define key protective and serodiagnostic targets. Here we used whole-genome gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs) expressing peptides of 15 to 350 amino acids across the complete genome of the HPAI H7N7 A/Netherlands/33/03 virus. The hemagglutinin (HA) antibody epitope repertoires of 15 H7N7-exposed humans identified clear differences between individuals with no hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers (1:40. Several potentially protective H7N7 epitopes close to the HA receptor binding domain (RBD) and neuraminidase (NA) catalytic site were identified. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis identified a strong correlation between HA1 (but not HA2) binding antibodies and H7N7 HI titers. A proportion of HA1 binding in plasma was contributed by IgA antibodies. Antibodies against the N7 neuraminidase were less frequent but targeted sites close to the sialic acid binding site. Importantly, we identified strong antibody reactivity against PA-X, a putative virulence factor, in most H7N7-exposed individuals, providing the first evidence for in vivo expression of PA-X and its recognition by the immune system during human influenza A virus infection. This knowledge can help inform the development and selection of the most effective countermeasures for prophylactic as well as therapeutic treatments of HPAI H7N7 avian influenza virus. IMPORTANCE An outbreak of pathogenic H7N7 virus occurred in poultry farms in The Netherlands in 2003. Severe outcome included conjunctivitis, influenza-like illness, and one lethal infection. In this study, we investigated convalescent

  17. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted.

  18. Glycosylation of gp41 of simian immunodeficiency virus shields epitopes that can be targets for neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Eloìsa; Bixby, Jacqueline; Lifson, Jeffrey; Sato, Shuji; Johnson, Welkin; Desrosiers, Ronald

    2008-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus possess three closely spaced, highly conserved sites for N-linked carbohydrate attachment in the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein gp41. We infected rhesus monkeys with a variant of cloned SIVmac239 lacking the second and third sites or with a variant strain lacking all three of SIVmac239's glycosylation sites in gp41. For each mutation, asparagine (N) in the canonical N-X-S/T recognition sequence for carbohydrate attachment was changed to the structurally similar glutamine such that two nucleotide changes would be required for a reversion of the mutated codon. By 16 weeks, experimentally infected monkeys made antibodies that neutralized the mutant viruses to high titers. Such antibodies were not observed in monkeys infected with the parental virus. Thus, new specificities were revealed as a result of the carbohydrate attachment mutations, and antibodies of these specificities had neutralizing activity. Unlike monkeys infected with the parental virus, monkeys infected with the mutant viruses made antibodies that reacted with peptides corresponding to the sequences in this region. Furthermore, there was strong selective pressure for the emergence of variant sequences in this region during the course of infection. By analyzing the neutralization profiles of sequence variants, we were able to define three mutations (Q625R, K631N, and Q634H) in the region of the glycosylation site mutations that conferred resistance to neutralization by plasma from the monkeys infected with mutant virus. Based on the reactivity of antibodies to peptides in this region and the colocalization of neutralization escape mutations, we conclude that N-linked carbohydrates in the ectodomain of the transmembrane protein shield underlying epitopes that would otherwise be the direct targets of neutralizing antibodies.

  19. High prevalence of serum antibody against human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) among the Bismam Asmat population (Indonesian New Guinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, M C; Tommaseo, M; Furlini, G; La Placa, M

    1989-10-01

    An unusually high prevalence (45%) of serum antibodies to human T cell leukemia virus type I (or to an antigenically related virus) in comparison with that observed against other viral pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus type 1, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, and respiratory syncytial virus) has been observed in a group of Bismam Asmat (Papua) subjects, living in a very limited and geographically isolated area of Indonesian New Guinea.

  20. Dengue Virus Evades AAV-Mediated Neutralizing Antibody Prophylaxis in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Diogo M; Ricciardi, Michael J; Bailey, Varian K; Gutman, Martin J; Pedreño-Lopez, Núria; Silveira, Cassia G T; Maxwell, Helen S; Domingues, Aline; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Su, Qin; Newman, Ruchi M; Pack, Melissa; Martins, Mauricio A; Martinez-Navio, José M; Fuchs, Sebastian P; Rakasz, Eva G; Allen, Todd M; Whitehead, Stephen S; Burton, Dennis R; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Kallas, Esper G; Watkins, David I

    2017-10-04

    Development of vaccines against mosquito-borne Flaviviruses is complicated by the occurrence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), which can increase disease severity. Long-term delivery of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) has the potential to effectively block infection and represents an alternative to vaccination. The risk of ADE may be avoided by using prophylactic nAbs harboring amino acid mutations L234A and L235A (LALA) in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant region. Here, we used recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) to deliver the anti-dengue virus 3 (DENV3) nAb P3D05. While the administration of rAAV-P3D05-rhesus immunoglobulin G1 (rhIgG1)-LALA to rhesus macaques engendered DENV3-neutralizing activity in serum, it did not prevent infection. The emergence of viremia following DENV3 challenge was delayed by 3-6 days in the rAAV-treated group, and replicating virus contained the envelope mutation K64R. This neutralization-resistant variant was also confirmed by virus outgrowth experiments in vitro. By delivering P3D05 with unmutated Fc sequences, we further demonstrated that DENV3 also evaded wild-type nAb prophylaxis, and serum viral loads appeared to be higher in the presence of low levels of unmutated P3D05-rhIgG1. Our study shows that a vectored approach for long-term delivery of nAbs with the LALA mutations is promising, but prophylaxis using a single nAb is likely insufficient at preventing DENV infection and replication. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and characterization of mimotopes of classical swine fever virus E2 glycoprotein using specific anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batonick, M.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Metwally, S.A.; Mayr, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) shares high nucleic acid and amino acid sequence homology with the other members of the pestivirus genus, namely bovine viral diarrhea virus and border disease virus. All three viruses are able to infect swine and generate cross reactive antibodies, which is

  2. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes.

  3. Robust production of virus-like particles and monoclonal antibodies with geminiviral replicon vectors in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Huafang; He, Junyun; Engle, Michael; Diamond, Michael S; Chen, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical protein production in plants has been greatly promoted by the development of viral-based vectors and transient expression systems. Tobacco and related Nicotiana species are currently the most common host plants for the generation of plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs). Downstream processing of target PMPs from these plants, however, is hindered by potential technical and regulatory difficulties owing to the presence of high levels of phenolics and toxic alkaloids. Here, we explored the use of lettuce, which grows quickly yet produces low levels of secondary metabolites and viral vector-based transient expression systems to develop a robust PMP production platform. Our results showed that a geminiviral replicon system based on the bean yellow dwarf virus permits high-level expression in lettuce of virus-like particles (VLP) derived from the Norwalk virus capsid protein and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Ebola and West Nile viruses. These vaccine and therapeutic candidates can be readily purified from lettuce leaves with scalable processing methods while fully retaining functional activity. Furthermore, this study also demonstrated the feasibility of using commercially produced lettuce for high-level PMP production. This allows our production system to have access to unlimited quantities of inexpensive plant material for large-scale production. These results establish a new production platform for biological pharmaceutical agents that are effective, safe, low cost, and amenable to large-scale manufacturing. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Association of group B coxsackie viruses with cases of pericarditis, myocarditis, or pleurodynia by demonstration of immunoglobulin M antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, N J; Magoffin, R L; Lennette, E H

    1973-09-01

    Tests for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to group B coxsackieviruses were performed on sera from 259 patients with a clinical diagnosis of pericarditis, myocarditis, or pleurodynia on whom there were no definitive serological or virus isolation findings to establish a viral etiology, and on 259 "control" patients with clinical diagnoses of viral or mycoplasmal pneumonia or pneumonitis. IgM antibodies to coxsackievirus types B1, B3, B4, B5, and B6 were detected by a micro-immunodiffusion technique, and antibodies to virus type B2 were detected by reduction of neutralizing antibodies with ethanethiol. Of the patients with pericarditis, myocarditis, or pleurodynia, 27% (70) had IgM antibody to group B coxsackieviruses, as compared with 8% in the control group. On retrospective review of the clinical diagnosis, some of the patients in the control group with IgM antibody were found to have had additional clinical findings which could be attributed to a coxsackievirus infection. Coxsackievirus IgM antibody was demonstrable in 30% of 113 patients in the study group for whom virus isolation had been attempted with negative results. The presence of coxsackievirus IgM is discussed in relation to the time of serum collection, age of the patients, and month of onset of illness.

  5. A rapid assay for Hendra virus IgG antibody detection and its titre estimation using magnetic nanoparticles and phycoerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pallister, Jackie; Lapierre, Florian; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-09-15

    Detection of Hendra viral IgG antibody in animal sera is useful for surveillance following a virus outbreak. The commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-based Luminex assay typically consist of three steps and take at least several hours to complete. We have simplified the procedure to two steps in an effort to develop a rapid procedure for IgG antibody, but not IgM antibody, detection. This is achieved by conjugating the fluorescence label R-phycoerythrin directly onto the IgG binding protein Protein G. The use of magnetic nanoparticles, due to their large specific surface area, has helped reduce each of the binding steps to 20 min. As a result, the whole assay can be completed in 60 min. We also demonstrate a method to quickly estimate IgG antibody titres by assaying the sera at only two dilutions (i.e. 1:20 and 1:1000) and using the fluorescence ratio at these dilutions as an indicator of antibody titre. The results of this approach correlated well with the well-regarded serum neutralization test in virus antibody assays. This protocol reported here can be adopted in Luminex assays, fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assays and assays on microfluidics platforms for rapid antibody surveillance of Hendra and other viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei Ang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF in 2008-2009.Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV.The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%. The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01. Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5% compared to Chinese (1.6% and Malays (0.7% (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%, while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0% of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV.Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  7. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J. M.; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F. P.; Lin, Raymond T. P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008–2009. Methods Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18–79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. Results The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18–79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%– 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70–79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30–39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30–39 years and 70–79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%– 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%– 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Conclusions Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population. PMID:29281644

  8. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  9. Characterization of the Virus and Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-16

    clinical syndromes (Sturman and Holmes, 1983). The murine hepatitis viruses (MHV) belong to antigenic group II and can cause enteric infections...region ( Moebius et al., 1992). The goal of this work is two fold. First, to determine whether Bgp1a and Bgp1b are allelic variants of the same gene...residues homologous to the I9 CDR2 region also contacts a small pocket within the HIV gp120. More recently, Moebius et al. (1992) created point mutation

  10. Applying antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1-deleted hepatitis C virus to the study of escape pathways of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody AR5A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velazquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Law, Mansun; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare....... The mutation did not induce viral fitness loss, but abrogated AR5A binding to HCV particles and intracellular E1/E2 complexes. Culturing J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 (genotype 2a), for which fitness was decreased by L665W, with AR5A generated AR5A-resistant viruses with the substitutions I345V, L665S, and S680T, which we...... effect but sensitized the virus to AR5A. Of note, H77/JFH1L665S was non-viable. The resistance mutations did not affect cell-to-cell spread or E1/E2 interactions. Finally, introducing L665W, identified in genotype 1, into genotypes 2–6 parental and HVR1-deleted variants (not available for genotype 4a) we...

  11. The Effect of Perceived Stress on Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Titers in Appalachian Ohio Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Melissa J; Christian, Lisa M; Hade, Erinn M; Ruffin, Mack T

    2017-01-01

    The Appalachian population suffers a disparate burden of chronic stress leading to high perceived stress. The study aim was to determine the association between perceived stress and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers, along with the impact of perceived social support, Appalachian self-identify, and health behaviors. Serum EBV VCA-IgG antibody titer levels from 169 female Appalachian residents (aged 18-26 years) were examined. Perceived stress, perceived social support, Appalachian self-identity, and health behaviors were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. There were 169 of 185 women positive for EBV. Among these women, the median EBV antibody titer level was 404 U/mL (range 101-6,464), and the overall geometric mean was 563.2 (95% CI 486.6-651.9). For a 1-point increase in perceived stress, the EBV antibody titer increased by 1.92% (95% CI 0.04-3.76%). For every point increase in perceived social support, the EBV antibody titer decreased by 1.00% (95% CI 0.06-1.98%). Perceived stress was significantly associated with sleep quality, BMI, and current smoking status, but not with binge-drinking, drug use, or Appalachian self-identity. No mediating effects of sleep quality, BMI, binge-drinking, current drug use, or >4 sexual partners were observed in the relationship between perceived stress and EBV titer level. Young Appalachian women reported high levels of perceived stress that were significantly associated with higher EBV titers. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower EBV titers. Health behaviors and Appalachian self-identity did not impact the relationship between perceived stress and EBV titers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Rapid high yield production of different glycoforms of Ebola virus monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Castilho

    Full Text Available Fc-glycosylation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has profound implications on the Fc-mediated effector functions. Alteration of this glycosylation may affect the efficiency of an antibody. However, difficulties in the production of mAbs with homogeneous N-glycosylation profiles in sufficient amounts hamper investigations of the potential biological impact of different glycan residues.Here we set out to evaluate a transient plant viral based production system for the rapid generation of different glycoforms of a monoclonal antibody. Ebola virus mAb h-13F6 was generated using magnICON expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana, a plant species developed for commercial scale production of therapeutic proteins. h-13F6 was co-expressed with a series of modified mammalian enzymes involved in the processing of complex N-glycans. Using wild type (WT plants and the glycosylation mutant ΔXTFT that synthesizes human like biantennary N-glycans with terminal N-acetylglucosamine on each branch (GnGn structures as expression hosts we demonstrate the generation of h-13F6 complex N-glycans with (i bisected structures, (ii core α1,6 fucosylation and (iii β1,4 galactosylated oligosaccharides. In addition we emphasize the significance of precise sub Golgi localization of enzymes for engineering of IgG Fc-glycosylation.The method described here allows the efficient generation of a series of different human-like glycoforms at large homogeneity of virtually any antibody within one week after cDNA delivery to plants. This accelerates follow up functional studies and thus may contribute to study the biological role of N-glycan residues on Fcs and maximizing the clinical efficacy of therapeutic antibodies.

  13. Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademeyer, Cecilia; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S; Giorgi, Elena E; Thebus, Ruwayhida; Robles, Alexander; Sheward, Daniel J; Wagh, Kshitij; Garrity, Jetta; Carey, Brittany R; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli M; Tang, Haili; Bandawe, Gama P; Marais, Jinny C; Diphoko, Thabo E; Hraber, Peter; Tumba, Nancy; Moore, Penny L; Gray, Glenda E; Kublin, James; McElrath, M Juliana; Vermeulen, Marion; Middelkoop, Keren; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hoelscher, Michael; Maboko, Leonard; Makhema, Joseph; Robb, Merlin L; Abdool Karim, Salim; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Kim, Jerome H; Hahn, Beatrice H; Gao, Feng; Swanstrom, Ronald; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C; Williamson, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    The development of biomedical interventions to reduce acquisition of HIV-1 infection remains a global priority, however their potential effectiveness is challenged by very high HIV-1 envelope diversity. Two large prophylactic trials in high incidence, clade C epidemic regions in southern Africa are imminent; passive administration of the monoclonal antibody VRC01, and active immunization with a clade C modified RV144-like vaccines. We have created a large representative panel of C clade viruses to enable assessment of antibody responses to vaccines and natural infection in Southern Africa, and we investigated the genotypic and neutralization properties of recently transmitted clade C viruses to determine how viral diversity impacted antibody recognition. We further explore the implications of these findings for the potential effectiveness of these trials. A panel of 200 HIV-1 Envelope pseudoviruses was constructed from clade C viruses collected within the first 100 days following infection. Viruses collected pre-seroconversion were significantly more resistant to serum neutralization compared to post-seroconversion viruses (p = 0.001). Over 13 years of the study as the epidemic matured, HIV-1 diversified (p = 0.0009) and became more neutralization resistant to monoclonal antibodies VRC01, PG9 and 4E10. When tested at therapeutic levels (10ug/ml), VRC01 only neutralized 80% of viruses in the panel, although it did exhibit potent neutralization activity against sensitive viruses (IC50 titres of 0.42 μg/ml). The Gp120 amino acid similarity between the clade C panel and candidate C-clade vaccine protein boosts (Ce1086 and TV1) was 77%, which is 8% more distant than between CRF01_AE viruses and the RV144 CRF01_AE immunogen. Furthermore, two vaccine signature sites, K169 in V2 and I307 in V3, associated with reduced infection risk in RV144, occurred less frequently in clade C panel viruses than in CRF01_AE viruses from Thailand. Increased resistance of pre

  14. Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive Immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rademeyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomedical interventions to reduce acquisition of HIV-1 infection remains a global priority, however their potential effectiveness is challenged by very high HIV-1 envelope diversity. Two large prophylactic trials in high incidence, clade C epidemic regions in southern Africa are imminent; passive administration of the monoclonal antibody VRC01, and active immunization with a clade C modified RV144-like vaccines. We have created a large representative panel of C clade viruses to enable assessment of antibody responses to vaccines and natural infection in Southern Africa, and we investigated the genotypic and neutralization properties of recently transmitted clade C viruses to determine how viral diversity impacted antibody recognition. We further explore the implications of these findings for the potential effectiveness of these trials. A panel of 200 HIV-1 Envelope pseudoviruses was constructed from clade C viruses collected within the first 100 days following infection. Viruses collected pre-seroconversion were significantly more resistant to serum neutralization compared to post-seroconversion viruses (p = 0.001. Over 13 years of the study as the epidemic matured, HIV-1 diversified (p = 0.0009 and became more neutralization resistant to monoclonal antibodies VRC01, PG9 and 4E10. When tested at therapeutic levels (10ug/ml, VRC01 only neutralized 80% of viruses in the panel, although it did exhibit potent neutralization activity against sensitive viruses (IC50 titres of 0.42 μg/ml. The Gp120 amino acid similarity between the clade C panel and candidate C-clade vaccine protein boosts (Ce1086 and TV1 was 77%, which is 8% more distant than between CRF01_AE viruses and the RV144 CRF01_AE immunogen. Furthermore, two vaccine signature sites, K169 in V2 and I307 in V3, associated with reduced infection risk in RV144, occurred less frequently in clade C panel viruses than in CRF01_AE viruses from Thailand. Increased resistance of

  15. Nonhuman primate infants have an impaired respiratory but not systemic IgG antibody response following influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Beth C.; Hayward, Sarah L.; Blevins, Lance K.; Kock, Nancy; Aycock, Tyler; Parks, Griffith D.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory infection of young infants results in increased morbidity and mortality compared to infection of adults. In spite of the significance of this health issue, our understanding of the immune response elicited in infants, especially in the respiratory tract is highly limited. We developed a nonhuman primate model to probe the virus-specific antibody response in infants following infection with influenza virus. Infection of infants resulted in more pulmonary damage and higher viral loads compared to adults. While the systemic IgG antibody response was similar in infant and adult animals, the response in the upper respiratory tract of the infant was compromised. This lower response was associated with an increased prevalence of Treg cells and low levels of BALT. These data suggest a defect in the ability to produce effective virus-specific antibody responses at the local infection site is a contributor to increased pulmonary damage in the at-risk infant population. PMID:25543963

  16. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......- and O-linked carbohydrate epitopes (LeY, A1, and sialyl-Tn) were able to block infection by cell-free virus as well as inhibit syncytium formation. Inhibition of virus infectivity was independent of virus strain (HTLVIIIB or patient isolate SSI-002), the cell line used for virus propagation (H9 or MT4......), and the cell type used as the infection target (MT4, PMC, or selected T4 lymphocytes). Inhibition was observed when viruses were preincubated with MAbs but not when cells were preincubated with MAbs before inoculation, and the MAbs were shown to precipitate 125I-labeled gp120. The MAbs therefore define...

  17. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Amanda L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use. Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being developed as therapeutics and are potential treatments for VEEV as they have been shown to be protective in the mouse model of disease. However, to be truly effective, the antibody should recognise multiple strains of VEEV and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies are rarely and only coincidentally isolated using classical hybridoma technology. Results In this work, methods were developed to reliably derive broadly reactive murine antibodies. A phage library was created that expressed single chain variable fragments (scFv isolated from mice immunised with multiple strains of VEEV. A broadly reactive scFv was identified and incorporated into a murine IgG2a framework. This novel antibody retained the broad reactivity exhibited by the scFv but did not possess virus neutralising activity. However, the antibody was still able to protect mice against VEEV disease induced by strain TrD when administered 24 h prior to challenge. Conclusion A monoclonal antibody possessing reactivity to a wide range of VEEV strains may be of benefit as a generic antiviral therapy. However, humanisation of the murine antibody will be required before it can be tested in humans. Crown Copyright © 2009

  18. Engineering, Expression in Transgenic Plants and Characterisation of E559, a Rabies Virus-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J.; Teh, Audrey Y-H.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Both, Leonard; Lotter-Stark, Hester C. T.; Tsekoa, Tsepo; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Chakauya, Ereck; Sabeta, Claude T.; Gruber, Clemens; Fooks, Anthony R.; Chikwamba, Rachel K.; Ma, Julian K-C.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG. Here, we describe the cloning, engineering and production in plants of a candidate monoclonal antibody (E559) for inclusion in such a cocktail. The murine constant domains of E559 were replaced with human IgG1κ constant domains and the resulting chimeric mouse-human genes were cloned into plant expression vectors for stable nuclear transformation of Nicotiana tabacum. The plant-expressed, chimeric antibody was purified and biochemically characterized, was demonstrated to neutralize rabies virus in a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay, and conferred protection in a hamster challenge model. PMID:24511101

  19. Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Moore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Both cell-mediated and humoral immune effectors are important in combating rabies infection, although the humoral response receives greater attention regarding rabies prevention. The principle of preventive vaccination has been adopted for strategies of oral rabies vaccination (ORV of wildlife reservoir populations for decades to control circulation of rabies virus in free-ranging hosts. There remains much debate about the levels of rabies antibodies (and the assays to measure them that confer resistance to rabies virus. In this paper, data from published literature and our own unpublished animal studies on the induction of rabies binding and neutralizing antibodies following oral immunization of animals with live attenuated or recombinant rabies vaccines, are examined as correlates of protection against lethal rabies infection in captive challenge settings. Analysis of our studies suggests that, though serum neutralization test results are expected to reflect in vivo protection, the blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result at Day 28 was a better predictor of survival. ELISA kits may have an advantage of greater precision and ability to compare results among different studies and laboratories based on the inherent standardization of the kit format. This paper examines current knowledge and study findings to guide meaningful interpretation of serology results in oral baiting monitoring.

  20. Epitope Sequences in Dengue Virus NS1 Protein Identified by Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Barboza Rocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 is a multi-functional glycoprotein with essential functions both in viral replication and modulation of host innate immune responses. NS1 has been established as a good surrogate marker for infection. In the present study, we generated four anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies against recombinant NS1 protein from dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2, which were used to map three NS1 epitopes. The sequence 193AVHADMGYWIESALNDT209 was recognized by monoclonal antibodies 2H5 and 4H1BC, which also cross-reacted with Zika virus (ZIKV protein. On the other hand, the sequence 25VHTWTEQYKFQPES38 was recognized by mAb 4F6 that did not cross react with ZIKV. Lastly, a previously unidentified DENV2 NS1-specific epitope, represented by the sequence 127ELHNQTFLIDGPETAEC143, is described in the present study after reaction with mAb 4H2, which also did not cross react with ZIKV. The selection and characterization of the epitope, specificity of anti-NS1 mAbs, may contribute to the development of diagnostic tools able to differentiate DENV and ZIKV infections.

  1. Prevalence of Antibody to Hepatitis C Virus in Saudi Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Al-Knawy

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV was retrospectively determined using a second generation enzyme immunoassay in 3868 blood donors from the southern part of Saudi Arabia in an area with high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Of 3354 Saudis, 48 (1.43% were seropositive for anti-HCV. A high prevalence (43 of 204, 21.08% of anti-HCV was observed among Egyptian donors compared with Saudis (1.43% and other nationalities (eight of 310, 2.58%. Furthermore, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was observed to increase with age, peaking in the 25 to 34 year age group. From this and other studies conducted in different regions of Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of anti-HCV among Egyptian donors appears to range from 19.2 to 24.5%, and among Saudi donors appears to range from 1.00 to 1.7%, a rate similar to that reported from western countries; this latter rate does not seem to be influenced by the high prevalence of HBV infection in this region.

  2. High affinity human antibody fragments to dengue virus non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J Moreland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enzyme activities catalysed by flavivirus non-structural protein 3 (NS3 are essential for virus replication. They are distributed between the N-terminal protease domain in the first one-third and the C-terminal ATPase/helicase and nucleoside 5' triphosphatase domain which forms the remainder of the 618-aa long protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, dengue full-length NS3 protein with residues 49 to 66 of NS2B covalently attached via a flexible linker, was used as bait in biopanning with a naïve human Fab phage-display library. Using a range of truncated constructs spanning the NS2B cofactor region and the full-length NS3, 10 unique Fab were identified and characterized. Of these, monoclonal Fab 3F8 was shown to bind α3″ (residues 526 through 531 within subdomain III of the helicase domain. The antibody inhibits the ATPase and helicase activites of NS3 in biochemical assays and reduces DENV replication in HEK293 cells that were previously transfected with Fab 3F8 compared with mock transfected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies such as 3F8 are valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of flaviviral replication and for the monospecific detection of replicating dengue virus in vivo.

  3. Hepatitis C virus antibodies in high risk juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Nádia E; Nascimento, Ana P; Hayata, André L S; Bonfá, Eloisa; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in high risk juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). Forty low income JSLE patients (6M:34F; mean age 19±4.4 yrs; mean disease duration 6±3.2 yrs) were studied. Twenty healthy children and adolescents matched for social economical level were included as controls. Anti-HCV tests were performed using a third generation microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Inclusion criterion was low social economical level. The frequencies of anti-HCV antibody were low and comparable between JSLE and control group (2.5% vs. 0, p=1.0). JSLE patients had significantly more risk factors for HCV infection compared to the control group, including immunosuppressive treatment (90% vs. 0, p<0.0001), hospitalization (50% vs. 12.5%, p=0.0006) and invasive procedures (47.5% vs. 12.5%, p=0.001). The observed low frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in high risk JSLE suggests that this virus does not seem to have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against nonstructural protein 9 from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng ZHAO,Juanjuan QIAN,Jiexiong XIE,Tiantian CUI,Songling FENG,Guoqiang WANG,Ruining WANG,Guihong ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is considered to be one of the most important infectious diseases impacting the swine industry and is characterized by reproductive failure in late term gestation in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. The nonstructural protein 9 gene, Nsp9, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is generally regarded as fairly conserved when compared to other viral proteins. Antibodies against Nsp9 will be of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of the causal agent, PRRS virus. A study was undertaken to generate polyclonal antibodies against the immunodominant Nsp9. For this purpose, the Nsp9 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used as an antigen to immunize New Zealand rabbits. Antiserum was identified via an indirect ELISA, and then verified based on the ability to react with both naturally and artificially expressed Nsp9. Results of virus neutralization test showed that this antiserum could not neutralize the PRRSV. Nevertheless, this antiserum as a diagnostic core reagent should prove invaluable for further investigations into the mechanism of PRRS pathogenesis.

  5. Supramolecular peptide hydrogel adjuvanted subunit vaccine elicits protective antibody responses against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Brian M; Beasley, David W C; Rudra, Jai S

    2016-11-04

    A crucial issue in vaccine development is to balance safety with immunogenicity. The low immunogenicity of most subunit antigens warrants a search for adjuvants able to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. In recent years, successful applications of nanotechnology and bioengineering in the field of vaccine development have enabled the production of novel adjuvant technologies. In this work, we investigated totally synthetic and supramolecular peptide hydrogels as novel vaccine adjuvants in conjunction with the immunoprotective envelope protein domain III (EIII) of West Nile virus as an immunogen in a mouse model. Our results indicate that, compared to the clinically approved adjuvant alum, peptide hydrogel adjuvanted antigen elicited stronger antibody responses and conferred significant protection against mortality after virus challenge. The high chemical definition and biocompatibility of self-assembling peptide hydrogels makes them attractive as immune adjuvants for the production of subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial infections where antibody-mediated protection is desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies in domestic pigs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Montserrat Elemi; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Trujillo, María E; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2017-09-21

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the country is largely unknown. Here, we assessed the seroprevalence of HEV among swine in different geographical regions in Mexico. Seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine herds in Mexico was evaluated in a representative sample including 945 pig serum specimens from different regions of the country using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine was 59.4%. The northern region of Mexico exhibited the highest seroprevalence in the country (86.6%), while the central and southern regions in Mexico showed lower seroprevalence, 42.7% and 51.5%, respectively. In Mexico, HEV seroprevalence in swine is high. Importantly, northern Mexico showed the highest seroprevalence in the country. Thus, further studies are required to identify the risk factors contributing to HEV transmission among pigs in the country. Assessment of HEV human infection in the context of viral transmission in swine is required to better understand the epidemiology of hepatitis E in Mexico.

  7. Absence of indigenous specific West Nile virus antibodies in Tyrolean blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, S T; Simeoni, J; Schmutzhard, E; Niedrig, M; Ploner, F; Schennach, H; Dierich, M P; Walder, G

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years, West Nile virus (WNV) was proven to be present especially in the neighboring countries of Austria, such as Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, as well as in eastern parts of Austria, where it was detected in migratory and domestic birds. In summer 2010, infections with WNV were reported from Romania and northern Greece with about 150 diseased and increasingly fatal cases. We tested the sera of 1,607 blood donors from North Tyrol (Austria) and South Tyrol (Italy) for antibodies against WNV by using IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Initial results of the ELISA tests showed seroprevalence rates of 46.2% in North Tyrol and 0.5% in South Tyrol, which turned out to be false-positive cross-reactions with antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by adjacent neutralization assays. These results indicate that seropositivity against WNV requires confirmation by neutralization assays, as cross-reactivity with TBEV is frequent and because, currently, WNV is not endemic in the study area.

  8. The production of antibody by invading B cells is required for the clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Craig Hooper

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of rabies is associated with the inability to deliver immune effectors across the blood-brain barrier and to clear virulent rabies virus from CNS tissues. However, the mechanisms that facilitate immune effector entry into CNS tissues are induced by infection with attenuated rabies virus.Infection of normal mice with attenuated rabies virus but not immunization with killed virus can promote the clearance of pathogenic rabies virus from the CNS. T cell activity in B cell-deficient mice can control the replication of attenuated virus in the CNS, but viral mRNA persists. Low levels of passively administered rabies virus-neutralizing antibody reach infected cells in the cerebellum of B cell-deficient mice but are not sufficient to mediate virus clearance. Production of rabies virus-specific antibody by B cells invading CNS tissues is required for this process, and a substantial proportion of the B cells that accumulate in the CNS of mice infected with attenuated rabies virus produce virus-specific antibodies.The mechanisms required for immune effectors to enter rabies virus-infected tissues are induced by infection with attenuated rabies virus but not by infection with pathogenic rabies viruses or immunization with killed virus. T cell activities can inhibit rabies virus replication, but the production of rabies virus-specific antibodies by infiltrating B cells, as opposed to the leakage of circulating antibody across the BBB, is critical to elimination of the virus. These findings suggest that a pathogenic rabies virus infection may be treatable after the virus has reached the CNS tissues, providing that the appropriate immune effectors can be targeted to the infected tissues.

  9. Applying antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1-deleted hepatitis C virus to the study of escape pathways of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody AR5A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases. With 3–4 million new HCV infections yearly, a vaccine is urgently needed. A better understanding of virus escape from neutralizing antibodies and their corresponding epitopes are important for this effort. However, for viral isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare cross-genotype conserved epitope. By analyzing the genotype 1a envelope proteins (E1/E2) of recovered Core-NS2 recombinant H77/JFH1ΔHVR1 and performing reverse genetic studies we found that resistance to AR5A was caused by substitution L665W, also conferring resistance to the parental H77/JFH1. The mutation did not induce viral fitness loss, but abrogated AR5A binding to HCV particles and intracellular E1/E2 complexes. Culturing J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 (genotype 2a), for which fitness was decreased by L665W, with AR5A generated AR5A-resistant viruses with the substitutions I345V, L665S, and S680T, which we introduced into J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1. I345V increased fitness but had no effect on AR5A resistance. L665S impaired fitness and decreased AR5A sensitivity, while S680T combined with L665S compensated for fitness loss and decreased AR5A sensitivity even further. Interestingly, S680T alone had no fitness effect but sensitized the virus to AR5A. Of note, H77/JFH1L665S was non-viable. The resistance mutations did not affect cell-to-cell spread or E1/E2 interactions. Finally, introducing L665W, identified in genotype 1, into genotypes 2–6 parental and HVR1-deleted variants (not available for genotype 4a) we observed diverse effects on viral fitness and a universally pronounced reduction in AR5A sensitivity. Thus, we were able to take advantage of the neutralization-sensitive HVR1

  10. Molecular aspects of antibody-antigen interactions : size reduction of a herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibody and its antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Gerardus Antonius

    1996-01-01

    Antibody molecules, produced as a response against foreign substances, interact with their antigen in a very specific manner. Antibodies with a predetermined specificity (monoclonal antibodies) can be produced and are widely used in medicine and science as indicator molecules. Genetic engineering of

  11. Antibody neutralization escape mediated by point mutations in the intracytoplasmic tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vandana; Sarkar, Surojit; Gupta, Phalguni; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2005-02-01

    The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the presence of robust host immunity has been associated in part with variation in viral envelope proteins leading to antigenic variation and escape from neutralizing antibodies. Previous studies of natural neutralization escape mutants have predominantly focused on gp120 and gp41 ectodomain sequence variations that alter antibody binding via changes in conformation or glycosylation pattern of the Env, likely due to the immune pressure exerted on the exposed ectodomain component of the glycoprotein. Here, we show for the first time a novel mechanism by which point mutations in the intracytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane component (gp41) of envelope can render the virus resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies and broadly neutralizing polyclonal serum antibodies. Point mutations in a highly conserved structural motif within the intracytoplasmic tail resulted in decreased binding of neutralizing antibodies to the Env ectodomain, evidently due to allosteric changes both in the gp41 ectodomain and in gp120. While receptor binding and infectivity of the mutant virus remained unaltered, the changes in Env antigenicity were associated with an increase in neutralization resistance of the mutant virus. These studies demonstrate the structurally integrated nature of gp120 and gp41 and underscore a previously unrecognized potentially critical role for even minor sequence variation of the intracytoplasmic tail in modulating the antigenicity of the ectodomain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex.

  12. Neutralizing antibody response during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type and group specificity and viral escape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Sönnerborg, A; Svennerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    demonstrated, suggesting that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific NA. Furthermore, no differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anti-carbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A......The paradox that group-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) exist in the majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, whereas the NA response against autologous HIV-1 virus isolates is highly type-specific, motivated us to study the type- and group-specific NA...

  13. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...... neutralization gradually increased. Virus neutralization by virion aggregation was minimal, as MAb binding to HIV-1 Env did not interfere with an AMLV Env-mediated infection by HIV-1(AMLV/HIV-1) pseudotypes of CD4(-) HEK293 cells. MAb neutralization of chimeric virions could be described as a third...

  14. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Methamphetamine Antibody Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hsiang Chen; Kuo-Jen Wu; Kuang-Lun Wu; Kun-Lieh Wu; Ho-Min Tsai; Mao-Liang Chen; Yi-Wei Chen; Wei Hsieh; Chun-Ming Lin; Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most frequently abused drugs worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that antibodies with high affinity for Meth reduce its pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for virus-based passive immunization against Meth effects. We generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-8 vector (AAV-MethAb) carrying the gene for a Meth-specific monoclonal antibody (MethAb). Infection of 293 cells with AAV-MethAb resulted i...

  15. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  16. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies in Dialysis Patients in Tunisia: A Single Center Study

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    Sassi F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight patients on maintenance hemodialysis in a dialysis unit at Tunis, Tunisia were tested for anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV antibodies by second generation ELISA test, and for HCV-RNA by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of 5′ non-coding region. Specificity of the antibodies was confirmed by immunoblot test. HCV genotype was defined using INNO-LIPA test. Twenty-seven out of 58 patients (46.5% were reactive by ELISA. Transaminase levels were assessed over a six-month period and showed normal average values. Fourteen of the 27 anti-HCV positive patients (51% were positive by RT-PCR. Type 1b HCV genotype was the most prevalent, seen in all the dialysis patients and one patient in addition, was co-infected with genotype 4. There was a significant correlation between the duration on dialysis (over five years and the prevalence of anti-HCV-positive patients (P< 0.005 while no correlation existed between the number of blood transfusions and the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. The present study illustrates the high prevalence of HCV infection among Tunisian dialysis patients (51% and indicates that the spread may be nosocomial rather than transfusion-related.

  18. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

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    Henry Memczak

    Full Text Available Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  19. Induction of neutralizing antibodies to Hendra and Nipah glycoproteins using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in vivo expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defang, Gabriel N; Khetawat, Dimple; Broder, Christopher C; Quinnan, Gerald V

    2010-12-16

    The emergence of Hendra Virus (HeV) and Nipah Virus (NiV) which can cause fatal infections in both animals and humans has triggered a search for an effective vaccine. Here, we have explored the potential for generating an effective humoral immune response to these zoonotic pathogens using an alphavirus-based vaccine platform. Groups of mice were immunized with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) encoding the attachment or fusion glycoproteins of either HeV or NiV. We demonstrate the induction of highly potent cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to both viruses using this approach. Preliminary study suggested early enhancement in the antibody response with use of a modified version of VRP. Overall, these data suggest that the use of an alphavirus-derived vaccine platform might serve as a viable approach for the development of an effective vaccine against the henipaviruses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Virus genotypes and responses of serum-specific antibodies in children with primary mumps and mumps reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Rika; Nagita, Akira; Kidokoro, Minoru; Kato, Atsushi; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-11-01

    Research on children with mumps reinfection after natural infection is limited; there are currently no studies on virus-specific antibody responses in paired sera or genotyping of isolated viruses. This study included 281 children (147 boys and 134 girls, age: 1.2-15.9 y) with primary mumps (240), mumps reinfection after natural infection (9), mumps after previous vaccination (26), and vaccine-associated mumps (6). We measured mumps-specific serum antibodies and analyzed isolated virus genes. During acute illness, series-specific IgM and IgG titers exceeded cutoff values in 240 and 232 children with primary mumps, respectively. During convalescence, IgM antibodies were positive in seven and negative in two of nine children with mumps reinfection occurring after natural infection; among 26 previously vaccinated children, 13 were positive and 13 negative. Mumps viruses were isolated from viral cultures from 42 of the 51 children. Except for 6 vaccine-associated cases, all remaining 36 cases of isolated mumps virus were identified as genotype G. These results suggest that measurement of IgM antibody on any day of acute illness may be indicative of primary mumps but may be inconsistent for diagnosing mumps reinfection after natural infection or previous vaccination.

  1. Detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Chandrika; Yang, Ming; Bittner, Hilary; Ambagala, Aruna; Lung, Oliver; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Nfon, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF. The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from FMDV was detected in OFs from experimentally infected pigs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (dpi) to 21 dpi. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was isolated from OFs at 1 to 5 dpi. Additionally, FMDV antigens were detected in OFs from 1 to 6 dpi using a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFIST), which is a rapid pen-side test, and from 2 to 3 dpi using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA). Furthermore, FMDV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected in OFs using an isotype-specific indirect ELISA starting at dpi 14. These results further demonstrated the potential use of oral fluids for detecting FMDV genome, live virus, and viral antigens, as well as for quantifying mucosal IgA antibody response.

  2. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria

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    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented.

  3. Chicken infectious anemia virus infection in Israeli commercial flocks: virus amplification, clinical signs, performance, and antibody status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, I; Kedem, M; Borochovitz, H; Kass, N; Ayali, G; Hamzani, E; Perelman, B; Smith, B; Perk, S

    2004-01-01

    The impact of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) infection on commercial chicken flocks in Israel was examined by analyzing flocks with or without typical CIAV signs, signs of other diseases, or apparently healthy flocks. In 23 flocks (broilers and layers) of ages up to 8 wk, typical signs of CIAV infection (stunting, gangrenous dermatitis, and secondary bacterial infections) were recorded. When permitted by flock owners, in several cases among these 23 flocks the morbidity, mortality, and performance parameters were recorded; the presence of CIAV was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the antibody status of parents and broilers was measured. In addition, total mortality, number of birds sold, total kilograms of meat sold, density (kg/m2), mean age at slaughter, daily growth rate in grams, total kilogram of food consumed, food conversion rate, and the European Index were calculated. We also surveyed flocks affected by other diseases, such as tumors, respiratory diseases, or coccidiosis, and flocks with no apparent clinical signs. The latter flocks were negative by CIAV-PCR, indicating that typical CIAV clinical signs are associated with one-step PCR-CIAV amplification. However, a small amount of CIAV might still be present in these flocks, acting to induce the subclinical effects of CIAV infection. These data indicate a link between the presence of virus sequences and typical CIAV signs and strengthen the concept that CIAV infection has a negative economic impact on the chicken industry.

  4. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

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    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  5. In vivo activity of a mixture of two human monoclonal antibodies (anti-HBs) in a chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heijtink; W. Paulij; P.A.C. van Bergen (Patrick); M.H. van Roosmalen (Mark); D. Rohm; B. Eichentopf; E. Muchmore; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractA 35-year-old female hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee was infused with one dose of a mixture of human monoclonal antibodies 9H9 and 4-7B (antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HBsAg). Blood samples were taken before and up to 3 weeks

  6. Structural and Antigenic Definition of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Epitopes Targeted by Monoclonal Antibodies

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    Giuseppe Sautto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the major cause of chronic liver disease as well as the major indication for liver transplantation worldwide. Current standard of care is not completely effective, not administrable in grafted patients, and burdened by several side effects. This incomplete effectiveness is mainly due to the high propensity of the virus to continually mutate under the selective pressure exerted by the host immune response as well as currently administered antiviral drugs. The E2 envelope surface glycoprotein of HCV (HCV/E2 is the main target of the host humoral immune response and for this reason one of the major variable viral proteins. However, broadly cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against HCV/E2 represent a promising tool for the study of virus-host interplay as well as for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. In the last few years many anti-HCV/E2 mAbs have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials as possible candidate antivirals, particularly for administration in pre- and post-transplant settings. In this review we summarize the antigenic and structural characteristics of HCV/E2 determined through the use of anti-HCV/E2 mAbs, which, given the absence of a crystal structure of this glycoprotein, represent currently the best tool available.

  7. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rift Valley Fever Viruses after Febrile Illness Outbreak, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmann, Mirko; Randriamampionona, Njary; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Njarasoa, Christine; Rajanalison, Jeanne Fleury; Ramandrisoa, Herly Daniel; Randriarison, Maurice Lucien; May, Jürgen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    In October 2009, two–3 months after an outbreak of a febrile disease with joint pain on the eastern coast of Madagascar, we assessed serologic markers for chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in 1,244 pregnant women at 6 locations. In 2 eastern coast towns, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 45% and 23%; IgM seroprevalence was 28% and 5%. IgG seroprevalence against DENV was 17% and 11%. No anti-DENV IgM was detected. At 4 locations, 450–1,300 m high, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 0%–3%, suggesting CHIKV had not spread to higher inland-altitudes. Four women had IgG against RVFV, probably antibodies from a 2008 epidemic. Most (78%) women from coastal locations with CHIKV-specific IgG reported joint pain and stiffness; 21% reported no symptoms. CHIKV infection was significantly associated with high bodyweight. The outbreak was an isolated CHIKV epidemic without relevant DENV co-transmission. PMID:23092548

  8. Seroprevalence of measles and rubella virus antibodies in the population of the Community of Madrid, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Comas, Luis; Sanz Moreno, J C; Ordobás Gavín, M; Barranco Ordóñez, D; García Gutiérrez, J; Ramos Blázquez, B; Rodero Garduño, I

    2015-01-01

    The seroprevalence (SP) of measles and rubella virus antibodies is presented by age groups obtained in the IV Serosurvey of the Region of Madrid (2008-2009). The target population is composed of residents with ages ranging between 2 and 60 years in the Region of Madrid. A two-stage cluster sample is used. The SP of measles virus antibodies is 97.8% (CI 95%: 97.3-98.2). The highest SP is observed in the 2-5 year and 41-60 year age groups. The point estimate does not reach 95% in the 16-20 and 21-30 year age groups. The SP of rubella virus antibodies is 97.2% (CI 95%: 96.5-97.7). The SP is over 95% in all of the age groups. In immigrant women between the ages of 16 and 49, the SP is 95.9% (CI 95%: 93.7-97.4). The identification of groups susceptible to the measles virus in young adults could lead to outbreaks as a result of importing the virus. The circulation of the rubella virus is possible among immigrant women aged between 16 and 49 years, which could lead to the appearance of SRC cases. Epidemiological surveillance will allow the impact on the measles and rubella elimination plan to be determined in the future. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Earlier Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Routine Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Screening of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending A Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn; Heijman, Titia; de Vrieze, Nynke; Urbanus, Anouk; Speksnijder, Arjen; van Leeuwen, Petra; de Vries, Henry; Prins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, routine hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing was introduced for men who have sex with men (MSM) with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive or unknown status attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic. We evaluated whether this screening resulted in

  10. Human antibody titers to Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) gp350 correlate with neutralization of infectivity better than antibody titers to EBV gp42 using a rapid flow cytometry-based EBV neutralization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Junji; Burbelo, Peter D; Savoldo, Barbara; Pierson, Theodore C; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2009-09-01

    Measurement of neutralizing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. The current neutralization assay is based on antibody inhibition of EBV transformation of B cells and requires 6 weeks to perform. We developed a rapid, quantitative flow cytometry assay and show that neutralizing antibody titers measured by the new assay strongly correlate with antibody titers in the standard transformation-based assay. Antibodies to EBV gp350 and gp42 have been shown to block infection of B cells by EBV. Using new assays to quantify antibodies to these glycoproteins, we show for the first time that human plasma contains high titers of antibody to gp42; these titers correlate with neutralization of EBV infectivity or transformation. Furthermore, we show that antibody titers to EBV gp350 correlate more strongly with neutralization than antibody titers to gp42. These assays should be useful in accessing antibody responses to candidate EBV vaccines.

  11. Mutations within a conserved region of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein that influence virus-receptor interactions and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Simrat; Witteveldt, Jeroen; Gatherer, Derek; Owsianka, Ania M; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Zahid, Muhammad N; Rychłowska, Malgorzata; Foung, Steven K H; Baumert, Thomas F; Angus, Allan G N; Patel, Arvind H

    2010-06-01

    Cell culture-adaptive mutations within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein have been widely reported. We identify here a single mutation (N415D) in E2 that arose during long-term passaging of HCV strain JFH1-infected cells. This mutation was located within E2 residues 412 to 423, a highly conserved region that is recognized by several broadly neutralizing antibodies, including the mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) AP33. Introduction of N415D into the wild-type (WT) JFH1 genome increased the affinity of E2 to the CD81 receptor and made the virus less sensitive to neutralization by an antiserum to another essential entry factor, SR-BI. Unlike JFH1(WT), the JFH1(N415D) was not neutralized by AP33. In contrast, it was highly sensitive to neutralization by patient-derived antibodies, suggesting an increased availability of other neutralizing epitopes on the virus particle. We included in this analysis viruses carrying four other single mutations located within this conserved E2 region: T416A, N417S, and I422L were cell culture-adaptive mutations reported previously, while G418D was generated here by growing JFH1(WT) under MAb AP33 selective pressure. MAb AP33 neutralized JFH1(T416A) and JFH1(I422L) more efficiently than the WT virus, while neutralization of JFH1(N417S) and JFH1(G418D) was abrogated. The properties of all of these viruses in terms of receptor reactivity and neutralization by human antibodies were similar to JFH1(N415D), highlighting the importance of the E2 412-423 region in virus entry.

  12. Titration of IgG antibodies against varicella zoster virus before bone marrow transplantation is not predictive of future zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A; Grint, P; Brenner, M K; Prentice, H G; Griffiths, P D

    1989-02-01

    Serum antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV) were measured in 77 patients about to undergo allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and in 65 of their donors. Ten patients developed zoster within the first 6 months following transplant. There was no significant difference in the mean pretransplant antibody titre between those patients who did or did not subsequently develop zoster. Likewise, the level of antibody to VZV amongst donors had no effect on the subsequent development of zoster. We conclude that the pretransplant level of antibody to VZV is not predictive of subsequent zoster infection, and would not be helpful in identifying patients for trials of antiviral prophylaxis. These results contrast with those previously found for another herpesvirus, herpes simplex (HSV), where antibody level pretransplant is predictive of future HSV recurrence.

  13. Cloning and expression of functional single-chain Fv antibodies directed against NIa and coat proteins of potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, Souad; Lafaye, Pierre; Jaoua-Aydi, Leila; Sghaier, Zidani; Ayadi, Hammadi; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2006-10-01

    Three single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies recognizing the nuclear inclusion a (NIa) and capsid proteins of potato virus Y were obtained from two mouse derived hybridoma clones secreting, respectively, an anti-NIa (22-1) and an anti-coat protein (136-13) monoclonal antibodies. The first monoclonal antibody was able to inhibit in vitro the PVY polyprotein cleavage by blocking the NIa protease activity. The amplified scFv cDNAs were first inserted into the TOPO vector and then sequenced. Several recombinant E. coli clones carrying the accurate scFv sequences were selected and the corresponding cDNAs were subcloned in pHEN phagemid and transferred in E. coli strain. The expressed scFv fragments showed an antibody activity that recognized the viral target proteins in infected tissues. Their activity was comparable to the parental monoclonal antibodies.

  14. Measles virus glycoprotein-based lentiviral targeting vectors that avoid neutralizing antibodies.

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    Sabrina Kneissl

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LVs are potent gene transfer vehicles frequently applied in research and recently also in clinical trials. Retargeting LV entry to cell types of interest is a key issue to improve gene transfer safety and efficacy. Recently, we have developed a targeting method for LVs by incorporating engineered measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H, responsible for receptor recognition, and the fusion protein into their envelope. The H protein displays a single-chain antibody (scFv specific for the target receptor and is ablated for recognition of the MV receptors CD46 and SLAM by point mutations in its ectodomain. A potential hindrance to systemic administration in humans is pre-existing MV-specific immunity due to vaccination or natural infection. We compared transduction of targeting vectors and non-targeting vectors pseudotyped with MV glycoproteins unmodified in their ectodomains (MV-LV in presence of α-MV antibody-positive human plasma. At plasma dilution 1:160 MV-LV was almost completely neutralized, whereas targeting vectors showed relative transduction efficiencies from 60% to 90%. Furthermore, at plasma dilution 1:80 an at least 4-times higher multiplicity of infection (MOI of MV-LV had to be applied to obtain similar transduction efficiencies as with targeting vectors. Also when the vectors were normalized to their p24 values, targeting vectors showed partial protection against α-MV antibodies in human plasma. Furthermore, the monoclonal neutralizing antibody K71 with a putative epitope close to the receptor binding sites of H, did not neutralize the targeting vectors, but did neutralize MV-LV. The observed escape from neutralization may be due to the point mutations in the H ectodomain that might have destroyed antibody binding sites. Furthermore, scFv mediated cell entry via the target receptor may proceed in presence of α-MV antibodies interfering with entry via the natural MV receptors. These results are

  15. Viral excretion and antibody titers in children infected with hepatitis A virus from an orphanage in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundekar, Supriya; Thorat, Neeta; Gurav, Yogesh; Lole, Kavita

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis A is endemic in India and mainly causes sporadic infections. However, children in childcare centers, schools and orphanages are vulnerable to common-source outbreaks as they have naive hosts. To investigate hepatitis A outbreak in an orphanage from Pune, India. Monitoring of virus excretion and anti-HAV antibody levels in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infected children. The orphanage housed 93 children of the age 1 month-6.5 years. Analysis of the collected serum (n=78) and stool samples (n=63) revealed 20 children to be either positive for anti-HAV IgM antibodies or excreting HAV, 14 being symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic, while 32 were already anti-HAV IgG positive either due to past HAV exposure (n=7, mean log antibody titers: 2.96) or maternal antibodies (n=25, mean log antibody titers: 1.13). Serum samples, taken 4 weeks apart, did not show any significant difference in the IgM and IgG antibody levels either. However, virus excretion decreased significantly after 15 days in symptomatic children (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 1.03+0.30), while asymptomatic children continued to excrete higher viral loads, at constant levels (mean log HAV RNA copies/ml 2.33+0.33), for up to 90 days. Though virus excretion continued up to 90 days in all HAV infected children, asymptomatic children excreted higher viral loads for longer period and hence can contribute significantly in person-to-person virus transmission. All children should be vaccinated in such set ups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

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    Beth Holder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines.Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses.The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  17. Molecular Determinants of Dengue Virus 2 Envelope Protein Important for Virus Entry in FcγRIIA-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus-Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. PMID:24889243

  18. Seroprevalence of fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Abdoulaye Traoré

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1-21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8-31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3-24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1-16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.

  19. Seroprevalence of fecal-oral transmitted hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Kuan Abdoulaye; Rouamba, Hortense; Nébié, Yacouba; Sanou, Mahamadou; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Roques, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections occur chiefly as a result of unhygienic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to both viruses in central Burkina Faso in the absence of a recorded hepatitis epidemic. Serum samples from 178 blood donors (131 males and 47 females) and from 189 pregnant women were collected from November 2010 to March 2012, at blood banks and medical centers in Burkina Faso. An immunochromatography test was used to screen for Anti-HAV IgM and IgG in a subgroup of 91 blood donors and 100 pregnant women. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 14.3% [CI95, 7.1-21.4%] for all blood donors and 23% [CI95, 14.8-31.2%] for pregnant women. Anti-HEV IgG were detected using the ELISA kits Dia.pro and Wantai and were found in 19.1% [CI95, 13.3-24.9%] of the blood donors and 11.6% [CI95, 7.1-16.2%] of the pregnant women. The seroprevalences of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgGs did not differ significantly between men and women blood donors. Anti-HAV IgM was detected in 3.3% of the blood donors and in 2% of the pregnant women. These findings for asymptomatic individuals indicate that the HAV and HEV circulate at low but significant levels. This is the first evaluation of the acute hepatitis virus burden in Burkina Faso and the underlying epidemiologic status of the population.

  20. Susceptibility and antibody response of the laboratory model zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 a number of passerine bird species have been found to play a role in the amplification of the virus. Arbovirus surveillance, observational studies and experimental studies have implicated passerine birds (songbirds, e.g., crows, American robins, house sparrows, and house finches) as significant reservoirs of WNV in North America, yet we lack a tractable passerine animal model for controlled studies of the virus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) serves as a model system across a diversity of fields, and here we develop the zebra finch a songbird model for WNV. Like many natural hosts of WNV, we found that zebra finches developed sufficient viremia to serve as a competent host, yet in general resisted mortality from infection. In the Australian zebra finch (AZF) T. g. castanotis, we detected WNV in the majority of sampled tissues by 4 days post injection (dpi). However, WNV was not detected in tissues of sacrificed birds at 14 dpi, shortly after the development of detectable anti-WNV antibodies in the majority of birds indicating successful viral clearance. We compared susceptibility between the two zebra finch subspecies AZF and Timor zebra finch (TZF) T. g. guttata. Compared to AZF, WNV RNA was detected in a larger proportion of challenged TZF and molecular detection of virus in the serum of TZF was significantly higher than in AZF. Given the observed moderate host competence and disease susceptibility, we suggest that zebra finches are appropriate as models for the study of WNV and although underutilized in this respect, may be ideal models for the study of the many diseases carried and transmitted by songbirds.

  1. Cross-reactive dengue human monoclonal antibody prevents severe pathologies and death from Zika virus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Cheryl Yi-Pin; Teo, Teck-Hui; Howland, Shanshan W.; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; See, Peter; Kng, Nicholas Qing-Rong; Huber, Roland G.; Xu, Mei-Hui; Tan, Heng-Liang; Choo, Andre; Ginhoux, Florent; Fink, Katja; Wang, Cheng-I; Ng, Lisa F.P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked with neurological complications and congenital Zika syndrome. Given the high level of homology between ZIKV and the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV), we investigated the level of cross-reactivity with ZIKV using a panel of DENV human mAbs. A majority of the mAbs showed binding to ZIKV virions, with several exhibiting neutralizing capacities against ZIKV in vitro. Three of the best ZIKV-neutralizing mAbs were found to recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) glycoprotein: the highly conserved fusion-loop peptide, a conformation-specific epitope on the E monomer, and a quaternary epitope on the virion surface. The most potent ZIKV-neutralizing mAb (SIgN-3C) was assessed in 2 type I interferon receptor–deficient (IFNAR–/–) mouse models of ZIKV infection. Treatment of adult nonpregnant mice with SIgN-3C rescued mice from virus-induced weight loss and mortality. The SIgN-3C variant with Leu-to-Ala mutations in the Fc region (SIgN-3C-LALA) did not induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in vitro but provided similar levels of protection in vivo. In pregnant ZIKV-infected IFNAR–/– mice, treatment with SIgN-3C or SIgN-3C-LALA significantly reduced viral load in the fetal organs and placenta and abrogated virus-induced fetal growth retardation. Therefore, SIgN-3C-LALA holds promise as a ZIKV prophylactic and therapeutic agent. PMID:28422757

  2. Cross-reactive dengue human monoclonal antibody prevents severe pathologies and death from Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Cheryl Yi-Pin; Teo, Teck-Hui; Howland, Shanshan W; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Lum, Fok-Moon; See, Peter; Kng, Nicholas Qing-Rong; Huber, Roland G; Xu, Mei-Hui; Tan, Heng-Liang; Choo, Andre; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Ginhoux, Florent; Fink, Katja; Wang, Cheng-I; Ng, Lisa F P; Rénia, Laurent

    2017-04-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked with neurological complications and congenital Zika syndrome. Given the high level of homology between ZIKV and the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV), we investigated the level of cross-reactivity with ZIKV using a panel of DENV human mAbs. A majority of the mAbs showed binding to ZIKV virions, with several exhibiting neutralizing capacities against ZIKV in vitro. Three of the best ZIKV-neutralizing mAbs were found to recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) glycoprotein: the highly conserved fusion-loop peptide, a conformation-specific epitope on the E monomer, and a quaternary epitope on the virion surface. The most potent ZIKV-neutralizing mAb (SIgN-3C) was assessed in 2 type I interferon receptor-deficient (IFNAR-/-) mouse models of ZIKV infection. Treatment of adult nonpregnant mice with SIgN-3C rescued mice from virus-induced weight loss and mortality. The SIgN-3C variant with Leu-to-Ala mutations in the Fc region (SIgN-3C-LALA) did not induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in vitro but provided similar levels of protection in vivo. In pregnant ZIKV-infected IFNAR-/- mice, treatment with SIgN-3C or SIgN-3C-LALA significantly reduced viral load in the fetal organs and placenta and abrogated virus-induced fetal growth retardation. Therefore, SIgN-3C-LALA holds promise as a ZIKV prophylactic and therapeutic agent.

  3. Susceptibility and Antibody Response of the Laboratory Model Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata to West Nile Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik K Hofmeister

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV into North America in 1999 a number of passerine bird species have been found to play a role in the amplification of the virus. Arbovirus surveillance, observational studies and experimental studies have implicated passerine birds (songbirds, e.g., crows, American robins, house sparrows, and house finches as significant reservoirs of WNV in North America, yet we lack a tractable passerine animal model for controlled studies of the virus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata serves as a model system across a diversity of fields, and here we develop the zebra finch a songbird model for WNV. Like many natural hosts of WNV, we found that zebra finches developed sufficient viremia to serve as a competent host, yet in general resisted mortality from infection. In the Australian zebra finch (AZF T. g. castanotis, we detected WNV in the majority of sampled tissues by 4 days post injection (dpi. However, WNV was not detected in tissues of sacrificed birds at 14 dpi, shortly after the development of detectable anti-WNV antibodies in the majority of birds indicating successful viral clearance. We compared susceptibility between the two zebra finch subspecies AZF and Timor zebra finch (TZF T. g. guttata. Compared to AZF, WNV RNA was detected in a larger proportion of challenged TZF and molecular detection of virus in the serum of TZF was significantly higher than in AZF. Given the observed moderate host competence and disease susceptibility, we suggest that zebra finches are appropriate as models for the study of WNV and although underutilized in this respect, may be ideal models for the study of the many diseases carried and transmitted by songbirds.

  4. Defining New Therapeutics Using a More Immunocompetent Mouse Model of Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Amelia K; Brien, James D; Lam, Chia-Ying Kao; Johnson, Syd; Chiang, Cindy; Hiscott, John; Sarathy, Vanessa V; Barrett, Alan D; Shresta, Sujan; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-09-15

    With over 3.5 billion people at risk and approximately 390 million human infections per year, dengue virus (DENV) disease strains health care resources worldwide. Previously, we and others established models for DENV pathogenesis in mice that completely lack subunits of the receptors (Ifnar and Ifngr) for type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling; however, the utility of these models is limited by the pleotropic effect of these cytokines on innate and adaptive immune system development and function. Here, we demonstrate that the specific deletion of Ifnar expression on subsets of murine myeloid cells (LysM Cre(+) Ifnar(flox/flox) [denoted as Ifnar(f/f) herein]) resulted in enhanced DENV replication in vivo. The administration of subneutralizing amounts of cross-reactive anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies to LysM Cre(+) Ifnar(f/f) mice prior to infection with DENV serotype 2 or 3 resulted in antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection with many of the characteristics associated with severe DENV disease in humans, including plasma leakage, hypercytokinemia, liver injury, hemoconcentration, and thrombocytopenia. Notably, the pathogenesis of severe DENV-2 or DENV-3 infection in LysM Cre(+) Ifnar(f/f) mice was blocked by pre- or postexposure administration of a bispecific dual-affinity retargeting molecule (DART) or an optimized RIG-I receptor agonist that stimulates innate immune responses. Our findings establish a more immunocompetent animal model of ADE of infection with multiple DENV serotypes in which disease is inhibited by treatment with broad-spectrum antibody derivatives or innate immune stimulatory agents. Although dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of millions of people annually and results in morbidity and mortality on a global scale, there are no approved antiviral treatments or vaccines. Part of the difficulty in evaluating therapeutic candidates is the lack of small animal models that are permissive to DENV and recapitulate the clinical features

  5. Comparison of Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Hess, Kristen L; Erlyana, Erlyana; Reynolds, Grace L; Cummins, Catherine A; Alonzo, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent blood-borne diseases in the United States. Despite the benefits of early screening, among 3.2 million Americans who are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 50%-70% are unaware of their infection status. Methods.  Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, from 1048 clients who were in the following groups: (1) injection drug users, (2) women at sexual risk, (3) gay and bisexual men, and (4) transgender individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests included (1) the MedMira rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV antibody test, (2) MedMira hepatitis B (HBV)/HIV/HCV antibody test, (3) Chembio HCV Screen Assay used with both whole blood and (4) oral specimens, (5) Chembio HIV-HCV Assay also used with both whole blood and (6) oral specimens, (7) Chembio HIV-HCV-Syphilis Assay, and (8) OraSure HCV Rapid Antibody Test used with whole blood. The gold standard for the HCV tests were HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 2.0. Results.  OraSure had the highest sensitivity at 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.8%-96.5%) followed closely by Chembio's 3 blood tests at 92.1% (95% CI = 87.7%-96.4%), 91.5% (95% CI = 87.2%-95.7%), and 92.3% (95% CI = 88.4%-96.2%). The sensitivities of MedMira HIV/HCV and MedMira HIV/HCV/HBV tests were the lowest, at 79.1% (95% CI = 72.6%-85.5%), and 81.5% (95% CI = 75.2%-87.8%), respectively. Specificity for the OraSure was 99.8% (95% CI = 99.4%-100%); specificity for the Chembio blood tests was 99.2% (95% CI = 98.6%-99.9%), 99.4% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%), and 99.3% (95% CI = 98.8%-99.9%); and specificity for the MedMira was100% and 100%. False-negative results were associated with HIV and hepatitis B core antibody serostatus. Conclusions.  The OraSure and Chembio blood tests (including those multiplexed with HIV and syphilis) appear to good performance characteristics. This study has identified potential limitations of rapid testing in those testing positive for

  6. Detection of rainbow trout antibodies against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) by neutralisation test is highly dependent on the virus isolate used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, J.M.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Three serological tests, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50 % plaque neutralisation test (50%PNT) and Western blotting (WB), were used to detect antibodies against viral haemorrhagic septicaerma virus (VHSV) in 50 rainbow trout broodstock from a rainbow trout farm endemically infected...... %PNT, 90 % of the fish were found to be positive. By examining a panel of different VHSV isolates in 50 %PNT, it was demonstrated that the virus isolate used as test antigen could significantly affect the sensitivity and titre determination in 50 %PNT for detection of rainbow trout antibodies against...... VHSV. When the sera were examined for the presence of VHSV antibodies by ELISA or WB, 61 % were found to be positive. When conducting WB analysis, the viral glycoprotein was the protein most frequently recognized, followed by the viral nucleoprotein....

  7. Molecular determinants of dengue virus 2 envelope protein important for virus entry in FcγRIIA-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotiwan, Nunya; Roehrig, John T. [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Schlesinger, Jacob J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Blair, Carol D. [Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Huang, Claire Y.-H., E-mail: yxh0@cdc.gov [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection may cause severe illness in patients suffering a secondary infection by a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype. During ADE of infection, cross-reactive non- or poorly-neutralizing antibodies form infectious virus-Ab complexes with the newly infecting serotype and enhance virus infection by binding to the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on FcγR-bearing cells. In this study, we determined that molecular determinants of DENV2 envelope protein critical for virus entry during non-ADE infection are also required for ADE infection mediated by FcγRIIA, and binding of virus-Ab complexes with FcγRIIA alone is not sufficient for ADE of infection. The FcγRIIA mainly plays an auxiliary role in concentrating the virus–Ab complex to the cell surface, and other primary cellular receptors are required for virus entry. Understanding the viral entry pathway in ADE of DENV infection will greatly facilitate rational designs of anti-viral therapeutics against severe dengue disease associated with ADE. - Highlights: • KKK305/307/310 in DENV2 E-DIII is critical for virus attachment in ADE and non-ADE infection. • Binding of DENV2–Ab complex with FcγRII alone is not sufficient for virus entry in ADE infection. • Other primary receptors were required for DENV2 internalization during FcγRII–mediated ADE. • G104 and L135 of DENV2 E are critical for virus-mediated membrane fusion. • DENV2 virus-mediated membrane fusion is required for both ADE and non-ADE infection.

  8. Detection of Antibody-Dependent Complement-Mediated Inactivation of both Autologous and Heterologous Virus in Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa-Chapman, Marlén M. I.; Holuigue, Sophie; Aubin, Keith; Wong, MaiLee; Jones, Nicola A.; Cornforth, David; Pellegrino, Pierre; Newton, Philippa; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; McKnight, Áine

    2005-01-01

    Specific CD8 T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are induced in primary infection and make an important contribution to the control of early viral replication. The importance of neutralizing antibodies in containing primary viremia is questioned because they usually arise much later. Nevertheless antienvelope antibodies develop simultaneously with, or even before, peak viremia. We determined whether such antibodies might control viremia by complement-mediated inactivation (CMI). In each of seven patients studied, antibodies capable of CMI appeared at or shortly after the peak in viremia, concomitantly with detection of virus-specific T-cell responses. The CMI was effective on both autologous and heterologous HIV-1 isolates. Activation of the classical pathway and direct viral lysis were at least partly responsible. Since immunoglobulin G (IgG)-antibodies triggered the CMI, specific memory B cells could also be induced by vaccination. Thus, consideration should be given to vaccination strategies that induce IgG antibodies capable of CMI. PMID:15709001

  9. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...

  10. Analysis of antigenic relationships among influenza virus strains using a taxonomic cluster procedure. Comparison of three kinds of antibody preparations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F. Weijers; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack); F.M. de Ronde-Verloop; K. Bijlsma (Klaas); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractHemagglutination inhibiting (HI) monoclonal antibody preparations (MA) were raised against six influenza A (H3N2) strains from the period 1977-1982. Twenty-three hybridomas were selected and titrated in HI assays against these strains and against 18 influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in

  11. Bead-based suspension array for simultaneous detection of antibodies against the Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid and Gn glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der F.J.; Achterberg, R.P.; Boer, de S.M.; Boshra, H.; Brun, A.; Maassen, C.B.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex bead-based suspension array was developed that can be used for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against the surface glycoprotein Gn and the nucleocapsid protein N of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in various animal species. The N protein and the purified ectodomain of the Gn

  12. Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Russell, Rodney S.; Goossens, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of humoral and cellular immunity in the prevention or clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is poorly understood. However, there is considerable evidence that neutralizing antibodies are involved in disease control. Here we describe the detailed analysis of human...

  13. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  14. SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS IN DIALYSIS WORKERS - RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERLYNE, G; KACZMAREK, RG; HAMBURGER, S; HAMILTON, P; MOORE, RM; CHARNEY, AN; KAHN, T; GRUBER, M; KAUFMAN, CE; GOFFINET, J; BERNARD, MA

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., conducted a multi-center, multi-institutional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among dialysis workers. Seven

  15. Isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific bovine antibody fragments from phage display libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Joo; Lebreton, Françoise; Kaiser, Claude; Crucière, Catherine; Rémond, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. Due to the high antigenic variability of FMDV, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. To study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-FMDV Fabs. CH1-VH chains with FMDV specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. Though their involvement in the bovine immune response remains to be ascertained, it is planned to express the five different selected VH domains in bacterial or insect systems as sequence homologies with integrin beta6 chain could shed light on the basis of FMDV type receptor specificities.

  16. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection.

  17. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for enzootic bovine leukosis virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D; Adair, B M; Wibberley, G

    1980-08-09

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies to enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) virus is described and its sensitivity compared with that of the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT) using 198 sera collected in Great Britain. There was 95 per cent agreement between the ELISA and AGIDT, when sera with positive/negative ratio (P/N) values of 1 . 5 or greater were considered positive. A total of 259 out of 264 sera (98 per cent) collected in Northern Ireland had P/N values of less than 1 . 5, the remaining sera having P/N values of 1 . 5 and 1 . 6. As Northern Ireland is clinically and serologically free of EBL infection it is proposed that sera with P/N values of 1 . 5 and 1 . 6, which account for approximately 3.5 per cent of the total sera tested, are considered doubtful and should be tested by another serological test.

  18. Establishing presence of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3 and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 in blood serum of cattle using indirect immunoenzyme probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 92 samples of bovine blood serum were examined for the presence of antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus using indirect immunoenzyme probe - iELISA. Specific antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were established in 46, or 50% blood serum samples. Investigations of the 92 blood serum samples of cattle for the presence of antibodies against the parainfluenza virus 3 (PI 3, revealed their presence in 77, or 83.69% of the samples, and the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 was established in 19, or 20.65% of the samples.

  19. A contributing role for anti-neuraminidase antibodies on immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glendie Marcelin

    Full Text Available Exposure to contemporary seasonal influenza A viruses affords partial immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (pH1N1 infection. The impact of antibodies to the neuraminidase (NA of seasonal influenza A viruses to cross-immunity against pH1N1 infection is unknown.Antibodies to the NA of different seasonal H1N1 influenza strains were tested for cross-reactivity against A/California/04/09 (pH1N1. A panel of reverse genetic (rg recombinant viruses was generated containing 7 genes of the H1N1 influenza strain A/Puerto Rico/08/34 (PR8 and the NA gene of either the pandemic H1N1 2009 strain (pH1N1 or one of the following contemporary seasonal H1N1 strains: A/Solomon/03/06 (rg Solomon or A/Brisbane/59/07 (rg Brisbane. Convalescent sera collected from mice infected with recombinant viruses were measured for cross-reactive antibodies to pH1N1 via Hemagglutinin Inhibition (HI or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The ectodomain of a recombinant NA protein from the pH1N1 strain (pNA-ecto was expressed, purified and used in ELISA to measure cross-reactive antibodies. Analysis of sera from elderly humans immunized with trivalent split-inactivated influenza (TIV seasonal vaccines prior to 2009 revealed considerable cross-reactivity to pNA-ecto. High titers of cross-reactive antibodies were detected in mice inoculated with either rg Solomon or rg Brisbane. Convalescent sera from mice inoculated with recombinant viruses were used to immunize naïve recipient Balb/c mice by passive transfer prior to challenge with pH1N1. Mice receiving rg California sera were better protected than animals receiving rg Solomon or rg Brisbane sera.The NA of contemporary seasonal H1N1 influenza strains induces a cross-reactive antibody response to pH1N1 that correlates with reduced lethality from pH1N1 challenge, albeit less efficiently than anti-pH1N1 NA antibodies. These findings demonstrate that seasonal NA antibodies contribute to but are not sufficient for cross

  20. Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA, for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn. These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.

  1. Anti-bovine herpesvirus and anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody responses in pregnant Holstein dairy cattle following administration of a multivalent killed virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy I; Rieger, Randall H; Dickens, Charlene M; Schultz, Ronald D; Aceto, Helen

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle. 49 Holstein dairy cattle. PROCEDURES :25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition. 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls. Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered.

  2. ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS, WEST NILE VIRUS, AND AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS INFECTION AND ANTIBODY STATUS IN BLUE-WINGED TEAL (ANAS DISCORS) IN THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallar, Rodolfo; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Leighton, Frederick A; Epp, Tasha; Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Lindsay, Robbin; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian prairies are one of the most important breeding and staging areas for migratory waterfowl in North America. Hundreds of thousands of waterfowl of numerous species from multiple flyways converge in and disperse from this region annually; therefore this region may be a key area for potential intra- and interspecific spread of infectious pathogens among migratory waterfowl in the Americas. Using Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors, BWTE), which have the most extensive migratory range among waterfowl species, we investigated ecologic risk factors for infection and antibody status to avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), and avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) prior to fall migration. We used generalized linear models to examine infection or evidence of exposure in relation to host (age, sex, body condition, exposure to other infections), spatiotemporal (year, province), population-level (local population densities of BWTE, total waterfowl densities), and environmental (local pond densities) factors. The probability of AIV infection in BWTE was associated with host factors (e.g., age and antibody status), population-level factors (e.g., local BWTE population density), and year. An interaction between age and AIV antibody status showed that hatch year birds with antibodies to AIV were more likely to be infected, suggesting an antibody response to an active infection. Infection with AIV was positively associated with local BWTE density, supporting the hypothesis of density-dependent transmission. The presence of antibodies to WNV and APMV-1 was positively associated with age and varied among years. Furthermore, the probability of being WNV antibody positive was positively associated with pond density rather than host population density, likely because ponds provide suitable breeding habitat for mosquitoes, the primary vectors for transmission. Our findings highlight the importance of

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in shelter dogs in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Min-Jung; Byun, Jae-Won; Kim, Da-Young; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi; Kang, Hae-Eun; Nam, Hyang-Mi

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in shelter dogs in the Republic of Korea (ROK) using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralization test. Sera were collected from 426 dogs in 12 animal shelters throughout the ROK from March 2016 to November 2016. Overall, 59 of 426 (13.9%) samples were seropositive for antibodies against SFTSV. A significant difference was observed in accordance with the sampling region (pdogs. The seroprevalence of SFTSV showed an inversely proportional trend to the latitude of the sampling regions: the highest rate was observed in the southern region followed by the Jeju-do region. This is the first report on the nationwide prevalence of antibodies against SFTSV in companion dogs in animal shelters throughout the ROK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of Murine Mucosal CCR5-Reactive Antibodies as an Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, C.; Soprana, E.; Pastori, C.; Longhi, R.; Buratti, E.; Lillo, F.; Marenzi, C.; Lazzarin, A.; Siccardi, A. G.; Lopalco, L.

    2005-01-01

    The genital mucosa is the main site of initial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contact with its host. In spite of repeated sexual exposure, some individuals remain seronegative, and a small fraction of them produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA autoantibodies directed against CCR5, which is probably the cause of the CCR5-minus phenotype observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these subjects. These antibodies recognize the 89-to-102 extracellular loop of CCR5 in its native conformation. The aim of this study was to induce infection-preventing mucosal anti-CCR5 autoantibodies in individuals at high risk of HIV infection. Thus, we generated chimeric immunogens containing the relevant CCR5 peptide in the context of the capsid protein of Flock House virus, a presentation system in which it is possible to engineer conformationally constrained peptide in a highly immunogenic form. Administered in mice via the systemic or mucosal route, the immunogens elicited anti-CCR5 IgG and IgA (in sera and vaginal fluids). Analogous to exposed seronegative individuals, mice producing anti-CCR5 autoantibodies express significantly reduced levels of CCR5 on the surfaces of CD4+ cells from peripheral blood and vaginal washes. In vitro studies have shown that murine IgG and IgA (i) specifically bind human and mouse CD4+ lymphocytes and the CCR5-transfected U87 cell line, (ii) down-regulate CCR5 expression of CD4+ cells from both humans and untreated mice, (iii) inhibit Mip-1β chemotaxis of CD4+ CCR5+ lymphocytes, and (iv) neutralize HIV R5 strains. These data suggest that immune strategies aimed at generating anti-CCR5 antibodies at the level of the genital mucosa might be feasible and represent a strategy to induce mucosal HIV-protective immunity. PMID:15890924

  5. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detecting Citrus tristeza virus in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2016-08-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.

  6. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  7. Dengue virus neutralizing antibody levels associated with protection from infection in thai cluster studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darunee Buddhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007, cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study (2009-2012, clusters of 200-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases admitted to the provincial hospital. Subjects of any age ≥6 months were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 14. In both studies, subjects who were DENV PCR positive at day 14/15 were considered to have been "susceptible" on day 0. Comparison subjects from houses in which someone had documented DENV infection, but the subject remained DENV negative at days 0 and 14/15, were considered "non-susceptible." Day 0 samples were presumed to be from just before virus exposure, and underwent plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT. Seventeen "susceptible" (six DENV-1, five DENV-2, and six DENV-4, and 32 "non-susceptible" (13 exposed to DENV-1, 10 DENV-2, and 9 DENV-4 subjects were evaluated. Comparing subjects exposed to the same serotype, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves identified homotypic PRNT titers of 11, 323 and 16 for DENV-1, -2 and -4, respectively, to differentiate "susceptible" from "non-susceptible" subjects.PRNT titers were associated with protection from infection by DENV-1, -2 and -4. Protective NTs appeared to be serotype-dependent and may be higher for DENV-2 than other serotypes. These findings are relevant for both dengue epidemiology studies and vaccine development efforts.

  8. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  9. Hepatitis C virus expressing flag-tagged envelope protein 2 has unaltered infectivity and density, is specifically neutralized by flag antibodies and can be purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, Jannick Cornelius; Bukh, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) purification by ultracentrifugation is difficult because of the low and heterogeneous density of native and cultured viruses. It was recently shown that inserting flag tag into envelope protein 2 (E2) of HCV permitted virus purification by affinity chromatography. However...... to the original virus. Flag-tagged virus was susceptible to flag-specific antibody neutralization, and infected cells could be immuno-stained by anti-flag antibodies. Using affinity chromatography with anti-flag resin we repeatedly obtained ~30% recovery of infectious particles. The full viability and unaltered...

  10. Identification of unique B virus (Macacine Herpesvirus 1 epitopes of zoonotic and macaque isolates using monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Katz

    Full Text Available Our overall aim is to develop epitope-based assays for accurate differential diagnosis of B virus zoonotic infections in humans. Antibodies to cross-reacting epitopes on human-simplexviruses continue to confound the interpretation of current assays where abundant antibodies exist from previous infections with HSV types 1 and 2. To find B virus-specific epitopes we cloned ten monoclonal antibodies (mAbs from the hybridomas we produced. Our unique collection of rare human sera from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients infected with B virus was key to the evaluation and identification of the mAbs as reagents in competition ELISAs (mAb-CE. The analysis of the ten mAbs revealed that the target proteins for six mAbs was glycoprotein B of which two are reactive to simian simplexviruses and not to human simplexviruses. Two mAbs reacted specifically with B virus glycoprotein D, and two other mAbs were specific to VP13/14 and gE-gI complex respectively. The mAbs specific to VP13/14 and gE-gI are strain specific reacting with B virus isolates from rhesus and Japanese macaques and not with isolates from cynomolgus and pigtail macaques. The mAb-CE revealed that a high proportion of naturally B virus infected rhesus macaques and two symptomatic humans possess antibodies to epitopes of VP13/14 protein and on the gE-gI complex. The majority of sera from B virus infected macaques and simplexvirus-infected humans competed with the less specific mAbs. These experiments produced a novel panel of mAbs that enabled B virus strain identification and confirmation of B virus infected macaques by the mAb-CE. For human sera the mAb-CE could be used only for selected cases due to the selective B virus strain-specificity of the mAbs against VP13/14 and gE/gI. To fully accomplish our aim to provide reagents for unequivocal differential diagnosis of zoonotic B virus infections, additional mAbs with a broader range of specificities is critical.

  11. HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER VIRUS-INFECTIONS IN AN ISOLATED RAIN-FOREST AREA OF CENTRAL LIBERIA - LIMITATIONS OF THE INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE SLIDE TEST FOR ANTIBODY SCREENING IN AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, F. W.; Pomeroy, K. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Asher, D. M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from 119 healthy individuals and 106 epilepsy patients inhabiting Grand Bassa County, Liberia, were tested for antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV) by indirect immunofluorescence. E6 Vero cells infected with Lassa fever virus (LAS), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), Congo

  12. Characterization of a Type-Common Human Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus with High Therapeutic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Logu, Alessandro; Williamson, R. Anthony; Rozenshteyn, Roman; Ramiro-Ibañez, Fernando; Simpson, Cindy D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Paolo Sanna, Pietro

    1998-01-01

    We report the characterization of a type-common human recombinant monoclonal antibody previously isolated by antigen selection from a phage-displayed combinatorial antibody library established from a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seropositive individual. Competition with well-characterized murine monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection of gD truncations revealed that this antibody recognizes the group Ib antigenic site of glycoprotein D, a highly conserved and protective type-common determinant. To our knowledge, this is the first human group Ib monoclonal antibody ever described. The antibody also displayed first-order neutralization kinetics and a high neutralization rate constant, was capable of completely inhibiting syncytium formation by a fusogenic strain of HSV type 1, and efficiently neutralized low-passage clinical isolates of both HSV serotypes. Taken together with our earlier observations of the in vivo antiviral activities of this human recombinant antibody in animal models of HSV infection, the present results support the high therapeutic potential of this antibody. PMID:9774565

  13. An H7N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Induces Broadly Reactive Antibody Responses against H7N9 in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Margine, Irina; Hirsh, Ariana; Sjursen, Haakon; Zambon, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Emerging H7N9 influenza virus infections in Asia have once more spurred the development of effective prepandemic H7 vaccines. However, many vaccines based on avian influenza viruses—including H7—are poorly immunogenic, as measured by traditional correlates of protection. Here we reevaluated sera from an H7N1 human vaccine trial performed in 2006. We examined cross-reactive antibody responses to divergent H7 strains, including H7N9, dissected the antibody response into head- and stalk-reactive antibodies, and tested the in vivo potency of these human sera in a passive-transfer H7N9 challenge experiment with mice. Although only a low percentage of vaccinees induced neutralizing antibody responses against the homologous vaccine strain and also H7N9, we detected strong cross-reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins (HAs) in a large proportion of the cohort with a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, H7N1 vaccination induced antibodies to both the head and stalk domains of the HA, which is in sharp contrast to seasonal inactivated vaccines. Finally, we were able to show that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies improved in vivo virus clearance in a passive-transfer H7N9 challenge mouse model. PMID:24943383

  14. Neutralization of Zika virus by germline-like human monoclonal antibodies targeting cryptic epitopes on envelope domain III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanling; Li, Shun; Du, Lanying; Wang, Chunyu; Zou, Peng; Hong, Binbin; Yuan, Mengjiao; Ren, Xiaonan; Tai, Wanbo; Kong, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Jiang, Shibo; Ying, Tianlei

    2017-10-11

    The Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has emerged as a global public health concern. Pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against other flaviviruses could modulate immune responses to ZIKV infection by antibody-dependent enhancement, highlighting the importance of understanding the immunogenicity of the ZIKV envelope protein. In this study, we identified a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target domain III (DIII) of the ZIKV envelope protein from a very large phage-display naive antibody library. These germline-like antibodies, sharing 98%-100% hoLogy with their corresponding germline IGHV genes, bound ZIKV DIII specifically with high affinities. One mAb, m301, broadly neutralized the currently circulating ZIKV strains and showed a synergistic effect with another mAb, m302, in neutralizing ZIKV in vitro and in a mouse model of ZIKV infection. Interestingly, epitope mapping and competitive binding studies suggest that m301 and m302 bind adjacent regions of the DIII C-C' loop, which represents a recently identified cryptic epitope that is intermittently exposed in an uncharacterized virus conformation. This study extended our understanding of antigenic epitopes of ZIKV antibodies and has direct implications for the design of ZIKV vaccines.

  15. Serologic survey for antibodies against three genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Neill, John D; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Zhang, Yijing; Passler, Thomas; Velayudhan, Binu T; Walz, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine titers of serum antibodies against 3 genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama. ANIMALS 62 cattle, goats, and New World camelids from 5 distinct herds and 21 captured white-tailed deer. PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from all animals for determination of anti-BPI3V antibody titers, which were measured by virus neutralization assays that used indicator (reference) viruses from each of the 3 BPI3V genotypes (BPI3V-A, BPI3V-B, and BPI3V-C). The reference strains were recent clinical isolates from US cattle. Each sample was assayed in triplicate for each genotype. Animals with a mean antibody titer ≤ 2 for a particular genotype were considered seronegative for that genotype. RESULTS Animals seropositive for antibodies against BPI3V were identified in 2 of 3 groups of cattle and the group of New World camelids. The geometric mean antibody titer against BPI3V-B was significantly greater than that for BPI3V-A and BPI3V-C in all 3 groups. All goats, captive white-tailed deer, and cattle in the third cattle group were seronegative for all 3 genotypes of the virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant genotype circulating among ungulates in Alabama. This may be clinically relevant because BPI3V is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease complex, current vaccines contain antigens against BPI3V-A only, and the extent of cross-protection among antibodies against the various BPI3V genotypes is unknown.

  16. Evaluation of performance of human immunodeficiency virus antigen/antibody combination assays in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Kao, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Pi-Han; Huang, Hui-Lin; Ho, Shu-Yuan; Wong, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Bo-Chang; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Lee, Chia-Yeh; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Chun-Nan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Yang, Jyh-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) combination assay, which can simultaneously detect the presence of anti-HIV antibody and HIV antigen, has been shown to shorten the window period in HIV diagnosis compared with the third-generation HIV antibody immunoassay. This study was aimed to determine the performance of HIV combination assays in Taiwan, where the HIV-1 seroprevalence is 0.007% and HIV-2 infection has never been reported. Performance of three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays (Dia.Pro, Wantai, and Bio-Rad) and one third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay (AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO) was assessed. A total of 152 specimens, including 86 confirmed HIV-seropositive and 66 HIV-seronegative samples, were used in the study. The sensitivity of four assays varied from 98.8% to 100%, and specificity varied from 98.5% to 100%. Performance of the 75 equivocal samples, the HIV status of which was confirmed later, in terms of negative prediction varied from 81.8% to 87.5%. The Bio-Rad and Dia.Pro assays exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of p24 antigen among the three fourth-generation HIV combination assays. The three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays exhibited better sensitivity, specificity, and negative prediction than the third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throsby, Mark; Geuijen, Cecile; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Arjen Q; Korimbocus, Jehanara; Kramer, R Arjen; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; de Jong, Maureen; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Smit, Renate; Visser, Therese J; Bijl, Nora; Marissen, Wilfred E; Loeb, Mark; Kelvin, David J; Preiser, Wolfgang; ter Meulen, Jan; de Kruif, John

    2006-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) neutralizing West Nile Virus (WNV) have been shown to protect against infection in animal models and have been identified as a correlate of protection in WNV vaccine studies. In the present study, antibody repertoires from three convalescent WNV-infected patients were cloned into an scFv phage library, and 138 human MAbs binding to WNV were identified. One hundred twenty-one MAbs specifically bound to the viral envelope (E) protein and four MAbs to the premembrane (prM) protein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based competitive-binding assays with representative E protein-specific MAbs demonstrated that 24/51 (47%) bound to domain II while only 4/51 (8%) targeted domain III. In vitro neutralizing activity was demonstrated for 12 MAbs, and two of these, CR4374 and CR4353, protected mice from lethal WNV challenge at 50% protective doses of 12.9 and 357 mug/kg of body weight, respectively. Our data analyzing three infected individuals suggest that the human anti-WNV repertoire after natural infection is dominated by nonneutralizing or weakly neutralizing MAbs binding to domain II of the E protein, while domain III-binding MAbs able to potently neutralize WNV in vitro and in vivo are rare.

  19. Structure of the Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to a human survivor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Hessell, Ann J.; Oswald, Wendelien B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2008-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the surface glycoprotein, GP, to initiate attachment and fusion of viral and host membranes. Here, we report the crystal structure of EBOV GP in its trimeric, pre-fusion conformation (GP1+GP2) bound to a neutralizing antibody, KZ52, derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak. Three GP1 viral attachment subunits assemble to form a chalice, cradled by the GP2 fusion subunits, while a novel glycan cap and projected mucin-like domain restrict access to the conserved receptor-binding site sequestered in the chalice bowl. The glycocalyx surrounding GP is likely central to immune evasion and may explain why survivors have insignificant neutralizing antibody titres. KZ52 recognizes a protein epitope at the chalice base where it clamps several regions of the pre-fusion GP2 to the N terminus of GP1. This structure now provides a template for unraveling the mechanism of EBOV GP-mediated fusion and for future immunotherapeutic development. PMID:18615077

  20. The epitope structure of Citrus tristeza virus coat protein mapped by recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia; Liu, Yong; Yang, Fan; Hong, Ni

    2014-01-05

    It has been known that there exists serological differentiation among Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates. The present study reports three linear epitopes (aa 48-63, 97-104, and 114-125) identified by using bacterially expressed truncated coat proteins and ten monoclonal antibodies against the native virions of CTV-S4. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that the mutation D98G within the newly identified epitope (97)DDDSTGIT(104) abolished its reaction to MAbs 1, 4, and 10, and the presence of G98 in HB1-CP also resulted in its failure to recognize the three MAbs. Our results suggest that the conformational differences in the epitope I (48)LGTQQNAALNRDLFLT(63) between the CPs of isolates S4 and HB1 might contribute to the different reactions of two isolates to MAbs 5 and 6. This study provides new information for the antigenic structures of CTV, and will extend the understanding of the processes required for antibody binding and aid the development of epitope-based diagnostic tools. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cure of Chronic Viral Infection and Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes by Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Ejrnaes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neutralizing antibodies is one of the most successful methods to interfere with receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. In particular blockade of soluble inflammatory mediators or their corresponding cellular receptors was proven an effective way to regulate inflammation and/or prevent its negative consequences. However, one problem that comes along with an effective neutralization of inflammatory mediators is the general systemic immunomodulatory effect. It is therefore important to design a treatment regimen in a way to strike at the right place and at the right time in order to achieve maximal effects with minimal duration of immunosuppression or hyperactivation. In this review we reflect on two examples of how short time administration of such neutralizing antibodies can block two distinct inflammatory consequences of viral infection. First, we review recent findings that blockade of IL-10/IL-10R interaction can resolve chronic viral infection and second, we reflect on how neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 can abrogate virus-induced type 1 diabetes.

  2. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against dengue virus in two localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Larios, Irma Y; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Mayer, Sandra V; Galeana-Hernández, Marisol; Comas-García, Andreu; Sepúlveda-Salinas, Karla J; Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2014-11-01

    Humoral immune response against dengue virus (DENV) is an important component in dengue-endemic transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional nested cohort study to determine the seroprevalence and frequency of neutralizing antibodies against DENV serotypes in two endemic localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The cohort participants (N = 1,196) were screened to determine previous exposure to DENV. Overall seroprevalence was 76.6% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 73.6-79.2), and prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the 5- to 9-year-old group was 82.5% (95% CI = 67.2-92.7), 45% (95% CI = 29.3-61.5), and 65% (95% CI = 48.3-79.4) for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively. For participants older than 10 years, the observed seroprevalence was above 60% for each serotype, except DENV-4 in the 10- to 25-year-old group (42.9%); 81% of humoral responses were multitypic. The outcomes of our study contribute to understanding the immune component of dengue transmission and provide focal information for the evaluation of vaccine candidates under development. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Seroprevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies Against Dengue Virus in Two Localities in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Larios, Irma Y.; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Mayer, Sandra V.; Galeana-Hernández, Marisol; Comas-García, Andreu; Sepúlveda-Salinas, Karla J.; Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2014-01-01

    Humoral immune response against dengue virus (DENV) is an important component in dengue-endemic transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional nested cohort study to determine the seroprevalence and frequency of neutralizing antibodies against DENV serotypes in two endemic localities in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The cohort participants (N = 1,196) were screened to determine previous exposure to DENV. Overall seroprevalence was 76.6% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 73.6–79.2), and prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the 5- to 9-year-old group was 82.5% (95% CI = 67.2–92.7), 45% (95% CI = 29.3–61.5), and 65% (95% CI = 48.3–79.4) for DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, respectively. For participants older than 10 years, the observed seroprevalence was above 60% for each serotype, except DENV-4 in the 10- to 25-year-old group (42.9%); 81% of humoral responses were multitypic. The outcomes of our study contribute to understanding the immune component of dengue transmission and provide focal information for the evaluation of vaccine candidates under development. PMID:25294613

  4. Cowpea mosaic virus-based systems for the expression of antigens and antibodies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Liu, Li; Lomonossoff, George P

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Cowpea mosaic virus-based vectors for the production of foreign proteins such as antigens and antibodies in plants. The systems include vectors based on both full-length and deleted versions of RNA-2. In both cases, the modified RNA-2 is replicated by coinoculation with RNA-1. The constructs based on full-length RNA-2 retain the ability to spread systemically throughout an inoculated plant and the infection can be passaged. The vector based on a deleted version of RNA-2 can stably incorporate larger inserts but lacks the ability to move systemically. However, it has the added advantage of biocontainment. In both cases, vector constructs modified to contain a foreign gene of interest can be delivered by agroinfiltration to obtain transient expression of the foreign protein. If required, the same constructs can also be used for stable nuclear transformation. Both types of vector have proved effective for the production in plants of a diverse range of proteins including antigens and antibodies.

  5. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays for detection of Potato virus S in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ge; Wu, Jia-Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Yong; Qian, Ya-Juan; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Wu, Jian-Xiang

    Potato virus S (PVS) often causes significant losses in potato production in potato-growing countries. In this study, the ordinary strain of PVS (PVSO) was purified from PVS-infected potato plants and used as the immunogen to produce hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Five highly specific and sensitive murine MAbs (1A3, 16C10, 18A9, 20B12, and 22H4) against PVS were prepared using conventional hybridoma technology. Using these MAbs, tissue print-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, and double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA were developed for sensitive and specific detection of PVS infection in potato plants. The results of sensitivity assays revealed that PVS could be reliably detected in PVS-infected leaf crude extracts diluted at 1:10 240 and 1:163 840 (w/v, g/ml) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) by dot-ELISA and DAS-ELISA, respectively. Twenty-two samples collected from potato fields in Yunnan Province, China were tested for PVS infection using the serological assays we had developed, and 14 of them were found to be positive. This indicates that PVS is now prevalent in potato fields in Yunnan Province.

  6. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection.

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    Gene S Tan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9 virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo.

  7. Transplacental transfer of maternal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody and protection against RSV disease in infants in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Helen Y; Tielsch, James; Katz, Joanne; Magaret, Amalia S; Khatry, Subarna; LeClerq, Stephen C; Shrestha, Laxman; Kuypers, Jane; Steinhoff, Mark C; Englund, Janet A

    2017-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth. Weekly surveillance for respiratory illness was performed from birth to 180days. Nasal swabs were tested for RSV by PCR and serum was tested using an RSV antibody microneutralization assay. Antibody concentrations at time of RSV infection were estimated based on a decay rate of 0.026 log2/day. Cord:maternal RSV antibody transfer ratio was 1.03 (0.88-1.19), with RSV antibody concentration of log2 11.3 and log2 11.7 in 310 paired maternal and infant samples, respectively. Cord blood RSV antibody was log2 12.1 versus 11.6 in those with or without RSV infection (P=0.86). Among infants with RSV infection, estimated RSV antibody concentration at time of infection did not differ in infants with upper (n=8; log2 10.7) versus lower respiratory tract infection (n=21; log2 9.8; P=0.37). Cord blood RSV antibody concentrations did not correlate with age at primary RSV infection (R=0.11; P=0.57). Transplacental transfer of RSV antibody from mother to the fetus was highly efficient in mother-infant pairs in rural Nepal, though higher antibody concentrations were not protective against earlier or more severe RSV infection in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chienjin; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Landolt, Marsha; Winton, James

    1994-01-01

    To study the antigenic nature of the glycoprotein (G protein) of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), 31 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against a reference isolate of the virus. The MAbs were compared using a neutralization assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and by immunoblotting of the G protein in the native, reduced, and deglycosylated forms. Hybridoma culture fluids of the various MAbs could be diluted from 1:2 to 1:512 and still completely neutralize 1 X 104 plaque-forming units of IHNV. Similarly, the end point dilutions that produced optical density readings of 0.1 or greater in the ELISA were 1:40 to 1:10240. Western blotting showed that all of the MAbs reacted with the G protein in the unreduced (i.e. native) conformation; however, only 9 nine of the MAbs were able to react with the G protein following reduction by 2-mercaptoethanol. Deglycosylation of the protein did not influence the binding ability of any of the MAbs. These data indicate that all the MAbs recognized amino acid sequences on the protein itself and that the IHNV glycoprotein contains linear as well as conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. When rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings were passively immunized with MAbs against either a linear or a conformation-dependent epitope, the fish were protected against challenge with wild-type IHNV.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies against conserved components of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Murine hybridomas producing IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against N and S2 proteins (53KDa and 82KDa, respectively from avian infection bronchitis virus (IBV strain M41 were generated by the fusion of a myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14 with spleen cells from Balb/c mice previously immunized with whole virus IBV M41. Post-fusion screening criterion was by ELISA and 36 positive hybrids were generated after fusions. Two hybrids specific to N (N3F10 and S2 (S12B2 proteins from M41 (serotype Massachusetts were selected by western blotting. These Mabs recognized the Ark-99 (serotype Arkansas and A5968 (serotype Connecticut IBV strains in addition to M41. By ELISA, the Mab against the S2 (S12B2 recognized all reference and Brazilian strains (M41, SE-17, H52, 297, 283, PM-1, PM-2, PM-3, 351, 29-78 E 327 studied, while the Mab against N recognized only six (M41, SE-17, H52, 283, 327 e 297 strains. The Mab against S2 may become a useful tool for IBV detection on the routine diagnosis of infectious bronchitis, especially for helping the differential diagnosis of clinically and pathologically confusing diseases, while the Mab against N (N3F10 recognized a probably less conserved region among the strains and may be interesting to comparing IBV isolates.

  10. Neutralization resistance of hepatitis C virus can be overcome by recombinant human monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jannie L; Carlsen, Thomas H R; Prentoe, Jannick

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy and vaccine development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) will depend on broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). However, studies in infectious strain JFH1-based culture systems expressing patient-derived Core-NS2 proteins have suggested neutralization resistance for specific HCV......-derived genotype 2a (strain T9), 2b (strains DH8 and DH10), and 2c (strain S83) consensus sequences, were viable in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells without requirement for adaptive mutations, reaching HCV infectivity titers of 3.9-4.5 log10 focus-forming units per milliliter. In in vitro neutralization assays, we...... demonstrated that the novel genotype 2 viruses as well as prototype strains J6/JFH1(2a) and J8/JFH1(2b), all with authentic envelope proteins, were resistant to neutralization by genotype 2a, 2b, 2c, 2j, 2i, and 2q patient sera. However, these patient sera had high titers of HCV-specific NAbs, because...

  11. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment

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    Leo Hanke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies.

  12. A human inferred germline antibody binds to an immunodominant epitope and neutralizes Zika virus.

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    Diogo M Magnani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs against the Zika virus (ZIKV might lead to novel preventative strategies for infections in at-risk individuals, primarily pregnant women. Here we describe the characterization of human mAbs from the plasmablasts of an acutely infected patient. One of the 18 mAbs had the unusual feature of binding to and neutralizing ZIKV despite not appearing to have been diversified by affinity maturation. This mAb neutralized ZIKV (Neut50 ~ 2 μg/ml but did not react with any of the four dengue virus serotypes. Except for the expected junctional diversity created by the joining of the V-(D-J genes, there was no deviation from immunoglobulin germline genes. This is a rare example of a human mAb with neutralizing activity in the absence of detectable somatic hypermutation. Importantly, binding of this mAb to ZIKV was specifically inhibited by human plasma from ZIKV-exposed individuals, suggesting that it may be of value in a diagnostic setting.

  13. Linear Epitopes in Vaccinia Virus A27 Are Targets of Protective Antibodies Induced by Vaccination against Smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaever, Thomas; Matho, Michael H; Meng, Xiangzhi; Crickard, Lindsay; Schlossman, Andrew; Xiang, Yan; Crotty, Shane; Peters, Bjoern; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2016-05-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 is a target for viral neutralization and part of the Dryvax smallpox vaccine. A27 is one of the three glycosaminoglycan (GAG) adhesion molecules and binds to heparan sulfate. To understand the function of anti-A27 antibodies, especially their protective capacity and their interaction with A27, we generated and subsequently characterized 7 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which fell into 4 distinct epitope groups (groups I to IV). The MAbs in three groups (groups I, III, and IV) bound to linear peptides, while the MAbs in group II bound only to VACV lysate and recombinant A27, suggesting that they recognized a conformational and discontinuous epitope. Only group I antibodies neutralized the mature virion in a complement-dependent manner and protected against VACV challenge, while a group II MAb partially protected against VACV challenge but did not neutralize the mature virion. The epitope for group I MAbs was mapped to a region adjacent to the GAG binding site, a finding which suggests that group I MAbs could potentially interfere with the cellular adhesion of A27. We further determined the crystal structure of the neutralizing group I MAb 1G6, as well as the nonneutralizing group IV MAb 8E3, bound to the corresponding linear epitope-containing peptides. Both the light and the heavy chains of the antibodies are important in binding to their antigens. For both antibodies, the L1 loop seems to dominate the overall polar interactions with the antigen, while for MAb 8E3, the light chain generally appears to make more contacts with the antigen. Vaccinia virus is a powerful model to study antibody responses upon vaccination, since its use as the smallpox vaccine led to the eradication of one of the world's greatest killers. The immunodominant antigens that elicit the protective antibodies are known, yet for many of these antigens, little information about their precise interaction with antibodies is available. In an attempt to better

  14. Transient immune suppression of inapparent carriers infected with a principal neutralizing domain-deficient equine infectious anaemia virus induces neutralizing antibodies and lowers steady-state virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K; Leroux, Caroline; Howe, Laryssa; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Cook, Sheila J; Issel, Charles J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2002-06-01

    The genetic variation of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) clearly affects the antigenic properties of the viral envelope; however, effects on immunogenicity remain undefined, although widely assumed. Here, the immunogenicity is reported of a novel, neutralization-resistant, pony-isolate envelope EIAV(PV564DeltaPND) that contains a 14-residue deletion in the designated principal neutralizing domain (PND) of the gp90 protein. Two ponies inoculated with a chimeric virus, EIAV(DeltaPND), containing the EIAV(PV564DeltaPND) envelope in a reference provirus strain, remained asymptomatic through 14 months post-inoculation, producing high steady-state levels of envelope-specific antibodies but no detectable serum-neutralizing antibodies. Consequent dexamethasone-induced immune suppression produced characteristic EIA that resolved concomitantly with the development of high-titre, strain-specific, neutralizing antibodies and a 100-fold reduction in steady-state virus loads. These results demonstrate: natural variations in the EIAV envelope have profound effects on both antigenic and immunogenic properties; the PND is not required for neutralizing antibody responses; and transient immune suppression can enhance established host immunity to achieve more effective control of steady-state lentivirus replication.

  15. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects African Green monkeys from Hendra virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Katharine N.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz; Zhu, Zhongyu; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Joan B.; Yan, Lianying; Feng, Yan-Ru; Brining, Doug; Scott, Dana; Wang, Yanping; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Callison, Julie; Chan, Yee-Peng; Hickey, Andrew C.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Broder, Christopher C.; Rockx, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged zoonotic paramyxovirus that can cause a severe and often fatal disease in horses and humans. HeV is categorized as a biosafety level 4 agent, which has made the development of animal models and testing of potential therapeutics and vaccines challenging. Infection of African Green monkeys (AGMs) with HeV was recently demonstrated and disease mirrored fatal HeV infection in humans, manifesting as a multisystemic vasculitis with widespread virus replication in vascular tissues and severe pathologic manifestations in the lung, spleen and brain. Here, we demonstrate that m102.4, a potent HeV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (hmAb), can protect AGMs from disease post infection (p.i.) with HeV. Fourteen AGMs were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of HeV and twelve subjects were infused twice with a 100 mg dose of m102.4 beginning at either 10 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr p.i. and again approximately 48 hrs later. The presence of viral RNA, infectious virus and HeV-specific immune responses demonstrated that all subjects were infected following challenge. All twelve AGMs that received m102.4 survived infection; whereas the untreated control subjects succumbed to disease on day 8 p.i.. Animals in the 72 hr treatment group exhibited neurological signs of disease but all animals started to recover by day 16 p.i.. These results represent successful post-exposure in vivo efficacy by an investigational drug against HeV and highlight the potential impact a hmAb can have on human disease. PMID:22013123

  16. Mumps-specific cross-neutralization by MMR vaccine-induced antibodies predicts protection against mumps virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouma, Sigrid; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Schurink-van 't Klooster, Tessa M; de Melker, Hester E; Boland, Greet J; Kaaijk, Patricia; van Els, Cécile A C M; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Binnendijk, Rob S

    2016-07-29

    Similar to other recent mumps genotype G outbreaks worldwide, most mumps patients during the recent mumps genotype G outbreaks in the Netherlands had received 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine during childhood. Here, we investigate the capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies to neutralize wild type mumps virus strains, including mumps virus genotype G. In this study, we tested 105 pre-outbreak serum samples from students who had received 2 MMR vaccine doses and who had no mumps virus infection (n=76), symptomatic mumps virus infection (n=10) or asymptomatic mumps virus infection (n=19) during the mumps outbreaks. In all samples, mumps-specific IgG concentrations were measured by multiplex immunoassay and neutralization titers were measured against the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain and against wild type genotype G and genotype D mumps virus strains. The correlation between mumps-specific IgG concentrations and neutralization titers against Jeryl Lynn was poor, which suggests that IgG concentrations do not adequately represent immunological protection against mumps virus infection by antibody neutralization. Pre-outbreak neutralization titers in infected persons were significantly lower against genotype G than against the vaccine strain. Furthermore, antibody neutralization of wild type mumps virus genotype G and genotype D was significantly reduced in pre-outbreak samples from infected persons as compared with non-infected persons. No statistically significant difference was found for the vaccine strain. The sensitivity/specificity ratio was largest for neutralization of the genotype G strain as compared with the genotype D strain and the vaccine strain. The reduced neutralization of wild type mumps virus strains in MMR vaccinated persons prior to infection indicates that pre-outbreak mumps virus neutralization is partly strain-specific and that neutralization differs between infected and non-infected persons. Therefore, we recommend the use of wild

  17. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus in unowned free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Irene T; Levy, Julie K; Gorman, Shawn P; Crawford, P Cynda; Slater, Margaret R

    2002-03-01

    To determine prevalence of FeLV infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats. Cross-sectional serologic survey. 733 unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in Gainesville, Fla. In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%, and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of FeLV infection was not significantly different between males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence for FIV was significantly higher in male cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%). Prevalence of FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the United States. Male cats are at increased risk for exposure to FIV, compared with female cats.

  18. Effect of Booster Vaccination with Inactivated Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Neutralizing Antibody Response in Mammary Secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Thomas; Song, Qinye; Inskeep, Megan; Stone, Suzanne; Murtaugh, Michael P

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds. The results illustrate that intramuscular vaccination increased neutralizing antibody titers, and anti-PEDV IgA and IgG in milk and colostrum of sows that were previously infected. Thus, inactivated PEDV vaccines may provide increased protection to piglets nursing on previously infected sows against exposure to PEDV through increased delivery of lactogenic neutralizing antibodies to the enteric site of infection.

  19. Neutralizing and enhancing antibody responses to five genotypes of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) in DENV-1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Konishi, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has four distinct serotypes, DENV-1-4, with four to six genotypes in each serotype. The World Health Organization recommends tetravalent formulations including one genotype of each serotype as safe and effective dengue vaccines. Here, we investigated the impact of genotype on the neutralizing antibody responses to DENV-1 in humans. Convalescent sera collected from patients with primary infection of DENV-1 were examined for neutralizing antibody against single-round infectious particles of the five DENV-1 genotypes (GI-GV). In both GI- and GIV-infected patients, their neutralizing antibody titres against the five genotypes were similar, differing ≤4-fold from the homogenotypic responses. The enhancing activities against the five genotypes were also similar in these sera. Thus, the genotype strains of DENV-1 showed no significant antigenic differences in these patients, suggesting that GI- or GIV-derived vaccine antigens should induce equivalent levels of neutralizing antibodies against all DENV-1 genotypes.

  20. Serotype-specific anti-Dengue virus NS1 mouse antibodies cross-react with prM and are potentially involved in virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Omokoko, Magot Diata; Pambudi, Sabar; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Kurosu, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection induces a strong B-cell immune response against the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Anti-NS1 antibodies (Abs) may affect virus production because they coexist with the virus in the patients' blood. The present study examined whether ten mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against NS1 affected production of the DENV-2. Three MAbs, 4C2, 4G11, and 4E5, showed weak neutralizing activity in a focus reduction assay. In addition, two serotype-specific MAbs, 4C2 and 4G11, protected suckling mice from lethal infection with DENV-2. An immunoprecipitation assay with DENV-2 showed that these MAbs, which were specific for the NS1 of DENV-4 and DENV-1, cross-reacted with the DENV-2 pre-membrane (prM) protein, but not with DENV-2 NS1. Interestingly, high concentrations of MAb 4G11 showed antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection in human monocyte THP-1 cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that serotype-specific anti-NS1 MAbs are potentially involved in virus production.

  1. Detection of antibodies against Bluetongue virus among domestic ruminants in the highlands of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Doj Raj; Prajapati, Meera; Shrestha, Prazila; Acharya, Madhav Prasad; Paudyal, Narayan; Bowen, Richard; Singh, Upendra Man; Joshi, Bhoj Raj

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is one of the most economically important transboundary animal diseases. In recent years, it has been considered a disease related to climate change. A study was undertaken in 2013 in Nepal to measure the prevalence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection among domestic ruminants inhabiting the 3 agro-climatic zones with altitudes ranging from 150 to 2,400 metres above sea level. Twelve clusters representing the 3 altitudes were selected. The presence of antibodies against BTV was demonstrated in serum samples of sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, yaks/chauries, and chyangra goats (Himalayan goat) of Nepal. For this purpose, a total of 2,084 sera were collected from a population of 202 sheep, 739 goats, 590 cattle, 379 buffaloes, 105 yaks/chauries, and 69 chyangra goats between February 2013 and January 2014. The presence of antibodies against BTV was investigated using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of the 2,084 collected sera, 45.20% were positive for BTV antibodies. Species-wise prevalence was 17.82%, 47.50%, 53.05%, 58.05%, 7.62%, and 20.29% in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, yak, and chyangra goats, respectively. Contrary to the general belief, maximum numbers of seropositive cases were recorded in buffaloes followed by cattle, goats, chyangra goats, sheep, and yak/chauries. The samples collected in the post-monsoon period (July-August is the monsoon period) show a seroprevalence higher than the pre-monsoon samples. This study shows the seroprevalence of BT in domestic ruminant population of Nepal at all altitudes. The highest prevalence has been reported in the plains of Terai followed by gradual decline in the mid-hills, and in the high mountains. Furthermore, detection of antibodies against BTV in both small and large ruminants (chyangra goats and yak/chauries) dwelling in high altitudes in the absence of BT vaccination is suggesting vector movement to the highlands as a consequence of warmer climate. These findings

  2. Analysis of potato virus Y coat protein epitopes recognized by three commercial monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains from PVYO and PVYC strains, or detect all PVY strains, respectively. However, the minimal epitopes recognized by these antibodies have not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SPOT peptide array was used to map the epitopes in CP recognized by MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130. Then alanine replacement as well as N- and C-terminal deletion analysis of the identified peptide epitopes was done to determine critical amino acids for antibody recognition and the respective minimal epitopes. The epitopes of all antibodies were located within the 30 N-terminal-most residues. The minimal epitope of MAb1128 was 25NLNKEK30. Replacement of 25N or 27N with alanine weakened the recognition by MAb1128, and replacement of 26L, 29E, or 30K nearly precluded recognition. The minimal epitope for MAb1129 was 16RPEQGSIQSNP26 and the most critical residues for recognition were 22I and 23Q. The epitope of MAb1130 was defined by residues 5IDAGGS10. Mutation of residue 6D abrogated and mutation of 9G strongly reduced recognition of the peptide by MAb1130. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that these epitopes are relatively conserved among PVY strains. Finally, recombinant CPs were produced to demonstrate that mutations in the variable positions of the epitope regions can affect detection with the MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The epitope data acquired can be compared with data on PVY CP-encoding sequences produced by laboratories worldwide and utilized to monitor how widely the new variants of PVY can be detected with current seed potato certification schemes or during the

  3. In Vitro Enhancement of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by Maternal Antibodies Does Not Explain Disease Severity in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kasteren, Puck B.; Guichelaar, Teun; Ahout, Inge M. L.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wicht, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. At this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matAbs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. RSV-specific matAbs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe RSV disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matAb levels are present. To investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to antibody properties other than neutralization. Some antibody effector functions are mediated via their Fc binding region. However, it has been shown that this binding may lead to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection or reduction of neutralization, both possibly leading to more disease. In this study, we first showed that high levels of ADE of RSV infection occur in monocytic THP-1 cells in the presence of RSV antibodies and that neutralization by these antibodies was reduced in Vero cells when they were transduced with Fc gamma receptors. We then demonstrated that antibodies from cotton rats with formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV-induced pulmonary pathology were capable of causing ADE. Human matAbs also caused ADE and were less neutralizing in vitro in cells that carry Fc receptors. However, these effects were unrelated to disease severity because they were seen both in uninfected controls and in infants hospitalized with different levels of RSV disease severity. We conclude that ADE and reduction of neutralization are unlikely to be involved in RSV disease in infants with neutralizing matAbs. IMPORTANCE It is unclear why severity of RSV disease peaks at the age when infants have neutralizing levels of maternal antibodies. Additionally, the exact reason for FI-RSV-induced enhanced disease, as seen in the 1960s vaccine trials, is still unclear. We hypothesized that antibodies present under either of these conditions could contribute to disease severity

  4. In Vitro Enhancement of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by Maternal Antibodies Does Not Explain Disease Severity in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Elisabeth A; van Kasteren, Puck B; Guichelaar, Teun; Ahout, Inge M L; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wicht, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. At this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matAbs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. RSV-specific matAbs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe RSV disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matAb levels are present. To investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to antibody properties other than neutralization. Some antibody effector functions are mediated via their Fc binding region. However, it has been shown that this binding may lead to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection or reduction of neutralization, both possibly leading to more disease. In this study, we first showed that high levels of ADE of RSV infection occur in monocytic THP-1 cells in the presence of RSV antibodies and that neutralization by these antibodies was reduced in Vero cells when they were transduced with Fc gamma receptors. We then demonstrated that antibodies from cotton rats with formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV-induced pulmonary pathology were capable of causing ADE. Human matAbs also caused ADE and were less neutralizing in vitro in cells that carry Fc receptors. However, these effects were unrelated to disease severity because they were seen both in uninfected controls and in infants hospitalized with different levels of RSV disease severity. We conclude that ADE and reduction of neutralization are unlikely to be involved in RSV disease in infants with neutralizing matAbs.IMPORTANCE It is unclear why severity of RSV disease peaks at the age when infants have neutralizing levels of maternal antibodies. Additionally, the exact reason for FI-RSV-induced enhanced disease, as seen in the 1960s vaccine trials, is still unclear. We hypothesized that antibodies present under either of these conditions could contribute to disease severity. Antibodies can

  5. Antibodies to gp350/220 enhance the ability of Epstein-Barr virus to infect epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Susan M; Jiang, Ru; Chesnokova, Liudmila S; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M

    2006-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a persistent, orally transmitted herpesvirus that replicates in B cells and epithelial cells and is associated with lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. The virus binds to CD21 on B cells via glycoprotein gp350/220 and infects efficiently. Infection of cultured epithelial cells has not typically been efficient but can occur in the absence of gp350/220 and CD21 and in vivo is thought to be important to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We report here that antibodies to gp350/220, which inhibit EBV infection of B cells, enhance infection of epithelial cells. The effect is not mediated by Fc receptor binding but is further enhanced by antibody cross-linking, which may patch gp350/220 in the virus envelope. Saliva from EBV-seropositive individuals has similar effects that can be reversed by depletion of antibody. The results are consistent with a model in which gp350/220 interferes with the access of other important players to the epithelial cell surface. The results may have implications for the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in high-risk populations in which elevated titers of antibody to EBV lytic cycle proteins are prognostic.

  6. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Liss, Nathan M; Chen, Dong-Hua; Liao, Maofu; Fox, Julie M; Shimak, Raeann M; Fong, Rachel H; Chafets, Daniel; Bakkour, Sonia; Keating, Sheila; Fomin, Marina E; Muench, Marcus O; Sherman, Michael B; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Simmons, Graham

    2015-12-22

    We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs and chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G) at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serologic Detection of Subtype-specific Antibodies to Influenza A Viruses in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Alyssa M; Miller, Melissa; Stallknecht, David E; Moriarty, Megan; Plancarte, Magdalena; Dodd, Erin; Batac, Francesca; Boyce, Walter M

    2017-10-01

    There are approximately 3,000 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in the nearshore environment along the California coast, US, and the species is classified as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We tested sera from 661 necropsied southern sea otters sampled from 1997 to 2015 to determine overall exposure to influenza A viruses (IAVs) and to identify subtype-specific antibody responses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibodies to IAV nucleoproteins were detected in 160 (24.2%) otters, with seropositive animals found in every year except 2008. When the ELISA-positive samples were tested by virus microneutralization, antibody responses were detected to avian-origin hemagglutinin subtypes H1, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, and H11. Strong antibody responses to pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) were also detected, indicating that epizootic transmission of pdmH1N1 occurred among the southern sea otter population after the emergence of this human-origin virus in 2009. We conclude that southern sea otters are susceptible to infection with avian and human-origin IAV and that exposure to a wide array of subtypes likely occurs during a given otter's 10- to 15-yr life span. Important unanswered questions include what effect, if any, IAV infection has on sea otter health, and how these animals become infected in their nearshore environment.

  8. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Targeting antibody responses to the membrane proximal external region of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Kamdem Toukam

    Full Text Available Although human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1 infection induces strong antibody responses to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env only a few of these antibodies possess the capacity to neutralize a broad range of strains. The induction of such antibodies represents an important goal in the development of a preventive vaccine against the infection. Among the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies discovered so far, three (2F5, Z13 and 4E10 target the short and hidden membrane proximal external region (MPER of the gp41 transmembrane protein. Antibody responses to MPER are rarely observed in HIV-infected individuals or after immunization with Env immunogens. To initiate antibody responses to MPER in its membrane-embedded native conformation, we generated expression plasmids encoding the membrane-anchored ectodomain of gp41 with N-terminal deletions of various sizes. Following transfection of these plasmids, the MPER domains are displayed on the cell surface and incorporated into HIV virus like particles (VLP. Transfected cells displaying MPER mutants bound as efficiently to both 2F5 and 4E10 as cells transfected with a plasmid encoding full-length Env. Mice immunized with VLPs containing the MPER mutants produced MPER-specific antibodies, the levels of which could be increased by the trimerization of the displayed proteins as well as by a DNA prime-VLP boost immunization strategy. Although 2F5 competed for binding to MPER with antibodies in sera of some of the immunized mice, neutralizing activity could not be detected. Whether this is due to inefficient binding of the induced antibodies to MPER in the context of wild type Env or whether the overall MPER-specific antibody response induced by the MPER display mutants is too low to reveal neutralizing activity, remains to be determined.

  10. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  11. Non-viral adeno-associated virus-based platform for stable expression of antibody combination therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Gwendolyn M; Carey, Kimberly L; Hicks, Stuart W; Russell, Hugh H; Stevenson, Jesse A; Kocjan, Paulina; Lutz, Stephen R; Quesenberry, Rachel S; Shulga-Morskoy, Sergey V; Lewis, Megan E; Clark, Ethan; Medik, Violetta; Cooper, Anthony B; Reczek, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    Antibody combination therapeutics (ACTs) are polyvalent biopharmaceuticals that are uniquely suited for the control of complex diseases, including antibiotic resistant infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancers. However, ACTs also represent a distinct manufacturing challenge because the independent manufacture and subsequent mixing of monoclonal antibodies quickly becomes cost prohibitive as more complex mixtures are envisioned. We have developed a virus-free recombinant protein expression platform based on adeno-associated viral (AAV) elements that is capable of rapid and consistent production of complex antibody mixtures in a single batch format. Using both multiplexed immunoassays and cation exchange (CIEX) chromatography, cell culture supernatants generated using our system were assessed for stability of expression and ratios of the component antibodies over time. Cultures expressing combinations of three to ten antibodies maintained consistent expression levels and stable ratios of component antibodies for at least 60 days. Cultures showed remarkable reproducibility following cell banking, and AAV-based cultures showed higher stability and productivity than non-AAV based cultures. Therefore, this non-viral AAV-based expression platform represents a predictable, reproducible, quick and cost effective method to manufacture or quickly produce for preclinical testing recombinant antibody combination therapies and other recombinant protein mixtures.

  12. A novel monoclonal antibody for detection of galectin-9 in tissue sections: application to human tissues infected by oncogenic viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjon Clément

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galectin-9 is a mammalian lectin which possesses immunosuppressive properties. Excessive production of galectin-9 has been reported in two types of human virus-associated diseases chronic hepatitis C and nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated to the Epstein-Barr virus. The objective of this study was to produce new monoclonal antibodies targeting galectin-9 in order to improve its detection in clinical samples, especially on tissue sections analysed by immunohistochemistry. Methods Hybridomas were produced through immunization of mice with the recombinant c-terminus part of galectin-9 (residues 191 to 355 of the long isoform and semi-solid fusion of spleen cells with Sp2/0 cells. Monoclonal antibodies were characterized using ELISA, epitope mapping, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results We selected seven hybridomas producing antibodies reacting with our recombinant c-terminus galectin-9 in ELISA. Five of them reacted with the epitope “TPAIPPMMYPHPA” (common to all isoforms, residues 210 to 222 of the long isoform and stained all three isoforms of galectin-9 analysed by western blot. One of them, 1G3,demonstrated very good sensitivity and specificity when used for immunohistochemistry. Using 1G3, we could confirm the intense and constant expression of galectin-9 by Epstein-Barr virus positive malignant cells from nasopharyngeal carcinomas. In most samples, specific staining was detected in both cytoplasm and nuclei. Galectin-9 was also detected in liver biopsies from patients infected by the human hepatitis C or B viruses with expression not only in inflammatory leucocytes and Kupffer cells, but also in hepatocytes. In contrast, galectin-9 was virtually absent in non-infected liver specimens. Conclusion The 1G3 monoclonal antibody will be a powerful tool to assess galectin-9 expression and distribution especially in diseases related to oncogenic viruses.

  13. Short report: Changes in West Nile virus seroprevalence and antibody titers among Wisconsin mesopredators 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Egstad, K.F.; Griffin, K.M.; Nolden, C.A.; Karwal, L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-01-01

    After the 2001 occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Wisconsin (WI), we collected sera, during 2003-2006, from south-central WI mesopredators. We tested these sera to determine WNV antibody prevalence and geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT). Four-fold higher antibody prevalence and 2-fold higher GMAT in 2003-2004 indicated greater exposure of mesopredators to WNV during the apparent epizootic phase. The period 2005-2006 was likely the enzootic phase because WNV antibody prevalence fell to a level similar to other flaviviruses. Our results suggest that, in mesopredators, vector-borne transmission is the primary route of infection and WNV antibodies persist for West Nile virus spill-over into humans and horses. Mesopredator sero-surveys may complement dead crow surveillance by providing additional data for the timing of public health interventions. Research is needed to clarify the dynamics of WNV infection in these mammals and their role as potential WNV amplifiers. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. The diagnosis of proventricular dilatat