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Sample records for virus 1-4 possesses

  1. Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: Implications for virus transmissibility

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    Belser, Jessica A; Blixt, Ola; Chen, Li-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Avian H7 influenza viruses from both the Eurasian and North American lineage have caused outbreaks in poultry since 2002, with confirmed human infection occurring during outbreaks in The Netherlands, British Columbia, and the United Kingdom. The majority of H7 infections have resulted in self......-limiting conjunctivitis, whereas probable human-to-human transmission has been rare. Here, we used glycan microarray technology to determine the receptor-binding preference of Eurasian and North American lineage H7 influenza viruses and their transmissibility in the ferret model. We found that highly pathogenic H7N7...

  2. Human parainfluenza virus types 1-4 in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infections in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ni-Guang; Duan, Zhao-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Zhong, Li-Li; Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Huang, Han; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). HPIV-4, a newly identified virus, has been associated with severe ALRTIs recently. A total of 771 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from hospitalized children between March 2010 and February 2011. HPIVs were detected by Nest-PCR, and other known respiratory viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR. All amplification products were sequenced. HPIVs were detected in 151 (19.58%) patients, of whom 28 (3.63%) were positive for HPIV-4, 12(1.55%) for HPIV-1, 4 (0.51%) for HPIV-2, and 107 (13.87%) for HPIV-3. Only three were found to be co-infected with different types of HPIVs. All HPIV-positive children were under 5 years of age, with the majority being less than 1 year. Only the detection rate of HPIV-3 had a significant statistical difference (χ 2  = 29.648, P = 0.000) between ages. HPIV-3 and HPIV-4 were detected during the summer. Sixty (39.74%) were co-infected with other respiratory viruses, and human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common co-infecting virus. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia, and all patients had cough; some patients who were infected with HPIV-3 and HPIV-4 had polypnea and cyanosis. No significant difference was found in clinical manifestations between those who were infected with HPIV-4 and HPIV-3. Two genotypes for HPIV-4 were prevalent, although HPIV-4a dominated. HPIV-4 is an important virus for children hospitalized with ALRTIs in China. HRV was the most common co-infecting virus. Two genotypes for HPIV-4 are prevalent, HPIV-4a dominated. J. Med. Virol. 88:2085-2091, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Viral disorder or disordered viruses: do viral proteins possess unique features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Williams, Robert W; Oldfield, Christopher J; Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A K; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-08-01

    Many proteins or their regions are disordered in their native, biologically active states. Bioinformatics has revealed that these proteins/regions are highly abundant in different proteomes and carry out mostly regulatory functions related to molecular recognition, signal transduction, protein-protein, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. Viruses, these "organisms at the edge of life", have uniquely evolved to be highly adaptive for fast change in their biological and physical environment. To sustain these fast environmental changes, viral proteins elaborated multiple measures, from relatively low van der Waals contact densities, to inclusion of a large fraction of residues that are not arranged in well-defined secondary structural elements, to heavy use of short disordered regions, and to high resistance to mutations. On the other hand, viral proteins are rich in intrinsic disorder. Some of the intrinsically disordered regions are heavily used in the functioning of viral proteins. Others likely have evolved to help viruses accommodate to their hostile habitats. Still others evolved to help viruses in managing their economic usage of genetic material via alternative splicing, overlapping genes, and anti-sense transcription. In this review, we focus on structural peculiarities of viral proteins and on the role of intrinsic disorder in their functions.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a beta-1,4-mannanase 5C possessing a family 27 carbohydrate-binding module from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain MA-138.

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    Tanaka, Megumi; Umemoto, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hidenori; Nakano, Daiichirou; Tamaru, Yutaka; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The beta-1,4-mannanase 5C gene (man5C) of Vibrio sp. strain MA-138 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The man5C gene consisted of 2,010 bp nucleotides encoding a protein of 669 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 76,309. beta-1,4-Mannanase (Man5C) is a modular enzyme composed of a catalytic module belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5, a linker region, and a putative carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) belonging to family 27. Recombinant Man5C exhibited maximal activity at 50 degrees C at pH 7.0, and it had a K(m) of 0.6 mg ml(-1) and a V(max) of 556.2 micromol min(-1) mumol(-1) for glucomannan. Binding studies revealed that the C-terminal putative CBM27 had the ability to bind soluble beta-mannans and contributed to increasing the rate of depolymerization by binding to the polymeric substrate. Man5C of Vibrio sp. MA-138 is the first non-extremophile enzyme to be identified as a beta-mannanase possessing CBM27.

  5. Borna disease virus possesses an NF-ĸB inhibitory sequence in the nucleoprotein gene.

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    Makino, Akiko; Fujino, Kan; Parrish, Nicholas F; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2015-03-03

    Borna disease virus (BDV) has a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genome and causes persistent infection in many animal species. Previous study has shown that the activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway is reduced by BDV infection even in cells expressing constitutively active mutant IKK. This result suggests that BDV directly interferes with the IKK/NF-κB pathway. To elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of NF-κB activation by BDV infection, we evaluated the cross-talk between BDV infection and the NF-κB pathway. Using Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation analysis, we found that the nucleoproteins of BDV (BDV-N) and NF-κB1 share a common ankyrin-like motif. When THP1-CD14 cells were pre-treated with the identified peptide, NF-κB activation by Toll-like receptor ligands was suppressed. The 20S proteasome assay showed that BDV-N and BDV-N-derived peptide inhibited the processing of NF-κB1 p105 into p50. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assays showed that BDV-N interacted with NF-κB1 but not with NF-κB2, which shares no common motif with BDV-N. These results suggest BDV-N inhibits NF-κB1 processing by the 20S proteasome through its ankyrin-like peptide sequence, resulting in the suppression of IKK/NF-κB pathway activation. This inhibitory effect of BDV on the induction of the host innate immunity might provide benefits against persistent BDV infection.

  6. Isolated Potato Virus A coat protein possesses unusual properties and forms different short virus-like particles.

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    Ksenofontov, Alexander L; Dobrov, Eugeny N; Fedorova, Natalia V; Serebryakova, Marina V; Prusov, Andrei N; Baratova, Ludmila A; Paalme, Viiu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Shtykova, Eleonora V

    2017-06-08

    In our previous study, we have observed that the isolated coat proteins (CP) of the Potyvirus Potato Virus A (PVA) virions exhibit an intrinsic tendency to self-associate into various multimeric forms containing some fractions of cross-β-structure. In this report, we studied the effect of solution conditions on the structure and dissociation of isolated PVA CP using a number of complementary physicochemical methods. Analysis of the structure of PVA CP in solution was performed by limited proteolysis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Overall structural characteristics of PVA CP obtained by combination of these methods and ab initio shape reconstruction by SAXS show that PVA CP forms large multi-subunit particles. We demonstrate that a mixture of compact virus-like particles (VLP) longer than 30 nm is assembled on dialysis of isolated CP into neutral pH buffer (at low ionic strength). Under conditions of high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl) and high pH (pH 10.5), PVA dissociates into low compactness oval-shaped particles of approximately 30 subunits (20-30 nm). The results of limited trypsinolysis of these particles (enzyme/substrate ratio 1:100, 30 min) showed the existence of non-cleavable core-fragment, consisting of 137 amino acid residues. Trypsin treatment removed only a short N-terminal fragment in the intact virions. These particles are readily reassembled into regular VLPs by changing pH back to neutral. It is possible that these particles may represent some kind of intermediate in PVA assembly in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus by a combined reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

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    Yin Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification and differentiation of mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in acute-phase sera of patients and field-caught vector mosquitoes are important for the prediction and prevention of large-scale epidemics. Results We developed a flexible reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP unit for the detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, and West Nile virus (WNV. The unit efficiently amplified the viral genomes specifically at wide ranges of viral template concentrations, and exhibited similar amplification curves as monitored by a real-time PCR engine. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP unit were 100-fold higher than that of RT-PCR in 5 of the six flaviviruses. The results on specificity indicated that the six viruses in the assay had no cross-reactions with each other. By examining 66 viral strains of DENV1-4 and JEV, the unit identified the viruses with 100% accuracy and did not cross-react with influenza viruses and hantaviruses. By screening a panel of specimens containing sera of 168 patients and 279 pools of field-caught blood sucked mosquitoes, results showed that this unit is high feasible in clinical settings and epidemiologic field, and it obtained results 100% correlated with real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions The RT-LAMP unit developed in this study is able to quickly detect and accurately differentiate the six kinds of flaviviruses, which makes it extremely feasible for screening these viruses in acute-phase sera of the patients and in vector mosquitoes without the need of high-precision instruments.

  8. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    , we report the biochemical properties of the first family 5 subfamily 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH5_8) mannanase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (BlMan5_8). BlMan5_8 possesses a novel low affinity carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specific for soluble mannan...... properties to support specialization towards a preferred substrate, which is likely to confer an advantage in the adaptation to competitive ecological niches....

  9. The GH5 1,4-β-mannanase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 possesses a low-affinity mannan-binding module and highlights the diversity of mannanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrill, Johan; Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Sulewska, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    and displays the highest catalytic efficiency reported to date for a GH5 mannanase owing to a very high kcat (1828 ± 87 s-1) and a low Km (1.58 ± 0.23 g · L-1) using locust bean galactomannan as substrate. The novel CBM of BlMan5_8 mediates increased binding to soluble mannan based on affinity electrophoresis......, we report the biochemical properties of the first family 5 subfamily 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH5_8) mannanase from the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (BlMan5_8). BlMan5_8 possesses a novel low affinity carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specific for soluble mannan...... present only in mannanases. Members of this new subfamily lack an aromatic residue mediating binding to insoluble cellulose in canonical CBM10 members consistent with the observed low mannan affinity. BlMan5_8 is evolved for efficient deconstruction of soluble mannans, which is reflected...

  10. Do microRNAs induced by Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess anti-viral activity?

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    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    RNAs were also up regulated in the liver and muscle (vaccination site) of fish vaccinated with a DNA vaccine expressing the VHSV glycoprotein gene. Recent studies further indicate that the expression of these miRNAs is induced by interferons. In order to analyze if miRNA-462 and miRNA-731 have any anti-viral...... processes. Some miRNAs have been shown to have direct anti-viral effects. We have previously observed and validated that the fish-specific miRNAs, miR-462 and miR-731, were among the most highly expressed miRNAs in rainbow trout liver following Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection. These mi...

  11. A plant extract of Ribes nigrum folium possesses anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo by preventing virus entry to host cells.

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    Ehrhardt, Christina; Dudek, Sabine Eva; Holzberg, Magdalena; Urban, Sabine; Hrincius, Eike Roman; Haasbach, Emanuel; Seyer, Roman; Lapuse, Julia; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Infections with influenza A viruses (IAV) are still amongst the major causes of highly contagious severe respiratory diseases not only bearing a devastating effect to human health, but also significantly impact the economy. Besides vaccination that represents the best option to protect from IAV infections, only two classes of anti-influenza drugs, inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and the neuraminidase, often causing resistant IAV variants have been approved. That is why the need for effective and amply available antivirals against IAV is of high priority. Here we introduce LADANIA067 from the leaves of the wild black currant (Ribes nigrum folium) as a potent compound against IAV infections in vitro and in vivo. LADANIA067 treatment resulted in a reduction of progeny virus titers in cell cultures infected with prototype avian and human influenza virus strains of different subtypes. At the effective dose of 100 µg/ml the extract did not exhibit apparent harming effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation. Further, viruses showed no tendency to develop resistance to LADANIA067 when compared to amantadine that resulted in the generation of resistant variants after only a few passages. On a molecular basis the protective effect of LADANIA067 appears to be mainly due to interference with virus internalisation. In the mouse infection model LADANIA067 treatment reduces progeny virus titers in the lung upon intranasal application. In conclusion, an extract from the leaves of the wild black currant might be a promising source for the development of new antiviral compounds to fight IAV infections.

  12. Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possesses the antiviral activity necessary to fight against the hepatitis B virus replication in vitro.

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    Pang, Jing-yao; Zhao, Kui-jun; Wang, Jia-bo; Ma, Zhi-jie; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2014-06-01

    Although several antiviral drugs and vaccines are available for use against hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis caused by HBV remains a major public health problem worldwide, which has not yet been resolved, and new anti-HBV drugs are in great demand. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-HBV activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural-origin compound, in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The antiviral activity of EGCG was examined by detecting the levels of HBsAg and HBeAg in the supernatant and extracellular HBV DNA. EGCG effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg from HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it showed stronger effects at the level of 0.11-0.44 μmol/ml (50-200 μg/ml) than lamivudine (3TC) at 0.87 μmol/ml (200 μg/ml). EGCG also suppressed the amount of extracellular HBV DNA. The data indicated that EGCG possessed anti-HBV activity and suggested the potential of EGCG as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity.

  13. Grazoprevir-Elbasvir Combination Therapy for Treatment-Naive Cirrhotic and Noncirrhotic Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1, 4, or 6 Infection: A Randomized Trial.

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    Zeuzem, Stefan; Ghalib, Reem; Reddy, K Rajender; Pockros, Paul J; Ben Ari, Ziv; Zhao, Yue; Brown, Deborah D; Wan, Shuyan; DiNubile, Mark J; Nguyen, Bach-Yen; Robertson, Michael N; Wahl, Janice; Barr, Eliav; Butterton, Joan R

    2015-07-07

    Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor) in treatment-naive patients. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02105467). 60 centers in the United States, Europe, Australia, Scandinavia, and Asia. Cirrhotic and noncirrhotic treatment-naive adults with genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection. Oral, once-daily, fixed-dose grazoprevir 100 mg/elbasvir 50 mg for 12 weeks, stratified by fibrosis and genotype. Patients were randomly assigned 3:1 to immediate or deferred therapy. Proportion of patients in the immediate-treatment group achieving unquantifiable HCV RNA 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12); adverse events in both groups. Among 421 participants, 194 (46%) were women, 157 (37%) were nonwhite, 382 (91%) had genotype 1 infection, and 92 (22%) had cirrhosis. Of 316 patients receiving immediate treatment, 299 of 316 (95% [95% CI, 92% to 97%]) achieved SVR12, including 144 of 157 (92% [CI, 86% to 96%]) with genotype 1a, 129 of 131 (99% [CI, 95% to 100%]) with genotype 1b, 18 of 18 (100% [CI, 82% to 100%]) with genotype 4, 8 of 10 (80% [CI, 44% to 98%]) with genotype 6, 68 of 70 (97% [CI, 90% to 100%]) with cirrhosis, and 231 of 246 (94% [CI, 90% to 97%]) without cirrhosis. Virologic failure occurred in 13 patients (4%), including 1 case of breakthrough infection and 12 relapses, and was associated with baseline NS5A polymorphisms and emergent NS3 or NS5A variants or both. Serious adverse events occurred in 9 (2.8%) and 3 (2.9%) patients in the active and placebo groups, respectively (difference 1 percentage points]); none were considered drug related. The most common adverse events in the active group were headache (17%), fatigue (16%), and nausea (9%). The study lacked an active-comparator control group and included relatively few genotype 4 and 6 infections. Grazoprevir

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Isolates with Wild-Type Core Promoter Sequence Replicate Less Efficiently than Genotype B Isolates but Possess Higher Virion Secretion Capacity ▿

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    Qin, Yanli; Tang, Xiaoli; Garcia, Tamako; Hussain, Munira; Zhang, Jiming; Lok, Anna; Wands, Jack; Li, Jisu; Tong, Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C is associated with a prolonged viremic phase, delayed hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and an increased incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with genotype B infection. Genotype C is also associated with the more frequent emergence of core promoter mutations, which increase genome replication and are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. We amplified full-length HBV genomes from serum samples from Chinese and U. S. patients with chronic HBV infection and transfected circularized genome pools or dimeric constructs of individual clones into Huh7 cells. The two genotypes could be differentiated by Western blot analysis due to the reactivities of M and L proteins toward a monoclonal pre-S2 antibody and slightly different S-protein mobilities. Great variability in replication capacity was observed for both genotypes. The A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations were prevalent in genotype C isolates and correlated with increased replication capacity, while the A1752G/T mutation frequently found in genotype B isolates correlated with a low replication capacity. Importantly, most genotype C isolates with wild-type core promoter sequence replicated less efficiently than the corresponding genotype B isolates due to less efficient transcription of the 3.5-kb RNA. However, genotype C isolates often displayed more efficient virion secretion. We propose that the low intracellular levels of viral DNA and core protein of wild-type genotype C delay immune clearance and trigger the subsequent emergence of A1762T/G1764A core promoter mutations to upregulate replication; efficient virion secretion compensates for the low replication capacity to ensure the establishment of persistent infection by genotype C. PMID:21775451

  15. Bipartite and tripartite Cucumber mosaic virus-based vectors for producing the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1,4-β-glucanase and other proteins in non-transgenic plants

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    Hwang Min

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using plant viruses to produce desirable proteins in plants allows for using non-transgenic plant hosts and if necessary, the ability to make rapid changes in the virus construct for increased or modified protein product yields. The objective of this work was the development of advanced CMV-based protein production systems to produce Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic plants. Results We used two new Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-based vector systems for producing the green fluorescent protein (GFP and more importantly, the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These are the inducible CMVin (CMV-based inducible and the autonomously replicating CMVar (CMV-based advanced replicating systems. We modified a binary plasmid containing the complete CMV RNA 3 cDNA to facilitate insertion of desired sequences, and to give modifications of the subgenomic mRNA 4 leader sequence yielding several variants. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed good levels of CMV RNA and coat protein accumulation for some variants of both CMVin and CMVar. When genes for E1 or GFP were inserted in place of the CMV coat protein, both were produced in plants as shown by fluorescence (GFP and immunoblot analysis. Enzymatic activity assays showed that active E1 was produced in plants with yields up to ~ 11 μg/g fresh weight (FW for specific variant constructs. We also compared in vitro CMV genomic RNA reassortants, and CMV RNA 3 mutants which lacked the C’ terminal 33 amino acids of the 3A movement protein in attempts to further increase E1 yield. Taken together specific variant constructs yielded up to ~21 μg/g FW of E1 in non-transgenic plants. Conclusions Intact, active E1 was rapidly produced in non-transgenic plants by using agroinfiltration with the CMV-based systems. This reduces the time and cost compared to that required to

  16. The SI Strain of Measles Virus Derived from a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Possesses Typical Genome Alterations and Unique Amino Acid Changes That Modulate Receptor Specificity and Reduce Membrane Fusion Activity ▿ ‡

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    Seki, Fumio; Yamada, Kentaro; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Okamura, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal sequela associated with measles and is caused by persistent infection of the brain with measles virus (MV). The SI strain was isolated in 1976 from a patient with SSPE and shows neurovirulence in animals. Genome nucleotide sequence analyses showed that the SI strain genome possesses typical genome alterations for SSPE-derived strains, namely, accumulated amino acid substitutions in the M protein and cytoplasmic tail truncation of the F protein. Through the establishment of an efficient reverse genetics system, a recombinant SI strain expressing a green fluorescent protein (rSI-AcGFP) was generated. The infection of various cell types with rSI-AcGFP was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. rSI-AcGFP exhibited limited syncytium-forming activity and spread poorly in cells. Analyses using a recombinant MV possessing a chimeric genome between those of the SI strain and a wild-type MV strain indicated that the membrane-associated protein genes (M, F, and H) were responsible for the altered growth phenotype of the SI strain. Functional analyses of viral glycoproteins showed that the F protein of the SI strain exhibited reduced fusion activity because of an E300G substitution and that the H protein of the SI strain used CD46 efficiently but used the original MV receptors on immune and epithelial cells poorly because of L482F, S546G, and F555L substitutions. The data obtained in the present study provide a new platform for analyses of SSPE-derived strains as well as a clear example of an SSPE-derived strain that exhibits altered receptor specificity and limited fusion activity. PMID:21917959

  17. The hoarding of possessions.

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    Frost, R O; Gross, R C

    1993-05-01

    Three studies of nonfood hoarding are reported. Findings support the reliability and validity of a Hoarding Scale. Furthermore, the findings indicate a number of features of hoarding behavior. Hoarding was associated with indecisiveness, perfectionism (especially maladaptive evaluative concern) and obsessive compulsive symptoms among college students and community volunteers. Hoarders tended to buy extra things in order not to be caught without a needed item, and they carried more 'just-in-case' items in purses, pockets and cars. Onset of hoarding was childhood and adolescence. Hoarders had more first degree relatives who engaged in excessive saving than nonhoarders, and hoarders were less likely to be married. There was no evidence to suggest that hoarding was related to material deprivation. A model was suggested which conceptualizes hoarding as an avoidance behavior tied to indecisiveness and perfectionism. Saving allows the hoarder to avoid the decision required to throw something away, and the worry which accompanies that decision (worry that a mistake has been made). Also, it allows hoarders to avoid emotional reactions which accompany parting with cherished possessions, and results in increased perception of control.

  18. Structure--activity relationship studies of 1-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-propoxypropyl)thiourea, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type-1.

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    Weitman, Michal; Lerman, Keti; Nudelman, Abraham; Major, Dan Thomas; Hizi, Amnon; Herschhorn, Alon

    2011-02-01

    The reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is still a prime target for drug development due to the continuing need to block drug-resistant RT mutants by new inhibitors. We have previously identified 1-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-propoxypropyl)thiourea, compound 1, as a potent RT inhibitor from an available chemical library. Here, we further modified this compound to study structure--activity relationships when replacing various groups in the molecule. Different functional groups were systematically introduced on the aromatic ring and the aliphatic chain of the compound was modified. The effect of these modifications on viral infectivity was then evaluated. The most potent compound found was propyl 4-(amino-N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methanethioamino)butanoate, 45c, which inhibited infectivity with a calculated IC50 of about 1.1 μM. Docking studies identified potential important interactions between the top scoring ligands and HIV-1 RT, and the predicted relative affinity of the ligands was found to be in agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    one more than the total number of blocks or one more than `, whichever is less. min ( f s/bs, `) + 1 (4.10) 4.3.1 MAC-PDP For local data experiments, we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS COST COMPARISON AMONG PROVABLE DATA POSSESSION SCHEMES by Stephen J. Bremer March 2016 Thesis...response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  20. High Cure Rate With 24 Weeks of Daclatasvir-Based Quadruple Therapy in Treatment-Experienced, Null-Responder Patients With HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1/4 Coinfection: The ANRS HC30 QUADRIH Study.

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    Piroth, Lionel; Paniez, Hubert; Taburet, Anne Marie; Vincent, Corine; Rosenthal, Eric; Lacombe, Karine; Billaud, Eric; Rey, David; Zucman, David; Bailly, François; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Simony, Mélanie; Diallo, Alpha; Izopet, Jacques; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Few direct anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents have been studied in difficult-to-treat null responder and cirrhotic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir combined with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV) have shown promising results in HCV-monoinfected patients. An open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was conducted in HIV/HCV genotype 1/4-coinfected patients who were null responders to prior peg-IFN/RBV standard therapy and on a raltegravir-based regimen with HIV RNA daclatasvir (60 mg once daily), and peg-IFN/RBV. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) using intent-to-treat analysis. Seventy-five patients were included, of whom 27 (36%) had cirrhosis. The median baseline CD4 count was 748 (interquartile range, 481-930) cells/µL. The global SVR12 rate was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.8%-99.2%; n = 72/75), 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%; n = 25/27) in cirrhotic patients, 94.6% (95% CI, 81.8%-99.3%; n = 35/37) in genotype 1 patients, and 97.4% (95% CI, 86.2%-99.9%; n = 37/38) in genotype 4 patients. Six patients (8%) stopped HCV therapy prematurely: 2 due to HCV breakthrough, 4 to adverse events (1 lung cancer, 3 infections). One patient with cirrhosis (with baseline platelet count daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and peg-IFN/RBV was associated with a very high cure rate. The safety profile was acceptable, even though cirrhotic patients with low albuminemia and platelets should be monitored closely. This combination is a new option in this difficult-to-treat population. NCT01725542. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  2. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Enantiopure 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Duburs, G.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines possess a broad range of biological activities, such as the ability to control the influx of calcium into cells, as well as neuroprotective, antineuro-degenerative, cognition and memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and many other properties. Chirality plays an

  3. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  4. VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. This was the first clue to the nature of viruses, genetic entities that lie somewhere in the gray area between living and non-living states.

  5. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of Novel 1,4-Pentadien-3-one Derivatives Containing a 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 1,4-Pentadien-3-one derivatives derived from curcumin possess excellent inhibitory activity against plant viruses. On the basis of this finding, a series of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety were designed and synthesized, and their structures confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The antiviral activities of the title compounds were evaluated against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in vivo. The assay results showed that most of compounds had remarkable antiviral activities against TMV and CMV, among which compounds 4b, 4h, 4i, 4k, 4o, and 4q exhibited good curative, protection, and inactivation activity against TMV. Compounds 4h, 4i, 4k, 4l, 4o, and 4q exhibited excellent protection activity against TMV, with EC50 values of 105.01, 254.77, 135.38, 297.40, 248.18, and 129.87 μg/mL, respectively, which were superior to that of ribavirin (457.25 µg/mL. In addition, preliminary SARs indicated that small electron-withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring were favorable for anti-TMV activity. This finding suggests that 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety may be considered as potential lead structures for discovering new antiviral agents.

  6. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential r...

  7. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may suspend...

  8. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rob and Jean

    note Nigerian influence in at least some Ugandan expressions of the experience of spirit possession. ... This paper records observations and interviews made in Uganda about spirit possession and witchcraft. ..... Horton makes the point that talk of spirits in African religion is usually about adding a theoretical level of.

  9. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  10. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  12. Possessives and relevance | Taylor | Stellenbosch Papers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Possessives and relevance. J R Taylor. Abstract. No abstract.

  13. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  14. Les possessions d’Athéna

    OpenAIRE

    Patera, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    L’ensemble des possessions d’Athéna Polias, comprenant objets précieux et monnaies ainsi que terrains et bâtiments, constitue une fortune exceptionnelle au ve s. av. J.-C. En reprenant les aléas de la fortune de la déesse au cours du temps, cet article s’attache à interroger le statut de ces biens que révèlent leur dénomination et l’utilisation qu’en font les magistrats de la cité responsables de leur gestion. The possessions of Athena Polias include precious objects and currencies as well...

  15. 1/4-pinched contact sphere theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Jian; Huang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Given a closed contact 3-manifold with a compatible Riemannian metric, we show that if the sectional curvature is 1/4-pinched, then the contact structure is universally tight. This result improves the Contact Sphere Theorem in [EKM12], where a 4/9-pinching constant was imposed. Some tightness...... results on positively curved contact open 3-manifold are also discussed....

  16. 1-[1-(4-Nitrophenylethylidene]thiosemicarbazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Ding

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H10N4O2S, was prepared by the reaction of 1-(4-nitrophenylethanone and thiosemicarbazide in ethanol at 367 K. There are weak intermolecular N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure involving the amine and nitrile groups, respectively, as donors.

  17. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (4) November, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    AFRREV IJAH. An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Vol. 1 (4), November, 2012:86-97. ISSN: 2225-8590 (Print) .... absence of preposition; examples 4c, 4d and 4e are completely ungrammatical while example 4f is ambiguous because it is prone to different interpretations. It can mean that the ...

  18. Regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1,4-dibenzyl-1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,4-Dibenzyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dichloroiodate is an efficient and regioselective reagent for iodination of aryl amines. A wide variety of aryl amines in reaction with this reagent afforded regioselectively iodinated products. The iodination reaction can be carried out in solution or under solvent-free condition at ...

  19. Enlarged test catalysts during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol to 1,4-butanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly effective catalyzer for butynediol-1;4 hydrogenation was designed and synthesized. Enlarged tests showed that the selectivity on butanediol-1.4 at the hydrogenation of butynediol-1.4 on the alloyed catalyst SKN-39H during 320 h was 84.6 %; that on 18 % higher than for  industrial MNH. The yield of product on the catalyst SKN-39 increases slowly from 3.1 to 7.3 % when on a catalyst MNH – 7.1 to 11.7 % from the initial content of butynediol-1;4. At the hydrogenation of  butynediol on catalyst SKN-39H process efficiency increases in 1.5-2 times and product purity on 2-3 % is higher in comparing with the industrial catalyst MNH. 

  20. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...

  1. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  2. Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Some New Sulfanyl Amino 1,4-Naphthoquinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yıldırım

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new sulfanyl substituted amino 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives which possess two electron donating groups in the amino fragment were synthesized and their structures were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. First, 2-chloro-3-[(2,4-dimethoxy phenylamino]naphthalene-1,4-dione (3a and 2-chloro-3-[(3,5-dimethoxy phenylamino]naphthalene-1,4-dione (3b were obtained from the reactions of dichloro 1,4-naphthoquinone (1 with 2,4-dimethoxy phenylamine and 3,5-dimethoxy phenylamine. Then the compounds 3a,b were reacted with aliphatic nucleophiles; ethyl-, propyl- and pentyl mercaptan. S-Nucleophiles attacked to the carbon atom of 1,4-naphthoquinone core and displaced with the chlorine atom to create target molecules; 2-aryl amino-3-(ethyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5a,b, 2-aryl amino-3-(propyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5c,d, 2-aryl amino-3-(pentyl thionaphthalene-1,4-dione (5e,f derivatives. The structures of synthesized compounds were proved by utilizing 1D and 2D NMR techniques and also mass spectra and FTIR data.

  3. 1-Methylpiperazine-1,4-diium dipicrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenolate], C5H14N22+·2C6H2N3O7−, the ionic components are connected by relatively strong N—H...O hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric six-membered conglomerates, which comprise two dications and four anions. Besides Coulombic interactions, only weak C—H...O interactions and some stacking between picrates (separation between the planes of ca. 3.4 Å but only a small overlapping can be identified between these `building blocks' of the crystal structure. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the methyl substituent in the equatorial position. In the picrate anions, the twist angles of the nitro groups depend on their positions relative to the phenolate O atom: it is much smaller for the NO2 groups para to the C—O− group [15.23 (9and 3.92 (14°] than for the groups in the ortho positions [28.76 (13–39.84 (11°].

  4. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every... transport live migratory game birds taken under authority of this part. ...

  5. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis(3-chlorobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Shuo Yao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt C6H14N22+·2C7H4ClO2−, two 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO2+ dication through N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C—H...O interactions.

  6. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

  7. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrida Velena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA. Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL, mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  8. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues-Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  9. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  10. Emerging issues in virus taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J

    2004-01-01

    Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganism...

  11. An Update on the Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvounis, George

    2016-01-28

    Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines are tricyclic compounds that are considered "privileged structures" since they possess a wide range of biological activities. The first encounter with these molecules was the isolation of anthramycin from cultures of Streptomyces, followed by determination of the X-ray crystal structure of the molecule and a study of its interaction with DNA. This opened up an intensive synthetic and biological study of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines that has culminated in the development of the dimer SJG-136, at present in Phase II clinical trials. The synthetic efforts have brought to light some new synthetic methodology, while the contemporary work is focused on building trimeric pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines linked together by various heterocyclic and aliphatic chains. It is the broad spectrum of biological activities of pyrrolo[1,2-a][1,4]benzodiazepines that has maintained the interest of researchers to date whereas several derivatives of the even less studied pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepines were found to be potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The present review is an update on the synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines since the last major review of 2011, while the overview of the synthesis of the other two tricyclic isomers is comprehensive.

  12. 8,8-Diethyl-1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-1,4,5-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Araya-Maturana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H14O3, contains two fused six-membered carbon rings with keto groups at positions 1, 4 and 5 and a gem-diethyl group at position 8. The molecule is close to planar (maximum deviation = 0.044 Å, with one ethyl group at each side of the molecular plane, with exception of the keto group at position 1 which is slightly deviated from the plane and disordered over two positions one on each side of it (occupancies 0.80/0.20. The packing of the molecule shows weak bonded chains along a through C—H...O contacts and two intramolecular C—H...O interactions are also present.

  13. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of time. 1.4 Section 1.4... Procedure General § 1.4 Computation of time. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this rule section is to detail the... deadlines established by the Commission. It also applies to computation of time for seeking both...

  14. 26 CFR 303.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 303.1-4 Section 303.1-4... ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-4 Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of employees... General such employees of the Internal Revenue Service as may be necessary to make the computations under...

  15. 1/4-BPS states on noncommutative tori

    OpenAIRE

    Konechny, A.; Schwarz, A

    1999-01-01

    We give an explicit expression for classical 1/4-BPS fields in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative tori. We use it to study quantum 1/4-BPS states. In particular we calculate the degeneracy of 1/4-BPS energy levels.

  16. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  17. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section 123.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.62 Baggage in possession of...

  18. 24 CFR 27.45 - Transfer of title and possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of title and possession... Foreclosure of Multifamily Mortgages § 27.45 Transfer of title and possession. (a) If the Secretary is the... deed to the purchaser upon receipt of the entire purchase price and execution by the Secretary and the...

  19. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  20. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite countervailing arguments, there is a growing national and global trend of criminalization of 'possession of unexplained property'. Since the end of the 20th century, many national, regional and global instruments that deal with corruption have criminalized possession of unexplained property (illicit enrichment).

  1. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  2. Design, synthesis, antiviral activity and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiuhai; Hu, Deyu; Li, Pei; Wu, Jian; Chen, Xuewen; Xue, Wei; Song, Baoan

    2016-03-01

    1,4-Pentadien-3-one and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives possess good antiviral activities, and their substructure units are usually used in antiviral agent design. In order to discover novel molecules with high antiviral activities, a series of 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing the 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety were designed and synthesised. Bioassays showed that most of the title compounds exhibited good inhibitory activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vivo. The compound 8f possessing the best protective activity against TMV had an EC50 value of 135.56 mg L(-1) , which was superior to that of ribavirin (435.99 mg L(-1) ). Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) techniques were used in three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of protective activities, with values of q(2) and r(2) for the CoMFA and CoMSIA models of 0.751 and 0.775 and 0.936 and 0.925 respectively. Compound 8k with higher protective activity (EC50 = 123.53 mg L(-1) ) according to bioassay was designed and synthesised on the basis of the 3D-QSAR models. Some of the title compounds displayed good antiviral activities. 3D-QSAR models revealed that the appropriate compact electron-withdrawing and hydrophobic group at the benzene ring could enhance antiviral activity. These results could provide important structural insights for the design of highly active 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Suffering and Healing, Subordination and Power: Women and Possession Trance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erika Bourguignon

    2004-01-01

    This article is an argument that for women, possession trance constitutes a psychodynamic response to powerlessness by providing them a means for the gratification of wishes ordinarily denied to them...

  5. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic potentials in alloxan diabetes of rats. Chidinma A Okolo, Vincent C Ejere, Christian O Chukwuka, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo, Daniel D Nwibo, Augustine N Okorie ...

  7. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ...

  8. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of possessive disorder in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Rafat S; Shunaigat, Walid M

    2002-01-01

    To study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of possessive disorder in Jordan. This study was carried out prospectively at Prince Rashid Ben Al-Hassan Hospital, Irbid, Jordan between January 1997 and December 2000. It included all psychiatric patients who presented to the psychiatric outpatient clinic with a mono-symptom of being possessed or influenced by the Jinn, a total of 179 patients were studied. Possessive disorder is more common among males (111) than females (68) with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. With a mean age of 23.15 years and standard deviation of 6.93, the majority (82.1%) of patients were young of low educational attainment from rural areas (67.6%). The mean duration of illness was 24.61 months (standard deviation of 10.64) and the most common site of possession was head and neck (19.6%) followed by chest (11.7%) and upper limbs (11.7%). The most common mode of perception was somatic both visual and auditory (25.7%) and the most common behavioral changes induced by the possessing agent were loss of control (17.3%) followed by abnormal movement (16.6%), pseudo seizure (15.6%), loss of consciousness (14%) and change in tone of voice (14%). Sixty-eight (38%) of the patients had history of sexual intercourse with the possessing agent, more males (53) than females (15) had such experience. Two thirds of the patients had single possessing agent and almost all patients had been treated by native healers and about 2 thirds of the patients had reported psychosocial stresses prior to the onset of their illness. Possessive disorder is a common condition in clinical practice that poses a diagnostic problem, it affects young males of low educational attainment from rural areas. Education and awareness is needed to prevent improper traditional therapy that may negatively affect the prognosis of this disorder.

  9. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  10. 26 CFR 302.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 302.1-4 Section 302.1-4... Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of employees of the Internal Revenue Service. The Commissioner will detail... necessary to make the computations under the regulations in this part promptly and accurately. (b...

  11. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1, 4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDDMA) crosslinked polystyrene-supported -butyl hydroperoxide was employed in the epoxidation of olefins and oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds. The reagent proved to be successful as a recyclable solid phase organic reagent with as much or more efficiency when ...

  12. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  13. The possessions at Loudun: tracking the discourse of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig E

    2017-09-01

    Embedded in the history of dissociation is the best known case of possession in European history, the 17 th century possessions at Loudun, France (1632-1638). The exorcisms and the trial drew crowds from all over Europe, the outcome prefiguring the direction in which the Western science of mind would be carried. The published debate about the possessed and obsessed Ursuline nuns of Loudun spans four centuries. One can track how theorizing about dissociation changed over time, with psychological contributions by Jean Martin Charcot, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Pierre Janet, Michel Foucault and Michel de Certeau. Freud's psychoanalytic notion of demonological neurosis emphasized defensive strategies and a diabolic parody of adulthood. Jung's concepts of demonism and possession highlighted dissociated complexes that assimilate the ego and unseat the self, rendering a life 'provisional'. Dissociation as possession provides a through-line in Jung's Collected Works, from his 1902 dissertation to one of the last essays he wrote, in 1961. Within the context of psychotherapy, therapists and patients work towards psychological containment, consciously reorienting themselves to the presence of unconscious factors, personifying, embodying and thereby incorporating images of dissociated Otherness into the experience of selfhood. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

    1981-01-01

    This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome.

  15. 1,4-Bis[3-chloro-2-(chloromethylpropyl]benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H18Cl4, possesses a crystallographically imposed inversion centre, which coincides with the centre of benzene ring. In the absence of classical intermolecular interactions, van der Waals forces help the molecules to pack in the crystal.

  16. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is... sequentially, within blocks, designating basic balance sheet classifications. The first two digits of the four...

  17. The Relationship Between Underage Alcohol Possession and Future Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barnum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between underage alcohol possession and criminal behavior through a cohort, age, and period analysis. Utilizing the Age–Period Cohort Characteristic (APCC models method and national arrest data, while controlling for age and period effects, this study examined single-year age cohorts and determines that strict enforcement of PULA (Possession Under Legal Age laws decreases the likelihood of strongly correlated vandalism and assaults as young adults. The analysis indicates an increase in assaults and vandalism as cohort size increases, but little effect from single parent, resource deprivation.

  18. Identification of virus and nematode resistance genes in the Chilota Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh is an important gene bank in Chile. The accessions collected all over the country possess high genetic diversity, present interesting agronomic and cooking traits, and show resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. A particularly interesting subgroup of the gene bank includes the accessions collected in the South of Chile, the Chilota Potato Genebank. The focus of this study is the identification of virus and nematode resistant genes in potatoes (Solatium tuberosum L., using the RYSC3 and YES3-3B molecular markers. The Potato virus Y(PVY resistance genes Ry adg and Ry sto were identified. Furthermore, the CP60 marker was used to assess the Rx resistance gene that confers resistance to Potato virus X (PVX. In addition, the HC and GRO1-4 markers were utilized to identify the GpaVvrn_QTL and Gro1-4, resistance genes of Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, respectively. Both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis are Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN. The plant material used in this study included leaves from 271 accessions of the gene bank. These samples were collected in the field where natural pathogen pressure of potential viruses and diseases exists. ELISA assays were run for field detection of PVY and PVX. However, there have been no previous reports of nematode presence in the plant material. The results herein presented indicate presence of virus and nematode resistance genes in accessions of the Chilota Potato Genebank. In terms of virus resistance, 99 accessions out of the 271 tested possess the Ry adg resistance gene and 17 accessions of these 271 tested have the Ry sto resistance gene. Also, 10 accessions showed positive amplification of the Rxl resistant gene marker. As to nematode resistance, 99 accessions have possible resistance to G. pallida and 54 accessions show potential resistance to G. rostochiensis as detected using the available molecular markers.

  19. New Developments in 1,4 Dioxane Site Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. N/A New research is changing the conventional conceptual model for how the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane...occurring contaminants like chlorinated solvents. A combination of data mining, modeling, and both bench-scale and field scale studies was used to meet...conceptual model for how the emerging contaminant 1,4-dioxane behaves following its release to the environment. This fact sheet summarizes the

  20. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  1. 45 CFR 670.6 - Prior possession exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Prohibited Acts, Exceptions § 670.6 Prior possession exception. (a... captivity on or before October 28, 1978; or (2) Any offspring of such mammal, bird, or plant. (b... such act was not held in captivity on or before October 28, 1978, or was not an offspring referred to...

  2. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pectoral fin and the tail remain attached. (b) Billfish. Any person that possesses a blue marlin or a white marlin taken from its management unit or a sailfish taken shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ or lands a blue marlin or a white marlin in an Atlantic coastal port must maintain such billfish with its...

  3. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  4. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings | du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the ...

  5. SCHIZOPHRENIA - THE SPIRIT POSSESSED 23 YEAR OLD MALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Possession disorders(2) have been described during the course of schizophrenic and other acute psychoses with hallucinations or delusions. Differential diagnosis had been considered to be multiple personality. Indigenous practices in psychiatry in Ghana are flavoured by the traditional understanding of life and illness ...

  6. Burdens and Standards of Proof in Possession of Unexplained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While possession of unexplained property (illicit enrichment) is expressly criminalized under Article 419 of the 2004 Criminal Code of Ethiopia, there are practical problems in its prosecution, inter alia, regarding burden and standards of proof. Cases such as Workineh Kenbato & Amelework Dalie demonstrate the confusion ...

  7. The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rule and its Exceptions: Spirit Possession in Two African Societies. JG Platvoet. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  8. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., ammunition, pellet and BB guns, knives, bows and arrows, and crossbows under the following conditions: (a) Privately-owned firearms, crossbows, pellet and BB guns possessed or stored on the installation must be... local law enforcement personnel when in the performance of official law enforcement duties. (b...

  9. [Nursing stance in the face of Jinn possession in Mayotte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard-Berthod, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Caregivers and nursing students practising in Mayotte can find themselves in a difficult position when faced with patients believing themselves to be possessed by spirits called Jinn. Through a multidisciplinary roundtable, different perspectives and practices can be shared leading to a more enlightened treatment of patients which respects their beliefs, blending traditional and modern medicine.

  10. 50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subject to the most restrictive applicable cod trip limit. (c) Atlantic halibut. A vessel issued a NE... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NE Multispecies possession restrictions. 648.86 Section 648.86 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  11. 75 FR 57413 - Migratory Bird Permits; Possession and Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... which the bird is induced to perform tricks or imitate human or other behavior unnatural for the species... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 10, 13, 21, and 22 RIN 1018-AI97 Migratory Bird Permits... authorize the possession and use of migratory birds in educational programs and exhibits. The proposed rule...

  12. Identification of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 maltose phosphorylase possessing synthetic ability for branched α-D-glucosyl trisaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Otsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    We discovered an inverting maltose phosphorylase (Bsel2056) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10, which possesses synthetic ability for α-D-glucosyl disaccharides and trisaccharides through the reverse phosphorolysis with β-D-glucose 1-phosphate as the donor. Bsel2056 showed the flexibility for monosaccharide acceptors with alternative C2 substituent (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-mannose), resulting in production of 1,4-α-D-glucosyl disaccharides with strict regioselectivity. In addition, Bsel2056 synthesized two maltose derivatives possessing additional D-glucosyl residue bound to C2 position of the D-glucose residue at the reducing end, 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose and 1,4-α-D-glucopyranosyl-[1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-D-glucose, from 1,2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (kojibiose) and 1,2-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose (sophorose), respectively, as the acceptors. These results suggested that Bsel2056 possessed a binding space to accommodate the bulky C2 substituent of D-glucose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  14. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  15. Improved features of MARS 1.4 and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Don; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    MARS 1.4 code has been developed as a basic code frame for multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor transients. This report describes the newly improved features of MARS 1.4 and their verification results. The new features of MARS 1.4 include the implementation of point kinetics model in the 3D module, the coupled heat structure model, the extension of control functions and input check functions in the 3D module, the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 -version, the addition of automatic initialization function for fuel 3-D analysis and the unification of material properties and forcing functions, etc. These features have been implemented in the code in order to extend the code modeling capability and to enhance the user friendliness. Among these features, this report describes the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.3.3-version such as reflood model and critical heat flux models, etc., the automatic initialization function, the unification of material properties and forcing functions and the other code improvements and error corrections, which were not reported in the previous report. Through the verification calculations, the new features of MARS 1.4 have been verified well implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as a multi-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. And, it can play its role as a basic code frame for the future development of a multi-purpose consolidated code, MARS 2.x, for coupled analysis of multi-dimensional system thermal hydraulics, 3D core kinetics, core CHF and containment as well as for further improvement of thermal-hydraulic and numerical models. 4 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  16. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  17. Possession and Immoveable Property: The History of Two Connected Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Carranza-Álvarez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Possession and property are two different sides of the same coin. The two institutions have the same axis: the benefit, mainly economic, of a good. In countries like Colombia and Peru, important reforms have been introduced whose main effect has been the following one: the approach to these two institutions. In this article we will speak of these two institutions, today more than ever, connected.

  18. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Obtaining antibodies to 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Murkin, M A

    2008-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with amlodipine conjugated with horseradish peroxidase resulted in raising polyclonal antibodies that allowed group determination of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in aqueous solutions by ELISA with a sensitivity of 0.1 to 1.0 ng/ml for amlodipine, felodipine, nifedipine, and isradipine.

  20. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  1. substituted analogues of 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-carboxamides li

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategy depicted in schemes 1 and 2. Keywords. 1,4-benzodiazepine; oxadiazole; pyrimidine; imidazole; benzimidazole; amidine and imidate ester. 1. ..... Research in Basic Sciences' under their Consolidation of University Research for Innovation and Excellence in Women Universities (CURIE) programme. References. 1.

  2. Epoxidation and oxidation reactions using 1,4-butanediol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    droperoxide capacity of the polymeric reagent from. 2⋅86 meq/g to 3⋅31 meq/g when the reaction was performed under identical conditions. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic and flexible nature of the 1,4-BDDMA crosslinks imparting better hydro- phobic–hydrophilic balance for the macromolecular environment.

  3. Synthesis of 3-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjin Kim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines by benzodiazepine enolate alkylation has been explored. Employing this approach, multigram quantities of benzodiazepine 1 have been prepared for animal studies to evaluate a new approach for the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION REACTION OF NITRILIMINES WITH 1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    downfield from internal TMS. Electron impact (EI) mass spectra were run on Shimadzu GCMS-. QP1000 EX spectrometer at 70 eV. Elemental analyses were performed at the Microanalytical. Center of Cairo University, Egypt. The hydrazonoyl halides 1 [14-16], 1,4-bismaleimidobenzene. 3 [17] were prepared according to ...

  5. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Zhu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H14N2+·C8H4O42−, the protonated 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cations and the deprotonated terephthalate anions are alternately linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains.

  6. N,N′-Bis(2-thienylmethylenebenzene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wei Dong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base, C16H12N2S2, has been synthesized by refluxing an ethanolic solution of thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and benzene-1,4-diamine. The center of the benzene ring is located on a crystallographic center of inversion. The dihedral angle between the benzene and thiophene rings is 63.6 (1°.

  7. A mechanism for 1,4-Benzoquinone-induced genotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y. Son (Mi Young); Deng, C.-X. (Chu-Xia); Hoeijmarkers, J.H. (Jan H.); V.I. Rebel (Vivienne); P. Hasty (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBenzene is a common environmental toxin and its metabolite, 1-4-Benzoquinone (BQ) causes hematopoietic cancers like myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BQ has not been comprehensively assessed for its impact on genome maintenance, limiting our understanding

  8. Subchronic Toxicity Study on 1,4-Dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    respectively. The left-ear clipped control male in cage 14 had malocclusion (a bite defect) and was excluded from all statistical analyses. An ANOVA on the...to test an oronasal species, e.g., a rabbit . 5.) Studying other compounds (e.g., 1,4-thioxane or other mustard metabolites or 1,3-dithiane) for

  9. Convenient Synthesis of 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol from D-Ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Oba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a convenient synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-ribitol (DRB from D-ribose. L-Lyxonolactone, a key intermediate in this synthesis, was prepared by base-promoted hydrolysis of a 5-chlorinated D-ribonolactone derivative with inversion of configuration at the C-4 position. Cyclization of the generated dimesylated L-lyxitol with benzylamine proceeded with another configurational inversion at C-4 to afford the D-ribo-configured pyrrolidine system, which upon deprotection gave DRB.

  10. 1-(4-Bromobenzoyl-2-phenylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahan Martirosyan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H17BrN2O2, which is a potential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, the pyrrolidine ring exhibits an envelope conformation. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds [N...O = 2.861 (3 Å] link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.

  11. Bioassay of the Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus of Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Mohamed; J.D. Podgwaite

    1982-01-01

    Linear regression analysis of probit mortality versus several concentrations of nucleopolyhedrosis virus of Neodiprion sertifer resulted in the equation Y = 2.170 + 0.872X. An LC50 was calculated at 1758 PIB/ml. Also, the incubation time of the virus was dependent on its concentration. Most insect viruses possess the potential...

  12. Selection of antigenically advanced variants of seasonal influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C. (Chengjun); Hatta, M. (Masato); D.F. Burke (David); Ping, J. (Jihui); Zhang, Y. (Ying); Ozawa, M. (Makoto); Taft, A.S. (Andrew S.); Das, S.C. (Subash C.); Hanson, A.P. (Anthony P.); Song, J. (Jiasheng); M. Imai; Wilker, P.R. (Peter R.); Watanabe, T. (Tokiko); Watanabe, S. (Shinji); Ito, M. (Mutsumi); Iwatsuki-Horimoto, K. (Kiyoko); C.A. Russell (Colin); S.L. James (Sarah ); E. Skepner (Eugene); E. Maher (Eileen); G. Neumann (Gabriele); A. Klimov (Alexander); A. Kelso; McCauley, J. (John); D. Wang (Dayan); Y.L. Shu (Yue-Long); T. Odagiri (Takato); Tashiro, M. (Masato); X. Xu (Xiyan); Wentworth, D.E. (David E.); J. Katz (Jacqueline); N.J. Cox (Nancy); D.J. Smith (Derek James); Y. Kawaoka (Yoshihiro)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing

  13. 1-Cyclohexyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H24O2, was isolated from the leaves extract of Ficus carica L. The cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation whereas the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring adopts a flattened boat conformation with methyl C atoms at the prow and stern. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagated along the b-axis direction.

  14. and 1,4-Bis(N'-Substituted Thioureido)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    cInstitut für Anorganische Chemie, J.W.-Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Received 31 December 2012, revised 20 May 2013, accepted 19 August 2013. ABSTRACT. Synthesis of two series of 1,2- and 1,4-bis(thioureido)benzene derivatives was accomplished by the treatment of ...

  15. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Da Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+.0.5C8H4O4−·3H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate anion and three water molecules, which are connected by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  16. Direct Aminolysis of Ethoxycarbonylmethyl 1,4-Dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Vigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydropyridines were directly converted into carbamoylmethyl esters in the presence of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The use of TBD is crucial for the successful aminolysis of ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester of 1,4-dihydropyridines with secondary amines as without it the reaction does not proceed at all. The aminolysis reaction proceeded regioselectively, as the alkyl ester conjugated with the 1,4-dihydropyridine cycle was not involved in the reaction. Screening of other N-containing bases, such as triethylamine (TEA, pyridine, 4-(N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN, imidazole, tetramethyl guanidine (TMG and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MTBD as catalysts revealed no activity in the studied reaction.

  17. Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALATAYUD, P.‐A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

  18. Reactivities of carboxyalkyl-substituted 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimides in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Bindu; McMasters, Sun; Mullan, Mellisa A; Kelly, Lisa A

    2004-04-07

    A series of water-soluble 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide derivatives has been prepared and their redox and photophysical properties characterized. From laser flash photolysis studies, the triplet excited state of N,N'-bis[2-(N-pyridinium)ethyl]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (NDI-pyr) was found to undergo oxidative quenching with the electron donors DABCO, tyrosine, and tryptophan as expected from thermodynamics. Interestingly, the reactivities of naphthalene diimides (NDI) possessing alpha- and beta-carboxylic acid substituents (R = -CH2COO-, -C(CH3)2COO-, and -CH2CH2COO-) were strikingly different. In these compounds, the transient produced upon 355 nm excitation did not react with the electron donors. Instead, this transient reacted rapidly (k > 10(8)-10(9) M-1 s-1) with known electron acceptors, benzyl viologen and ferricyanide. The transient spectrum of the carboxyalkyl-substituted naphthalimides observed immediately after the laser pulse was nearly identical to the one-electron-reduced form of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (produced independently using the bis-pyridinium-substituted naphthaldiimide). From our studies, we conclude that the transient produced upon nanosecond laser flash photolysis of NDI-(CH2)nCOO- is the species produced upon intramolecular electron transfer from the carboxylate moiety to the singlet excited state of NDI. In separate experiments, we verified that the singlet excited state of NDI-pyr does, indeed, react intermolecularly with acetate, alanine, and glycine. The process is further substantiated using thermodynamic driving force calculations. The results offer new prospects of the efficient photochemical production of reactive carbon-centered radicals.

  19. The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshesh, M.; Groppelli, E.; Willcocks, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    evidence that the 494-nucleotide-long 5' untranslated region of the AEV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and in mammalian cells. Unlike the HAV IRES, the AEV IRES is relatively short and functions in the presence of cleaved eIF4G...

  20. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS.

  1. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  2. A village possessed by "witches": a mixed-methods case-control study of possession and common mental disorders in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Ram P; Gurung, Dristy; Neupane, Deepa; Shah, Santosh K; Kienzler, Hanna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2014-12-01

    In Nepal, spirit possession is a common phenomenon occurring both in individuals and in groups. To identify the cultural contexts and psychosocial correlates of spirit possession, we conducted a mixed-method study in a village in central Nepal experiencing a cluster of spirit possession events. The study was carried out in three stages: (1) a pilot study consisting of informal interviews with possessed individuals, observations of the possession spells, and video recording of possession events; (2) a case-control study comparing the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders in women who had and had not experienced possession; and (3) a follow-up study with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with possessed and non-possessed men and women, and key informants. Quantitative results indicated that possessed women reported higher rates of traumatic events and higher levels of symptoms of mental disorder compared to non-possessed women (Anxiety 68 vs. 18 %, Depression 41 vs. 19 %, and PTSD 27 vs. 0 %). However, qualitative interviews with possessed individuals, family members, and traditional healers indicated that they did not associate possession states with mental illness. Spirit possession was viewed as an affliction that provided a unique mode of communication between humans and spirits. As such, it functioned as an idiom of distress that allowed individuals to express suffering related to mental illness, socio-political violence, traumatic events, and the oppression of women. The study results clearly indicate that spirit possession is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that cannot be mapped onto any single psychiatric or psychological diagnostic category or construct. Clinical and public health efforts to address spirit possession must take the socio-cultural context and systemic dynamics into account to avoid creating iatrogenic illness, undermining coping strategies, and exacerbating underlying social problems.

  3. Property Acquired Through the Adverse Possession in Relation to Environmental Protection in Permanent Preservation Areas: Civil Liability of Adverser Possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Nacur Rezende

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the liability for repairing damage in Permanent Preservation Area (PPA. Seeks to answer the question of liability of the possessor "ad usucapionem" due to the removal of vegetation in area. The objective was to present the response of the possibility of acquisition of property by way of adverse possession and reparation and indemnity liability of degrading. The article was used social science and technology as a methodological approach, since the research aims to seek ownership of the liability of repair the area. At the end it was realized that the possessor has responsibility to repair the area.

  4. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2015-01-01

    well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  5. Photoluminescent carbon dots from 1,4-addition polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Nolan, Andrew; Walton, Jeffrey G A; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Zhang, Rong; Bradley, Mark

    2014-08-25

    Photoluminescent carbon dots were synthesised directly by thermopyrolysis of 1,4-addition polymers, allowing precise control of their properties. The effect of polymer composition on the properties of the carbon dots was investigated by TEM, IR, XPS, elemental analysis and fluorescence analysis, with carbon dots synthesised from nitrogen-containing polymers showing the highest fluorescence. The carbon dots with high nitrogen content were observed to have strong fluorescence in the visible region, and culture with cells showed that the carbon dots were non-cytotoxic and readily taken up by three different cell lines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 1,4-Dimethylpiperazin-1-ium 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid gives the title 1:1 salt, C6H15N2+·C11H7O3−, with a singly protonated piperazinium cation. In the crystal, a single N—H...O hydrogen bond links the cations and anions into discrete pairs and the aromatic anions stack along the crystallographic a-axis direction. This results in layers of cations and anions alternating along the crystallographic c-axis direction. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is also present.

  7. Bis[diethyl(hydroxyammonium] benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Ming Xie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, 2C4H12NO+·C8H4O42−, two N,N-diethyl(hydroxyammonium cations are linked to a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion by a combination of O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which can be described in graph-set terminology as R22(7. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the fomation of a ribbon-like network.

  8. Molecular structures and biological activities of (N)-n-alkylammonium 2-chloro-3-oxido-1,4-naphthoquinone salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Dinkar; Lande, Dipali N.; Bagade, Aditi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Chakravarty, Debamitra; Kodam, Kisan M.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2017-10-01

    Single crystal X-ray structures and vibrational spectra of (N)-n-alkylammonium 2-chloro-3-oxido-1,4-naphthoquinone salts (alkyl = methyl to octyl, CS-1 to CS-8) possessing X-H⋯Y (X = N, C and Ydbnd O, Cl) hydrogen bonding and diverse noncovalent interactions have been characterized. Except for the CS-2 and CS-7 rest of the compounds facilitate π⋯π and Cl⋯π interactions. The compound CS-3 showed the presence of Cl⋯O interactions. Electronic structure and spectral characteristics of obtained are in consonance with the density functional theory. These complexes showed remarkable antiproliferative and antifungal activities.

  9. RNautophagy/DNautophagy possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Aizawa, Shu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2015-07-27

    Lysosomes can degrade various biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Recently, we identified novel nucleic acid-degradation systems termed RNautophagy/DNautophagy (abbreviated as RDA), in which RNA and DNA are directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. We also found that a lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, the cytoplasmic region of which binds to RNA and DNA, functions, at least in part, as an RNA/DNA receptor in the process of RDA. However, it has been unclear whether RDA possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and the RNA/DNA sequences that are recognized by LAMP2C have not been determined. In the present study, we found that the cytosolic region of LAMP2C binds to poly-G/dG, but not to poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT or poly-U. Consistent with this binding activity, poly-G/dG was transported into isolated lysosomes via RDA, while poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT and poly-U were not. GGGGGG or d(GGGG) sequences are essential for the interaction between poly-G/dG and LAMP2C. In addition to poly-G/dG, G/dG-rich sequences, such as a repeated GGGGCC sequence, interacted with the cytosolic region of LAMP2C. Our findings indicate that RDA does possess selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and that at least some consecutive G/dG sequence(s) can mediate RDA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Bifidobacteria possess inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z; Luo, J Y; Zuo, F L; Yu, R; Zhang, Y; Ma, H Q; Chen, S W

    2016-03-01

    The incretin hormones are extremely rapidly metabolized by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Therefore, DPP-IV inhibitors which can prolong the incretin effect are the newest and promising drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated whether Bifidobacteria colonizing the human gut possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Cell-free intracellular extracts of 13 Bifidobacterium strains isolated from breast-fed infant faecal samples were prepared and screened for DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and two Bifidobacterium strains-Bif. longum BBMN68 and Bif. lactis Bb12-were used as reference strains. Most of the strains showed varying levels of DPP-IV inhibitory property (7-27%). Strains of Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11 and Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity (27 and 25%) as well as good in vitro probiotic properties. This initial finding suggested that new beneficial function of Bifidobacteria is strain-dependent and the strains or their components may have the potential application for management of type 2 diabetes via inhibiting gastrointestinal DPP-IV activity. Further investigations into the isolation and identification of the bioactive components of Bifidobacteria are warranted. Our results show that Bifidobacteria isolated from breast-fed infants' faecal samples possess DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum IF3-211 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis IF1-11, which showed excellent DPP-IV inhibitory properties as well as good in vitro probiotic properties, are expected to be beneficial for application as anti-diabetic probiotics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, H.H.; Bissell, E.E.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C.

    1980-10-01

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T/sub 2/ adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T/sub 2/ in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T/sub 2/ for both static and dynamic air flow conditions.

  12. 1,4-Diazoniacyclohexane bis(3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Eshtiagh-Hosseini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H12N22+·2C6H3N2O4−·2H2O or (1,4-dacH2(pyzdcH2·2H2O, the complete dication is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion. In the crystal, O—H...O, O—H...N, N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds result in the formation of a three-dimensional network. Additionally, π–π stacking interactions between the pyrazine rings with centroid–centroid distances of 3.7065 (2 Å are observed.

  13. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  14. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  15. N-(3-Bromo-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-2-naphthyl-2-chloro-N-(2-chlorobenzoylbenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S. Akinboye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H12BrCl2NO4, was synthesized from 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride. The crystal structure shows that each of the chlorophenyl rings is inclined at about 60° to the naphthoquinone ring system. The two chlorophenyl rings adopt a conformation that ensures that chlorine substituents are anti so as to reduce electronic repulsion. An examination of the packing shows close O...Br and Cl...Cl contacts of 2.947 (2 and 3.346 (1 Å, respectively. In addition, the molecules are linked by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl interactions.

  16. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis[dichromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vetrivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetrahedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  17. The current situation in regard to the delusion of possession in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, J

    1989-03-01

    A study of possession was made on 1,029 inpatients (male 562, female 467) in Japanese mental hospitals. The results were: (1) The incidence of delusion of possession in the sample was 20.7% for the sample as a whole. (2) As to the contents of delusion of possession, possession by a god was most common. In regard to the difference between the sexes, females were significantly more likely to be possessed by a god than were males. (3) As to the difference between the possession group and the non-possession group, religion, fortuneteller contact, age and diagnosis were significant. (4) As to the characteristics by district in regard to the incidence of delusion of possession, cases of possession were very few in Tokyo and many in Okinawa.

  18. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, S J

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts...

  19. 1,4-Disilacyclohexa-2,5-diene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibbelin, Julius; Wallner, Andreas; Emanuelsson, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    (UPS), and cyclic voltammetry. A particularly strong neutral cyclic cross-hyperconjugation was observed in 1c. Its lowest electron binding energy (7.1 eV) is distinctly different from that of 1b (8.5 eV). Molecular orbital analysis reveals a stronger interaction between filled π(C[double bond, length...... as m-dash]C) and π(SiR2) group orbitals in 1c than in 1a and 1b. The energy shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital is also reflected in the first oxidation potentials as observed in the cyclic voltammograms of the respective compounds (1.47, 0.88, and 0.46 V for 1a, 1b and 1c, respectively......2,3,5,6-Tetraethyl-1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes with either four chloro (1a), methyl (1b), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) (1c) substituents at the two silicon atoms were examined in an effort to design rigid compounds with strong neutral cross-hyperconjugation between π- and σ-bonded molecular segments...

  20. Poly-γ-glutamate-based Materials for Multiple Infection Prophylaxis Possessing Versatile Coating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ashiuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP, dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. We demonstrated their spontaneous coating performance to the surfaces of different materials (i.e., plastics, metals, and ceramics as potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents. The tests against Staphylococcus aureus revealed that, regardless of a variety of materials, PGAICs maintained surface antimicrobial activity, even after the water-soaking treatment, whereas those against Candida albicans indicated that, among PGAICs, PGA/HDP complex is most useful as an anti-fungal agent because of its coating stability. Moreover, the log reduction values against Influenza A and B viruses of PGA/HDP-coated surfaces were estimated to be 5.4 and 3.2, respectively, suggesting that it can be dramatically suppressed the infection of influenza. This is to our knowledge the first observation of PGA-based antiviral coatings.

  1. Structures and conformations of 1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-3(2 H)-isoquinolinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak-Wojciechowska, J.; Czylkowski, R.; Karczmarzyk, Z.; Paluchowska, M. H.; Rys, B.; Szneler, E.; Mokrosz, M. J.

    2002-06-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of series of 1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-3(2H)-isoquinolinones (1-7) have been determined. Lactame heterocyclic ring possesses more or less deformed boat conformation in all examined structures. The aryl substituent adopts the equatorial position in the structures 1-3 and the axial one in 5-7. In the structure of 4, due to extremely flattened heterocyclic ring, aryl substituent location can be named as bisectional. In all solved structures the molecules are joined into the dimers via two N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. At the same time, 1H NMR studies in DMSO-d6 solutions were accomplished and profound analysis of 2J, 3J, and 5J coupling constants have shown that in isoquinolinone system the heterocyclic ring adopts the boat conformation in all investigated compounds. The stereochemical orientations of the phenyl ring at C1 do not depend on the nature of the substituent but, exclusively, on the mode of substitution. However, three forms of undulated laktam heterocyclic ring conformation in respect of 1-aryl substituent positions were confirmed by calculation (conformational analysis).

  2. Periodontal ligament stem cells possess the characteristics of pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2013-10-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) contributes to maintaining homeostasis in periodontal tissues by supplying stem/progenitor cells. It has long been suggested that PDL stem cells/progenitors are located around blood vessels. Recently mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated and cultured from PDL in vitro, although the location of the stem cells in PDL is unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the characteristics of human PDL stem cells (PDLSCs) and examine their similarity to related vascular cell types, such as pericytes and endothelial cells. PDLSCs were obtained from healthy extracted teeth using the collagenase/dispase enzyme digestion method. MSC and pericyte characteristics of PDLSCs were examined by cell surface marker expression using flow cytometry. The expression of pericyte markers was tested using immunohistochemistry. Pericyte-like functions of PDLSCs were examined in co-culture of PDLSCs and umbilical vein endothelial cells on a gel matrix. Cultured PDLSCs were positive for both MSC markers and pericyte markers, including cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), and CD140b. When pericyte marker expression was explored in rat periodontal tissue sections, CD146- and NG2-positive signals were observed in the perivascular area of the PDL. Further, when the cells were cultured with human umbilical cord endothelial cells under conditions for forming capillary-like structures in vitro, PDLSCs localized adjacent to endothelial cells and contributed to the stability of the capillary-like structure. PDLSCs possess pericyte-like characteristics and may localize as pericytes in the PDL. These data provide useful information for stem cell biology in periodontal research and stem cell-based periodontal therapy.

  3. Medication Possession Ratio Predicts Antiretroviral Regimens Persistence in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Andrew O.; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Design And Methods Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. Results 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). Conclusions The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes. PMID:24098475

  4. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables.856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99.The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  5. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-dicarboxybutane-1,4-dicarboxylatobis[bis(triphenylphosphanesilver(I] dichloromethane trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frenzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the tetrakis(triphenylphosphanyldisilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetracarboxylic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8(C18H15P4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half molecules of dichloromethane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by intermolecular T-shaped π–π interactions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring molecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxylate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxylate moiety to the AgI ion.

  6. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleyn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aims As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the

  7. 27 CFR 478.36 - Transfer or possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... machine guns. 478.36 Section 478.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.36 Transfer or possession of machine guns. No person shall transfer or possess a machine gun except: (a) A transfer to or by, or possession by or under the authority...

  8. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  9. 46 CFR 350.6 - Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display... SEAMEN'S SERVICE AWARDS § 350.6 Unauthorized sale, manufacture, possession or display. The sale, manufacture, possession or display of any Merchant Marine decoration, or colorable imitations thereof, by...

  10. The Central Role of the Matrix Protein in Nipah Virus Assembly and Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    virus (MeV), Sendai virus (SeV), human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) types 1-4, Simian virus 5 (SV5), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mumps virus, and...Malur, and A. K. Banerjee. 2001. Polarity of human parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in polarized human lung epithelial A549 cells: role of...Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV

  11. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  12. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Yi; Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-09-21

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca(2+) signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca(2+)-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca(2+) channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies.

  13. Preparação bioquímica para caracterização molecular e estrutural do RNA vírus LRV1-4

    OpenAIRE

    Érika Chang de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    O vírus de Leishmania 1-4 ( do inglês Leishmania RNA virus 1-4 ou LRV1-4) é um vírus da família Totiviridae, e que possui capsídeo icosaédrico e RNA dupla-fita que codifica duas proteínas (proteína capsidial e RNA polimerase). Dados recentes indicam o envolvimento do LRV1-4 na patogênese de Leishmania no hospedeiro humano, tornando seu estudo de fundamental importância para o entendimento dessa doença e de seu papel na relação parasito-hospedeiro. Há relatos sobre a purificação do vírus a par...

  14. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Criteria for the diagnosis and recognition of possession: a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Jacek Soiński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of possession described by exorcists correspond to the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Before helping a person who feels that they are possessed by an evil spirit, one should answer this question: when is therapy necessary, and when is an exorcism required? The article points out that psychiatrists have different attitudes to theological explanations of possession and exorcism. According to the author, it is best to adopt a complementary attitude, such as leaves room for the thought that there exist two causes for the symptoms of possession - the natural and the supernatural one. This may then furnish a common approach for medicine, psychology and religion. The article presents the theological criteria for determining possession by an evil spirit, and the psychological criteria for diagnosing pathological possession, as given by the World Health Organisation (ICD-10 and the American Psychiatric Association (DSM 5. The author discusses similarities and differences between the theological criteria for diagnosing demonic possession and the criteria involved in a medical diagnosis. On the basis of both psychological and theological criteria, it is possible to recognize psychopathological states and demonic possession in multidimensional terms. This allows the author to distinguish four situations: (1 health, (2 psychopathological possession, (3 demonic possession of a mentally healthy person, and (4 coexistence of demonic possession with psychiatric disorders. Practical experience shows that the largest number of patients seeking help in health centres belongs to the fourth group, which is why there is a need for close cooperation between exorcists and psychologists or psychiatrists.

  16. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  17. Exosomes carring gag/env of ALV-J possess negative effect on immunocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhuang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-11-01

    J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes. Immunosuppressive domain peptide (ISD) of envelope subunit transmembrane (TM) and gag of ALV-J were secreted in Exo-J. It has been reported that HIV gag was budded from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane. But env protein was first detected in exosomes from retrovirus infected cells. We found that Exo-J caused negative effects on splenocytes in a dose-dependant manner by flow cytometric analysis. And low dose of Exo-J activated immune activity of splenocytes, while high dose possessed immunosuppressive properties. Interestingly, Exo-J has no significant effects on the immunosuppression induced by ALV-J, and the immunosuppressive effects induced by Exo-J lower than that by ALV-J. Taken together, our data indicated that Exo-J supplied a microenvironment for the replication and transformation of ALV-J. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  19. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  20. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in the United States ...

  1. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  2. Crystal structure of poly[[di-μ3-acetato-tetraaquabis(μ2-cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylatodilanthanum(III] dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Drisya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, {[La2(CH3COO2(C8H10O42(H2O4]·2H2O}n or [La2(ac2(e,a-cis-1,4-chdc2(H2O4]·2H2O, where ac is acetate and 1,4-chdc is cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate anion, is a binuclear lanthanum(III complex. Each metal atom is decacoordinated by four O atoms from two distinct 1,4-chdc2− ligands, four O atoms from three acetate groups and two O atoms from coordinated water molecules to form a distorted bicapped square-antiprismatic geometry. Two non-coordinated water molecules are also present in the formula unit. The most remarkable feature of this compound is that it possesses a only cis conformation for cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, although the raw material consists of a mixture of cis and trans isomers. The μ3-η2:η2 coordination mode of the bridging acetate group and the flexible dicarboxylate fragments of 1,4-chdc2− results in the formation of infinite two-dimensional lanthanide–carboxylate layers within the crystal structure. The directionality of strong intermolecular O—H...O and weak C—H...O interactions provides robustness to the layers, which leads to the construction of a three-dimensional supramolecular network. The crystal studied was refined as a two-component twin.

  3. Cytotoxic protein from the mushroom Coprinus comatus possesses a unique mode for glycan binding and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peilan; Li, Kunhua; Yang, Guang; Xia, Changqing; Polston, Jane E; Li, Gengnan; Li, Shiwu; Lin, Zhao; Yang, Li-Jun; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2017-08-22

    Glycans possess significant chemical diversity; glycan binding proteins (GBPs) recognize specific glycans to translate their structures to functions in various physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, the discovery and characterization of novel GBPs and characterization of glycan-GBP interactions are significant to provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention of many diseases. Here, we report the biochemical, functional, and structural characterization of a 130-amino-acid protein, Y3, from the mushroom Coprinus comatus Biochemical studies of recombinant Y3 from a yeast expression system demonstrated the protein is a unique GBP. Additionally, we show that Y3 exhibits selective and potent cytotoxicity toward human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells compared with a panel of cancer cell lines via inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Screening of a glycan array demonstrated GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LDNF) as a specific Y3-binding ligand. To provide a structural basis for function, the crystal structure was solved to a resolution of 1.2 Å, revealing a single-domain αβα-sandwich motif. Two monomers were dimerized to form a large 10-stranded, antiparallel β-sheet flanked by α-helices on each side, representing a unique oligomerization mode among GBPs. A large glycan binding pocket extends into the dimeric interface, and docking of LDNF identified key residues for glycan interactions. Disruption of residues predicted to be involved in LDNF/Y3 interactions resulted in the significant loss of binding to Jurkat T-cells and severely impaired their cytotoxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate Y3 to be a GBP with selective cytotoxicity toward human T-cell leukemia cells and indicate its potential use in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Embo J, 1990. 9(6): p. 2017-22. 37. Pelet, T., J. Curran, and D. Kolakofsky, The P gene of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 expresses all three reading... parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) 1-4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and simian virus 5 (SV5) (reviewed in (33)). The genomes of paramyxoviruses, as a...virus (NDV) (58), human parainfluenza virus (hPIV) (59), and most recently with MeV (60), but these observations have often been with the aid of

  5. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  6. Firearm possession among adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department for assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Walton, Maureen A; Newton, Manya F; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2013-08-01

    Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention.

  7. Possession Zone as a Performance Indicator in Football. The Game of the Best Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Casal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Possession time in football has been widely discussed in research but few studies have analyzed the importance of the field area in which possession occurs. The objective of this study was to identify the existence of significant differences in the field zone of ball possession between successful and unsuccessful teams and to acknowledge if the match status modulates the possession model. To this end, 2,284 attacks were analyzed corresponding to the matches in the final phase of the UEFA Euro 2016 France, recording possession time and field zone in which possession occurred. Video recordings of matches were analyzed and coded post-event using notational analysis. We have found that successful offensive game patterns are different from unsuccessful ones. Specifically, field zone in which major possession occurs changes significantly between successful and unsuccessful teams (x2 = 15.72, p < 0.05 and through Welch’s T significant differences were detected in possession time between successful and unsuccessful teams (H = 24.289, p < 0.001. The former are characterized by longer possession times, preferably in the middle offensive zone, on the other hand, unsuccessful teams have shorter possession times and preferably on the middle defensive zone. Logistic regression also allowed us to identify that greater possession in the middle offensive zone is a good indicator of success in the offensive game, allowing us to predict a greater chance of victory in the match. Specifically, every time the teams achieve possession in the middle offensive zone, the chance of winning the match will increase 1.72 times and, the probability of winning the match making longer possessions in the middle offensive zone is 44.25%. Applying the Kruskal–Wallis test we have also been able to verify how match status modulates the teams possession time, specifically, when teams are winning they have longer possessions x2 = 92.628, p = 0.011. Results obtained are expected to

  8. DFT calculations on 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecular structures of 1,4-dithiine and S-oxygenated derivatives are studied using B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. These compounds have 8π-electrons in the ring. This led to stabilization of non-planar conformation. DFT calculations show that 1,4-dithiine, C4H4SS, 1,4-dithiine-1-oxide, C4H4SOS, 1,4-dithiine-1 ...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN P-03...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN P-95...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The siting... by the evidence specified below. ...

  12. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. 1.4 Section 1.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... General Information and Correspondence § 1.4 Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. (a...

  13. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  14. The renouncement of possessions according to Matthew 19:16–30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The renouncement of their possessions could have been part of their initiation into the Matthean community and have been motivated by the promise of an incomparable eschatological reward. It further appears that while not all who were considered to be followers of Jesus had surrendered their possessions, all would ...

  15. The expected value of possession in professional rugby league match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Kennedy, Nicholas; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the expected point value for starting possessions in different field locations during rugby league match-play and calculated the mean expected points for each subsequent play during the possession. It also examined the origin of tries scored according to the method of gaining possession. Play-by-play data were taken from all 768 regular-season National Rugby League (NRL) matches during 2010-2013. A probabilistic model estimated the expected point outcome based on the net difference in points scored by a team in possession in a given situation. An iterative method was used to approximate the value of each situation based on actual scoring outcomes. Possessions commencing close to the opposition's goal-line had the highest expected point equity, which decreased as the location of the possession moved towards the team's own goal-line. Possessions following an opposition error, penalty or goal-line dropout had the highest likelihood of a try being scored on the set subsequent to their occurrence. In contrast, possessions that follow an opposition completed set or a restart were least likely to result in a try. The expected point values framework from our model has applications for informing playing strategy and assessing individual and team performance in professional rugby league.

  16. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  17. 50 CFR 648.322 - Skate allocation, possession, and landing provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skate allocation, possession, and landing... Management Measures for the NE Skate Complex Fisheries § 648.322 Skate allocation, possession, and landing provisions. (a) Allocation of TAL. (1) A total of 66.5 percent of the annual skate complex TAL shall be...

  18. 19 CFR 191.5 - Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.5 Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories. Guantanamo Bay Naval Station shall be considered foreign territory...

  19. 19 CFR 7.4 - Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watches and watch movements from U.S. insular possessions. 7.4 Section 7.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL...

  20. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... transport. (a) A general license is issued to any person to possess formula quantities of strategic special...

  1. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here.

  2. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1) No...

  3. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Kleijn, Wim; de Jong, Joop

    2013-09-01

    As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the DSM-5, PTD is subsumed under dissociative identity disorder (DID) and DTD under dissociative disorders not elsewhere classified. Evaluation of these criteria is currently urgently required. This study explores the match between local symptoms of spirit possession in Uganda and experimental research criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. A mixed-method approach was used combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local symptoms were explored of 119 spirit possessed patients, using illness narratives and a cultural dissociative symptoms' checklist. Possible meaningful clusters of symptoms were inventoried through multiple correspondence analysis. Finally, local symptoms were compared with experimental criteria for PTD in the DSM-IV and proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. Illness narratives revealed different phases of spirit possession, with passive-influence experiences preceding the actual possession states. Multiple correspondence analysis of symptoms revealed two dimensions: 'passive' and 'active' symptoms. Local symptoms, such as changes in consciousness, shaking movements, and talking in a voice attributed to spirits, match with DSM-IV-PTD and DSM-5-DID criteria. Passive-influence experiences, such as feeling influenced or held by powers from outside, strange dreams, and hearing voices, deserve to be more explicitly described in the proposed criteria for DID in the DSM-5. The suggested incorporation of PTD in DID in the DSM-5 and the envisioned separation of DTD and PTD in two distinctive categories have disputable aspects.

  4. Demotic possession

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, B.

    2005-01-01

    As Allan Brown reports, Robin Hardy regarded The Wicker Man (1973) as an anti-fascist film. As such it fits into the classical liberal political schema, based on Enlightenment thinking that freedom and the democratic distribution of power is a product of reason. The obverse is that irrationality and superstition lead to authoritarian forms of government. In this sense Hardy’s film coheres with then contemporary orthodox fears that the counter-culture, with its rejection of traditional sexual ...

  5. Possession Obsession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In one recent national survey of teenagers who had been in relationships, 29 percent reported experiencing sexual or physical abuse or receiving threats of physical violence from partners. About 10 percent of students in grades nine to 12 consistently say they've been physically hurt on purpose by a dating partner during the past year, according…

  6. "Satan has afflicted me!" Jinn-possession and mental illness in the Qur'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F; Campbell, R A

    2014-02-01

    Mental health stigma in Muslim communities may be partly due to a commonly held belief among some Muslims about the supernatural causes of mental illness (i.e. jinn-possession brought on by one's sinful life). A thematic analysis was carried out on four English translations and the Arabic text of the Qur'an to explore whether the connection between jinn-possession and insanity exists within the Muslim holy book. No connection between spirit-possession and madness or mental illness was found. Pagans taunted and labelled people as jinn-possessed only to ostracize and scapegoat. Linking the labelling of people as jinn-possession to a pagan practice may be used to educate Muslims, so they can reassess their community's stigma towards the mentally ill.

  7. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-05

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied.

  9. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  10. Virus Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor C-terminal fragment in a Huntington's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia; Wang, Hongyu; Chen, Xi; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2009-02-04

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract in huntingtin protein (Htt). Medium spiny striatal neurons (MSNs) are primarily affected in HD. Mutant huntingtin protein (Htt(exp)) specifically binds to and activates type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)R1), an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel. Htt(exp)-InsP(3)R1 association is mediated by a cytosolic C-terminal tail of InsP(3)R1 (a 122-aa-long IC10 fragment). To evaluate an importance of Htt(exp) association with InsP(3)R1 for HD pathology, we generated lentiviral and adeno-associated viruses expressing GFP-IC10 fusion protein and performed a series of experiments with YAC128 HD transgenic mouse. Infection with Lenti-GFP-IC10 virus stabilized Ca(2+) signaling in cultured YAC128 MSNs and protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate-induced apoptosis. Intrastriatal injections of AAV1-GFP-IC10 significantly alleviated motor deficits and reduced MSN loss and shrinkage in YAC128 mice. Our results demonstrate an importance of InsP(3)R1-Htt(exp) association for HD pathogenesis and suggested that InsP(3)R1 is a potential therapeutic target for HD. Our data also support potential use of IC10 peptide as a novel HD therapeutic agent.

  12. Arthropods as a source of new RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichaud, L; de Lamballerie, X; Alkan, C; Izri, A; Gould, E A; Charrel, R N

    2014-12-01

    The discovery and development of methods for isolation, characterisation and taxonomy of viruses represents an important milestone in the study, treatment and control of virus diseases during the 20th century. Indeed, by the late-1950s, it was becoming common belief that most human and veterinary pathogenic viruses had been discovered. However, at that time, knowledge of the impact of improved commercial transportation, urbanisation and deforestation, on disease emergence, was in its infancy. From the late 1960s onwards viruses, such as hepatitis virus (A, B and C) hantavirus, HIV, Marburg virus, Ebola virus and many others began to emerge and it became apparent that the world was changing, at least in terms of virus epidemiology, largely due to the influence of anthropological activities. Subsequently, with the improvement of molecular biotechnologies, for amplification of viral RNA, genome sequencing and proteomic analysis the arsenal of available tools for virus discovery and genetic characterization opened up new and exciting possibilities for virological discovery. Many recently identified but "unclassified" viruses are now being allocated to existing genera or families based on whole genome sequencing, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis. New species, genera and families are also being created following the guidelines of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. Many of these newly discovered viruses are vectored by arthropods (arboviruses) and possess an RNA genome. This brief review will focus largely on the discovery of new arthropod-borne viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 1,4,10,13-Tetra-oxa-7,16-diazo-nia-cyclo-octa-decane bis-(1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl-ate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanglei; Yin, Zhenming

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C12H28N2O4 (2+)·2C5H4NO2 (-), the 1,4,10,13-tetra-oxa-7,16-di-aza-cyclo-octa-decane dication possesses inversion symmetry. In the crystal, the pyrrole-carboxyl-ate anions are linked via pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are linked by the dications, via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [110].

  14. Ten reasons to exclude viruses from the tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2009-04-01

    When viruses were discovered, they were accepted as missing links between the inert world and living organisms. However, this idea was soon abandoned as information about their molecular parasitic nature accumulated. Recently, the notion that viruses are living organisms that have had a role in the evolution of some essential features of cells has experienced a renaissance owing to the discovery of unusually large and complex viruses that possess typical cellular genes. Here, we contend that there is strong evidence against the notion that viruses are alive and represent ancient lineages of the tree of life.

  15. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  16. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) causes one of the most important diseases in all swine producing countries. The infection has a high impact on animal welfare, food safety and production economics. PRRSV possesses multiple immunoevasive strategies, from suppression...

  17. Optimal Scheduling of Railway Track Possessions in Large-Scale Projects with Multiple Construction Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the railway track possession scheduling problem (RTPSP), where a large-scale railway infrastructure project consisting of multiple construction works is to be planned. The RTPSP is to determine when to perform the construction works and in which track possessions while.......37% of the optimal one for six different blocking proposals and two alternative construction providers, so it can be used as an effective support tool in the primary planning stage to suggest preferable track possessions within the existing railway services. (C) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  18. 'My husband is possessed by a jinn': a case study in transcultural mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kylie

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to discuss jinn possession in Muslim culture, and the importance of understanding cultural differences in mental health. Conclusion It is important to understand cultural and religious differences in psychiatry, as it affects the way patients perceive and attribute symptoms. It also helps clinicians to reach an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatments. Beliefs about jinn possession should not automatically be regarded as delusional. In alleged cases of jinn possession, clinicians should consider all the biopsychosocial, cultural and spiritual factors that are unique to the individual. Further research is still needed in this area.

  19. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  20. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  1. Effects of Offense, Defense, and Ball Possession on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements during team offense/defense and individual ball possession was compared in 56 elite wheelchair basketball players. A two-way analysis of variance indicated that during offense, the guards and forwards performed longer driving forward than during defense. Overall, centers stood still longer during offense than during defense. Without ball, centers performed driving forward longer than with ball possession. It is concluded that offense, defense, and ball possession influenced mobility performance for the different field positions. These differences can be used to design specific training protocols. Furthermore, field positions require potentially different specific wheelchair configurations to improve performance.

  2. Dual drug release from hydrogels covalently containing polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Mari; Uchida, Yusuke; Takami, Taku; Ito, Tomoki; Anzai, Ryosuke; Sonotaki, Seiichi; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we designed hydrogels for dual drug release: the hydrogels that covalently contained the polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties. The hydrogels that were formed from polymeric micelles possessing a tightly packed (i.e., well-entangled) inner core exhibited a higher storage modulus than the hydrogels that were formed from the polymeric micelles possessing a loosely packed structure. Furthermore, we conducted release experiments and fluorescent observations to evaluate the profiles depicting the release of two compounds, rhodamine B and auramine O, from either polymeric micelles or hydrogels. According to our results, (1) hydrogels that covalently contains polymeric micelles that possess different drug release properties successfully exhibit the independent release behaviors of the two compounds and (2) fluorescence microscopy can greatly facilitate efforts to evaluate drug release properties of materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Schizophrenia-The spirit possessed 23 year old male from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a twenty-three year old rural Ghanaian male suffering from schizophrenia and presenting as “possessed by spirits” is reported. Treatment, and outcome by physical means with chlorpromazine; and implications for further research are discussed.

  4. The '2+1' construction of homooxacalix[3]arenes possessing different substituents on their upper rims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, K; Mukoyoshi, K; Otsubo, T; Fuji, K

    2000-06-01

    Several homooxacalix[3]arenes possessing different substituents on their upper rims were synthesized in yields of 7-20% by a condensation reaction between the p-substituted-phenol dimer and monomer under acidic high-dilution conditions.

  5. Interaction between 1,4-butanediol and ethanol on operant responding and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R; Hicks, Alissa R; Winsauer, Peter J; Varner, Kurt J

    2004-12-03

    The current studies characterized the rate-decreasing and cardiovascular responses produced by 1,4-butanediol administered alone and in combination with ethanol to test the hypothesis that these effects resulted from the degradation of 1,4-butanediol to gamma-hydroxybutyrate. One group of rats responded under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of food presentation; ethanol and 1,4-butanediol dose-dependently decreased response rates. Ethanol administered in combination with 1,4-butanediol attenuated the rate-decreasing effects of 1,4-butanediol without altering the potency of ethanol. In separate groups of conscious rats, radio telemetry was used to record mean arterial pressure and heart rate. In contrast to its depressant effects on schedule-controlled responding, 1,4-butanediol increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate; these increases were attenuated by ethanol. Thus, the behavioral and cardiovascular actions of 1,4-butanediol are similar to those elicited by gamma-hydroxybutyrate. The ability of ethanol to attenuate the behavioral and cardiovascular effects of 1,4-butanediol indicates that these effects require the conversion of 1,4-butanediol to gamma-hydroxybutyrate.

  6. Photo-mediated bromate--1,4-benzoquinone reaction: A novel photochemical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bei; Wang, Jichang

    2006-10-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is uncovered to react with acidic bromate in the presence of illumination, in which temporal oscillations are observed in the stirred batch system. This new photochemical oscillator shows subtle dependence on compositions of the reaction mixture, in which oscillations could be revived immediately upon the addition of fresh 1,4-benzoquinone solution. A proposed mechanism on the basis of light-induced conversion of 1,4-benzoquinone to 1,4-hydroquinone qualitatively reproduces the oscillatory phenomena as well as the long induction time seen in experiments.

  7. On some 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Yong; Qin, Li

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We use the bulk D3-brane solutions with both electric and magnetic charges on its world-volume to describe some of 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops. The D3-brane supersymmetric solutions are derived form requiring κ-symmetry. We find the two consistent constraints for Killing spinors and calculate the conserved charges of straight 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops and expectation values of circular 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops separately.

  8. Feature interpretability and the positions of 2nd person possessives in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Karla Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretability and valuation of φ-features (Chomsky, 2001; Pesetsky and Torrego, 2007 have played a central role in the investigation of language universals. With regard to that, in standard Brazilian Portuguese (BP, as well as in other Romance languages, possessives have uninterpretable number features, which are valued via nominal agreement. However, dialects of BP, especially the one spoken in Minas Gerais, have shown that 2nd person possessives, in postnominal position, do not have number agreement with the noun. In order to account for these facts, I will argue that, in this grammar, number features on 2nd person possessives are reanalyzed as being: (i associated with the person (rather than the noun and (ii interpretable. From the first postulation, ‘seu’ is expected to be the possessive for 2nd person singular, and ‘seus’ for 2nd person plural. From the second postulation, no number concord is expected to be triggered on the possessive. In addition, based on Danon (2011 and Norris (2014, I will argue that cardinals divide BP DPs into two domains in that phrases located above NumP are marked with the plural morpheme, while phrases below it are unmarked. In this sense, because prenominal possessives precede cardinals (NumP, they must be marked with the plural morpheme for nominal agreement; whereas postnominal possessives, which follow NumP, must be unmarked. Free from the plural marking associated with nominal agreement, postnominal 2nd person possessives favor the reanalysis of the morpheme ‘-s’ as indicating the number associated with person features.

  9. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Sonali Rajan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio cal...

  10. Transmission Easement and Adverse Possession of Transmission Easement in the Polish Law

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The object of analysis in the text are the issues concerned with the transmission easement and the adverse possession thereof on the grounds of the Polish law. The text features: (1) a historical outline of the solutions concerned with easements in the Polish law following 1945, (2) the institution of transmission easement introduced in 2008 and the solutions concerned with the claims for the establishment thereof at court, (3) the institution of adverse possession of transmission easement pu...

  11. O olhar dos psiquiatras brasileiros sobre os fenômenos de transe e possessão Brazilian psychiatrists’ approaches on trance and possession phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica A. Silva de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os fenômenos de transe e possessão despertaram o interesse da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, gerando posturas diversificadas. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar como os fenômenos de transe e possessão foram tratados pelos psiquiatras brasileiros: seu impacto na teoria, na pesquisa e na prática clínica entre 1900 e 1950. MÉTODO: Análise de artigos científicos e leigos, teses e livros sobre transes e possessões produzidos pelos psiquiatras brasileiros entre 1900 e 1950. RESULTADOS: Identificam-se duas correntes de pensamento entre os psiquiatras. A primeira, vinculada às Faculdades de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, sob forte influência de autores franceses, deteve-se mais na periculosidade do espiritismo para a saúde mental. Defendia a adoção de medidas repressivas com o poder público. O segundo grupo de psiquiatras, ligado às Faculdades de Medicina da Bahia e Pernambuco, embora não desconsiderasse o caráter patológico ou "primitivo" dos fenômenos de transe e possessão, apresentou uma visão mais antropológica e culturalista. Considerando tais fenômenos como manifestações étnicas ou culturais, alguns defenderam o controle médico e a educação do povo para o abandono dessas práticas "primitivas". Outros não consideravam os fenômenos mediúnicos como desencadeadores da loucura, mas manifestações não-patológicas de um universo cultural, além de não vinculá-los ao atraso cultural da população. CONCLUSÕES: As religiões mediúnicas foram objeto de estudo por longo período, resultando hipóteses e práticas diferenciadas por parte da comunidade psiquiátrica brasileira, constituindo-se oportunidade privilegiada para o estudo do impacto dos fatores socioculturais na atividade psiquiátrica.BACKGROUND: Trance and possession experiences have raised interest among Brazilian psychiatrists resulting in a variety of approaches. OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze how Brazilian psychiatrists

  12. Determinants of host species range in plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Benoît; Fabre, Frédéric; Hébrard, Eugénie; Froissart, Rémy

    2017-04-01

    Prediction of pathogen emergence is an important field of research, both in human health and in agronomy. Most studies of pathogen emergence have focused on the ecological or anthropic factors involved rather than on the role of intrinsic pathogen properties. The capacity of pathogens to infect a large set of host species, i.e. to possess a large host range breadth (HRB), is tightly linked to their emergence propensity. Using an extensive plant virus database, we found that four traits related to virus genome or transmission properties were strongly and robustly linked to virus HRB. Broader host ranges were observed for viruses with single-stranded genomes, those with three genome segments and nematode-transmitted viruses. Also, two contrasted groups of seed-transmitted viruses were evidenced. Those with a single-stranded genome had larger HRB than non-seed-transmitted viruses, whereas those with a double-stranded genome (almost exclusively RNA) had an extremely small HRB. From the plant side, the family taxonomic rank appeared as a critical threshold for virus host range, with a highly significant increase in barriers to infection between plant families. Accordingly, the plant-virus infectivity matrix shows a dual structure pattern: a modular pattern mainly due to viruses specialized to infect plants of a given family and a nested pattern due to generalist viruses. These results contribute to a better prediction of virus host jumps and emergence risks.

  13. Cloning and functional characterization of endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene from metagenomic library of vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Haji; Azam, Syed Sikander; Telke, Amar; Kim, Seon Won; Chung, Young Ryun

    2013-06-01

    In the vermicomposting of paper mill sludge, the activity of earthworms is very dependent on dietetic polysaccharides including cellulose as energy sources. Most of these polymers are degraded by the host microbiota and considered potentially important source for cellulolytic enzymes. In the present study, a metagenomic library was constructed from vermicompost (VC) prepared with paper mill sludge and dairy sludge (fresh sludge, FS) and functionally screened for cellulolytic activities. Eighteen cellulase expressing clones were isolated from about 89,000 fosmid clones libraries. A short fragment library was constructed from the most active positive clone (cMGL504) and one open reading frame (ORF) of 1,092 bp encoding an endo-β-1,4-glucanase was indentified which showed 88% similarity with Cellvibrio mixtus cellulase A gene. The endo-β-1,4-glucanase cmgl504 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant cmgl504 cellulase displayed activities at a broad range of temperature (25-55°C) and pH (5.5-8.5). The enzyme degraded carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with 15.4 U, while having low activity against avicel. No detectable activity was found for xylan and laminarin. The enzyme activity was stimulated by potassium chloride. The deduced protein and three-dimensional structure of metagenome-derived cellulase cmgl504 possessed all features, including general architecture, signature motifs, and N-terminal signal peptide, followed by the catalytic domain of cellulase belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5). The cellulases cloned in this work may play important roles in the degradation of celluloses in vermicomposting process and could be exploited for industrial application in future.

  14. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  15. Comments on the Moduli Dynamics of 1/4 BPS Dyons

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Lee, Kimyeong

    1999-01-01

    We rederive the nonrelativistic Lagrangian for the low energy dynamics of 1/4 BPS dyons by considering the time dependent fluctuations around classical 1/4 BPS configurations. The relevant fluctuations are the zero modes of the underlying 1/2 BPS monopoles.

  16. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  17. 1,4-Di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Molano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 1,4-di(2-butoxycarbonyl-trans-vinyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene was synthesized in 94% yield through the Heck reaction between 2,5-diiodo-1,4-dimethoxybenzene and n-butyl acrylate, using bis(dibenzylideneacetone palladium(0 as homogeneous catalyst.

  18. Preliminary studies on the production of endo-1,4-β–Dglucanases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the production and characterization of endo-β-1, 4-glucanase from isolated phytopathogenic bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The bacterium was grown on different carbon sources including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 2% Avicel, for the production of endo-1, 4-β –D-glucanases enzyme. E. cloacae ...

  19. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations ...

  20. Optimization of biological wastewater treatment conditions for 1,4-dioxane decomposition in polyester manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J S; So, M H; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    The solvent stabilizer 1,4-dioxane could have harmful effects on an ecosystem. The discharge limit of 1,4-dioxane in a body of water will be regulated at 5 mg/L in Republic of Korea. Thus, the currently operating activated sludge used in the manufacture of polyester should be properly treated to meet the regulations. Accordingly, the removal rate of 1,4-dioxane and its microbial properties was assessed at K, H and T corporations. The highest removal efficiencies were recorded at H. However, the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in the effluent of T exceeded the criterion. In addition, a microbial degradation test was conducted on 100 mg/L of 1,4-dioxane inoculated with the activated sludge from each of the three corporations. After 7 days, the 1,4-dioxane was completely removed with the H sludge and efficiencies were 67% in the T sludge and 52% in the K sludge. These results confirm that the biodegradability of 1,4-dioxane may vary in relation to the microbial properties. The microbial diversity of activated sludge of each company was therefore investigated by 16S rDNA cloning methods. In conclusion, the activated sludge of H is the most effective for the biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane. This fact is of significant concern for the industrial sector.

  1. 17 CFR 240.12d1-4 - Date of receipt of certification by Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of receipt of certification by Commission. 240.12d1-4 Section 240.12d1-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act...

  2. Genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in relation to effects on glutathione and NAD(P)H levels in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, G; Dogra, S; Glatt, H

    1989-01-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is cytotoxic in V79 Chinese hamster cells and induces gene mutations and micronuclei. The cell-damaging effects of quinones are usually attributed to thiol depletion, oxidation of NAD(P)H, and redox-cycling involving the formation of semiquinone radicals and reactive oxygen species. To elucidate the role of these mechanisms in the genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone, we measured various genotoxic effects, cytotoxicity, and the levels of glutathione, NADPH, NADH, and their oxidized forms all in the same experiment. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, which does not induce gene mutations in V79 cells, was investigated for comparative reasons. The quinones had a similar effect on the levels of cofactors. Total glutathione was depleted, but levels of oxidized glutathione were slightly increased. The levels of NADPH and NADH were reduced at high concentrations of the quinones with a simultaneous increase in the levels of NADP+ and NAD+. Both compounds induced micronuclei, but neither increased the frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Only 1,4-benzoquinone induced gene mutations. This effect was observed at low concentrations, where none of the other parameters studied was affected. When the cells were depleted of glutathione prior to treatment with the quinones, the induction of gene mutations and micronuclei remained virtually unchanged. We conclude that a) induction of micronuclei and glutathione depletion by the two quinones are not linked causally, b) 1,4-benzoquinone induces gene mutations by a mechanism different from oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, and c) glutathione does not fully protect the cells against the genotoxicity of quinones. PMID:2792044

  3. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  4. Characterization of Cu1.4Te Thin Films for CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcan Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper telluride thin films were prepared by a coevaporation technique. The single-phase Cu1.4Te thin films could be obtained after annealing, and annealing temperature higher than 220°C could induce the presence of cuprous telluride coexisting phase. Cu1.4Te thin films also demonstrate the high carrier concentration and high reflectance for potential photovoltaic applications from the UV-visible-IR transmittance and reflectance spectra, and Hall measurements. With contacts such as Cu1.4Te and Cu1.4Te/CuTe, cell efficiencies comparable to those with conventional back contacts have been achieved. Temperature cycle tests show that the Cu1.4Te contact buffer has also improved cell stability.

  5. Novel Straight-chained Sulfanyl Members of Arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer BAYRAK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the synthesis and characterization of new members of straight-chained sulfanyl derivatives of arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones. 2-(4-(trifluoromethylphenylamino-3-chloronaphthalene-1,4-dione (3a and 2-(3-(trifluoromethylphenylamino-3-chloronaphthalene-1,4-dione (3b compounds which prepared by means of nucleophilic substitution reactions between 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (1 and arylamines containing trifluoro group at meta and para positions (2a, 2b were used as building blocks for straight-chained sulfanyl arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones. The structures of all the novel compounds (5a-f were established by spectroscopic evidence including IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS data.

  6. Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 16 Is a Cap-0 Binding Enzyme Possessing (Nucleoside-2′O)-Methyltransferase Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickaël; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2′O)-methyltransferase (2′O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap (7MeGpppAC3-6) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2′O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting 7MeGpppAC3-6 into 7MeGpppA2′OMeC3-6. The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2′O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2′O methylation follows an order of events in which 2′O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase. PMID:18417574

  7. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 16 is a cap-0 binding enzyme possessing (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Imbert, Isabelle; Coutard, Bruno; Bouvet, Mickaël; Selisko, Barbara; Alvarez, Karine; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno

    2008-08-01

    The coronavirus family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes important pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and humans, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that was responsible for a worldwide outbreak in 2003. The unusually complex coronavirus replicase/transcriptase is comprised of 15 or 16 virus-specific subunits that are autoproteolytically derived from two large polyproteins. In line with bioinformatics predictions, we now show that feline coronavirus (FCoV) nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) possesses an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent RNA (nucleoside-2'O)-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) activity that is capable of cap-1 formation. Purified recombinant FCoV nsp16 selectively binds to short capped RNAs. Remarkably, an N7-methyl guanosine cap ((7Me)GpppAC(3-6)) is a prerequisite for binding. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that nsp16 mediates methyl transfer from AdoMet to the 2'O position of the first transcribed nucleotide, thus converting (7Me)GpppAC(3-6) into (7Me)GpppA(2')(O)(Me)C(3-6). The characterization of 11 nsp16 mutants supported the previous identification of residues K45, D129, K169, and E202 as the putative K-D-K-E catalytic tetrad of the enzyme. Furthermore, residues Y29 and F173 of FCoV nsp16, which may be the functional counterparts of aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition by the vaccinia virus MTase VP39, were found to be essential for both substrate binding and 2'O-MTase activity. Finally, the weak inhibition profile of different AdoMet analogues indicates that nsp16 has evolved an atypical AdoMet binding site. Our results suggest that coronavirus mRNA carries a cap-1, onto which 2'O methylation follows an order of events in which 2'O-methyl transfer must be preceded by guanine N7 methylation, with the latter step being performed by a yet-unknown N7-specific MTase.

  8. 1,4-Dioxane Vadose Remediation by Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, D. R.; Hinchee, R.; Dahlen, P.; Johnson, P.

    2016-12-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a cyclic diether that is totally miscible in water. It is a chlorinated solvent additive primarily found in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 1,4-Dioxane becomes sequestered in vadose water and serves as a source of long-term groundwater contamination. Although soil vapor extraction (SVE) can effectively remediate chlorinated solvents, substantial 1,4-dioxane is left behind. Enhanced SVE (XSVE) was conducted to assess its effectiveness in vadose zone remediation of 1,4-dioxane. Primary SVE enhancements included focused extraction, increased air flow and heated air injection. Detailed site assessment to accurately locate the vadose source is needed for effective XSVE since it relies on focused air extraction. At a 14-month field demonstration of XSVE at former McClellan AFB, CA the following parameters were monitored: 1,4-dioxane (soil and soil vapor), soil moisture content, temperature, pressure and flow rate. The XSVE system was configured with four injection wells (in 20-ft square), each with in-line heaters, around a central SVE well and off-gas was treated with existing treatment system. Well screen intervals corresponded to soil interval (38 - 68 ft bgs) containing the highest 1,4-dioxane. Treatment zone (TZ) temperatures reached as high as 90°C and soil moisture sensor readings reached as low as zero near the injection wells. XSVE reduced TZ soil 1,4-dioxane concentrations and soil moisture contents 95% and 45%, respectively. Extraction well monitoring showed that the bulk of 1,4-dioxane removal occurred before TZ temperatures increased substantially. Performance results indicate that focused air injection with increased air flow were the primary SVE enhancements facilitating the effective removal of 1,4-dioxane and soil thermal treatment may not be required. XSVE can provides a cost-effective, easily implemented remedial option for vadose 1,4-dioxane.

  9. Extraterrestrial Viruses?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Hernández, Daniel José

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Life - Origin and Fundamentals of Living Things. Evaluation rubric to evaluate the debate and presentation about the point of view regarding the possibility of viruses from the outer space.

  10. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Ligand Binding Suppressor Domain of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosanac, Ivan; Yamazaki, Haruka; Matsu-ura, Toru; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-11-10

    Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) to the amino-terminal region of IP{sub 3} receptor promotes Ca{sup 2+} release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Within the amino terminus, the first 220 residues directly preceding the IP{sub 3} binding core domain play a key role in IP{sub 3} binding suppression and regulatory protein interaction. Here we present a crystal structure of the suppressor domain of the mouse type 1 IP{sub 3} receptor at 1.8 {angstrom}. Displaying a shape akin to a hammer, the suppressor region contains a Head subdomain forming the {beta}-trefoil fold and an Arm subdomain possessing a helix-turn-helix structure. The conserved region on the Head subdomain appeared to interact with the IP{sub 3} binding core domain and is in close proximity to the previously proposed binding sites of Homer, RACK1, calmodulin, and CaBP1. The present study sheds light onto the mechanism underlying the receptor's sensitivity to the ligand and its communication with cellular signaling proteins.

  12. Synthesis and selected immunological properties of substituted quino[3,2-b]benzo[1,4]thiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Małgorzata; Pluta, Krystian; Zimecki, Michał; Morak-Młodawska, Beata; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maja

    2013-05-01

    A new type of azaphenothiazines - tetracyclic quino[3,2-b]benzo[1,4]thiazines, possessing common substituents (H, CH3, Cl, Br, F, CF3, SCH3) in positions 8-10 and pharmacophoric aminoalkyl substituents in position 6, were obtained from diquinodithiin and 2,2'-dichloro-3,3'-diquinolinyl disulfide in several-step syntheses. Sixty one compounds, grouped as the 6H, 6-dialkylaminoalkyl, 6-acylaminoalkyl and sulfonylaminoalkyl derivatives, were tested for cytotoxicity, their effects on phytohemagglutin A (PHA)-induced proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by these cells. The compounds exhibited differential inhibitory activities in these tests and significantly varied in terms of cytotoxicity. The most promising compounds were tested for growth inhibition of leukemia L-1210 cells, colon cancer SV-948 cells and epidermal carcinoma A-341 cells. The most active compounds exhibited anticancer activity against these cell lines comparable to that of cisplatin. The structure-activity relationship of the compounds were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especi...

  14. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  15. Comparison of the binding behavior of several histidine-containing proteins with immobilized copper(II) complexes of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone; Hearn, Milton T W

    2011-04-15

    The protein binding characteristics of the immobilized binucleating chelate system, 1,4-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl)butane (tacn(2)butane), complexed with Cu(2+) ions have been investigated with hen egg white lysozyme, horse skeletal muscle myoglobin and horse heart cytochrome C, as well as three histidine-rich proteins, serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin, present in partially fractionated human serum. The effects of pH, ionic strength and elution buffers on protein binding have been examined and compared with those of the analogous immobilized mononuclear copper complex of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn). The Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane system was generally found to exhibit higher protein binding affinities than the Cu(2+)-tacn system, suggesting that the presence of immobilized binuclear copper(II) species leads to enhanced coordinative interaction with surface-exposed amino acid residues of the studied proteins. However, under some buffer conditions the dependencies of protein binding and elution on pH and ionic strength with these immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) systems were consistent with electrostatic, hydrophobic and π-bonding interactions playing a significant secondary role in addition to the dominant coordinative interactions. As such, the results indicated that the selectivities were not solely dependent on the histidine content of the protein. In accord with this conclusion, differences in the selectivities of the Cu(2+)-tacn and Cu(2+)-tacn(2)butane adsorbents for serum albumin, transferrin, and α(2)-macroglobulin were observed depending on the choice of elution buffer. This attribute suggests that additional selectivity features can be realised for the separation of specific proteins with this new class of adsorbent. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  17. Investigating the Impact of Possession-Way of a Smartphone on Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zae Myung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few decades, action recognition has been attracting many researchers due to its wide use in a variety of applications. Especially with the increasing number of smartphone users, many studies have been conducted using sensors within a smartphone. However, a lot of these studies assume that the users carry the device in specific ways such as by hand, in a pocket, in a bag, etc. This paper investigates the impact of providing an action recognition system with the information of the possession-way of a smartphone, and vice versa. The experimental dataset consists of five possession-ways (hand, backpack, upper-pocket, lower-pocket, and shoulder-bag and two actions (walking and running gathered by seven users separately. Various machine learning models including recurrent neural network architectures are employed to explore the relationship between the action recognition and the possession-way recognition. The experimental results show that the assumption of possession-ways of smartphones do affect the performance of action recognition, and vice versa. The results also reveal that a good performance is achieved when both actions and possession-ways are recognized simultaneously.

  18. Marine viruses: the beneficial side of a threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Saborowski, Reinhard; García-Carreño, Fernando; Sablok, Gaurav; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Marine viruses are ubiquitous, extremely diverse, and outnumber any form of life in the sea. Despite their ecological importance, viruses in marine environments have been largely ignored by the academic community, and only those that have caused substantial economic losses have received more attention. Fortunately, our current understanding on marine viruses has advanced considerably during the last decades. These advances have opened new and exciting research opportunities as several unique structural and genetic characteristics of marine viruses have shown to possess an immense potential for various biotechnological applications. Here, a condensed overview of the possibilities of using the enormous potential offered by marine viruses to develop innovative products in industries as pharmaceuticals, environmental remediation, cosmetics, material sciences, and several others, is presented. The importance of marine viruses to biotechnology should not be underestimated.

  19. Metabolic Degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. HY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern regarding the adverse health effects of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs. The metabolic degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene (1,4-DCN as a model PCN, was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas sp. HY. The metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A series of metabolites including dihydroxy-dichloro-naphthalene, epoxy-dichlorinated naphthalene, dichlorinated naphthol, and dichlorinated salicylic acid were identified. The time-concentration plots of the degradation curves of 1,4-DCN was also obtained from the experiments, which set the initial concentration of 1,4-DCN to 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The results showed that 98% removal could be achieved within 48 h at an initial 1,4-DCN concentration of 10 mg/L. Nevertheless, it took 144 h to reach the same degradation efficiency at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L. The degradation of 1,4-DCN may not remove the chloride ions during the processes and the metabolites may not benefit the bacterial growth. The research suggests a metabolic pathway of 1,4-DCN, which is critical for the treatment of this compound through biological processes.

  20. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in healthy subjects from Serbian population. Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 210 healthy subjects (105 women and 105 men. The presence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was 34.76% and it was increased compared to PAI-1 5G/5G genotype (19.05%. The most frequent was PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (46.19%. Allelic frequency for 4G allele was higher (0.58 compared to 5G allele (0.42. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population is similar to the neighboring populations. Results of this study represent the first data for Serbian population. This study could be useful for further research where the role of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant will be assessed in the pathogenesis of many diseases.

  1. Heats of Formation for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Accurate heats of formation are computed for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3). The geometries and vibrational frequencies are determined at the B3LYP level of theory. The energetics are determined at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Basis set limit values are obtained by extrapolation. In those cases where the CCSD(T) calculations become prohibitively large, the basis set extrapolation is performed at the MP2 level. The temperature dependence of the heat of formation, heat capacity, and entropy are computed for the temperature range 300 to 4000 K and fit to a polynomial.

  2. 1H NMR spectra of N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy I. Okovytyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations of the conformational properties and 1H NMR chemical shifts for N-methyl-4-tolyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine and N-phenyl-1-(4-bromonaphthylamine are reported. The calculations were performed at the DFT level (PBE1PBE functional using magnetically consistent 6-31G## and STO##-3Gmag basis sets. Conformational properties of the amines were studied using potential energy surface scanning. Chemical shifts were calculated using the GIAO and CSGT methods and averaged in proportion to the population of the corresponding conformations. Solvent effects (CDCl3 were accounted via PCM method. The obtained results allowed to assign the 1H NMR signals for the naphthalene moiety, which could not be done based on the experimental data alone.

  3. Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol and meso-1,4-dibenzyloxy-2,3-difluorobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Linclau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale synthesis of meso-2,3-difluoro-1,4-butanediol in 5 steps from (Z-but-2-enediol is described. Crystallographic analysis of the diol and the corresponding benzyl ether reveals an anti conformation of the vicinal difluoride moiety. Monosilylation of the diol is high-yielding but all attempts to achieve chain extension through addition of alkyl Grignard and acetylide nucleophiles failed.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. An orthorhombic polymorph of N1,N4-diphenyl-3,6-bis(phenyliminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Ohno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new orthorhombic polymorph of the title compound, C30H24N4, with a density of 1.315 Mg m−3, has been obtained. The molecule is centrosymmetric with the centroid of the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring located on an inversion center. The two unique benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 86.70 (6°] and are oriented at dihedral angles of 30.79 (5 and 68.07 (5° with respect to the central cyclohexadiene ring. In the crystal, π–π stacking is observed between the central cyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine unit and a phenyl ring of a neighboring molecule [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7043 (7 Å]. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph [Ohno et al. (2014. Acta Cryst. E70, o303–o304] showed chains running along the b-axis direction through weak C—H...π interactions.

  6. AN ELECTROPHORETIC EXAMINATION OF A URINARY MUCOPROTEIN WHICH REACTS WITH VARIOUS VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmann, Gertrude E.; Tamm, Igor; Horsfall, Frank L.

    1952-01-01

    A mucoprotein isolated from human urine and possessing the capacity to react with a number of viruses is electrophoretically homogeneous at pH 6.8 and 8.6. After treatment with influenza virus and elimination of its biological activity, the substance remains homogeneous and its electrophoretic mobility is decreased by approximately 20 per cent. PMID:14907963

  7. 1,4-Benzodiazepine drugs adsorption on the Ag colloidal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîntã, S.; Iliescu, T.; Astilean, S.; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour in the SERS complex of diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) and nitrazepam (1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) with the Ag colloidal particles is reported and discussed. In both cases, the CN bond vibration of the 1,4-benzodiazepine is strongly affected by adsorption and enhanced. The SERS system of Ag colloid with diazepam or nitrazepam allow the recognition of the drug sample at concentration of 10 -7 mol l -1.

  8. Tetranectin Binds to the Kringle 1-4 Form of Angiostatin and Modifies Its Functional Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogues, Tirsit; Etzerodt, Michael; Hall, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    Tetranectin is a plasminogen kringle 4 domain-binding protein present in plasma and various tissue locations. Decreased plasma tetranectin or increased tetranectin in stroma of cancers correlates with cancer progression and adverse prognosis. A possible mechanism through which tetranectin could...... influence cancer progression is by altering activities of plasminogen or the plasminogen fragment, angiostatin. Tetranectin was found to bind to the kringle 1-4 form of angiostatin (AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ ). In addition, tetranectin inhibited binding of plasminogen or AST $;{\\text{K1-4}}$ to extracellular...

  9. Non-invasive temperature imaging with thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (TmDOTMA-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakin, Sait Kubilay; Hekmatyar, S K; Hopewell, Paige; Babsky, Andriy; Bansal, Navin

    2006-02-01

    Non-invasive thermometry using hyperfine-shifted MR signals from paramagnetic lanthanide complexes has attracted attention recently because the chemical shifts of these complexes are many times more sensitive to temperature than the water 1H signal. Among all the lanthanide complexes examined thus far, thulium tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (TmDOTMA-) appears to be the most suitable for MR thermometry. In this paper, the feasibility of imaging the methyl 1H signal from TmDOTMA- using a frequency-selective radiofrequency excitation pulse and chemical shift-selective (CHESS) water suppression is demonstrated. A temperature imaging method using a phase-sensitive spin-echo imaging sequence was validated in phantom experiments. A comparison of regional temperature changes measured with fiber-optic probes and the temperatures calculated from the phase shift near each probe showed that the accuracy of imaging the temperature with TmDOTMA- is at least 0.1-0.2 degrees C. The feasibility of imaging temperature changes in an intact rat at 0.5-0.6 mmol/kg dose in only a few minutes is demonstrated. Similar to commonly used MRI contrast agents, the lanthanide complex does not cross the blood-brain barrier. TmDOTMA- may prove useful for temperature imaging in many biomedical applications but further studies relating to acceptable dose and signal-to-noise ratio are necessary before clinical applications. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle disease virus ( ...

  11. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  12. Necessary for possession: how people reason about the acquisition of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori

    2010-09-01

    For property rights to be upheld, people need to be able to judge how ownership is established. Previous research suggests that people may judge that the first person to possess an object establishes ownership over it. This article proposes and tests an alternative account, which claims that people decide who owns an object by judging who was probably necessary for the object to be possessed. Participants read stories in which one character pursues an object (e.g., an animal being hunted, a gem jutting out of a high cliff), which a second character then captures. Judgments about which character owns the object depended on which character was plausibly necessary for capturing the object. The findings support the "necessary for possession" account and suggest that people's judgments about ownership likely depend on counterfactual reasoning or on processes akin to those used to make judgments about causality.

  13. Possession as a clinical phenomenon: a critique of the medical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Wikström

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the individual's specific experience of his personality being possessed, either partially or completely, momentarily or for an extended period of time, by evil spirits. It must be seen as necessary to supplement the narrow medical model for interpreting states of possession. The clinically interested psychologist of religion, in particular, needs consider aspects of the phenomenology of religion and clinical psychology in order to gain a broader understanding of this phenomenon. To declare that possession experiences are "nothing but psychosis, mania, epilepsy or schizophrenia, are examples of this type of over-simplification. The structure of possession can above all be understood as an interaction between a cognitive, linguistic level, and an emotional, affective level. Only if one unites these two levels can one attain a deeper understanding of the individual's possession experience. It is, in other words, important to remember that to increase understanding of the structure of possession, we must relate the individual's (bio-chemically conditioned intensive feeling experience to the surrounding subculture's way of defining these intensive feelings. Religious language provides one way of dealing verbally with the unstructured and terrifying aspects of a developing psychosis. It is, for example, possible to describe the personal transformation as a dynamic relationship between the verbal representatives for evil or the Evil One in the world of mythological language, and the intrapsychic, anxiety-filled emotive state, regardless of whether this inner state is considered to be the result of neurosis, psycho-sis, or the consequence of intensive suggestion.

  14. Structural diversity and fluorescence properties of three 2-sulfoterephthalate Cd{sup II}/Zn{sup II} coordination polymers employing 1,4-bisbenzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yixia, E-mail: renyixia1@163.com; Chai, Hongmei; Tang, Long; Hou, Xiangyang; Wang, Jijiang

    2016-02-15

    Three novel coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(2-Hstp)(1,4-bbi)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd{sub 1.5}(2-stp)(1,4-bbi)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (2) and [Zn{sub 2}(2-stp)(μ{sub 2}-OH)(1,4-bbi){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)]·6H{sub 2}O (3) (2-H{sub 3}stp is equal to 2-sulfoterephthalate and 1,4-bisbenzimidazole is equal to 1,4-bbi), have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. The structural analyses show that 1 and 2 possess different structural features despite the same raw materials, which are 1D chain structure featuring 6-member-water H-bonds cluster and 3D bbi-pillared wavy-like layer framework, respectively. As changing the metal ion to zinc ion, 3 exhibits 3D stp-pillared layer architecture, which discovers the effect of the central metal ions on the formation of metal–organic frameworks. The fluorescence studies show that the emissions of the coordination polymers are attributed to the ligand π–π* transition, which means they could be potential fluorescence materials. - Graphical abstract: Three new Cd{sup II}/Zn{sup II} 2-sulfoterephthalate (2-H{sub 3}stp) complexes with 1,4-bisbenzimidazole (1,4-bbi) are described. Complex 1 exhibits one-dimensional chain-like structure, 2 is a three-dimensional bbi-pillared wavy-like layer framework, while 3 is a three-dimensional stp-pillared layer architecture. Fluorescence spectra exhibit the π–π* transition of two organic ligands. - Highlights: • Three Cd{sup II}/Mn{sup II} 2-sulfoterephthalate complexes containing 1,4-bisbenzimidazole. • Different structural features despite the same raw materials for 1 and 2. • Fluorescence spectra exhibit the π–π* transition of organic ligands.

  15. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonin, Eugene V., E-mail: koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894 (United States); Dolja, Valerian V., E-mail: doljav@science.oregonstate.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krupovic, Mart, E-mail: krupovic@pasteur.fr [Institut Pasteur, Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Department of Microbiology, Paris 75015 (France)

    2015-05-15

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  16. Furniture and Possessions in A House for Mr. Biswas by V.S. Naipaul

    OpenAIRE

    Lind Bonnier, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    In V.S. Naipaul’s novel A House for Mr. Biswas furniture and possessions are consistently present and their path can be clearly traced, but they are rarely brought to the fore as the central image in the unfolding events of the novel. To borrow a metaphor from movies: the furniture is not the leading actor; the house is. The furniture has a supporting role in the story. This essay explores how the furniture and other possessions in A House for Mr. Biswas underline and illustrate various aspec...

  17. Psychopathology and shamanism in rural Mexico: a case study of spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M

    1980-03-01

    The so-called mystical possession of Juan Jose Fong, a socially marginal Chinese-Mexican of hysterical personality is directly related to the subject's psychological conflicts and emotional complexes and familial and social standing within the immediate cultural context. The subject is seen as suffering from conflicting emotions and cognitions centering around guilt, inferiority and non-acceptance by his peer group. The personification of his personal problems in the motif of spirit possessions enables the subject to maintain a measure of self-esteem, social status and personality integration.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or added to impart desired physical or technical properties. (b) Specifications: Ethylene-1,4... carbonated beverages and beer. Conditions of hot fill not to exceed 82.2 °C (180 °F), storage at temperatures...

  19. Radio variability in complete samples of extragalactic radio sources at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.; Machalski, J.

    1990-09-01

    Complete samples of extragalactic radio sources obtained in 1970-1975 and the sky survey of Condon and Broderick (1983) were used to select sources variable at 1.4 GHz, and to investigate the characteristics of variability in the whole population of sources at this frequency. The radio structures, radio spectral types, and optical identifications of the selected variables are discussed. Only compact flat-spectrum sources vary at 1.4 GHz, and all but four are identified with QSOs, BL Lacs, or other (unconfirmed spectroscopically) stellar objects. No correlation of degree of variability at 1.4 GHz with Galactic latitude or variability at 408 MHz has been found, suggesting that most of the 1.4-GHz variability is intrinsic and not caused by refractive scintillations. Numerical models of the variability have been computed.

  20. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  1. Viruses Avian influenza, bovine herpes, bovine viral diarrhea virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus I, influenza, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles, papilloma, rabies, respiratory syncitial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian virus 40. Bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Moraxella bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...

  2. Toxicity of the bionematicide 1,4-naphthoquinone on non-target soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, S; Maleita, C M N; Francisco, R; Braga, M E M; da Cunha, M J M; Abrantes, I; de Sousa, H C; Morais, P V; Sousa, J P

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NTQ), a natural-origin compound presenting nematicidal activity, that can be obtained from walnut husk, in plants and soil invertebrates, including non-target soil nematode communities. This research was part of an ongoing project that aims to develop environmentally-friendly nematicides obtained from agricultural residues. The battery of ISO tests included emergence and growth of corn (Zea mays) and rape (Brassica napus); avoidance with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida; and reproduction with the previous species plus the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. A novel soil nematode community assay was also performed. ISO tests and nematode assays were conducted using a natural uncontaminated soil that was spiked with a range of 1,4-NTQ concentrations. Toxicity of 1,4-NTQ was found for all test-species and the most sensitive were F. candida and E. andrei. After 7 days of exposure to 1,4-NTQ, nematode abundance decreased along the concentration gradient, and a partial recovery was observed after 14 days (1,4-NTQ soil). The number of nematode families consistently decreased in both periods. Overall, results indicate that a 1,4-NTQ concentration of <20 mg kg -1 could be environmentally safe but preliminary data suggest that it might be ineffective for the target-nematodes, root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., and root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. In addition, if higher dosages of 1,4-NTQ bionematicide are necessary, the potential recovery of non-target organisms under real field scenarios also needs to be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  4. Physiological and pathophysiological insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildas eLoussouarn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A, the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  5. Computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-7 - Products as ships' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products as ships' stores or in the possession of...' stores or in the possession of passengers or crew. (a) In the possession of passengers or crew members.... (b) As ships' stores or decorations. Fruits, vegetables, or cut flowers subject to the quarantine and...

  7. 1,4-Dialkynylbutatrienes: synthesis, stability, and perspectives in the chemistry of carbo-benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, Valérie; Leroyer, Léo; Harano, Aya; Barthes, Cécile; Saquet, Alix; Duhayon, Carine; Shinmyozu, Teruo; Chauvin, Remi

    2011-04-26

    The π-electron-rich C(8)-conjugated sequence of 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes is identified as a fragile and fascinating motif occurring in carbo-benzene derivatives, and in Diederich's 1,4-bis(arylethynyl)- or 1,4-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)butatriene "capped" representatives, in particular, in tetraalkynylbutatriene. The family of symmetrical 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes (E-C≡C)RC=C=C=CR(C≡C-E) is extended to functional caps (E=H, CH(3), C≡CPh, CPh=CHBr, or CPh=CBr(2)) with non-alkynyl substituents at the sp(2) vertices (R=Ph or CF(3)). The targets were selected for their potential in appealing retrosynthetic routes to carbo-benzenes, in which the aromatic C(18) macrocycle would be directly generated by sequential metathesis or reductive coupling processes. The functional 1,4-dialkynylbutrienes were synthesized by either classical methods used for the preparation of generic butatrienes (R'Li/CuX-mediated reductive coupling of gem-dihaloenynes or SnCl(2)/HCl-mediated reduction of 3,6-dioxy-octa-1,4,7-triyne precursors). Their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties are compared and analyzed on the basis of the relative extent of total conjugation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis.

  9. Structure-activity relationship studies of 1,7-diheteroarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones with two different terminal rings in prostate epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Chengsheng; Chen, Guanglin; Sarabia, Cristian; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Wang, Guangdi; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2017-06-16

    To systematically investigate the structure-activity relationships of 1,7-diheteroarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones in three human prostate cancer cell models and one human prostate non-neoplastic epithelial cell model, thirty five 1,7-diarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones with different terminal heteroaromatic rings have been designed for evaluation of their anti-proliferative potency in vitro. These target compounds have been successfully synthesized through two sequential Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions starting from the appropriate aldehydes and tetraethyl (2-oxopropane-1,3-diyl)bis(phosphonate). Their anti-proliferative potency against PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines can be significantly enhanced by the manipulation of the terminal heteroaromatic rings, further demonstrating the utility of 1,7-diarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one as a potential scaffold for the development of anti-prostate cancer agents. The optimal analog 40 is 82-, 67-, and 39-fold more potent than curcumin toward the three prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The experimental data also reveal that the trienones with two different terminal aromatic rings possess greater potency toward three prostate cancer cell lines, but also have greater capability of suppressing the proliferation of PWR-1E benign human prostate epithelial cells, as compared to the corresponding counterparts with two identical terminal rings and curcumin. The terminal aromatic rings also affect the cell apoptosis perturbation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Object Conflict and Sharing in the Preschool: Further Evidence for a Prior Possession Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Lucien T.; Renninger, K. Ann

    In a study of the social ecology of preschool peer interaction, independent measures of agonism and object conflict were employed to investigate relations between dominance, competition, and prior possession of object. In addition, independent measures of affiliation and object exchanges were employed to investigate further possible relations…

  12. The moss dwelling testacean fauna of Île de la Possession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Beyens, L.; Van de Vijver, B.

    2004-01-01

    An ecological study of the moss dwelling testacean fauna (Protozoa, Rhizopoda) on Île de la Possession (Crozet Archipelago, sub-Antarctica) revealed 83 taxa, belonging to 21 genera. The moss flora was dominated by cosmopolitan and ubiquitous taxa, such as Trinema lineare, T. enchelys, Euglypha

  13. Effects of offense, defense, and ball possession on mobility performance in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Annemarie M.H.; Berger, Monique A.M.; Hoozemans, Marco J.M.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, Lucas H.V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements

  14. Effects of offense, defense, and ball possession on mobility performance in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Annemarie M.H.; Berger, Monique A.M.; Hoozemans, Marco J.M.; Veeger, Dirkjan H.E.J.; van der Woude, Lucas H.V.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the

  15. Effects of Offense, Defense, and Ball Possession on Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Berger, Monique A. M.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Veeger, Dirkjan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent mobility performance is influenced by offensive or defensive situations and ball possession and to what extent these actions are different for the field positions. From video analysis, the relative duration of the various wheelchair movements

  16. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, transfer, and... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.40 Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture...

  17. Possession, Transportation, and Use of Firearms by Older Youth in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J.; Williver, S. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago we would think nothing of driving to school with a jackknife in our pocket or rifle in the gun rack. Since then, the practices of possessing, transporting, and using firearms have been limited by laws, rules, and public perception. Despite restrictions on youth, the Youth Handgun Safety Act does afford 4-H shooting sports members…

  18. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  19. The renouncement of possessions according to Matthew 19:16–30

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-13

    Jul 13, 2015 ... Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. This article focuses on the renouncement of possessions in the Gospel ... investigate if the disciples and the intended readers of the first Gospel are understood by Matthew ..... considered to be part of one movement.

  20. Cognitive Fictions of Classroom Teachers about the Values They Possess: A Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine cognitive fictions of classroom teachers about the values they possess. The study was designed with a phenomenological pattern, which is a qualitative research pattern. It was conducted with 20 classroom teachers who work in the central Yakutiye district of Erzurum who were chosen via criterion…

  1. 26 CFR 1.937-2 - Income from sources within a possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sales of inventory property, see § 1.863-3(f). (e) Service in the Armed Forces. In the case of a member... possession holding period. (B) In the case of property other than marketable securities, the portion of gain... copy, and liner notes, together with copyrights and other intellectual property in those works, are the...

  2. Required and Possessed University Graduates Employability Skills: Perceptions of the Nigerian Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebakin, Azeez B.; Ajadi, O. Timothy; Subair, S. 'Tayo

    2015-01-01

    University is a place where skilled labour is produced for societal and global consumption. This is premised on the fact that education provided at this level enhances human capital development, which widens employment opportunities. However, there seems to be a disparity between the skills required and those possessed by graduates from Nigerian…

  3. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive "Zijide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive "zijide" can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present…

  4. How Risky Is Marijuana Possession? Considering the Role of Age, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Holly; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Arrest rates per capita for possession of marijuana have increased threefold over the last 20 years and now constitute the largest single arrest offense category. Despite the increase in arrest numbers, rates of use have remained stable during much of the same period. This article presents the first estimates of the arrest probabilities for…

  5. On the Mandarin Possessive and Existential Verb "You" and Its Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, One-Soon

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the possessive, existential, and locational usages of the Mandarin Chinese verb "you3," arguing for the formulation of a single lexical entry of the verb within lexical-functional grammar and demonstrating the similarities between English idiom chunks and you3 expressions. (20 references) (Author/CB)

  6. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which ...

  7. First Possession, History, and Young Children's Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Vondervoort, Julia W.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Neary, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    It is impossible to perceive who owns an object; this must be inferred. One way that children make such inferences is through a first possession bias--when two agents each use an object, children judge the object belongs to the one who used it first. Two experiments show that this bias does not result from children directly inferring ownership…

  8. Dissociative symptoms and reported trauma among patients with spirit possession and matched healthy controls in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Nijenhuis, E.; Komproe, I.; Gernaat, H.B.P.E; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among

  9. 27 CFR 479.105 - Transfer and possession of machine guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transfer or possess a machine gun except as provided in the law, any qualified manufacturer, importer, or... machine guns. 479.105 Section 479.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  10. Cognition and Phonology in Acquisition of Plurals and Possessives by Luo Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ben G.

    1988-01-01

    Luo-speaking children in Kenya responded to a test using nonce forms in morphophonology. Morphophonological processes in the acquisition of Luo plurals and possessives presented different degrees of difficulty for the subjects, with the type of morphophonological alteration in a language likely to affect the rate and order of acquisition.…

  11. 10 CFR 35.67 - Requirements for possession of sealed sources and brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brachytherapy sources. 35.67 Section 35.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee in possession of any sealed source or brachytherapy source shall follow... brachytherapy sources, except for gamma stereotactic radiosurgery sources, shall conduct a semi-annual physical...

  12. 19 CFR 134.12 - Foreign articles reshipped from a U.S. possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.12 Foreign... requirements applicable to like articles of foreign origin imported directly from a foreign country to the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign articles reshipped from a U.S. possession...

  13. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which probably also ...

  14. Passing Success Percentages and Ball Possession Rates of Successful Teams in 2014 FIFA World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal GÖRAL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the ball possession and passing success percentage of successful teams in 2014 FIFA World Cup. The data were obtained from international TV channels publishing competitions and the database of the website of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association - FIFA through official overviews of the games. So the parameters such as ball possession percentages, passing attempted, passing success percentages, accurate and non-accurate passes of successful teams in matches were analyzed. These performance indicators were analyzed by e-Analyze Soccer computer program. The data obtained in this study was recorded in SPSS 16.0 program and interpreted by calculating frequency and percentage values. Ball possession percentages of the successful teams vary between 50.32% and 56.71%. Among 17102 passing attempts of successful teams, it was determined that 133378 were successful having a high rate of passing success such as 78.22%. As a result, in the organizations such as World Cup which elite athletes participated, while successful teams had high rates of the ball possession it can be said that having the ball in midfield and offensive region and passing attempt, successful passing scores, passing success percent at a high level are the most basic principles that bring success.

  15. Marburg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdle, W R

    1976-01-01

    Marburg virus disease, which produced 20 per cent mortality when it first occured during 1967 in Germany and Yugoslavia, recently appeared again in South Africa. The source of the first outbreak was monkeys shipped from Africa; the origin of the second episode is unclear. Because distribution of the virus in nature is unknown, its threat to man cannot be readily determined. Differential laboratory diagnoses of hemorrhagic fevers should be encouraged in order to learn more about the epidemiology of these diseases and to better assess the risks which their etiologic agents may pose for attending medical personnel.

  16. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly V Ruggles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  17. Development of analytical method for determination of 1,4-dioxane in cleansing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, M; Obama, T; Ikarashi, Y

    2013-12-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a toxic by-product formed during the synthesis of surfactants used in finished cosmetic products. There are no set permissible levels of toxic impurities in finished cosmetic products in Japan. In this study, we have established a simple and sufficiently precise analytical method to determine the activity of 1,4-dioxane in finished cosmetic cleansing products. This method involves the standard addition approach and headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry without pre-conditioning. Fifteen cleansing products that are sold in the Japanese market, such as shampoo, hand soap, and dishwashing liquid, were analyzed, and 1,4-dioxane was detected at a concentration of a few micrograms per gram of the product in almost all of them. The concentration of 1,4-dioxane in two dishwashing liquid products was high. The maximum concentration of 1,4-dioxane in all of the cleansing products was below 10 μg g(-1) , which is a limit that is thought to be safe and technically achievable through the application of good manufacturing practices. Since 1,4-dioxane is formed during the synthesis of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate, it was detected at high concentrations in cleansing products that contained a lot of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate. Control of the synthesis of polyoxyethylene ether sulfate can be effective in reducing the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in cleansing products. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D.; Massey, Aaron R.; May, Nicholas A.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Beckham, J. David

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5′ cap with 2′-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6) and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome. PMID:27763553

  19. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Shives

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a (+ sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5′ cap with 2′-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6 and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome.

  20. 4EBP-Dependent Signaling Supports West Nile Virus Growth and Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D; Massey, Aaron R; May, Nicholas A; Morrison, Thomas E; Beckham, J David

    2016-10-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a (+) sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flavivirus genus. WNV RNA possesses an m7GpppNm 5' cap with 2'-O-methylation that mimics host mRNAs preventing innate immune detection and allowing the virus to translate its RNA genome through the utilization of cap-dependent translation initiation effectors in a wide variety of host species. Our prior work established the requirement of the host mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) for optimal WNV growth and protein expression; yet, the roles of the downstream effectors of mTORC1 in WNV translation are unknown. In this study, we utilize gene deletion mutants in the ribosomal protein kinase called S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) pathways downstream of mTORC1 to define the role of mTOR-dependent translation initiation signals in WNV gene expression and growth. We now show that WNV growth and protein expression are dependent on mTORC1 mediated-regulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP/eIF4E) interaction and eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex formation to support viral growth and viral protein expression. We also show that the canonical signals of mTORC1 activation including ribosomal protein s6 (rpS6) and S6K phosphorylation are not required for WNV growth in these same conditions. Our data suggest that the mTORC1/4EBP/eIF4E signaling axis is activated to support the translation of the WNV genome.

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS — ONCOGENIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mayansky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture is devoted to oncogenic viruses, particularly human papilloma virus. Papilloma viral infection is found in all parts of the globe and highly contagious. In addition to exhaustive current data on classification, specifics of papilloma viruses composition and epidemiology, the author describes in great detail the malignization mechanisms of papilloma viruses pockets. Also, issues of diagnostics and specific prevention and treatment of diseases caused by this virus are illustrated. Key words: oncogenic viruses, papilloma viruses, prevention, vaccination. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:48-55

  2. Asymmetric radiation-induced inclusion polymerization of 3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene in deoxycholic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio di Astrofisica di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The radiation-induced polymerization of 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene (3MPD) as an inclusion complex in deoxycholic acid (DOCA) has produced in good yield the optically active polymer poly(3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene) (P3MPD) whose structure and properties were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA). The data show that the polymer is essentially trans-1,4-P3MPD as expected for the polymerization in constrained media. Trans-1,4-P3MPD is optically active with [alpha]{sub D} values comprised between +4.3 and +5.6. The optical rotatory dispersion curve of the P3MPD is completely different from that of DOCA as expected.

  3. SINTESIS TURUNAN ASETOFENON DARI 1-(4-ASETOKSIFENIL-3-METOKSI-2-PROPANIL FORMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Synthesis of acetophenone derivative from 1-(4-acetoxyphenyl- 3-methoxy-2-propanyl formate through Fries Rearrangement in order to produce ortho hidroxy acetophenone derivative as starting material of Flavanoid compound has been done. The reaction of 1-(4-acetoxyphenyl-3-methoxy-2-propanyl formate was done by heating at 120 °C for 3 hours under AlCl3, dichloromethane as the catalyst and solvent, respectively. The structure of the compound was identified using Infra Red spectrometry (IR dan GC-MS. Fries rearrangement of 1-(4-acetoxyphenil-3- methoxy-2-propanyl formate produce 1-(2-hyidroxy-3-methoxy-5-propenyl- acetophenone and 1-(2-hyidroxy-3-methoxy-5-propanyl-acetophenone as side product with product rendemen were 43.26% and 9.48%, respectively.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF HALOGEN DERIVATIVES OF N-ARYLAMINOCARBONYL-1,4-BENZOQUINONE MONOIMINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Konovalova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrohalogenation of N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimines is optimal method to obtain the halogenated derivatives. This method allows obtaining the pure products in high yield with a halogen atom in the aminophenol ring. The bromination of N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimines and their reduced forms allows obtaining of individual products only in several cases. The bromination allows synthesizing of products with a halogen atom not only in the aminophenol ring, but in the aryl moiety too. As a result of the experiment we have found the optimal conditions to synthesis the N-arylaminocarbonyl-1,4-benzoquinone monoimine derivatives containing halogen atom. The bromination and hydrohalogenation products with one free ortho-position toward to the imine carbon atom of the quinoid ring can be used as synthons in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds – 1,3-benzoxazole derivatives.

  5. Emamectin benzoate induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shaorong; Yun, Xinming; Rao, Wenbing; Xiao, Ciying; Xu, Zhikang; Lang, Jialin; Huang, Qingchun

    2017-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide, possesses high efficacy and beneficial selective toxicity in agriculture, but so far the EMB-induced cytotoxic action in arthropod insect remains unclear. The present studies were carried out to characterize the property of EMB on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cell model. Following the exposure to EMB at 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 μM, the cells changed to be round, suspended and aggregated, and the decline of cell proliferating ability and cell viability was positively related with the exposure time. Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of EMB on cell viability was 3.72 μM during 72 h exposure. Apoptosis was induced in 29.8% (24 h) and 39.5% (48 h) of the cells by EMB at 15 μM, showing chromatin condensation in nuclei. The content of ROS in the cells increased rapidly as the concentration of EMB increased, and the pre-incubation of the cells with vitamin E significantly reduced the ROS accumulation. In the treatment of 15 μM EMB, the migrated cell nucleus with DNA strand breaks appeared a teardrop, pear-shaped, or large fan-like tail, and 63.1% of γH2AX-positive cells contained more than four foci, accompanying with high expression level of caspase-3 in time-dependent manner, which consequently led to cell apoptotic death. These evidences in ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell apoptosis induced by EMB may be helpful for deep understanding the cytotoxic action of EMB based on cell model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  7. Calmodulin Is a Functional Regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects. PMID:19717559

  8. Calmodulin is a functional regulator of Cav1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmeier, Kristina; Cuny, Hartmut; Rötzer, Katrin; Griesbeck, Oliver; Harz, Hartmann; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian

    2009-10-23

    Cav1.4 channels are unique among the high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel family because they completely lack Ca2+-dependent inactivation and display very slow voltage-dependent inactivation. Both properties are of crucial importance in ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptors and bipolar cells, where sustained Ca2+ influx through Cav1.4 channels is required to couple slow graded changes of the membrane potential with tonic glutamate release. Loss of Cav1.4 function causes severe impairment of retinal circuitry function and has been linked to night blindness in humans and mice. Recently, an inhibitory domain (ICDI: inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation) in the C-terminal tail of Cav1.4 has been discovered that eliminates Ca2+-dependent inactivation by binding to upstream regulatory motifs within the proximal C terminus. The mechanism underlying the action of ICDI is unclear. It was proposed that ICDI competitively displaces the Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. Alternatively, the ICDI domain and calmodulin may bind to different portions of the C terminus and act independently of each other. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments with genetically engineered cyan fluorescent protein variants to address this issue. Our data indicate that calmodulin is preassociated with the C terminus of Cav1.4 but may be tethered in a different steric orientation as compared with other Ca2+ channels. We also find that calmodulin is important for Cav1.4 function because it increases current density and slows down voltage-dependent inactivation. Our data show that the ICDI domain selectively abolishes Ca2+-dependent inactivation, whereas it does not interfere with other calmodulin effects.

  9. The prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant in Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Valentina; Gvozdenov Maja; Pruner Iva; Tomić Branko; Kovač Mirjana; Antonijević Nebojša; Radojković Dragica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has a major role in inhibition of firinolysis and normal haemostasis. The presence of the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype leads to increased expression of PAI-1. High blood level of PAI-1 is associated with many diseases such as thrombosis, cerebral insult, myocardial infarction, pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and asthma. In this study, the prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G gene variant was determined in he...

  10. Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2004-04-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.

  11. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (Kd......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  12. Crystal Structures of Two 1,4-Diamino-1,2,4-triazolium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium sulfate (1 was obtained from the corresponding chloride by ion metathesis using Ag2SO4. Further metathesis with barium 5,5′-azotetrazolate yielded bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium 5,5′-azotetrazolate (2. Numerous NH···N and NH···O interactions were identified in the crystal structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds undergo exothermal decomposition upon heating.

  13. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3 or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4 it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic. This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1. First, we synthesized the 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (2, yield 98% by using Br2 and CH3CO2H, and then used it to obtain 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3, yield 62% from compound 1, along with ethanolic solution (reflux and NaN3. Finally, we prepared 1,2,3-triazole compounds (4a, b by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, involving compound (3 and terminal acetylenes (phenylacetylene, a and glycoside (b using Cu(OAc2 and ascorbate, under argon atmosphere. During the second step, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone was prepared using Br2/CH2Cl2 at room temperature. From compound (5 it was possible to synthesize (6, catalyzed by Pd(PPh32Cl2/CuI/Et3N, under argon atmosphere, in 40% yield. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving 2-azido-1,4-naphthoquinone (3 and alkynes (a, yield 23% and b, yield 30% were conducted using the solvent system, (1:1 terc-BuOH/H2O/r.t/ 20 mol% of Cu(OAc2 and sodium ascorbate, under stirring during 24 hours. The reaction involving 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (5, yield 65% and phenylacetylene was prepared using the solvent mixture (2:1 DMSO/CHCl3 and catalytic amount of CuI/Pd(PPh32Cl2. The final products were characterized by elemental analysis and spectrometric techniques (IR, NMR 1H and 13C. Two novel triazole compounds were synthesized from naphthoquinones by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition from suitable 1,4-naphthoquinones obtained by Sonogashira couplings.

  14. Anaerobic transformation of 1,4-Tyrosol to 4-Hydoxyphenylacetate by Desulfovibrio Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamkh, F.; El Bakouchi, I.; Ouazzani, N.; Said Eddarir, S.; Bennisse, R.; Qatibi, A. I.

    2009-07-01

    1,4 Tyrosol (4-hydroxyphenylethanol) is a phenolic compound that is typically found in olive oil, olive brine, and olive oil mill wastewaters. Its anaerobic transformation was investigated in Desulfovibrio strain EMSSDQT (chamkh et al., 2008) and Desulgovibrio alcoholivorans (Qatibi et al., 1991) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 1}3C-NMR) as analysis technic. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the transformation of 1,4-tyrosol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (PHPA) by Desulfovibrio sp in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  15. In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    biostimulation using the metagenome analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 302: 144- 150. Kim, Y.M.; Jeon, J.R.; Murugesan, K.; Kim, E.J.; Chang , Y. S...FINAL REPORT In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-Dioxane- Contaminated Groundwater SERDP Project ER-2307 MAY 2017 Dr. David...REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 08/13/2013-06/30/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4

  16. Synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labelled triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.R.; Hawi, A.A.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). College of Pharmacy)

    1989-04-01

    An efficient two-step synthesis of 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (alprazolam) and 8-chloro-6-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (triazolam) labelled with carbon-13 or carbon-14 from their corresponding hydrazines is reported. The method involved acylation of the appropriate hydrazine using the mixed carbonic anhydride of sodium ({sup 13}C) or ({sup 14}C) acetate and isobutylchloroformate under mild conditions. Thermolysis of the resulting acetylhydrazides gave the target carbon-14 and carbon-13 labelled compounds in good yields. (author).

  17. A case of withdrawal from the GHB precursors gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, A B; Ly, B T; Clark, R F

    2001-07-01

    We describe a case of withdrawal from the gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) precursors gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol. Symptoms included visual hallucinations, tachycardia, tremor, nystagmus, and diaphoresis. Administration of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital successfully treated the withdrawal symptoms. As predicted from the metabolism of gamma butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol to GHB, the symptoms were nearly identical to those reported from GHB withdrawal. Because GHB is now illegal in the United States, individuals have begun abusing the legal and easier to acquire GHB precursors. More frequent cases of both abuse and withdrawal from these GHB precursors can be expected.

  18. POISONING WITH GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE AND 1.4-BUTANDIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB is a popular recreational drug. GHB overdose typically presents with decreased level of consciousness, miosis, bradycardia, respiratory depression and death. Typically, combativeness, confusion and vomiting occur once the patient begins to recover. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL and 1.4-butandiol (1.4-BD are the prodrugs of GHB and have similar clinical presentation. We present the case of GHB poisoning in Ljubljana.Conclusions. Physicians should suspect GHB poisoning in young ravers who present with CNS depression. Treatment is symptomatic. There is no specific antidote. Gastric lavage is not beneficial but activated charcoal is recommended.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of substituted 4H-1, 4-benzothiazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Chaucer, Puneet; Kumar, Gulshan; Parihar, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of substituted benzothiazine was investigated. Antioxidant activity of 3,7-dimethyl-2-(4'-morpholinylcarbonyl)-4H-1,4-benzothiazine was tested by the use of 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH). In addition 3,7-dimethyl-2-(4'-morpholinylcarbonyl)-4H-1,4-benzothiazine was examined for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, B. flexus, B. alkalophilus, as well as their antifungal activity against Aspergillus nigrum, A. Flexus and show potential antimicrobial activities.

  20. 1-[(4-Chlorophenyl(phenyliminomethyl]-7-methoxy-2-naphthol–1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (2/1

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    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title cocrystal, 2C24H18ClNO2·C6H12N2, the 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane molecule is located on a twofold rotation axis and linked to the two triarylimine molecules by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a 2:1 aggregate. C—H...Cl interactions are also observed. In the triarylimine molecule, the naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 80.39 (6 and 82.35 (6°, respectively, with the phenyl and benzene rings. The dihedral angle between these two latter rings is 87.09 (7°.

  1. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  2. Phenol oxidation through its adduct formation with chromium complex of 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Jayanthi; Guadalupe, Hernández J.; Thangarasu, Pandiyan

    2017-04-01

    Structural and electronic properties of [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ (n = 2 or 4; X = OH-, Cl-, Br- and H2O; tmpcH = 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane were analyzed by DFT and TD-DFT methods. The local reactivity active site of the ligand was determined by the condensed-to atom Fukui indexes (CAFI) f(r). In the study, the axial bond distance with metal ion undergoes a considerable change from shorter to longer as OH Cr(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn (II) with tmpcH, it was found that the bond distance decreases with increasing number of d-electrons in the 3d orbital, suggesting that the over-lapping of oribital (π) from Npy with the metal d-orbital is more effective than those from Ncyclam with metal d-orbital. Therefore, the change of different oxidation states for [cis-[Cr(tmpcH)X2]n+ influences significantly the geometrical and electronic parameters. For cis-[Cr(tmpcH)Cl2]2+ the calculated bands are red shifted except for the lower energy band (595 nm) which agrees qualitatively with the experimental one; in addition, the effect of solvent on the electronic transition was analyzed. Furthermore, we collected the electronic data for several chromium complexes from the literature, and compared with our results by plotting the data against number of chromium compounds. Finally, the phenol oxidation properties of the chromium complexes were studied, and phenol forms an adduct with [Cr(tmpcH)Cl]3+ to yield [Cr(tmpcH)Cl-OPh]2+ which could produce the phenol radical, which is enhanced by the presence of -OCH3 group at para- position in the phenolic ring.

  3. The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Long, Nicholas J

    2013-04-07

    Over the last twenty-five years 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) has made a significant impact on the field of diagnostic imaging. DOTA is not the only metal chelate in use in medical diagnostics, but it is the only one to significantly impact on all of the major imaging modalities Magnetic Resonance (MR), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and Fluorescence imaging. This crossover of modalities has been possible due to the versatility of DOTA firstly, to complex a variety of metal ions and secondly, the ease with which it can be modified for different disease states. This has driven research over the last two decades into the chemistry of DOTA and the modification of the substituent pendant arms of this macrocycle to create functional, targeted and dual-modal imaging agents. The primary use of DOTA has been with the lanthanide series of metals, gadolinium for MRI, europium and terbium for fluorescence and neodymium for near infra-red imaging. There are now many research groups dedicated to the use of lanthanides with DOTA although other chelates such as DTPA and NOTA are being increasingly employed. The ease with which DOTA can be conjugated to peptides has given rise to targeted imaging agents seen in the PET, SPECT and radiotherapy fields. These modalities use a variety of radiometals that complex with DOTA, e.g.(64)Cu and (68)Ga which are used in clinical PET scans, (111)In, and (90)Y for SPECT and radiotherapy. In this article, we will demonstrate the remarkable versatility of DOTA, how it has crossed the imaging modality boundaries and how it has been successfully transferred into the clinic.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenman, W M; Meuser, R U

    1986-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L2 were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. Our data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesins play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective. Images PMID:3511037

  5. Influence on the scoreboard first possession partial and final World Championship 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manuel Argudo Iturriaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence to take the first ball on the partial and final score in male water polo. The 48 matches disputed by the team’s participant in the 2003 Water Polo World Championship, celebrated in Barcelona in 2003, were recorded. In particular, the samples were 192 actions of beginning of every game period. The observational methodology was applied. Statistically significant relation was not obtained, between to take the first ball possession and the partial score (p > .05. Were found statistically significant differences in the influence to take the first ball on the partial score in the fourth period (÷2 = 6,906, g.l. = 2; p = ,032. Were found a significant association between the numbers of periods started with ball possession and the final score result.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenman, W.M.; Meuser, R.U.

    1986-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L/sub 2/ were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. These data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesions play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective.

  7. Three Approaches toward Historiography: The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Possession, and Waterland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba NoorBakhsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics have widely explored John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland, and A. S. Byatt’s Possession. These novels are generally treated as outstanding historiographic metafictions since they self-consciously adopt the notion of history and simultaneously problematize historical understanding. For Hayden White, the historian is inevitably impositional and every narrativized history is relative. Following White, Linda Hutcheon defines postmodern historical fiction as the type of fiction that self-reflexively and paradoxically makes use of the notion of history and simultaneously denies its truthfulness. The present article attempts to analyze, compare, and contrast John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman, Graham Swift’s Waterland and A. S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance in light of the theories of White and Hutcheon to show that in spite of problematization of the possibility of recovering the past as it actually was, these novels treat the concept of history differently.

  8. Grammatical priming of inflected nouns by the gender of possessive adjectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, M; Lukatela, G; Lukatela, K; Savić, M; Turvey, M T

    1985-10-01

    Two experiments examined the effect on lexical decision times for inflected Serbo-Croatian nouns when the nouns were preceded by possessive adjectives (my, your, our). For any given pairing the possessive adjective and the noun agreed always in number (singular) and case (nominative) but only agreed half of the time in gender (masculine or feminine). Lexical decisions were faster when the noun targets were of the same gender as their primes. This gender congruency/incongruency effect was shown to hold whether the inflections of the adjective and noun were the same (as is the case for typical Serbo-Croatian nouns) or different (as is the case for atypical Serbo-Croatian nouns). The results are discussed in terms of a postlexical influence of grammatical processing on the recognition of individual words.

  9. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  10. Influenza A and B Virus Intertypic Reassortment through Compatible Viral Packaging Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Steven F.; Nogales, Aitor; Finch, Courtney; Tuffy, Kevin M.; Domm, William; Perez, Daniel R.; Topham, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in humans and together cause disease and seasonal epidemics. These two types of influenza viruses are evolutionarily divergent, and exchange of genetic segments inside coinfected cells occurs frequently within types but never between influenza A and B viruses. Possible mechanisms inhibiting the intertypic reassortment of genetic segments could be due to incompatible protein functions of segment homologs, a lack of processing of heterotypic segments by influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an inhibitory effect of viral proteins on heterotypic virus function, or an inability to specifically incorporate heterotypic segments into budding virions. Here, we demonstrate that the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) of prototype influenza B viruses can complement the function of multiple influenza A viruses. We show that viral noncoding regions were sufficient to drive gene expression for either type A or B influenza virus with its cognate or heterotypic polymerase. The native influenza B virus HA segment could not be incorporated into influenza A virus virions. However, by adding the influenza A virus packaging signals to full-length influenza B virus glycoproteins, we rescued influenza A viruses that possessed HA, NA, or both HA and NA of influenza B virus. Furthermore, we show that, similar to single-cycle infectious influenza A virus, influenza B virus cannot incorporate heterotypic transgenes due to packaging signal incompatibilities. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the lack of influenza A and B virus reassortants can be attributed at least in part to incompatibilities in the virus-specific packaging signals required for effective segment incorporation into nascent virions. IMPORTANCE Reassortment of influenza A or B viruses provides an evolutionary strategy leading to unique genotypes, which can spawn influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. However, the mechanism preventing intertypic reassortment or

  11. What does it mean to be possessed by a spirit or demon? Some phenomenological insights from neuro-anthropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The visible growth in possession and exorcism in Southern Africa can, amongst others, be attributed to the general impression in Christianity that, since Jesus was a successful exorcist, his followers should follow his example. Historical Jesus research generally endorses a view of Jesus as exorcist, which probably also contributes to this idea, yet there is no or very little reflection about either exorcism or possession as cultural practices. This article offers a critical reflection on possession based on insights from cross-cultural and neuro-scientific research. The first insight is that possession is not a single thing, but a collective term for what is a wide range of phenomena. At least two distinct meanings are identified: possession as a label for illness or misfortune, and possession as an indication of forms of human dissociative phenomena. In the latter instance, an impression of possession as a mode of being a Self, together with insights about the inherent potential for dissociative phenomena, provides the background to the view of possession as a cultural technique with a variety of functions. A second insight is that the term possession refers to complex neuro-cultural processes that can be described by means of both cultural and neurological mechanisms. A third insight is that in most ethnographic examples possession is the response or solution to other underlying problems. Against this background the role of exorcism should be reconsidered as clear-cut and worthy of emulation.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure and Antimalarial Activity of (2E-2-(1-{4-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylamino]phenyl} ethylidenehydrazine Carbothioamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan de Jesus Parra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis and study by UV-vis, IR, NMR, ESI-CID-MS2 and X-ray diffraction of ((2E-2-(1-{4-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylamino]phenyl}ethylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide is reported. It was tested in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strain (W2 of Plasmodium falciparum, hemozoin (β-hematin formation and cysteine protease falcipain-2. In general, it was found to possess a proved activity in its inhibitory power on the parasite but less active on the formation of hemozoin (β-hematin and falcipain-2. Also, the X-ray analysis presented an unexpected electronic density that can be assigned like S(2. This electronic density can be attributed to autocondensation of thiosemicarbazide, generating H2S as a subproduct. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i4.1001

  13. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of 2-substituted (25R)-spirostan-1,4,6-triene-3-ones via ring-opening/elimination and 'click' strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Nian-Yu; He, Hai-Bo; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

    2015-09-01

    To develop more effective antitumor steroidal drugs, we synthesized a library including twenty-two novel cytotoxic 2-alkyloxyl substituted (25R)-spirostan-1,4,6-triene-3-ones and corresponding 1,2,3-triazoles through an abnormal monoepoxide ring-opening/elimination and 'click' reactions. After the cytotoxic evaluations against HepG2, Caski and HeLa cell lines, three steroidal triazoles 5b, 5f and 5m in this library were found to possess potent anti-proliferative effects against Caski cells with the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 9.4-11.8 μM. The high-efficient and straightforward process was attractive feature for facile preparation of anti-tumor steroidal triazoles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Position, possession or process? Understanding objective and subjective employability during university-to-work transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability: position (based on social background), possession (of human capital) and process (of career self-management (CSM)). Findings support the process vie...

  15. Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS.

  16. Teachers’ Perception Towards School Administrators’ Levels of Possession of Postmodern Leadership Values

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Aytac

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of teachers in primary schools towards school administrators’ levels of postmodern leadership values possession. The sample of this study covers 415 teachers applied postmodern leadership value scale and 42 teachers interviewed in 21 primary schools. The related data were collected and analyzed through mixed method. During the analysis of quantitative data, arithmetic average, independent t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe tests ...

  17. Lost property? The role of the police in returning personal possessions after disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Easthope [writing as Payne], Lucy; Eyre, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Within the police service and elsewhere, great emphasis is placed today on respecting the rights of the bereaved in the aftermath of disaster and other circumstances of sudden violent death. When it comes to the specific details relating to the recovery, processing and return of personal possessions to the bereaved, however, there are still varying degrees of understanding about the meaning and significance of personal property and a lack of clarity within and across the various responding or...

  18. An immunoreactive xanthine oxidase protein-possessing xanthinuria and her family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Moriwaki, Y; Suda, M; Takahashi, S; Hada, T; Nanahoshi, M; Agbedana, E O; Higashino, K

    1992-06-15

    The presence of immunoreactive xanthine oxidase protein was proven in a xanthinuric patient, using a polyclonal antibody against xanthine oxidase. The antibody was raised against purified human liver xanthine oxidase in a rabbit. Double immunodiffusion method demonstrated the existence of an immunologically reactive xanthine oxidase which did not possess xanthine oxidase activity. In addition, urinary excretion of oxypurines in the patient and her family was investigated. The results indicated that a brother and a sister had xanthinuria.

  19. Possession by 'Jinn' as a cause of epilepsy (Saraa): a study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Tahir; Abulaban, Ahmad; Al-Ghatani, Fawazia; Al-Malki, Abdul Rahman; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulaziz

    2012-05-01

    Epilepsy has been linked to divine, demonic and supernatural powers throughout its long history. This study was conducted to explore if misconceptions such as possession by demons (Jinns) are still believed to be a cause of epilepsy among educated Saudis today. This study was conducted among university-educated school teachers and undergraduate students. The findings are based on a structured questionnaire enquiring about familiarity with epilepsy, sources of knowledge, and depth of knowledge about specific aspects of epilepsy. Responses from 398 participants were included in the analysis of the results. Most participants had witnessed epileptic seizures. 2/3 of the participants reported that they had learned about epilepsy from friends and relatives. 172 (43.1%) members believed that epilepsy is a psychiatric disease. 62 (40.3%) of the school teachers and 123 (50.4%) of the students in the study considered possession as a cause of epilepsy. The majority of the cohort believed medical treatment for the condition exists despite the fact that a significant number believed that faith healers and traditional medicine can be of help in the treatment of epilepsy. Jinn possession is still believed to be a cause of epilepsy in Saudi society, even among fairly well-educated people. This finding emphasizes the urgent need for public education campaigns at all levels of education. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Possession of weapon and hunting license: the role of the physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Giboulet, Nicolas; Jardé, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In France, the physician can inform the prefect that a patient, detaining weapon and followed for a pathology (psychiatric notably), is dangerous. Then, it comes back to the prefect to appreciate the appropriate measurements to take, notably to order the delivery of weapon and ammunitions. In France, the doctor can be solicited to establish the necessary medical certficates during requests of approval or acquisition and having guns for hunting and sports shooting, or to obtain the licence of hunting. The acquisition and the possession of certain weapon cannot be granted if the applicant is a protected person over 18, was or is hospitalized, without his consent, owing to mental disturbances or, is in a physical or psychical state apparently incompatible with the possession of weapon. But it appears that the access to this information by the prefects is made difficult by the absence of files centralizing these data. Question settles to institute an automated national file of hospitalizations under pressure, which could be consulted prior to the deliverance or the approval of possession of weapon for hunting and as sports shooting. In our opinion, this should be made, in a strictly supervised manner, through a sworn doctor, systematically solicited as part of the licence of hunting and licence of shooting, to liberate the family practitioners of an expertise role.

  1. Mengenal Hanta Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Tri

    2009-01-01

    Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

  2. Viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    , when one examines the archaeal viruses, the picture appears complex. Most viruses that are known to infect members of the kingdom Euryarchaeota resemble bacterial viruses, whereas those associated with the kingdom Crenarchaeota show little resemblance to either bacterial or eukaryal viruses....... This review summarizes our current knowledge of this group of exceptional and highly diverse archaeal viruses....

  3. Analysis of virus genomes from glacial environments reveals novel virus groups with unusual host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mark Bellas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in glacial ecosystems are diverse, active, and subjected to strong viral pressures and infection rates. In this study we analyse putative virus genomes assembled from three dsDNA viromes from cryoconite hole ecosystems of Svalbard and the Greenland Ice Sheet to assess the potential hosts and functional role viruses play in these habitats. We assembled 208 million reads from the virus-size fraction and developed a procedure to select genuine virus scaffolds from cellular contamination. Our curated virus library contained 546 scaffolds up to 230 Kb in length, 54 of which were circular virus consensus genomes. Analysis of virus marker genes revealed a wide range of viruses had been assembled, including bacteriophages, cyanophages, nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses and a virophage, with putative hosts identified as Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria, eukaryotic algae and amoebae. Whole genome comparisons revealed the majority of circular genome scaffolds formed 12 novel groups, two of which contained multiple phage members with plasmid-like properties, including a group of phage-plasmids possessing plasmid-like partition genes and toxin-antitoxin addiction modules to ensure their replication and a satellite phage-plasmid group. Surprisingly we also assembled a phage that not only encoded plasmid partition genes, but a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas adaptive bacterial immune system. One of the spacers was an exact match for another phage in our virome, indicating that in a novel use of the system, the lysogen was potentially capable of conferring immunity on its bacterial host against other phage. Together these results suggest that highly novel and diverse groups of viruses are present in glacial environments, some of which utilise very unusual life strategies and genes to control their replication and maintain a long-term relationship with

  4. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  5. N1-arylation of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones with diaryliodonium salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Raysa; Felix, Robert; Kemmitt, Paul D; Coles, Simon J; Tizzard, Graham J.; Spencer, John

    2017-01-01

    A library of N1-arylated 5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones has been synthesized starting with unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts using aqueous ammonia as a base. This can also be applied to a similar 1,3,4-benzotriazepin-2-one derivative.

  6. A simple and efficient approach for synthesis of 1,4-dihydro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple highly versatile and efficient synthesis of various 1,4-dihydropyridines in the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with β-dicarbonyl compounds and ammonium acetate in the presence of nano-sulfated zirconia, nano-structured ZnO, nano-γ-alumina and nano-ZSM-5 zeolites, as catalyst in the ethanol at moderate ...

  7. Oxidative ring cleavage of 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-1,4-dione in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fungal,4 vasorelaxant,5 anti-HIV,6 anti-cancer activity,7. PDE3/PDE4 inhibitory agents,8 anti-asthamatic,9 leishmanicidal10 and anti-diabetic have made synthetic studies of the phthalazine ring system attractive over the years. The chemical oxidation of 2,3-dihydrophthalazine-. 1,4-dione and its derivatives has previously ...

  8. Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted 1, 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole using copper nanoparticles supported on nanocellulose as recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. MITALI CHETIA ABDUL A ALI ANKUR BORDOLOI DIGANTA SARMA. RAPID COMMUNICATION Volume 129 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 1211-1217 ...

  9. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Wachem, Pauline B.; van Luyn, Marja J.A.; Hendriks, Marc; Cahalan, Patrick T.; Feijen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the

  10. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE;. Linearization of the

  11. 3-Methyltrimethylammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    877. 3-Methyltrimethylammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells. K HARI GOPI, S ... oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). .... ing, the mixture was precipitated using methanol, washed.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical substance...-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane (PMN P-93-483) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Poly[bis[μ-1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene]dichloridocadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinliang Hu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CdCl2(C14H14N42]n, has a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, formed by four N atoms from 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands and two Cl atoms, giving a two-dimensional network. The Cd atom lies on a centre of inversion.

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of novel 1H-1,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    thesis of 1,5-benzodiazepines. 16 and phosphonates. 17. We are interested to synthesis pyrazolo [4,3-d] pyrimidine-7-one containing 1,4-diazepines due to pyrazolopyrimidinones are potent and selective inhibitors of type 5 cyclic gaunosine-3′,5′-mono- phosphate phosphodiesterase (CGMP) PDE-5. 18,19 which have ...

  15. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene. A synchrotron radiation linear dichroism investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variabl...

  16. Click synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted-1, 2, 3-triazoles catalysed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A CuO-CeO2 nanocomposite in the presence of amberlite-supported azide has been used for the click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles in good yields. This catalyst can be reused several times without any significant decrease in the catalytic activity.

  17. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  18. Chemical consequences of long-range orbital interactions in Perhydronaphtalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, R.V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis the base-induced reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters are described. These compounds undergo smoothly, typical carbocationic processes upon treatment with sodium tert -amylate in refluxing benzene. The product outcome, product

  19. Intramolecular excimer and exciplex emission of 1,4-dipyrenyl substituted cyclohexasilane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walree, C.A.; Kaats-Richters, V.E.M.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Intramolecular excimer emission is observed for cis-1,4-di(1-pyrenyl)decamethylcyclohexasilane in nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and kinetic modelling indicate that the driving force of excimer formation is very small, and that the process is governed by the flexibility

  20. One-pot multi-component synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 3. One-pot ... Keywords. Green chemistry; one-pot synthesis; 1,4-dihydropyridines; deep eutectic solvents; recyclability. ... Organic Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Ramnarain Ruia College, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India ...

  1. High molecular weight polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on 1,4-butanediisocyanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, CJ; de Groot, JH; Dekens, FG; Pennings, AJ

    New biomedical polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on epsilon-caprolactone and 1,4-butanediisocyanate have been developed. On degradation, only non-toxic products are produced. The polyurethane urea with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) soft segments and butanediisocyanate/butanediamine hard

  2. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM). SOUMITRA MAITY and SUBRATA GHOSH*. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,. Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 e-mail: ocsg@iacs.res.in. MS received 16 August 2010; ...

  3. Purification and characterization of an endo-1,4-β- glucanase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    4], exo-1 ... Endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was assayed by incubating 1 ml of the isolated enzyme (suitably diluted) with 1 ml of 1% ..... Extracellular enzyme synthesis in the genus bacillus. Bacteriol. Rev. 41: 711-753. Ryu DDY ...

  4. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  5. One-pot tandem 1,4-1,2-addition of phosphites to quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blieck, Ann; Masschelein, Kurt G R; Dhaene, Fréderic; Rozycka-Sokolowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard; Drabowicz, Jozef; Stevens, Christian V

    2010-01-14

    Trialkyl and silylated dialkyl phosphites were evaluated as phosphorus nucleophiles for the addition to quinolines in a strong acidic medium allowing consecutive 1,4- and 1,2-addition breaking up the aromatic stabilisation, thereby leading to 2,4-diphosphono-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in one single reaction step in moderate to good yields (2-84%).

  6. Borylation of Olefin C-H Bond via Aryl to Vinyl Palladium 1,4-Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ya-Heng; Feng, Chen-Guo; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2016-03-09

    The aryl to vinyl palladium 1,4-migration was realized for the first time. The generated alkenyl palladium species was trapped by diboron reagents under Miyaura borylation conditions, providing a new method to synthesize β,β-disubstituted vinylboronates. The excellent regioselectivity and broad substrate scope were observed for this novel transformation.

  7. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  8. High-affinity antibodies to the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.P.; Sharp, A.; Strom, M.; Kahl, S.D.

    1986-05-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers have been produced in rabbits by immunization with dihydropyridine-protein conjugates. Anti-dihydropyridine antibodies were found to specifically bind (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine, (/sup 3/H)-nimodipine, (/sup 3/H)nisoldipine, and (/sup 3/H)PN 200-110 (all 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers) with high affinity, while (/sup 3/H)verapamil, (/sup 3/H)diltiazem, and (/sup 3/H)trifluoperazine were not recognized. The average dissociation constant of the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine-antibody complex was 0.06 (+/- 0.02) X 10(-9) M for an antiserum studied in detail and ranged from 0.01 to 0.24 X 10(-9) M for all antisera. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding was specific for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel modifiers and the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition ranged between 0.25 and 0.90 nM. Structurally unrelated Ca2+-channel blockers, calmodulin antagonists, inactive metabolites of nitrendipine, and UV-inactivated nisoldipine did not modify (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to the anti-dihydropyridine antibodies. Dihydropyridines without a bulky substituent in the 4-position of the heterocycle were able to displace (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding, but the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition were greater than 800 nM. In summary, anti-dihydropyridine antibodies have been shown to have high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers and to exhibit dihydropyridine binding properties similar to the membrane receptor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers.

  9. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; psurface water (psurface water sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pwater supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei SiMa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H14N22+·2C6H2N3O7−, the cation possesses crystallographically imposed twofold rotation symmetry. In the crystal structure, the cation and anions are linked into a trimeric aggregate by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The trimeric units are further connected by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.507 (2–3.660 (3 Å], forming layers parallel to the bc plane.

  12. Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF protein of influenza C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Influenza C virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, causes flu-like disease but typically only with mild symptoms. Humans are the main reservoir of the virus, but it also infects pigs and dogs. Very recently, influenza C-like viruses were isolated from pigs and cattle that differ from classical influenza C virus and might constitute a new influenza virus genus. Influenza C virus is unique since it contains only one spike protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein HEF that possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying and membrane fusion activities, thus combining the functions of Hemagglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA of influenza A and B viruses. Here we briefly review the epidemiology and pathology of the virus and the morphology of virus particles and their genome. The main focus is on the structure of the HEF protein as well as on its co- and post-translational modification, such as N-glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, S-acylation and proteolytic cleavage into HEF1 and HEF2 subunits. Finally, we describe the functions of HEF: receptor binding, esterase activity and membrane fusion.

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  14. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  16. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  17. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryadi, Suharyono

    1996-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  20. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  1. Ficus septica plant extracts for treating Dengue virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1-4 (DENV-1-4 are positive-strand RNA viruses with an envelope that belongs to the Flaviviridae. DENV infection threatens human health worldwide. However, other than supportive treatments, no specific therapy is available for the infection. In order to discover novel medicine against DENV, we tested 59 crude extracts, without cytotoxicity, from 23 plants in vitro; immunofluorescence assay revealed that the methanol extracts of fruit, heartwood, leaves and stem from Ficus septica Burm. f. had a promising anti-DENV-1 and DENV-2 effect. However, infection with the non-envelope picornavirus, Aichi virus, was not inhibited by treatment with F. septica extracts. F. septica may be a candidate antiviral drug against an enveloped virus such as DENV.

  2. Configurations, band structures and photocurrent responses of 4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl)phthalic acid and its metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xingxiu; Qiu, Xiandeng; Yan, Zhishuo; Li, Hongjiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Gong, Yun, E-mail: gongyun7211@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Lin, Jianhua, E-mail: jhlin@pku.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4 H)-yl)phthalic acid (H{sub 2}L) and three H{sub 2}L-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) formulated as ZnL(DPE)(H{sub 2}O)·H{sub 2}O (DPE=(E)-1, 2-di(pyridine −4-yl)ethene) (1), CdL(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (2) and CdL (3) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The free H{sub 2}L ligand shows an enol-form and the L{sup 2−} ligand in the three MOFs exists as the keto-form. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate H{sub 2}L and the three MOFs possess different band structures. Due to the existence of the N-donor, DPE in MOF 1, the conduction band (CB) minimum and band gap of MOF 1 are much lower than those of H{sub 2}L. And MOF 1 yielded much larger photocurrent density than H{sub 2}L upon visible light illumination. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows the interfacial charge transfer impedance in the presence of MOF 1 is lower than that in the presence of H{sub 2}L. The hydrous MOF 2 and the anhydrous MOF 3 are both constructed by Cd(II) and L{sup 2−}, and they can be reversibly transformed to each other. However, MOFs 2 and 3 possess different CB minimums and VB maximums, and their band gaps are much larger than that of MOF 1. - Graphical abstract: The free ligand, 4-(4-oxopyridin-1(4H)-yl)phthalic acid (H{sub 2}L) shows different configuration from its three MOFs, and they possess different band structures. MOF 1 yielded much larger visible-light-driven photocurrent density than H{sub 2}L. The hydrous MOF 2 and the anhydrous MOF 3 can be transformed to each other, and they have larger band gaps than MOF 1.

  3. [Characterization of β-1, 4-mannanase from Bacillus pumilus and heterologous expression in Lactobacillus casei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yexia; Lin, Jinzhong; Bu, Xuemei; Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Zhengjun; Ge, Xiangyang

    2015-12-04

    Lactobacillus casei is widely used in food production and feed industry. The aim of this study was to construct the recombinant expression mannanase Lb. casei. The mature peptide gene of β-1,4-mannanase from Bacillus pumilus was cloned into expression vectors pELX1 and pELSH, then electroporated into Lb. casei, establishing an intracellular and a secretion expression mannanase Lb. casei respectively. After incubation, the specific activity of β-1,4-mannanase was 23 U/mg whole cell protein for intracellular expression and 8.8 U/mL for secretion expression in supernatant. Mannanase gene expression in Lb. casei provides application prospect and deserves further study.

  4. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G

    2014-01-01

    The potential for measuring the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decay into two muons at a 1.4 TeV CLIC e+e− collider is addressed in this paper, that was presented at ICHEP2014. The study is performed in the full Geant4 detector simulations of CLIC_ILD, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced background processes, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag forward electrons. In this analysis we show that the branching ratio BR(H-->mu+mu-) times the Higgs production cross-section can be measured with 38% statistical accuracy at √s =1.4 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.5 ab-1. This study is part of an ongoing comprehensive Higgs physics benchmark study covering various Higgs production processes and decay modes, currently being carried out to estimate the full Higgs physics potential of CLIC.

  5. SM-like Higgs decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The branching fraction measurement of the SM-like Higgs boson decay into two muons at 1.4 TeV CLIC will be described in this paper contributed to the LCWS13. The study is performed in the fully simulated ILD detector concept for CLIC, taking into consideration all the relevant physics and the beam-induced backgrounds, as well as the instrumentation of the very forward region to tag the high-energy electrons. Higgs couplings are known to be sensitive to BSM physics and we prove that BR times the Higgs production cross section can be measured with approximately 35.5% statistical accuracy in four years of the CLIC operation at 1.4 TeV centre-of-mass energy with unpolarised beams. The result is preliminary as the equivalent photon approximation is not considered in the cross-section calculations. This study complements the Higgs physics program foreseen at CLIC.

  6. {sup 14}N NQR study of selected 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N., E-mail: nadiabeepath@hotmail.com; Stephenson, D., E-mail: david.stephenson@sta.uwi.edu [University of the West Indies, Chemistry Department (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-04-15

    The {sup 14}N NQR frequencies of selected 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes were measured using cross relaxation double resonance. As the number of substituents increase, a significant shift in the NQR values is observed. Comparison of unsubstituted and tri-substituted 1,4-benzoquinonedioximes shows that the quadrupole coupling constant ({chi}) increases by about 1000 kHz and the asymmetry parameter ({eta}) decreases from Almost-Equal-To 0.7 to 0.3 respectively. Ab-initio calculations show that for the unsubstituted compound hydrogen bonding between oxime groups and pi-ring stacking is possible which cannot be accommodated for in heavily methyl substituted dioximes and this results in distinct NQR parameters.

  7. Crystal structure of (E-1-(4-chlorophenylethanone O-dehydroabietyloxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H34ClNO2 {systematic name: (E-1-(4-chlorophenylethanone O-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carbonyl]oxime}, was synthesized from dehydroabietic acid. In the dehydroabietyl moiety, the central and terminal cyclohexane rings display chair and half-chair conformations, respectively, and a trans-ring junction. The C=N bond is in an E conformation and the C—O—N=C torsion angle is 148.1 (5°. No directional interactions except van der Waals contacts occur in the crystal structure.

  8. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  9. Cancer Cell Cytotoxicities of 1-(4-Substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yarim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl-4-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine derivatives 5ag was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydrylpiperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B, breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1, colon (HCT-116, gastric (KATO-3 and endometrial (MFE-296 cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.

  10. Synthesis of Chiral 1,4-Disubstituted-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives from Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Grøtli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A versatile method for the synthesis of chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole derivatives starting from easily accessible naturally occurring D-or L-amino acids as chiral synthons is described. The amino acids were converted into azido alcohols, followed by copper catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions between the azido alcohols and methyl propiolate and subsequent ester aminolysis with primary and secondary amines furnished the target compounds, which were obtained in excellent yields with no racemization. Docking of selected target compounds shows that the chiral 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles derivatives has the potential of mimicking the binding mode of known purine analogues.

  11. Novel 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives with antiproliferative properties on tumor cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Dourlat, Jennifer; Liu, Wang-Qing; Gresh, Nohad; Garbay, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Novel 1,4-benzodiazepine compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. Some compounds revealed activities in the micromolar range and were more efficient than reference compound Ro 5-4864. Preliminary SAR helped to identify critical motifs for antiproliferative activity and led to the discovery of a compound selective for a melanoma cell line, known for its resistance to chemotherapy.

  12. 1,3-Di-4-pyridylpropane–2-hydroxybenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ge Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H14N2·2C8H6O5, which crystallized in the monoclinic C2/c space group, the 1,3-bis(4-pyridylpropane molecules and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid molecules are alternately linked by O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into herringbone/zigzag chains.

  13. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  14. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Sorra, Kumaraswamy; Chen, Chien-Shu; Chang, Chi-Fen; Pusuluri, Srinivas; Mukkanti, Khagga; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16) were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolyti...

  15. Pseudocapacitance and excellent cyclability of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, Muhammad [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA; Chen, Chi [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA; School of Optical and Electronic Information; Bécuwe, Matthieu [Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides (LRCS); UMR CNRS 7314; Université de Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV); 80039 Amiens; France; Miao, Ling [School of Optical and Electronic Information; Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Wuhan; People' s Republic of China; Gogotsi, Yury [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Drexel University; Philadelphia; USA

    2016-01-01

    Non-covalent functionalization of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hydroquinone on reduced graphene oxide sheets led to the formation of a redox-active three-dimensional gel architectureviaa one-step hydrothermal method, where the former exhibited high gravimetric and volumetric capacitance and 99% capacitance retention after 25000 cycles at 50 mV s-1.

  16. Probing the Mechanism of 1,4-Conjugate Elimination Reactions Catalyzed by Terpene Synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Faraldos, Juan A.; Gonzalez, Veronica; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Köksal, Mustafa; Christianson, David W.; Allemann, Rudolf K.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of (E)-β-farnesene synthase (EBFS) and isoprene synthase (ISPS), enzymes that catalyze a formal regioespecific 1,4-conjugate elimination of hydrogen-diphosphate from (E, E)-farnesyl and dimethylallyl diphosphate (FDP and DMADP) to generate the semiochemicals (E)-β-farnesene and isoprene, respectively, were probed with substrate analogs and kinetic measurements. The results support stepwise reaction mechanisms through analogous enzyme-bound allylic cationic intermediate...

  17. Synthesis, anticancer activity and QSAR study of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Pingaew, Ratchanok; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-09-12

    A series of 2-substituted amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (3-12) were synthesized as anticancer agents and tested against four cancer cell lines including HepG2, HuCCA-1, A549 and MOLT-3. The most potent cytotoxic activity against the HepG2, HuCCA-1 and A549 cell lines was found to be m-acetylphenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone (8) affording IC50 values of 4.758, 2.364 and 12.279 μM, respectively. On the other hand, p-acetylphenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone (9) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity against the MOLT-3 cell line with an IC50 of 2.118 μM. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) investigations provided good predictive performance as observed from cross-validated R of 0.9177-0.9753 and RMSE of 0.0614-0.1881. The effects of substituents at the 2-amino position on the naphthoquinone core structure and its corresponding influence on the cytotoxic activity were investigated by virtually constructing additional 1,4-naphthoquinone compounds (13-36) for which cytotoxic activities were predicted using equations obtained from the previously constructed QSAR models. Interpretation of informative descriptors from QSAR models revealed pertinent knowledge on physicochemical properties governing the cytotoxic activities of tested cancer cell lines. It is anticipated that the QSAR models developed herein could provide guidelines for further development of novel and potent anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridomanganate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C8H15N3[MnCl4], the Mn atom is coordinated by four chloride ligands in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. Each [MnCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001].

  19. 1-Bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridozincate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ping Shi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 1-bromomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide, zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid in water yields the title compound, (C7H15BrN2[ZnCl4]. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The ZnII atom has an approximately tetrahedral coordination geometry.

  20. 1-Cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Han Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, (C8H15N3[CdCl4], four Cl atoms coordinate the CdII atom in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, each [CdCl4]2− anion is connected to the 1-cyanomethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to [001]. C—H...Cl interactions also occur.

  1. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  2. [Jinn possession as an explanation of mental illness influences the treatment-seeking behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amna; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-07-04

    Jinn possession is used as an explanation of mental symptoms among Muslims around the world. Very few studies have examined the use of jinn as a religious explanation model for mental health problems and treatment-seeking behaviour. The majority of studies show a positive association between jinn explanations and preferred treatment by religious healers, but due to methodological limitations, results should be taken with precaution. There is a need for longitudinal studies focusing on improving cultural competence and exploring possible cooperation with healers.

  3. Synthesis of 3-aryl-5-decapentyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles possessing antiinflammatory and antitumor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Natércia M Miranda; De Oliveira, Shalom P; Srivastava, Rajendra M; Da Silva, Joel R

    2005-01-01

    A simple, convenient and straightforward synthesis of 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles 4a-f from arylamidoximes 1a-f and palmitic acid 2 is described. Compounds 4a-f are non-lethal in mice at four times the therapeutic dose (i.p., LD50>1 g kg(-1) of the animals' body weight). These heterocycles have been found to possess antiinflammatory property similar to aspirin and ibuprofen. Three compounds, viz., 4a, d, e have also been evaluated for antitumor activity, where 4d exhibited an excellent activity comparable to lapachol.

  4. NuSTAR Observation of the Symbiotic System GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Enoto, Teruaki; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wood, Kent

    2017-08-01

    We report on a NuSTAR observation of the symbiotic binary system GX 1+4. GX 1+4 is one of a small number of systems with a red giant mass donor and a magnetic neutron star in orbit around each other. The accreting pulsar in GX 1+4 has a spin period of ~150 seconds with epochs of both spin-up and spin-down. The orbital period that has not been determined. Magnetic accretion theory in such systems suggests that the neutron star has a magnetic field in the range 1013-1014 Gauss although this is not settled because no cyclotron absorption feature has been observed in the X-ray spectrum. The NuSTAR spectrum shows broad Fe-line emission near ~6.5 keV and also shows a broad power law shape detected up to ~60 keV. We analyze and discuss the NuSTAR X-ray data with particular attention to the question of what can the spectrum tell us about the structure of the accretion flow onto the neutron star and the magnetic field strength.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2,5-Bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of twelve 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones were prepared in yields ranging from 9–58% via the reaction between p-benzoquinone and various amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS analyses. The phytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was evaluated against two crop species, Cucumis sativus and Sorgum bicolor, at 1.0 × 10-3 mol/L. In general, the quinones displayed inhibitory effects on the dicotyledonous species C. sativus (7–74%. On the other hand stimulatory effects were observed on S. bicolor (monocotyledonous. Similar results were observed in the biological assays carried out with the weed species Ipomoea grandifolia (dicotyledonous and Brachiaria decumbens (monocotyledonous. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the 2,5-bis(alkylamino-1,4-benzoquinones was assayed against HL-60 (leukemia, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma, SF-295 (brain and HCT-8 (colon human cancer cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as representatives of healthy cells, using a MTT and an Alamar Blue assay. Compound 12 was the most active, displaying cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines tested.

  6. Thermal and structural study on the lattice compound 1,4-diammoniumbutane bis(theophyllinate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Margit; Madarasz, Janos; Bombicz, Petra; Pokol, Gyoergy; Gal, Sandor

    2004-10-01

    Crystalline title compound (1) prepared from aqueous solution of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane has been structurally and thermally characterized. Both the two-step TG decomposition curve and elemental analysis of the hexagonal crystals show that it consists of theophylline and 1,4-diaminobutane in 2:1 molar ratio. Actually, presence of one type of both theophyllinate anions and 1,4-diammoniumbutane dication have been indicated by FTIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of lattice compound (1) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, where the hydrogen positions have been obtained from differential Fourier maps. It has confirmed that the crystal is really built up from these ionic constituents bound together with an extensive net of hydrogen bonds. The coupled TG-FTIR analysis of the evolved gases has revealed that the diamine is released as a whole molecule in the first decomposition step. Clathrate 1 and the proton migration in it might serve as a structural model of solid aminophylline whose crystal structure is still unknown.

  7. Molluscicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Camara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic profile of lawsone (2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and a series of [1,4]naphthoquinone derivatives was evaluated against the brine shrimp Artemia salina and against the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, the main transmitting vector of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Of the seventeen compounds tested nine fell below the threshold of 100 µg/mL set for potential molluscicidal activity by the World Health Organization. As a general rule derivatives with non-polar substituents presented the highest molluscicidal activities. These substances showed significant toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay.A toxicidade da lausona (2-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona e de diversos derivados foi avaliada frente à Artemia salina e ao molusco Biomphalaria glabrata, o principal vetor de transmissão da esquistossomose no Brasil. Entre os dezessete compostos testados, nove apresentaram um perfil de toxicidade menor que 100 µg/mL, sendo potenciais agentes moluscicidas de acordo com as designações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. No presente estudo, os compostos contendo substituintes apolares exibiram as maiores atividades. Estes compostos também se mostraram significantemente tóxicos frente à A. salina.

  8. Identification of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase of Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Elena; Wierckx, Nick; Zimmermann, Martin; Blank, Lars M

    2013-07-26

    The utilization of raw biomass components such as cellulose or hemicellulose for the production of valuable chemicals has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. One promising approach is the application of microorganisms that naturally convert biomass constituents into value added chemicals. One of these organisms--Ustilago maydis--can grow on xylan, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, while at the same time it produces chemicals of biotechnological interest. In this study, we present the identification of an endo-1,4-beta xylanase responsible for xylan degradation. Xylanase activity of U. maydis cells was indirectly detected by the quantification of released reducing sugars and could be confirmed by visualizing oligosaccharides as degradation products of xylan by thin layer chromatography. A putative endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, was identified in the supernatant of xylan-grown cells. To confirm the activity, we displayed the putative xylanase on the surface of the xylanase negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. The presented enzyme converted xylan to xylotriose, similar to the source organism U. maydis. The xylan degradation ability together with its unicellular and yeast-like growth makes U. maydis MB215 a promising candidate for the production of valuable chemicals such as itaconic acid or glycolipids from lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the characterization of the endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, is a further step towards the biotechnological application of U. maydis and its enzymes.

  9. Selective expression of aquaporin 1, 4 and 5 in the rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, S; Kobayashi, H; Yamashita, A; Yanagita, T; Uezono, Y; Yokoo, H; Shiraishi, S; Saitoh, T; Asada, Y; Komune, S; Wada, A

    2001-08-01

    The middle ear cavity is an air-filled space that must be maintained for effective sound transmission to the inner ear. To examine the mechanisms of water homeostasis in the middle ear, we investigated whether aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water-permeable channels, were expressed in the middle ear. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses revealed that mRNAs encoding AQP1, 4 and 5 (but not 2 or 3) subtypes were expressed in rat middle ear epithelium; AQP1, 4 and 5 were detected as 28-, 30- and 30-kDa proteins, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AQP1 was localized at capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts in lamina propria mucosae; AQP4 was present solely at the basolateral membrane of ciliated cells, whereas AQP5 was on the apical surface of ciliated cells as well as of flat and columnar epithelial cells. The characteristic different localizations of AQP1, 4 and 5 subtypes in the middle ear suggest that middle ear water homeostasis requires the coordinated operation of these AQPs.

  10. Spectroscopic investigations on the orientation of 1,4-dibromonaphthalene on silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, K; Umadevi, M; Sathe, G V; Erenler, R

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been prepared by solution combustion method with glycine as fuel. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibit cubic crystalline structure with grain size of 59 nm. HRTEM image shows that the silver nanoparticles have strain and four-fold symmetry formed by twinning in the crystal structure. The optical adsorption spectrum shows that the surface plasmon resonance peak of silver is observed at 380 nm. The orientation of 1,4-dibromonaphthlaene (1,4-DBrN) on silver nanoparticles has been inferred from nRs and SERS spectral features. The absence of a C-H stretching vibrations, the observed high intense C-H out-of-plane bending modes and high intense C-Br stretching vibration suggest that the 1,4-DBrN molecule may be adsorbed in a 'stand-on' orientation to the surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luqian; Huang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies were performed to assess the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. In the present study, the possible association was investigated by a meta-analysis. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to June 2013. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were appropriately derived from random-effects models or fixed-effects models. Fourteen case-control studies with a total of 2487 cases and 3538 controls were eligible. In recessive model, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was associated with T2DM risk (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.41; P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Asians (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.08-1.51; P = 0.005). This meta-analysis suggested that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with T2DM development. PMID:24040470

  12. Comparison of an avidin-biotin immunoassay with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B; Richards, D F

    1985-01-01

    An avidin-biotin complex system was compared with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for serotyping herpes simplex virus isolates from clinical specimens. Sensitivity values showed that the Electro-Nucleonics and Immulok reagents were useful in detecting the presence of virus, whereas the predictive values showed that the Syva and Immulok reagents possessed adequate discrimination between the herpes simplex virus serotypes. The avidin-biotin complex system was equal or super...

  13. D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van R.L.M.; Immink, V.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will

  14. Assessment of Management Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant management competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the management competencies possessed by the university…

  15. Assessment of Accounting Competencies Possessed by Postgraduate University Business Education Students to Handle Entrepreneurship Business Challenges in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2014-01-01

    University Business Education graduates, by the nature of their programme, ought to possess relevant accounting competencies for successful entrepreneurship but casual observation and empirical reports indicate that they are not doing well in this aspect. Therefore, this study assessed the accounting competencies possessed by university…

  16. 41 CFR 109-1.5113 - Loss, damage, or destruction of personal property in possession of designated contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... property in its possession or control, including property in the possession or control of subcontractors, to the property administrator as soon as it becomes known. (b) When physical inventories, consumption...

  17. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who, with...

  18. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  19. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  20. Phthalocyanine derivatives possessing 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy groups as potential agents for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 μM for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 μM was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions.

  1. Hierarchical remote data possession checking method based on massive cloud files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Haifeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage service enables users to migrate their data and applications to the cloud, which saves the local data maintenance and brings great convenience to the users. But in cloud storage, the storage servers may not be fully trustworthy. How to verify the integrity of cloud data with lower overhead for users has become an increasingly concerned problem. Many remote data integrity protection methods have been proposed, but these methods authenticated cloud files one by one when verifying multiple files. Therefore, the computation and communication overhead are still high. Aiming at this problem, a hierarchical remote data possession checking (hierarchical-remote data possession checking (H-RDPC method is proposed, which can provide efficient and secure remote data integrity protection and can support dynamic data operations. This paper gives the algorithm descriptions, security, and false negative rate analysis of H-RDPC. The security analysis and experimental performance evaluation results show that the proposed H-RDPC is efficient and reliable in verifying massive cloud files, and it has 32–81% improvement in performance compared with RDPC.

  2. Schmallenberg virus – et nyt virus hos drøvtyggere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise

    undersøgelser på laboratoriet, blev alle prøver i en længere periode testet negative for kendte patogener, der evt. kunne tænkes at knytte sig til disse sygdomsudbrud. Efterfølgende fandt man ved sekvensanalyse på DNA/RNA oprenset fra prøvematerialet lighed med virus fra orthobunyavirusgruppen. Disse virus er...... normalt vektorbårne og er kendt som årsag til sygdom i drøvtyggere i Australien, Asien, Afrika og Mellemøsten. Det nye virus blev kaldt Schmallenberg virus (SBV) efter stedet hvor det første tilfælde blev påvist. Siden har Schmallenberg virus spredt sig og er nu påvist i får, kvæg og geder i Tyskland......, Holland, Belgien, Luxembourg, Frankrig, Spanien, Italien og Storbritannien (status april 2012). Det antages, at virus overføres med mitter og myg og inkubationstiden har fra eksperimentelle forsøg vist sig at være kort (1-4 dage). Virus cirkulerer få dage i blodet og manifesterer sig ved milde uspecifikke...

  3. REACTIVITY INITIATED ACCIDENT TEST SERIES TEST RIA 1-4 EXPERIMENT PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S. K.; Martinson, Z. R.

    1980-02-01

    The results of the pretest analyses for Test RIA 1-4 are presented. Test RIA 1-4 consists of a 3x3 array of previously irradiated MAP! fuel rods. The rods have 5.7% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel in zircaloy-4 cladding with an average burnup of 5300 MWd/t. The objective for Test RIA 1-4 is to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following RIA event for a radial-average peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g UO{sub 2}). Radial averaged peak fuel enthalpies of 1172 J/g (280 cal/g) 1077 J/g {257 cal/g), and 978 J/g (234 cal/g) for the corner, side, and center fuel rods, respectively, are planned to be achieved during a 2.7 ms reactor period power burst. The results of the FRAP-T5 analyses indicate that all nine rods will fail within 26 ms from the start of the power burst due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. All of the rods will undergo partial fuel melting. All rods will operate under extended film boiling (>30 sec) conditions and about 70% of the cladding length is expected to be molten. Approximately 15% of the cladding thickness will be oxided. Fuel swelling due to fission gas release and melting combined with fuel and cladding fragmentation, will probably produce a complete coolant flow blockage within the flow shroud.

  4. An acceptor analogue of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase: Substrate, inhibitor, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingqian; Wagner, Gerd K

    2017-10-10

    Many glycosyltransferase inhibitors in the literature are structurally derived from the donor or acceptor substrate of the respective enzyme. A representative example is 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc, a synthetic GlcNAc glycoside that has been reported as a galactosyltransferase inhibitor. This GlcNAc derivative is attractive as a chemical tool compound for biological and biochemical studies because of its reported potency as an inhibitor, and its short and straightforward synthesis from readily available starting materials. We report that in our hands, 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc behaved, unexpectedly, as an acceptor substrate of the inverting β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β-1,4-GalT) from bovine milk. This substrate activity has not previously been described. We found that 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc can be an acceptor substrate both for recombinantly expressed β-1,4-GalT, and for a commercial batch of the same enzyme, and both in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). As expected for a full acceptor substrate, this substrate activity was time- and concentration-dependent. Additional experiments show that the observed inhibitor/substrate switch is facilitated by a phosphatase that is an essential component of our enzyme-coupled glycosyltransferase assay. These findings suggest that the behaviour of 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc and related acceptor-based glycosyltransferase inhibitors is strongly dependent on the individual assay conditions. Our results therefore have important implications for the use of 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc and related glycosides as tool compounds in glycobiology and glycobiochemistry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of antigenically advanced variants of seasonal influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Taft, Andrew S.; Das, Subash C.; Hanson, Anthony P.; Song, Jiasheng; Imai, Masaki; Wilker, Peter R.; Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Ito, Mutsumi; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Russell, Colin A.; James, Sarah L.; Skepner, Eugene; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kelso, Anne; McCauley, John; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses mutate frequently, necessitating constant updates of vaccine viruses. To establish experimental approaches that may complement the current vaccine strain selection process, we selected antigenic variants from human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus libraries possessing random mutations in the globular head of the haemagglutinin protein (which includes the antigenic sites) by incubating them with human and/or ferret convalescent sera to human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Further, we selected antigenic escape variants from human viruses treated with convalescent sera and from mice that had been previously immunized against human influenza viruses. Our pilot studies with past influenza viruses identified escape mutants that were antigenically similar to variants that emerged in nature, establishing the feasibility of our approach. Our studies with contemporary human influenza viruses identified escape mutants before they caused an epidemic in 2014–2015. This approach may aid in the prediction of potential antigenic escape variants and the selection of future vaccine candidates before they become widespread in nature. PMID:27572841

  6. Postcards from the edge: structural genomics of archaeal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupovic, Mart; White, Malcolm F; Forterre, Patrick; Prangishvili, David

    2012-01-01

    Ever since their discovery, archaeal viruses have fascinated biologists with their unusual virion morphotypes and their ability to thrive in extreme environments. Attempts to understand the biology of these viruses through genome sequence analysis were not efficient. Genomes of archaeoviruses proved to be terra incognita with only a few genes with predictable functions but uncertain provenance. In order to facilitate functional characterization of archaeal virus proteins, several research groups undertook a structural genomics approach. This chapter summarizes the outcome of these efforts. High-resolution structures of 30 proteins encoded by archaeal viruses have been solved so far. Some of these proteins possess new structural folds, whereas others display previously known topologies, albeit without detectable sequence similarity to their structural homologues. Structures of the major capsid proteins have illuminated intriguing evolutionary connections between viruses infecting hosts from different domains of life and also revealed new structural folds not yet observed in currently known bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Structural studies, discussed here, have advanced our understanding of the archaeal virosphere and provided precious information on different aspects of biology of archaeal viruses and evolution of viruses in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es ... Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West Nile virus? And why is everyone talking about mosquitoes ? Even ...

  8. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO 5-aminotetrazolates

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    Herwig Schottenberger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of four salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO and 5-aminotetrazole are described. Anhydrous 1:1 (Pbca, Rgt = 0.041 and 1:2 (P, Rgt = 0.038 salts form hydrogen-bonded layers of anions and cations. The monohydrate of the 1:1 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.038 shows infinite chains of DABCO cations and an undulated layer of anions and water molecules. The octahydrate of the 3:2 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.042 features DABCO triples and clusters of four tetrazolate ions in a network of water molecules.

  9. Synthesis, Anticonvulsant, Sedative and Anxiolytic Activities of Novel Annulated Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy Sorra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13–16 were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic effects in our tests. There was no significant difference in potency between PBDT 13 and diazepam, and we proposed that the action mechanism of PBDT 13 could be similar to that of diazepam via benzodiazepine receptors.

  10. Poly[1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane [di-μ-iodido-diiodidoplumbate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kyle Rayner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, {(C8H20N2[PbI4]}n, is an inorganic–organic hybrid. The structure is composed of alternate layers of two-dimensional corner-sharing PbI6 octahedra (overline{1} symmetry and 1,4-bis(ammoniomethylcyclohexane cations (overline{1} symmetry extending parallel to the bc plane. The cations interact with the inorganic layer via N—H...I hydrogen bonding in the right-angled halogen sub-type of the terminal halide hydrogen-bonding motif.

  11. 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-Nitrosoamidines: Useful Intermediates in the Synthesis of Tricyclic Benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos del Pozo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available 1,4-Benzodiazepine N-nitrosoamidines have been used as scaffolds for the preparation of different tricyclic derivatives. Replacement of the N-nitrosoamidine moiety through treatment with the nucleophiles acetylhydrazine, aminoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal and 1-amino-2-propanol, followed by an acid-catalyzed cyclization step, afforded triazolo and imidazobenzodiazepines 1, 6, and 7, respectively, in good yields. When acetylhydrazine is used as a nucleophile, the overall process provides an alternative route to alprazolam (1b and triazolam (1c, respectively.

  12. Discovery of a class of diheteroaromatic amines as orally bioavailable CDK1/4/6 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Tang, Shuai; Su, Yi; Lan, Xiaojing; Ye, Yan; Zha, Chuantao; Li, Lei; Cao, Jianhua; Chen, Yi; Jiang, Lei; Huang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Huang, Min; Wan, Huixin

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of a class of diheteroaromatic amines based on LY2835219 as cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1/4/6) inhibitors was described. The series was found to have much more improved CDK1 inhibition and potent in vitro anti-proliferative effects against cancer cell lines. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of these compounds were reported. One promising compound was selected to evaluate as a novel lead compound after in vitro and in vivo profiling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ELEFUNT test results under X1. 4 on the Encore Multimax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    Two libraries of Fortran test programs for elementary functions, MACHAR and ELEFUNT, were run on an Encore Multimax computer with 20 CPUs and 20 Megabytes of memory. The test program libraries were run under the X1.4 operating system (a version of 4.2 BSD UNIX). PARANOIA, an arithmetic test program, was run under the X1.2 operating system. Accuracy of the elementary functions, error detection, and error responses for the functions are discussed. 5 refs., 3 tabs. (DWL)

  14. Condensation Polymers of Terephthalic Acid and 1,4-Diaminobutane and Their Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-terminated oligomeric poly(tetramethylene terephthalamide (PTTA was prepared by condensation of terephthalic acid and 1,4-diaminobutane using phosphorylation technique. Schiff base complexes of this polyamide were synthesized with salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, and Cu(II. The polyamide as well as Schiff base complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Thermal stabilities of ligand and its various complexes were compared by thermogravimetric analysis.

  15. (Z-2-Benzylidene-3-n-butoxy-2H-1,4-benzothiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kheira Sebbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H19NOS, the thiazin-3-one ring of the 1,4-thiazin-3-one moiety adopts a screw-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 31.0 (5°. An intramolecular C—H...S hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, C—H...π(ring contacts form inversion dimers and weak π–π stacking interactions, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.8766 (2 Å, also occur.

  16. Supported Molybdenum Catalysts for the Deoxydehydration of 1,4-Anhydroerythritol into 2,5-Dihydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrink, Lennart; Beckerle, Klaus; Meiners, Isabell; Liffmann, Rebecca; Rahimi, Khosrow; Okuda, Jun; Palkovits, Regina

    2017-04-10

    Efficient deoxygenation strategies are crucial for the valorization of renewable feedstocks. Deoxydehydration (DODH) enables the direct transformation of two adjacent hydroxyl groups into a double bond. Supported molybdenum-based catalysts were utilized for the first time in DODH. MoOx /TiO2 showed superior catalytic activity compared to common molybdenum salts. The catalyst efficiently converted 1,4-anhydroerythritol into 2,5-dihydrofuran in the presence of 3-octanol as reducing agent, showing high reproducibility and stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Poly[[μ-1,4-anhydroerythritolato-di-μ-aqua-sodium(I] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klüfers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Na(C4H7O3(H2O2]·H2O}n, the sodium ion is octahedrally coordinated by two bridging 1,4-anhydroerythritolate ligands, unexpectedly coordinated by the ring oxygen and four water ligands. This bonding pattern leads to one-dimensional antitactical polymeric chains along [010]. One of the exocyclic O atoms of the anhydroerythritolate group is an acceptor in four hydrogen bonds, giving further evidence that it is deprotonated.

  18. Dynamics of bromate oscillators with 1,4-cyclohexanedione in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztúri, Klára; Szalai, István

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics of the bromate-1,4-cyclohexanedione reaction and its ferroin catalyzed version in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor are reported. In the ([Br -] 0, [H 2SO 4] 0) and ([Br -] 0, [ferroin] 0) planes steady-state bistability and oscillations are observed. Close to the upper [Br -] 0 limit of the oscillatory domain the oscillations become aperiodic. By increasing the [ferroin] 0 the characteristic of the oscillations switches from 'uncatalyzed' to 'catalyzed'-type. Additionally, the effects of the bromide ions and ferroin on the batch dynamics are investigated.

  19. 1,4-Diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocadmate(II monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ben Rhaiem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound (C6H14N2[CdCl4]·H2O contained one 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dication, a tetrahedral CdCl42− anion and a lattice water molecule. In the crystal, the solvate water molecule interacts with the cationic and anionic species via N—H...O and O—H...Cl [O...Cl = 3.289 (7 Å] hydrogen-bond interactions, respectively, leading to a layered supramolecular structure extending parallel to (011.

  20. 1,2-Dimethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane tetrachloridocuprate(II

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    Tao Rong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C8H18N2[CuCl4], torsion angles on the ethylene bridges of the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane fragment are in the range 11.9 (5–15.0 (5° and the [CuCl4]2− anion has a strongly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The cation is connected to the anion via three-center N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  1. Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-β-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

    Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-β glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.

  2. Preferential Inhibition of Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis by a New Thiosemicarbazone Possessing Antibacterial and Antiparasitic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    drog c with investigation will be required to determine po- DMSO for 45 min, cultures were rfadjusted to a tential cellular effects. turbidity of 0.20...Chemother. l7:2W1-40V1, viru eNA.dependent DNA polymerase contain N Iv n, W,, A, Pares, It, Morris, I’, Mikelenx, (1, zinc (14-16;, IH), a transition...thlosimicsrbzons on Whatever mechanism is involved, the 2-acetyl- Iows sarc ma virus ,. several Isolated eosymes and otherviruses, p. 40J-414. In C. Y

  3. Viruses infecting maize

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Branka; Stanković, Ivana; Bulajić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 plant viruses has been known to cause diseases of maize, but economically the most important yield looses, which in certain years can be total, are caused by viruses from Potyvirus genera, known to be aphid-transmitted in a non-persistant maner. The most important viruses, pathogens of maize, sugar cane and sorghum are considered to be Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). In Serbia, the prese...

  4. Viruses in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, R

    2013-03-01

    Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed.

  5. From Powerlessness to Control: Psychosis, Spirit Possession and Recovery in the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores an aspect of the cultural modulation of recovery in psychosis. It begins with the idea that recovery hinges on the ability of subjects to relate to their distressing experiences in ways that expand rather than diminish agency.  Based on fieldwork in the Dakhla oasis of Egypt and subsequent analysis, it is argued that interpretations of psychosis as spirit possession offer a broader range of intentionality than biomedical interpretations and therefore broader possibilities of relating to psychotic states. Modes of relating to spirits may take active or passive forms, the former consistent with the recovery goal of symptom control. Factors constitutive of the active, agency-expanding mode of relating include: the nature of spirits; the values and beliefs of the subject; the broader cultural/religious discourses which may make it either more or less likely for the subject to achieve the desired state of control over symptoms.

  6. DLBS1033, A Protein Extract from Lumbricus rubellus, Possesses Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Trisina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal value of earthworm has been widely known since the history of Asian ancient medicine. This present study aims to determine the mechanism of action and effect of a standardized extract of Lumbricus rubellus named as DLBS1033. The fibrinogen degradation, antiplatelet aggregation, and ex vivo antithrombotic assay using human blood were performed to study antithrombotic activity. Fibrin plate and clot lysis assay were also done to examine thrombolytic properties. DLBS1033 was found to possess fibrinogenolytic activity on α-, β-, and γ-chain of fibrinogen. It also induced antiplatelet aggregation and prolonged blood clotting time, which further confirmed its antithrombotic properties. In addition, thrombolytic properties of DLBS1033 were shown with its fast and long-acting fibrinolytic activity, as well as its effective blood clot lysis activities. In conclusion, DLBS1033 conferred antithrombotic and thrombolytic action which could be used as a safe and promising oral thrombolytic drug.

  7. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  8. Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae: are all available isolates reassortants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Calisher, Charles H; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae (the bunyaviruses) possess three distinct linear, single-stranded, negative sense or ambisense RNA segments (large, medium, and small). Dual infections of arthropod and perhaps vertebrate and plant hosts provide substantial opportunity for segment reassortment and an increasingly recognized number of the nearly 300 viruses in this family have been shown to be reassortants. Reassortment of RNA segments (genetic shift) complements genetic drift (accumulation of point mutations) as a powerful mechanism underlying bunyavirus evolution. Here we consider the possibility, if not likelihood, that most if not all bunyaviruses currently recognized may represent reassortants, some of which may be reassortants of existing viruses, and some of which may be reassortants of extinct viruses. If this hypothesis is correct, then the roots of the family and genus trees of bunyaviruses as currently described (or ignored) are incomplete or incorrect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health App Possession Among Smartphone or Tablet Owners in Hong Kong: Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Chu, Joanna Tw; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-06-05

    Health apps are increasingly used with important implications for health. Hong Kong is one of the most technologically advanced and connected cities-smartphone ownership and Internet access rates are among the highest in the world. We investigated the prevalence of health app possession and related sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among smartphone or tablet owners in Hong Kong. A territory-wide population-based dual (landline and mobile) telephone survey was conducted in 2016. Respondents were asked whether they had health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets and what functions were available on the apps (eg, tracking physical activity and logging health records). Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI of health app possession for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (education, employment, and income), health behaviors (smoking, alcohol, and physical activity) and health (body mass index and chronic diseases). Of the 4129 smartphone or tablet owners (81.28%, 4129/5080 respondents), 995 (24.10%) had a health app. Tracking physical activity (67.0% of 995) and logging health records (43.0% of 995) were the most common functions of the health apps. Overall, younger age, higher education, and household income were associated with having health apps (all Plower prevalence of use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in respondents with lower education and income in the most developed Chinese city. This could be seen as a confirmation of the "Inverse information law," which suggests that those most in need have less use of services and hence receive less benefits from advancements in medicine and health related ICTs.

  10. Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Walsh, Eamonn; Bell, Vaughan; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Involuntary movements occur in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g., delusions of alien control and attributions of spirit possession). However, the underlying brain processes are poorly understood. We combined suggestion and fMRI in 15 highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers to investigate changes in brain activity accompanying different experiences of loss of self-control of movement. Suggestions of external personal control and internal personal control over involuntary movements modelled delusions of control and spirit possession respectively. A suggestion of impersonal control by a malfunctioning machine modelled technical delusions of control, where involuntary movements are attributed to the influence of machines. We found that (i) brain activity and/or connectivity significantly varied with different experiences and attributions of loss of agency; (ii) compared to the impersonal control condition, both external and internal personal alien control were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and brain regions involved in attribution of mental states and representing the self in relation to others; (iii) compared to both personal alien control conditions, impersonal control of movement was associated with increased activity in brain regions involved in error detection and object imagery; (iv) there were no significant differences in brain activity, and minor differences in M1 connectivity, between the external and internal personal alien control conditions. Brain networks supporting error detection and object imagery, together with representation of self and others, are differentially recruited to support experiences of impersonal and personal control of involuntary movements. However, similar brain systems underpin attributions and experiences of external and internal alien control of movement. Loss of self-agency for movement can therefore accompany different kinds of

  11. Kinetics of hydrolysis of 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative by carboxylesterases in mice organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Golovenko, V. B. Larionov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of the physiologically active substances and creation of prodrugs is one of the ways for pharmacotherapy optimization. The aim of the work was determination of the kinetic parameters of nonspecific esterases that catalyze hydrolysis of new hypnotic drug Levana (1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. The experiments were carried out using the 14C-labelled Levana and its active metabolite – 3-hydrixyphenazepam. In vitro it was shown that Levana undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis even in buffer solution (pH 7.4, though in plasma and homogenates of brain and liver this process is more intensive (conventional Vmax was 6.9 ± 0.5, 19 ± 4 and 12 ± 1 mM/(h∙mg of protein, correspondingly. The samples mentioned differ by activity of tissue estera­ses being most active in the liver (conventional Km 0.45 ± 0.04 mM for the liver and 47 ± 11 mM for the brain. In plasma carboxylesterase activity (for Leva­na is the lowest (conventional Km 129 ± 10 mM. In vivo it was shown that Levana more easily permeates brain-blood barrier (compared to 3-hydroxyphenaze­pam, that leads to higher concentrations (after hyd­rolysis of its metabolite in brain tissue. Also it is quantitatively estimated as the increase of concentration (brain/blood ratio ~1.4 times.

  12. Identification of an α-(1,4)-Glucan-Synthesizing Amylosucrase from Cellulomonas carboniz T26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchun; Xu, Wei; Bai, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2017-03-15

    Amylosucrase, catalyzing the synthesis of α-(1,4)-glucan from sucrose, has been widely studied and used in carbohydrate biotransformation because of its versatile activities. In this study, a novel amylosucrase was characterized from Cellulomonas carboniz T26. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed in Escherchia coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. It was determined to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 72 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for transglucosylation were measured to be pH 7.0 and 40 °C. The transglucosylation activity was significantly higher than the hydrolytic activity. The main product generated from sucrose was structurally determined to be α-(1,4)-glucan. A small amount of glucose was produced by hydrolysis, and sucrose isomers including turanose and trehalulose were generated as minor products. The ratio of hydrolytic, polymerization, and isomerization reactions was calculated to be 5.8:84.0:10.2. The enzyme favored production of long-chain insoluble α-glucan at lower temperature.

  13. Experiment data report for LOFT nonnuclear Test L1-4. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, D. L.

    1977-07-01

    Test L1-4 was the fourth in a series of five nonnuclear isothermal blowdown tests conducted by the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Test L1-4 was the first Nuclear Regulatory Commission standard problem (International Problem No. 5 and U.S. Problem No. 7) experiment conducted at LOFT. Data from this test will be compared with predictions generated by the standard problem participants. For this test the LOFT Facility was configured to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a large pressurized water reactor resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of the primary coolant system. A hydraulic core simulator assembly was installed in place of the nuclear core. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were temperature at 279/sup 0/C, gauge pressure at 15.65 MPa, and intact loop flow at 268.4 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermalhydraulic response.

  14. Chirality of the 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons at the nano and angstrom levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Sibing; Xiao, Min; Wang, Mingliang; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of chiral 1,4-phenylene-silicas, using a sol-gel transcription approach, by self-assembly using low-molecular-weight gelators as templates. The silicas exhibited chirality at both the nano and angstrom levels. However, the relation between the chirality at the nano level and that at the angstrom levels has not been well studied. In this study, chiral 1,4-phenylene-silica nanoribbons were prepared by the self-assemblies of three chiral cationic gelators derived from amino acids as templates. These samples were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and circular dichroism. The results indicated that the handedness of the nanoribbons and the stacking of the aromatic rings were controllable. Although the nanoribbons exhibited left-handedness at the nano level, the stacking of the aromatic rings could exhibit left- or right-handedness. The handedness of the nanoribbons at the nano level was controlled by the organic self-assembly of the gelator. However, the stacking of the aromatic rings seemed to be controlled by the gelator itself.

  15. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA), and anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. DDA will readily oxidize to 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) in air or during combustion of the smoke grenade. The dye is insoluble in water; however, no information is available concerning its transformation or transport in soil, water, and sediments. No data are available concerning the toxic effects of DDA in aquatic organisms; therefore, a Criterion maximum Concentration and a Criterion Continuous Concentration cannot be determined. Toxicity studies following the USEPA guidelines are recommended. DDA is a weak mutagen in the Salmonella Reversin Assay, but the combustion or oxidation product, DAA is a strong mutagen in the same test. Violet smoke is noncarcinogenic in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumor Bioassay. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Effect of Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions on Biofilm Formation by Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, R.; Gabriel, M.; Machado, J.; Tavares, L.; Bernardo, F.; Oliveira, M.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a major serovar responsible for human salmonellosis whose biofilm-forming ability, influenced by environmental conditions like those found in the gastrointestinal tract, is one of the main contributing factors to its ability to persist in the host and thus one of the main causes of chronic relapsing infections. Most studies to evaluate biofilm formation are performed in microtiter assays using standard media. However, no reports are available on the ability of this serovar to produce biofilm under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions which better correlate with the environment found in the gastrointestinal tract. To address this, a modified biofilm assay simulating intestinal fluid was conceived to assess the biofilm formation of 133 Salmonella Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates with and without agitation and at three different time points (24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). The results were then compared to the existing microtiter method using conventional biofilm growth medium (Mueller Hinton Broth). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the results obtained between the three protocols used. The simulated human intestinal environment impaired biofilm production demonstrating that conditions like pH, agitation or the presence of enzymes can influence biofilm production. Therefore, results from in vitro simulation of in vivo conditions may contribute to unravelling factors relating to biofilm formation and persistence in the context of the human host. PMID:25093197

  17. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  18. A major electronics upgrade for the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes 1-4

    CERN Document Server

    Giavitto, G; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Brun, F.; Chaminade, T.; Delagnes, E.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gräber, T.; Hinton, J.A.; Jahnke, A.; Klepser, S.; Kossatz, M.; Kretzschmann, A.; Lefranc, V.; Leich, H.; Lüdecke, H.; Manigot, P.; Marandon, V.; Moulin, E.; de, M.; Nayman, P.; Penno, M.; Ross, D.; Salek, D.; Schade, M.; Schwab, T.; Simoni, R.; Stegmann, C.; Thornhill, J.; Toussenel, F.

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas Highland in Namibia. It consists of four 12-m telescopes (CT1-4), which started operations in 2003, and a 28-m diameter one (CT5), which was brought online in 2012. It is the only IACT system featuring telescopes of different sizes, which provides sensitivity for gamma rays across a very wide energy range, from ~30 GeV up to ~100 TeV. Since the camera electronics of CT1-4 are much older than the one of CT5, an upgrade is being carried out; first deployment was in 2015, full operation is planned for 2016. The goals of this upgrade are threefold: reducing the dead time of the cameras, improving the overall performance of the array and reducing the system failure rate related to aging. Upon completion, the upgrade will assure the continuous operation of H.E.S.S. at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. In the design of the new components, several CTA con...

  19. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R. [Mechanical Dynamics, Inc., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  20. MENGENAL HANTA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hanta kurang infeksius, kecuali di dalam lingkungan tertentu. Lamanya waktu virus ini dapat bertahan di lingkungan, setelah keluar dari tubuh tikus tidaklah diketahui secara pasti. Tetapi percobaan laboratorium menunjukkan bahwa, daya infektifitasnya tidak dijumpai setelah dua hari pengeringan. Genus hanta virus terdiri dari 22 spesies virus, dapat menyebabkan hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS dan hanta virus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

  1. The clinical toxicology of γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Knudsen, Kai; Slaughter, Robin J; Vale, J Allister; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is therefore essential for the successful management of intoxicated patients. We review the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, toxicokinetics, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning due to GHB and its analogs and discuss the features and management of GHB withdrawal. OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were searched using the terms "GHB," "gamma-hydroxybutyrate," "gamma-hydroxybutyric acid," "4-hydroxybutanoic acid," "sodium oxybate," "gamma-butyrolactone," "GBL," "1,4-butanediol," and "1,4-BD" alone and in combination with the keywords "pharmacokinetics," "kinetics," "poisoning," "poison," "toxicity," "ingestion," "adverse effects," "overdose," and "intoxication." In addition, bibliographies of identified articles were screened for additional relevant studies including nonindexed reports. Non-peer-reviewed sources were also included: books, relevant newspaper reports, and applicable Internet resources. These searches produced 2059 nonduplicate citations of which 219 were considered relevant. There is limited information regarding statistical trends on world-wide use of GHB and its analogs. European data suggests that the use of GHB is generally low; however, there is some evidence of higher use among some sub-populations, settings, and geographical areas. In the United States of America, poison control center data have shown that enquiries regarding GHB have decreased between 2002 and 2010 suggesting a decline in use over this timeframe. GHB is an endogenous neurotransmitter synthesized from glutamate with a high affinity for GHB-receptors, present on both on pre- and postsynaptic neurons, thereby

  2. Seroprevalence of antibodies against chikungunya virus in Singapore resident adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Li Wei; Kam, Yiu Wing; Lin, Cui; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Tay, Joanne; Ng, Lee Ching; James, Lyn; Lee, Vernon J M; Goh, Kee Tai; Ng, Lisa F P; Lin, Raymond T P

    2017-12-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in the adult resident population in Singapore following local outbreaks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in 2008-2009. Our cross-sectional study involved residual sera from 3,293 adults aged 18-79 years who had participated in the National Health Survey in 2010. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV) and neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV. The prevalence of CHIKV-neutralizing antibodies among Singapore residents aged 18-79 years was 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4%- 2.3%). The CHIKV seroprevalence was highest in the elderly aged 70-79 years at 11.5%, followed by those aged 30-39 years at 3.1%. Men had significantly higher CHIKV seroprevalence than women (2.5% versus 1.3%, p = 0.01). Among the three main ethnic groups, Indians had the highest seroprevalence (3.5%) compared to Chinese (1.6%) and Malays (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression identified adults aged 30-39 years and 70-79 years, men, those of Indian ethnicity and ethnic minority groups, and residence on ground floor of public and private housing apartments as factors that were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to CHIKV. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI: 55.1%- 58.5%), while 1.5% (95% CI: 1.1%- 2.0%) of adults possessed both neutralizing antibodies against CHIKV and IgG antibodies against DENV. Singapore remains highly susceptible to CHIKV infection. There is a need to maintain a high degree of vigilance through disease surveillance and vector control. Findings from such serological study, when conducted on a regular periodic basis, could supplement surveillance to provide insights on CHIKV circulation in at-risk population.

  3. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almajhdi Fahad N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

  4. On the co-variation between form and function of adnominal possessive modifiers in Dutch and English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with Dutch and to a lesser extent English possessive modifiers introduced by the preposition of (Dutch van), as in a woman OF INFLUENCE or (Dutch) de auto VAN MIJN BROER (the car OF MY BROTHER) ‘my brother’s car’. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate...... generalizations can be made about members of different form classes (e.g. adjectives and possessives) if modifiers are characterized in functional rather than formal terms. This paper is restricted to possessive modifiers of nouns that denote concrete objects....

  5. Review: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011 Buchbesprechung: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigal Beez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 Seiten

  6. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangqian; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Li, Bingjie; Tang, Min; Yuan, Wanqing; Fang, Jianzheng; Qian, Jian; Qin, Chao; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is expressed in many cancer cell types and allows the modulation of cancer growth, invasion and angiogenesis. To date, studies investigated the association between a functional polymorphism in PAI-1 (4G/5G) and risk of cancer have shown inclusive results. A meta-analysis based on 25 case-control studies was performed to address this issue. Odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with I(2) test. Overall, a significant increased risk of cancer was associated with the PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism for the allele contrast (4G vs. 5G: OR = 1.10, CI = 1.03-1.18, I(2) = 49.5%), the additive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06-1.39, I(2) = 51.9%), the recessive genetic model (4G/4G vs. 4G/5G+5G/5G: OR = 1.11, CI = 1.04-1.18, I(2) = 20.8%). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results indicated that individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a significantly higher cancer risk among Caucasians (4G/4G vs. 5G/5G: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.09-1.59, I(2) = 59.6%; 4G/4G vs. 4G/5G: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04-1.21, I(2) = 3.6%; recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.05-1.21, I(2) = 25.3%). The results of the present meta-analysis support an association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and increasing cancer risk, especially among Caucasians, and those with 4G allele have a high risk to develop colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer.

  7. 1,4-Dihydropyridines: The Multiple Personalities of a Blockbuster Drug Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Bruno, Fiorentina

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 years after their introduction in therapy, 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) are still amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world. Though they all share a similar mechanism of action blocking L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, DHPs differ in crucial pharmacological properties like tissue selectivity and cardiodepressant activity. This review examines how changes in the DHP structure can modify the pharmacological properties of these drugs and how some of these chemical manipulations have been exploited to obtain clinically more effective molecules. Special emphasis is given to the evidence that L-type Ca2+ channels are an heterogeneous family and that DHPs with different pharmacological properties differ in their affinity for the different isoforms of this class of channels. Data showing that DHP pharmacological heterogeneity could be in part dependent on the interaction of some of these molecules with ion channels different from the L-type Ca2+ channels is reviewed as well. PMID:23905059

  8. AdS{sub 3} holography for 1/4 and 1/8 BPS geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-04

    Recently a new class of 1/8-BPS regular geometries in type IIB string theory was constructed in arXiv:1503.01463. In this paper we provide a precise description of the semiclassical states dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to these geometries. In explicit examples we show that the holographic 1-point functions and the Ryu-Takayanagi’s Entanglement Entropy for a single small interval match the corresponding CFT calculations performed by using the proposed dual states. We also discuss several new examples of such precision holography analysis in the 1/4-BPS sector and provide an explicit proof that the small interval derivation of the Entanglement Entropy used in arXiv:1405.6185 is fully covariant.

  9. Efficiency of multi-beam Fourier phase gratings at 1.4 THz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, B; Silva, J R G; Luo, Y C; Liu, X X; Wei, L; Hayton, D J; Gao, J R; Groppi, C

    2017-03-20

    We compare the results of simulated and measured power efficiency and far-field beam pattern, for two reflective Fourier phase gratings, designed to generate 2 × 2 and 2 × 4 beams respectively from a single-beam, coherent source at 1.4 THz. The designed surface structures were manufactured on aluminum plates by a computer numerical control (CNC) micro-milling machine. Despite small differences between the designed and fabricated gratings, we measured power efficiencies of both gratings to be around 70%, which is in a good agreement with the simulated values. We also find a good agreement between the simulated and measured diffracted beam size and spatial distribution. We demonstrate the application of both gratings as multiple beam local oscillators to simultaneously pump (or operate) a 4-pixel array of superconducting heterodyne mixers.

  10. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  11. VIRULENT GROUP Ro1,4 POTATO GOLDEN CYST NEMATODES (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The potato golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis WOLLENWEBER is very important potato pest. According to EPPO it is on the quarantines A2 list. This species was detected on the territory of Belice in 2001. In 2002 soil samples were taken on two treatments, one with potato in monoculture and the other on the wheat where potato was previous crop. Cysts extraction was done in the laboratory of nematology at the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Science. Virulent group Ro1,4 was detected. More cysts were discovered in the monoculture potato soil (458/100 ccm of soil than in the soil under the wheat (368/100 ccm of soil. In 2004 vitality of the cysts were analysed. Cysts from potato monoculture had higher vitality (203 larvae/ cyst than cyst from the soil under wheat (38 larvae/cyst with potato as previous crop.

  12. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj, E-mail: kulahin@plab.ku.dk [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kiselyov, Vladislav [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kochoyan, Arthur [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); ENKAM Pharmaceuticals A/S, Fruebjergvej 3, Box 58, DK-2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth [Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gajhede, Michael [Biostructural Research, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Protein Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Pathology, Panum Institute, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-02-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures.

  13. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengasamy, A.; Feinberg, H.

    1988-02-15

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca/sup +/-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca/sup 2 +/ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na/sup +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release was additive to that released by Na/sup +/ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes.

  14. 2-[(1R*,4R*-1,4-Dihydroxycyclohexyl]acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H14O4, is an isolation product of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontanei. The acetic acid group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 48.03 (9° with respect to the basal plane of the cyclohexane-1,4-diol chair. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring with an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in R33(20 ring motifs and C(2 O—H...O—H...O—H... chains. Overall, a three-dimensional polymeric network arises. A C—H...O contact is also present.

  15. A Simple and Advantageous Synthesis of the Privileged 1,4-Benzodiazepine Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel domino approach has been described for an easy access of the privileged nucleus of 5-carbomethoxy substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones 4(a–i from an in situ methanolic hydrolysis of an incipient species formed from the interaction of 1-chloroacetylisatin 2(a–i, hexamethyldisilazane, and n-butyl lithium. The reaction is believed to take place through a consecutive series of intramolecular reactions in a cascade to first generate a highly reactive carbene intermediate 3(a–i from 1-chloroacetylisatin and n-butyl lithium which is simultaneously trapped by hexamethyldisilazane before undergoing its in situ hydrolysis with methanol to initiate its concomitant cyclocondensation to produce 4(a–i in high yield and purity.

  16. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1; 4:5; 5:6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A.C. Pretorius

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available New options in the understanding of the Epistle of James(Js 2:1; 4:5; 5:6 New methods of interpretation occasionally lead to new options in the understanding of texts. In the case of the Epistle of James, the interpretation has until recently stood under the spell of the 'comparative' method of Dibelius. Greater emphasis on internal cohesion in the text recently led to the proposal of the following translations: James 2:1: '... surely, you do not have the faith in our Lord ... on account of favouritism?' James 4:5: 'Do you think Scripture speaks in vain? Should the spirit which He made to dwell in us desire (the world with envy?' James 5:6 'You judge and murder the innocent. Will He (God, cf 4:6 not resist you?'

  17. Bis(1,4,7-trithiacyclononanenickel(II bis(tetrafluoridoborate nitromethane disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Noll

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The homoleptic thioether title complex, [Ni(C6H12S32](BF42·2CH3NO2, shows the expeced hexakis(thioether octahedral environment around the NiII atom. It crystallized as two crystallographically independent complex cations, [Ni(9S32]2+ (9S3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane, within the unit cell where each NiII lies on an inversion center. In addition to the complex cations, there are two crystallographically independent BF4− anions present to balance the charge, and each shows disorder along a pseudo-C3 axis with ratios of 0.53 (2:0.47 (2 and 0.55 (2:0.45 (2. Two nitromethane solvent molecules per complex cation are also present in the unit cell.

  18. Green synthesis of 1,4-quinone derivatives and evaluation of their fluorescent and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ravichandiran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of some 1,4-quinone derivatives by conventional and solvent free microwave assisted methods has been reported. The microwave assisted method resulted in higher percentage yield at shorter time compared to the conventional one. In the conventional method environmentally friendly solvent was used and the results were compared with other solvents. When water was used as a solvent the reaction exhibited higher yield than other solvents like ethanol. The solvent free method under microwave irradiation method yielded the highest yield compared to the conventional methods. The resultant compounds were analyzed by UV–Vis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized quinone derivatives exhibited the fluorescent and electrochemical properties.

  19. New chalcone and dimeric chalcones with 1,4-p-benzoquinone residue from Combretum yunnanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Mei; Wang, Li-Qin; Hua, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Xing-Yao; Li, Yan; Li, Ting; Yang, Xun-Yun; Tang, Zheng-Rong

    2011-03-01

    New chalcone and dimeric chalcones with 1,4- P-benzoquinone residue, combrequinone A (1), combrequinone B (2), and combrequinone C (3), along with three known compounds (4-6), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems and leaves of Combretum yunnanense, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines: HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were found to be most potent against HL-60 acute leukemia cells, with IC₅₀ values of 4.63, 4.07, and 1.26 µM, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Alloy Based on Hyperbranched 1,4-Polytriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelin, Elaine; Whelan, Rory; Martínez-Triana, Yeimy Mabel; Alemán, Carlos; Finn, M G; Díaz, David Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Organic polymers are widely used as coatings and adhesives to metal surfaces, but aluminum is among the most difficult substrates because of rapid oxidative passivation of its surface. Poly(1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles) made by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition form strongly bonded interfaces with several metal substrates. In this work, a variety of alkyne and azide monomers were explored as precursors to anticorrosion coatings for a standard high-strength aluminum-copper alloy. Monomers of comparatively low valency (diazide and trialkyne) were found to act as superior barriers for electrolyte transfer to the aluminum surface. These materials showed excellent resistance to corrosive pitting due to the combination of three complementary properties: good formation of highly cross-linked films, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry; good adhesion to the aluminum alloy substrate, as shown by pull-off testing; and excellent impermeability, as demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-02-02

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  2. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4 - Revised Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-06-01

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD) was formed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) to study reactor physics, fuel performance, and fuel cycle issues related to the disposition of weapons-grade (WG) plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. To advance the goals of the TFRPD, 10 countries and 12 institutions participated in a major TFRPD activity: a blind benchmark study to compare code calculations to experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code system was used to perform the comprehensive study of pin-cell and MOX core calculations for the VENUS-2 MOX core benchmark study.

  3. Probing the mechanism of 1,4-conjugate elimination reactions catalyzed by terpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldos, Juan A; Gonzalez, Veronica; Li, Amang; Yu, Fanglei; Köksal, Mustafa; Christianson, David W; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2012-12-26

    The reaction mechanisms of (E)-β-farnesene synthase (EBFS) and isoprene synthase (ISPS), enzymes that catalyze a formal regiospecific 1,4-conjugate elimination of hydrogen diphosphate from (E,E)-farnesyl and dimethylallyl diphosphate (FDP and DMADP) to generate the semiochemicals (E)-β-farnesene and isoprene, respectively, were probed with substrate analogs and kinetic measurements. The results support stepwise reaction mechanisms through analogous enzyme-bound allylic cationic intermediates. For EBFS, we demonstrate that the elimination reaction can proceed via the enzyme-bound intermediate trans-nerolidyl diphosphate, while for ISPS the intermediacy of 2-methylbut-3-enyl 2-diphosphate can be inferred from the product outcome when deuterated DMADPs are used as substrates. Possible implications derived from the mechanistic details of the EBFS-catalyzed reaction for the evolution of sesquiterpene synthases are discussed.

  4. A New 1,4-Diazepine from South China Sea Marine Sponge Callyspongia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Hai Xu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new 1,4-diazepine, callysponine (1, was isolated from a South China Sea Callyspongia sp. marine sponge, together with four known proline-based diketopiperazines: cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Leu (2, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Val (3, cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (4, andcyclo-(S-Pro-R-Tyr (5. The new structure was determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis, and the absolute stereochemistry was defined by NOESY spectroscopy and optical rotation. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Callysponine (1 did not inhibit the growth of HepG2 (hepatoma carcinoma cell, A549 (lung carcinoma cell, and HeLa (cervical cancer cell cell lines.

  5. Synthesis of new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction using CuI/acetonitrile without addition of base or ligand. The compounds (3a-i were obtained in moderate-to-good yields 45-92%. To prepare (3d, we obtain a mixture of (3d and (4 in a ratio 3:1, that it was difficult to separate. The low yield for the compound (3f can be also justified based in the formation of aminonaphthoquinone (4. The acetylation of (3h and (3i afforded the compounds (5 and (6 in 77% and 35% of yields, respectively. The low yield of (6 was due to formation of 35 % of the elimination product (7.

  6. Dynamical (e,2e) studies of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Builth-Williams, J. D.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT 78600-000 (Brazil); Chaluvadi, Hari; Madison, D. H. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-07

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane. Using an (e,2e) technique in asymmetric coplanar kinematics, angular distributions of the slow ejected electron, with an energy of 20 eV, are measured when incident electrons at 250 eV ionize the target and scatter through an angle of either −10° or −15°. The data are compared with calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level. Fair agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements was observed. The similar structures for these targets provide key insights for assessing the limitations of the theoretical calculations. This study in turn facilitates an improved understanding of the dynamics in the ionization process.

  7. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: Computer Security - Introduction to information and computer security (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Computer Security: Introduction to information and computer security (1/4), by Sebastian Lopienski (CERN).   Monday, 21 May, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 31-3-004 - IT Auditorium ) Sebastian Lopienski is CERN's Deputy Computer Security Officer. He works on security strategy and policies; offers internal consultancy and audit services; develops and maintains security tools for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection; provides training and awareness raising; and does incident investigation and response. During his work at CERN since 2001, Sebastian has had various assignments, including designing and developing software to manage and support services hosted in the CERN Computer Centre; providing Central CVS Service for software projects at CERN; and development of applications for accelerator controls in Java. He graduated from the University of Warsaw (MSc in Computer Science) in 2002, and earned an MBA degree at the Enterprise Administration Institute in Ai...

  8. Synthesis and photodegradation studies of analogues of muscle relaxant 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gündüz Miyase Gözde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds (DHPs endowed with good muscle relaxant activity and stability to light. Six new condensed DHPs were synthesized by the microwave irradiation method. A long-chain ester moiety [2-(methacryloyloxyethyl] and various substituents on the phenyl ring were demonstrated to affect the muscle relaxant activity occurring in isolated rabbit gastric fundus smooth muscle strips. Forced photodegradation conditions were applied to the molecules according to the ICH rules. The degradation profile of the drugs was monitored by spectrophotometry coupled with the multivariate curve resolution technique. Formation of the oxidized pyridine derivative was observed for all the studied DHPs, except for one compound, which showed very fast degradation and formation of a second photo-product. Pharmacological tests on the molecules showed a good muscle relaxing effect, with a mechanism similar to that of nifedipine, however, proving to be more stable to light.

  9. D 1.4.1. Review of Scientific Literature on Performance, Innovation and Management of Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Uffelen, van, JWM; Immink, V. M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the Work package 1.4 INNOCHAIN (WP1.4) of ISAfruit is to develop a conceptual framework of the mechanisms underlying supply chain management, in particular chain innovativeness, of the European supply chains in such a way that performance can be maximized. The results of WP1.4 will contribute to the innovativeness of European fruit supply chains by providing an overview of successful supply chain management practices and by formulating recommendations and critical success factors f...

  10. Composition of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase affects the antigen yield of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 candidate vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakura, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Akira; Tashiro, Masato; Nobusawa, Eri

    2013-01-01

    To improve the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen yield of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 candidate vaccine viruses, we generated 7:1, 6:2, and 5:3 genetic reassortant viruses between wild-type (H1N1)pdm09 (A/California/7/2009) (Cal7) and a high-yielding master virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). These viruses contained the HA; HA and neuraminidase (NA); and HA, NA, and M genes, respectively, derived from Cal7, on a PR8 backbone. The influence of the amino acid residue at position 223 in Cal7 HA on virus growth and HA antigen yield differed between these reassortant viruses. NIIDRG-7, a 7:1 virus possessing arginine at position 223, exhibited a 10-fold higher 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) (10.0 log(10)EID(50)/ml) than the 5:3 and 6:2 viruses. It also had 1.5- to 3-fold higher protein (13.8 μg/ml of allantoic fluids) and HA antigen (4.1 μg/ml of allantoic fluids) yields than the 5:3 and 6:2 viruses, which possessed identical Cal7 HA proteins. However, the HA antigen yield of the other 7:1 virus, which possessed glutamine at position 223 was 60% of that of NIIDRG-7. In addition, a novel 6:2 virus possessing Cal7 HA and the NA of A/Wisconsin/10/98 (a triple reassortant swine-like H1N1 virus), produced 107% of the HA yield of NIIDRG-7. In this study, we showed that the balance between HA and NA in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus affects its protein and antigen yield.

  11. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Butane-1,4-diammonium bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghadermazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C4H14N2[Cu(C7H3NO42]·3H2O or (bdaH2[Cu(pydc2]·3H2O (where bda is butane-1,4-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms [Cu—O = 2.0557 (16–2.3194 (16 Å] and two N atoms [Cu—N = 1.9185 (18 and 1.9638 (18 Å] from two chelating rings of the pydc2− anions, which act as tridentate ligands. The geometry of the resulting CuN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. The the two pydc2− fragments are almost perpendicular to one another [77.51 (11°]. To balance the charges, two centrosymmetric protonated butane-1,4-diammonium, (bdaH22+ cations are present. In the crystal structure, extensive O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds [D...A = 2.720 (2–3.446 (3 Å], ion pairing, C—O...π [O...π = 3.099 (2 Å] and π–π stacking interactions between the pydc2− rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5334 (15 Å] contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  13. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Zohre; Spain, Jim C

    2013-07-02

    Much of the microbial activity in nature takes place at interfaces, which are often associated with redox discontinuities. One example is the oxic/anoxic interface where polluted groundwater interacts with the overlying vadose zone. We tested whether microbes in the vadose zone can use synthetic chemicals as electron donors and thus protect the overlying air and buildings from groundwater pollutants. Samples from the vadose zone of a site contaminated with chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene (12DCB), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (14DCB) were packed in a multiport column to simulate the interface of the vadose zone with an underlying groundwater plume. A mixture of CB, 12DCB, and 14DCB in anoxic water was pumped continuously through the bottom of column to an outlet below the first sampling port to create an oxic/anoxic interface and a capillary fringe. Removal to below the detection limits by rapid biodegradation with rates of 21 ± 1 mg of CB • m(-2) • d(-1), 3.7 ± 0.5 mg of 12DCB • m(-2) • d(-1), and 7.4 ± 0.7 mg of 1.4 DCB • m(-2) • d(-1) indicated that natural attenuation in the capillary fringe can prevent the migration of CB, 12DCB, and 14DCB vapors. Enumeration of bacteria capable of degrading chlorobenzenes suggested that most of the biodegradation takes place within the first 10 cm above the saturated zone. Biodegradation also increased the upward flux of contaminants and thus enhanced their elimination from the underlying water. The results revealed a substantial biodegradation capacity for chlorinated aromatic compounds at the oxic/anoxic interface and illustrate the role of microbes in creating steep redox gradients.

  14. 2-Bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone: a potentially improved substitute of menadione in Apatone™ therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Graciani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3 and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ, in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH, but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG. The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism in infertile women with and without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Filho, Rubens P; Brandes, Ariel; Christofolini, Denise M; Lerner, Tatiana G; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio P

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate PAI-1 genotypes in a group of infertile women with or without endometriosis and control subjects. Case-control study. Human Reproduction Center of Medicina do ABC Faculty. One hundred and forty infertile women with endometriosis, 64 women with idiopathic infertility and 148 fertile women as control subjects. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. The frequencies of genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G of the PAI-1 gene in the infertile women with endometriosis were 38.6, 37.1 and 24.3%, respectively, and in the control group 24.3, 33.8 and 41.9%, respectively (p=0.003). When the infertile women with endometriosis were divided according to their endometriosis stage, genotypes 4G/4G, 4G/5G and 5G/5G were identified, respectively, in 36.7, 32.9 and 30.4% of the patients with minimal/mild endometriosis (p=0.102) and in 41.0, 42.6 and 16.4% of the patients with moderate/severe endometriosis (p=0.001); in the women with idiopathic infertility, these genotypes were found at a frequency of 29.7, 34.3 and 36%, respectively (p=0.637). The data suggest that, in Brazilian women, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may be associated with a risk of endometriosis-associated infertility. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  17. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  18. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. Copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands: Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Noah R; Khatib, Raneen M; Jenkins, Julia; Smith, Michelle; Rubalcava, Justin M; Le, Brian Khoa; Lussier, Daniel; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Tham, Fook S; Wilson, Emma H; Eichler, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to find alternatives to the antitumor drug cisplatin, a series of copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands have been synthesized. Eight new complexes are reported herein: μ-dichloro-bis{2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinechlorocopper(II)} {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((di-sec-butyl)phen)]}(1), 2-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {([mono-sec-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (2), 2,9-di-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(di-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2}(3), 2-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(mono-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (4), 2,9-di-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolineaquadichlorocopper(II) {[(di-methyl)phen) Cu(H2O)Cl2}(5), μ-dichloro-bis{6-sec-butyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II)} {((mono-sec-butyl)bipy) ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((mono-sec-butyl)bipy)} (6), 6,6'-di-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(6,6'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (7), and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(4,4'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (8). These complexes have been characterized via elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed the complexes synthesized with the (di-sec-butyl)phen ligand (1) and (mono-sec-butyl)bipy ligand (6) crystallized as dimers in which two copper(II) centers are bridged by two chloride ligands. Conversely, complexes 2, 7, and 8 were isolated as monomeric species possessing distorted tetrahedral geometries, and the [((di-methyl)phen)Cu(H2O)Cl2] (5) complex was isolated as a distorted square pyramidal monomer possessing a coordinating aqua ligand. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor efficacy. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 in particular were found to exhibit remarkable activity against human derived lung cancer cells, yet this class of copper(II) compounds had minimal cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cells. In vitro control experiments indicate the activity of the copper(II) complexes most likely does not arise from the

  20. Can VHS virus bypass the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination in rainbow trout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda, Dagoberto; Lorenzen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding viral glycoproteins have been very successful for induction of protective immunity against diseases caused by rhabdoviruses in cultured fish species. However, the vaccine concept is based on a single viral gene and since RNA viruses are known to possess high variability...... and adaptation capacity, this work aimed at evaluating whether viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), an RNA virus and member of Rhabdoviridae family, was able to evade the protective immune response induced by the DNA vaccination of rainbow trout. The experiments comprised repeated passages of a highly...... pathogenic VHSV isolate in a fish cell line in the presence of neutralizing fish serum (in vitro approach), and in rainbow trout immunized with the VHS DNA vaccine (in vivo approach). For the in vitro approach, the virus collected from the last passage (passaged virus) was as sensitive as the parental virus...