WorldWideScience

Sample records for virtual reality exposure

  1. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  2. Presence in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing anxiety is essential for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to be effective in curing patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, some patients drop out in VRET due to the lack of feeling anxiety. Presence - which refers to the feeling of being in the virtual environment -

  3. Virtual reality exposure on nicotine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Pereira, Edgar; Morais, Diogo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of treatment for nicotine dependence that combine the classical smoking cessation strategies with new Virtual Reality (VR) exposure techniques to smoking-related cues are in development. In this line, the main goal of our study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce cravings in smokers. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments (high-arousal cues and low-arousal cues). Both environments were based on a three-room apartment with commercial music playing and virtual characters interacting in a social event. The assessment was carried out before and after exposure through psychophysiological activation and self-report data for craving and nicotine dependence levels. No statistical differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in psychophysiological activation. As far as self-report data is concerned, smokers revealed a significant increase in craving after the VR exposure to high arousal environments. Overall results were in line with previous studies suggesting the use of virtual environments as a tool for the existing smoking cessation programs.

  4. Therapeutic Media: Treating PTSD with Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Applying head-mounted displays (HMDs and virtual reality scenarios in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET promises to alleviate combat-related post-traumatic stress disorders (among others. Its basic premise is that, through virtual scenarios, patients may re-engage immersively with situations that provoke anxiety, thereby reducing fear and psychosomatic stress. In this context, HMDs and visualizations should be considered not merely as devices for entertainment purposes or tools for achieving pragmatic objectives but also as a means to instruct and guide patients’ imagination and visual perception in triggering traumatic experiences. Under what perceptual and therapeutic conditions is virtual therapy to be considered effective? Who is the “ideal” patient for such therapy regimes, both in terms of his/her therapeutic indications and his/her perceptual readiness to engage with VR scenarios? In short, how are “treatable” patients conceptualized by and within virtual therapy? From a media-theory perspective, this essay critically explores various aspects of the VRET application Bravemind in order to shed light on conditions of virtual exposure therapy and conceptions of subjectivity and traumatic experience that are embodied and replicated by such HMD-based technology.

  5. Virtual reality exposure therapy for combat‐related posttraumatic stress disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rothbaum, Barbara O; Rizzo, Albert “Skip”; Difede, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    ... research on virtual reality exposure therapy, a recently emerging treatment for PTSD. Three virtual reality scenarios used to treat PTSD in active duty military and combat veterans and survivors of terrorism are presented...

  6. Virtual Reality Treatment in Acrophobia : A Comparison with Exposure in Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Bruynzeel, M.; Drost, L.; Van der Mast, C.A.P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-budget virtual reality exposure versus exposure in vivo in a within-group design in 10 individuals suffering from acrophobia. Virtual reality exposure was found to be at least as effective as exposure in vivo on anxiety and

  7. Virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of driving phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Thomaz da Costa

    Full Text Available A growing number of researches has appeared on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET to treat anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article was to review some evidences that support the VRET efficacy to treat driving phobia. The studies were identified through computerized search (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scielo databases from 1984 to 2007. Some findings are promising. Anxiety/avoidance ratings declined from pre to post-treatment. VRET may be used as a first step in the treatment of driving phobia, as long as it may facilitate the in vivo exposure, thus reducing risks and high costs of such exposure. Notwithstanding, more randomized/controlled clinical trials are required to prove its efficacy.

  8. Virtual Reality Exposure and Imaginal Exposure in the Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus-Calafell, Mar; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Botella, Cristina; Banos, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Fear of flying (FF) is an impairing psychological disorder that is extremely common in developed countries. The most effective treatment for this particular type of phobia is exposure therapy. However, there are few studies comparing imaginal exposure (IE) and virtual reality (VR) exposure for the treatment of FF. The present study compared the…

  9. Virtual reality exposure therapy: 150-degree screen to desktop PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichon, Jennifer; Banks, Jasmine

    2006-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) developed using immersive or semi-immersive virtual environments present a usability problem for practitioners. To meet practitioner requirements for lower cost and portability VRET programs must often be ported onto desktop environments such as the personal computer (PC). However, success of VRET has been shown to be linked to presence, and the environment's ability to evoke the same reactions and emotions as a real experience. It is generally accepted that high-end virtual environments (VEs) are more immersive than desktop PCs, but level of immersion does not always predict level of presence. This paper reports on the impact on presence of porting a therapeutic VR application for schizophrenia from the initial research environment of a semi-immersive curved screen to PC. Presence in these two environments is measured both introspectively and across a number of causal factors thought to underlie the experience of presence. Results show that the VR exposure program successfully made users feel they were "present" in both platforms. While the desktop PC achieved higher scores on presence across causal factors participants reported they felt more present in the curved screen environment. While comparison of the two groups was statistically significant for the PQ but not for the IPQ, subjective reports of experiences in the environments should be considered in future research as the success of VRET relies heavily on the emotional response of patients to the therapeutic program.

  10. Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is now a substantial literature investigating virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) as a viable treatment option for anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis we provide effect size estimates for virtual reality treatment in comparison to in vivo exposure and control conditions (waitlist,

  11. Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrãmã

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the presentation of Virtual Reality principles together with the main implementation methods and techniques. An overview of the main development directions is included.

  12. DJINNI: A Novel Technology Supported Exposure Therapy Paradigm for SAD Combining Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Moussa, Maher; Rubo, Marius; Debracque, Coralie; Lange, Wolf-Gero

    2017-01-01

    The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. "DJINNI" is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR) exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient's state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup.

  13. DJINNI: A Novel Technology Supported Exposure Therapy Paradigm for SAD Combining Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ben-Moussa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. “DJINNI” is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient’s state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup.

  14. DJINNI: A Novel Technology Supported Exposure Therapy Paradigm for SAD Combining Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Moussa, Maher; Rubo, Marius; Debracque, Coralie; Lange, Wolf-Gero

    2017-01-01

    The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. “DJINNI” is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR) exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient’s state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup. PMID:28503155

  15. Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy (VRET to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy (ARET: A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eBaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy (VRET to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET. Unlike virtual reality (VR, which entails a complete virtual environment (VE, augmented reality (AR limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the 20th century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed safely to the object(s of their fear, without the costs associated with programming complete virtual environments. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper also raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the definition of an AR related term, the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment (ARE, the development of alternative geospatial referencing systems, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat social phobia. Overall, it may be said that the use of ARET, although promising, is still in its infancy but that, given a continued cooperation between clinical and technical teams, ARET has the potential of going well beyond the treatment of small animal phobia.

  16. A VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR PTSD PATIENTS CONTROLLED BY A FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper.

  17. Virtual reality techniques in older adults: exposure therapy, memory training, and training of motor balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Pachana, N.A.; Laidlaw, K.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on virtual reality techniques in older adults. Although treatment of specific phobias in older adults by virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is feasible and might be effective, this has yet not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The few controlled studies

  18. Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073

  19. Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.

  20. Design and evaluation of a virtual reality exposure therapy system with automatic free speech interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heijden, N.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Research on Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) to treat social phobia is not new. Still few studies focus on creating an elaborate conversation between the patient and characters in a virtual environment. This study focuses on techniques to run a semi-scripted conversation between virtual

  1. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  2. Acceptability of Virtual Reality Interoceptive Exposure for the Treatment of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Soledad; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Interoceptive exposure (IE) is a standard component of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia. The virtual reality (VR) program "Panic-Agoraphobia" has several virtual scenarios designed for applying exposure to agoraphobic situations; it can also simulate physical sensations. This work examines patients'…

  3. Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Prolonged Exposure in the Treatment of Soldiers with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    researched psychotherapies for PTSD. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has demonstrated growing support as an innovative method for activating the trauma ...is considered one of the most effective cognitive-behavioral therapy ( CBT ) for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there were no...Soldiers. First, PE requires a level of emotional engagement in the re-living of the trauma that many Soldiers are unable to obtain (4). Second

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R

    2013-10-01

    This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

  5. Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: the state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Brahnam, S.; Jain, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become a viable alternative for exposure in vivo, the gold standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. VRET is often regarded as a natural extension of the systematic exposure component of (cognitive) behavior therapy. The

  6. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: a proof-of-concept pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction

  7. Virtual reality exposure treatment of agoraphobia: a comparison of computer automatic virtual environment and head-mounted display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Wiederhold, B.K.; Bouchard, S.; Riva, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The level of presence in VRET was compared between using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Results indicate

  8. E-virtual reality exposure therapy in acrophobia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Virtual reality therapy is already used for anxiety disorders as an alternative to in vivo and in imagino exposure. To our knowledge, however, no one has yet proposed using remote virtual reality (e-virtual reality). The aim of the present study was to assess e-virtual reality in an acrophobic population. Six individuals with acrophobia each underwent six sessions (two sessions per week) of virtual reality exposure therapy. The first three were remote sessions, while the last three were traditional sessions in the physical presence of the therapist. Anxiety (STAI form Y-A, visual analog scale, heart rate), presence, technical difficulties and therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) were measured. In order to control the conditions in which these measures were made, all the sessions were conducted in hospital. None of the participants dropped out. The remote sessions were well accepted. None of the participants verbalized reluctance. No major technical problems were reported. None of the sessions were cancelled or interrupted because of software incidents. Measures (anxiety, presence, therapeutic alliance) were comparable across the two conditions. e-Virtual reality can therefore be used to treat acrophobic disorders. However, control studies are needed to assess online feasibility, therapeutic effects and the mechanisms behind online presence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Design and evaluation of a virtual reality exposure therapy system with automatic free speech interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Heijden, N.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Research on Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) to treat social phobia is not new. Still few studies focus on creating an elaborate conversation between the patient and characters in a virtual environment. This study focuses on techniques to run a semi-scripted conversation between virtual characters and a patient considering both manual and automatic speech response. Techniques evaluated are a speech detector and a speech recognizer. They were compared to a human control condition. We an...

  10. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  11. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S

    2007-10-01

    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias.

  12. The combined use of virtual reality exposure in the treatment of agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitti, Carmen T; Peñate, Wenceslao; de la Fuente, Juan; Bethencourt, Juan M; Roca-Sánchez, María J; Acosta, Leopoldo; Villaverde, María L; Gracia, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the differential efficacy of three groups of treatments for agoraphobia: paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy, paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy and virtual reality exposure, and a group with only paroxetine. 99 patients with agoraphobia were finally selected. Both combined treatment groups received 11 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and one of the groups was also exposed to 4 sessions of virtual reality treatment. Treatments were applied in individual sessions once a week for 3 months. The three treatment groups showed statistically significant improvements. In some measures, combined treatment groups showed greater improvements. The virtual reality exposure group showed greater improvement confronting phobic stimuli. Treatments combining psychopharmacological and psychological therapy showed greater efficacy. Although the use of new technologies led to greater improvement, treatment adherence problems still remain.

  13. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriş, David; Pintea, Sebastian; García-Palacios, Azucena; Botella, Cristina; Szamosközi, Ştefan; David, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a promising intervention for the treatment of the anxiety disorders. The main objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of VRET, used in a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral framework, with that of the classical evidence-based treatments, in anxiety disorders. A comprehensive search of the literature identified 23 studies (n = 608) that were included in the final analysis. The results show that in the case of anxiety disorders, (1) VRET does far better than the waitlist control; (2) the post-treatment results show similar efficacy between the behavioral and the cognitive behavioral interventions incorporating a virtual reality exposure component and the classical evidence-based interventions, with no virtual reality exposure component; (3) VRET has a powerful real-life impact, similar to that of the classical evidence-based treatments; (4) VRET has a good stability of results over time, similar to that of the classical evidence-based treatments; (5) there is a dose-response relationship for VRET; and (6) there is no difference in the dropout rate between the virtual reality exposure and the in vivo exposure. Implications are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This

  15. Therapeutic processes in virtual reality exposure therapy: The role of cognitions and the therapeutic alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the processes involved in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET), including the role of the therapeutic alliance and the patients' cognitions. This study was designed to investigate VRET processes in patients with specific phobias. We analyzed the influence of VRET on

  16. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD Symptoms after a Road Accident: An Uncontrolled Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin

    2007-01-01

    This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…

  17. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a systematic review of process-and-outcome studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review,

  18. Virtual Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Helena Villa; Botella, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Osma, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present a case example of the use of virtual reality exposure for the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. The assessment protocol and procedure (including a baseline period) and the cognitive-behavioral treatment program are described. The clinical measures were categorized into target behaviors, panic and agoraphobia…

  19. Recent Progress in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Phobias: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Álvarez, Javier; Guillén, Verónica; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes. We conclude that VR is a useful tool to improve exposure therapy and it can be a good option to analyze the processes and mechanisms involved in exposure therapy and the ways this strategy can be enhanced. In the coming years, there will be a significant expansion of VR in routine practice in clinical contexts.

  20. Design and implementation of home-based virtual reality exposure therapy system with a virtual eCoach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Current developments of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) system focus mainly on systems that can be used in health clinics under the direct supervision of a therapist. Offering patients however the possibility to do this treatment at home would make VRET more accessible. In this paper we

  1. Virtual Reality for Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uzumcu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of ԰resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  2. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p social anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies, such as virtual reality, has been employed in the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal of augmenting exposure treatment, which is already considered to be the first-line treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. To evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET in the treatment of PTSD, we performed a systematic review of published articles using the following electronic databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Eligibility criteria included the use of patients diagnosed with PTSD according to DSM-IV, the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and the use of virtual reality for performing exposure. 10 articles were selected, seven of which showed that VRET produced statistically significant results in comparison to the waiting list. However, no difference was found between VRET and exposure treatment. Of these 10, four were randomized, two were controlled but not randomized and four were non-controlled. The majority of the articles used head-mounted display virtual reality (VR equipment and VR systems specific for the population that was being treated. Dropout rates do not seem to be lower than in traditional exposure treatment. However, there are a few limitations. Because this is a new field of research, there are few studies in the literature. There is also a need to standardize the number of sessions used. The randomized studies were analyzed to assess the quality of the methodology, and important deficiencies were noted, such as the non-use of intent-to- treat-analysis and the absence of description of possible concomitant treatments and comorbidities. Preliminary data suggest that VRET is as efficacious as traditional exposure treatment and can be especially useful in the treatment of patients who are resistant to traditional exposure.

  4. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Raquel; Pedrozo, Ana Lúcia; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies, such as virtual reality, has been employed in the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal of augmenting exposure treatment, which is already considered to be the first-line treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). To evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) in the treatment of PTSD, we performed a systematic review of published articles using the following electronic databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Eligibility criteria included the use of patients diagnosed with PTSD according to DSM-IV, the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the use of virtual reality for performing exposure. 10 articles were selected, seven of which showed that VRET produced statistically significant results in comparison to the waiting list. However, no difference was found between VRET and exposure treatment. Of these 10, four were randomized, two were controlled but not randomized and four were non-controlled. The majority of the articles used head-mounted display virtual reality (VR) equipment and VR systems specific for the population that was being treated. Dropout rates do not seem to be lower than in traditional exposure treatment. However, there are a few limitations. Because this is a new field of research, there are few studies in the literature. There is also a need to standardize the number of sessions used. The randomized studies were analyzed to assess the quality of the methodology, and important deficiencies were noted, such as the non-use of intent-to- treat-analysis and the absence of description of possible concomitant treatments and comorbidities. Preliminary data suggest that VRET is as efficacious as traditional exposure treatment and can be especially useful in the treatment of patients who are resistant to traditional exposure.

  5. Virtual reality and claustrophobia: multiple components therapy involving game editor virtual environments exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbos, E; Mestre, D R; Note, I D; Gellato, C

    2008-12-01

    The effectiveness of a multiple components therapy regarding claustrophobia and involving virtual reality (VR) will be demonstrated through a trial which immersed six claustrophobic patients in multiple context-graded enclosed virtual environments (VE) using affordable VR apparatus and software. The results of the questionnaires and behavior tests exhibited a significant reduction in fear towards the enclosed space and quality of life improvement. Such gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Presence score indicated the patients felt immersed and present inside the game editor VE.

  6. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  7. A Randomized, Head-to-Head Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Robert N; Baird, Alicia; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Deal, William; Tran, Lily; Anson, Heather; Klam, Warren; Johnston, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is one of the few interventions supported by randomized controlled trials for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty service members. A comparative effectiveness study was conducted to determine if virtual reality technology itself improved outcomes, or if similar results could be achieved with a control exposure therapy (CET) condition. Service members with combat-related PTSD were randomly selected to receive nine weeks of VRET or CET. Assessors, but not therapists, were blinded. PTSD symptom improvement was assessed one week and 3 months after the conclusion of treatment using the clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS). A small crossover component was included. Results demonstrated that PTSD symptoms improved with both treatments, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Dropout rates were higher in VRET. Of those who received VRET, 13/42 (31%) showed >30% improvement on the CAPS, versus 16/43 (37%) who received CET. Three months after treatment, >30% improvement was seen in 10/33 (30%) of VRET participants and 12/33 (36%) in CET. Participants who crossed over (n = 11) showed no statistically significant improvements in a second round of treatment, regardless of condition. This study supported the utility of exposure therapy for PTSD, but did not support additional benefit by the inclusion of virtual reality.

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy for public-speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2005-01-01

    This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Using portable EEG devices to evaluate emotional regulation strategies during Virtual Reality exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    As Virtual Reality (VR) is starting to be used to train emotional regulation strategies, it would be interesting to propose objective techniques to monitor the emotional reactions of participants during the virtual experience. In this work, the main goal is to analyze if portable EEG systems are adequate to monitor brain activity changes caused by the emotional regulation strategies applied by the participants. The EEG signals captured from subjects that navigate through a virtual environment designed to induce a negative mood will be compared between three experimental groups that will receive different instructions about the emotional regulation strategies to apply. The study will allow us to validate the possibilities of portable EEG devices to monitor emotional regulation strategies during VR exposure.

  10. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ijntema, H.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials

  11. Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...

  12. Affective outcomes of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and specific phobias: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2008-09-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an increasingly common treatment for anxiety and specific phobias. Lacking is a quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after VRET. Searches of electronic databases yielded 52 studies, and of these, 21 studies (300 subjects) met inclusion criteria. Although meta-analysis revealed large declines in anxiety symptoms following VRET, moderator analyses were limited due to inconsistent reporting in the VRET literature. This highlights the need for future research studies that report uniform and detailed information regarding presence, immersion, anxiety and/or phobia duration, and demographics.

  13. Virtual reality exposure therapy for World Trade Center Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difede, JoAnn; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2002-12-01

    Done properly by experienced therapists, re-exposure to memories of traumatic events via imaginal exposure therapy can lead to a reduction of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Exposure helps the patient process and habituate to memories and strong emotions associated with the traumatic event: memories and emotions they have been carefully avoiding. But many patients are unwilling or unable to self-generate and re-experience painful emotional images. The present case study describes the treatment of a survivor of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack of 9-11-01 who had developed acute PTSD. After she failed to improve with traditional imaginal exposure therapy, we sought to increase emotional engagement and treatment success using virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy. Over the course of six 1-h VR exposure therapy sessions, we gradually and systematically exposed the PTSD patient to virtual planes flying over the World Trade Center, jets crashing into the World Trade Center with animated explosions and sound effects, virtual people jumping to their deaths from the burning buildings, towers collapsing, and dust clouds. VR graded exposure therapy was successful for reducing acute PTSD symptoms. Depression and PTSD symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale indicated a large (83%) reduction in depression, and large (90%) reduction in PTSD symptoms after completing VR exposure therapy. Although case reports are scientifically inconclusive by nature, these strong preliminary results suggest that VR exposure therapy is a promising new medium for treating acute PTSD. This study may be examined in more detail at www.vrpain.com.

  14. A controlled study of agoraphobia and the independent effect of virtual reality exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbos, Eric; Rapee, Ronald M; Kavakli, Manolya

    2013-02-01

    Past controlled clinical trials centred on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for agoraphobia mostly used multicomponent therapy with success. However, the present paper aimed to evaluate the independent effect of VRET for agoraphobia. A controlled study involving 18 agoraphobic participants assigned to two groups: VRET only and VRET with cognitive therapy. Nine specific virtual environments were developed using an affordable game level editor. Questionnaires, behavioural tests and physiological measures indicated a positive effect of VRET. Correlations supported the predictive value of presence towards treatment outcome. The addition of cognitive therapy did not provide significant additional benefit. Overall, the isolated effects of VRET did not seem to be significantly less than the effects of VRET combined with cognitive therapy. Future research should explore the use of other components in addition to cognitive therapy and VRET for agoraphobia as well as its possible use in patients' homes.

  15. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  16. [Subjective sensations indicating simulator sickness and fatigue after exposure to virtual reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the incidence and intensity of subjective symptoms indicating simulator sickness among the persons with no inclination to motion sickness, immersed in virtual reality (VR) by watching an hour long movie in the stereoscopic (three-dimensional - 3D) and non-stereoscopic (two-dimensional - 2D) versions and after an hour long training using virtual reality, called sVR. The sample comprised 20 healthy young men with no inclination to motion sickness. The participants' subjective sensations, indicating symptoms of simulator sickness were assessed using the questionnaire completed by the participants immediately, 20 min and 24 h following the test. Grandjean's scale was used to assess fatigue and mood. The symptoms were observed immediately after the exposure to sVR. Their intensity was higher than after watching the 2D and 3D movies. A significant relationship was found between the eye pain and the type of exposure (2D, 3D and sVR) (Chi2)(2) = 6.225, p movie and sVR was also noted (Chi2(1) = 9.173, p movie, the differences were significant only for the "tired-fatigued" subscale (Z = 2.501, p movies it is impossible to predict symptoms of simulator sickness after training using sVR.

  17. Virtual realities and education

    OpenAIRE

    Curcio Igor D.D.; Dipace Anna; Norlund Anita

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the state of the art of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality technologies and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environment technologies, their pedagogical implications are...

  18. Minimally invasive research of presigmoidal approach for exposure of jugular foramen region utilizing virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss minimally invasive tactics for exposure of jugular foramen region in transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach based on virtual reality image model. Methods CT and MRI scans were performed to 15 adult cadaver heads (30 sides, and image data was inputted into Vitrea virtual reality system to establish three-dimensional anatomical model of jugular foramen region. The transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach was simulated with selecting osseous landmark points to draw a cylinder. Minimally invasive simulation was performed by reducing the diameter of cylinder. Anatomic exposures in surgical trajectory following minimally invasive design were observed, measured and compared.  Results Spacial sequence of nerves and vessels of jugular foramen region was exposured clearly with the route simulating transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach. Route before and after minimally invasive design passed through the interval between vertical segment of facial nerve and sigmoid sinus. There was a part of sigmoid sinus in the route. Cerebellar hemisphere was not included in the route. Data measurement and comparative analysis showed that volume of route, petrosal osseous structure and venous sinus involved in route before minimally invasive design was more than that after minimally invasive design. The differences reached statistical significance (P = 0.000. The volumes of lower cranial nerves between routes before and after minimally invasive design did not show significant differences (P = 0.552.  Conclusions Minimally invasive route of transpetrosal-presigmoidal approach is helpful to reduce surgical injury of vital structures in effective exposure for target structures of jugular foramen region. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.011

  19. Virtual reality for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    De Gennaro, Silvano; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality for Engineers. Virtual Reality is a very powerful visualization technique for 3D data, which can bring enormous benefits to engineering design. CAD models can be exported to a VR application and used as "Virtual Prototypes". Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for wooden models as they can be generated automatically from most CAD products. They are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, on a one-to-one scale and using a 3D-stereo vision. Navigation can be performed using a number of instinctive tools, such as joysticks, spaceballs, VR helmets and 3D mice. The lectures will cover today's Virtual Reality products and methods, and describe how to transform CAD models into Virtual Prototypes. A "hands on" VR experience featuring the LHC detectors models can be organized for people interested.

  20. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHone-Blanchet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.

  1. A decision support system for real-time stress detection during virtual reality exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Pioggia, Giovanni; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Baldus, Giovanni; Corda, Daniele; Ferro, Marcello; Carbonaro, Nicola; Tognetti, Alessandro; De Rossi, Danilo; Giakoumis, Dimitris; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Riera, Alejandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is increasingly being used in combination with psycho-physiological measures to improve assessment of distress in mental health research and therapy. However, the analysis and interpretation of multiple physiological measures is time consuming and requires specific skills, which are not available to most clinicians. To address this issue, we designed and developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for automatic classification of stress levels during exposure to VR environments. The DSS integrates different biosensor data (ECG, breathing rate, EEG) and behavioral data (body gestures correlated with stress), following a training process in which self-rated and clinical-rated stress levels are used as ground truth. Detected stress events for each VR session are reported to the therapist as an aggregated value (ranging from 0 to 1) and graphically displayed on a diagram accessible by the therapist through a web-based interface.

  2. A Comparison of Active and Passive Virtual Reality Exposure Scenarios to Elicit Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.

  3. Profile analysis of after-effects experienced during exposure to several virtual reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1994-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.

  4. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kumar; Van Wijk, A J; Abdullah, Fawzia; Islam, Md Nurul; Bernatchez, Marc; De Jongh, Ad

    2016-02-27

    Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET. This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia. ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.

  5. Internet-delivered multi-patient virtual reality exposure therapy system for the treatment of anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Riemsdijk, M.B. van; Neerincx, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation - The project is to reduce the therapist's workload in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders and explore cognitive ergonomic factors in the design of an internet-delivered multi-patient treatment system. Research questions - The aim can be achieved by system

  6. Using Portable EEG Devices to Evaluate Emotional Regulation Strategies during Virtual Reality Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Beatriz; Rodriguez Ortega, Alejandro; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis

    2012-01-01

    [EN] As Virtual Reality (VR) is starting to be used to train emotional regulation strategies, it would be interesting to propose objective techniques to monitor the emotional reactions of participants during the virtual experience. In this work, the main goal is to analyze if portable EEG systems are adequate to monitor brain activity changes caused by the emotional regulation strategies applied by the participants. The EEG signals captured from subjects that navigate through a virtual enviro...

  7. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    2017-06-01

    Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanism and may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social stressors was examined in participants with different liability to psychosis. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis and 53 controls were exposed to social stressors (crowdedness, ethnic minority status and hostility) in a Virtual Reality environment. Heart rate variability parameters and skin conductance levels were measured at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. High psychosis liability groups had significantly increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability compared to low liability groups both at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power were reduced, while the LF/HF ratio was similar between groups. The number of virtual social stressors significantly affected heart rate, HF, LF/HF and skin conductance level. There was no interaction between psychosis liability and amount of virtual social stress. High liability to psychosis is associated with decreased parasympathetic activity in virtual social environments, which reflects generally high levels of arousal, rather than increased autonomic reactivity to social stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Virtual realities and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curcio Igor D.D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the state of the art of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality technologies and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environment technologies, their pedagogical implications are strongly related to a well-designed theoretical framework.

  9. DJINNI: A novel technology supported exposure therapy paradigm for SAD combining virtual reality and augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Moussa, M.; Rubo, M.; Debracque, C.; Lange, W.G.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for Social

  10. Investigating Relationships Between PTSD Symptom Clusters Within Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for OEF/OIF Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Price, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila; Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2017-03-01

    Several cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Foa, Keane, Friedman, & Cohen, 2008). The bulk of PTSD treatment research has relied on pre-post designs, which are limited in their ability to investigate the therapeutic process over time. The present study investigated the relations between PTSD symptom clusters using symptom assessment at pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment using cross-lagged panel design over the course of Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE) treatment. Participants were 156 Iraq and/or Afghanistan veterans who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD due to military trauma. Using structural equation modeling, the final reexperiencing model demonstrated good fit, χ(2)(34)=39.95, p=.22; RMSEA=.034, 90% CI: [0.00, 0.07], CFI=.993, and results suggested that reexperiencing at pretreatment demonstrated a significant effect on numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal at midtreatment, and reexperiencing symptoms at midtreatment demonstrate a significant effect on each of the three symptom clusters at posttreatment. These findings suggest that reexperiencing symptoms are indeed a key aspect of the therapeutic process within exposure therapy for PTSD. Additional research examining the impact of reexperiencing-focused intervention strategies on treatment outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M.; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    Background: Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanismand may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social

  12. Virtual reality exposure versus cognitive restructuring for treatment of public speaking anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S; Safir, Marilyn P; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    To determine the utility of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRE) in comparison with Cognitive Therapy (CT ) and with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT). Subjects suffering from public speaking anxiety (PSA) were randomly allocated to VRE and CT , and received 12 therapy sessions, employing standardized treatment manuals. Outcome (questionnaires, observer and self ratings of a behavioral task) was compared to results of subjects in a previous study CBT and Wait List Controls who were not significantly different on demographic data. CT was not superior to VRE on cognitive measures, but was superior to VRE on one behavioral measure (LSAS fear). VRE was superior to CT on one behavioral measure (fear reduction on a behavioral task). No differences were found between either CT , or VRE, and CBT and all were superior to WL. Subject group was small and homogeneous. It appeared advisable to increase number of therapy sessions. VRE and CT proved to be equally effective to CBT in reducing PSA relative to a control group, with minimal differential effects between them. Therefore, employing either one may be satisfactory and sufficient.

  13. Virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

  14. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...... overview of VRMIs from the viewpoint of the performer. We propose nine design guidelines, describe evaluation methods, analyze case studies, and consider future challenges....

  15. Virtual reality exposure therapy for fear of driving: analysis of clinical characteristics, physiological response, and sense of presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael T da; Carvalho, Marcele R de; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E

    2018-02-15

    To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions. The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants. Thirteen women were selected. Eight were able to complete the protocol. After VRET, there was a decrease in the frequency of distorted thoughts and state anxiety scores, as well as a slight improvement in quality of life. Subjective discomfort scores, heart rate variation, and sense of presence scores confirmed that there was sense of presence in the virtual reality environment. All patients showed some degree of improvement and demonstrated different levels of anxiety in subsequent in vivo driving experiences. Our findings suggest that VRET could be used to facilitate in vivo exposure, because it can induce presence/immersion and reduce anxiety in patients with specific phobia. Furthermore, VRET is not associated with any type of risk.

  16. Use of virtual reality as therapeutic tool for behavioural exposure in the ambit of social anxiety disorder treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillon, Helena; Riquier, Francoise; Herbelin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    We hereby present a study whose aim is to evaluate the efficiency and flexibility of virtual reality as a therapeutic tool in the confines of a social phobia behavioural therapeutic program. Our research protocol, accepted by the ethical commission of the cantonal hospices’ psychiatry service......, is identical in content and structure for each patient. This study’s second goal is to use the confines of virtual exposure to objectively evaluate a specific parameter present in social phobia, namely eye contact avoidance, by using an eye-tracking system. Analysis of our results shows...

  17. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... three prism conditions: 2 different types of simulated prism techniques in virtual reality and a control session using a set of prism goggles. RESULTS: The study shows that the simulated prism conditions in virtual reality with HTC Vive produced prismatic after-effects larger in size than the after...

  18. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Treatment of Dental Phobia: A Controlled Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; van Wijk, Arjen; Sharma, Ratika; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-09-14

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been used to treat a variety of fears and phobias. To determine the feasibility (i.e. safety and efficacy) of using VRET to treat dental phobia. Safety was evaluated by determining any adverse events or symptom exacerbation. Efficacy of VRET was evaluated by comparing the reduction in dental anxiety scores (measured 16 times within a 14-week study period, and at 6-month follow-up), and its behavioural effects with that of an informational pamphlet (IP) on ten randomized patients with dental phobia using a controlled multiple baseline design. Participants' heart rate response during VRET, and their experience post-VRET, were indexed. No personal adverse events or symptom exacerbation occurred. Visual analysis and post-hoc intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in dental anxiety scores [higher PND (percentage of non-overlap data) scores of 100% and lower POD (percentage of overlap data) of 0%, Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, F (1,8) = 8.61, p = 0.019, and Dental Fear Scale, F (1,8) = 10.53, p = 0.012], and behavioural avoidance in the VRET compared with the IP group [d = 4.2 and -1.4, respectively). There was no increase in average heart rate during VRET. Of the nine treatment completers, six (four from the VRET group and two from the IP group) no longer had dental phobia at 6-month follow-up. Four of the five VRET participants, but none of the IP participants, scheduled a dental treatment appointment following the intervention. VRET is a feasible alternative for patients with dental phobia.

  19. Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijn, Merel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Bouwman, Manon; van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G

    2007-02-01

    Fear of flying (FOF) can be a serious problem for individuals who develop this condition and for military and civilian organizations that operate aircraft. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three treatments: bibliotherapy (BIB) without therapist contact; individualized virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE); and cognitive behavior therapy (CB). In addition, we evaluated the effect of following up VRE and CB with 2 d of group cognitive-behavioral training (GrCB). There were 86 subjects suffering from FOF who entered the study; 19 BIB, 29 VRE, and 16 CB subjects completed the treatment protocols. The BIB subjects were then treated with VRE (n = 7) or CB (n = 12). There were 59 subjects who were then trained with GrCB. Treatment with VRE or CB was more effective than BIB. Both VRE and CB showed a decline in FOF on the two main outcome measures. There was no statistically significant difference between those two therapies. However, effect sizes were lower for VRE (small to moderate) than for CB (moderate) and the addition of GrCB had less effect for VRE than for CB. VRE holds promise as treatment for FOF, but in this trial CB followed by GrCB showed the largest decrease in subjective anxiety. The results suggest that future research should focus on comparing the effectiveness of VRE vs. VRE plus cognitive techniques or measure the effectiveness of each component of treatment. Moreover, the effectiveness of the GrCB as stand-alone treatment should be investigated, which might even be superior in cost-effectiveness.

  20. Virtual Reality in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stasieńko Agnieszka; Sarzyńska-Długosz Iwona

    2016-01-01

    This article includes current information on the use of modern IT solutions and virtual-reality (VR)-based technologies in medical rehabilitation. A review of current literature on VR-based interventions and their indications, benefits and limitations in patients with nervous system diseases was conducted. The popularity of VR-based training as a tool used for rehabilitation of patients with acute and chronic deficits in both sensory-motor and cognitive disorders is increasing. Still, there i...

  1. [Virtual reality therapy in anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrousia, V; Giotakos, O

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade a number of studies have been conducted in order to examine if virtual reality exposure therapy can be an alternative form of therapy for the treatment of mental disorders and particularly for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Imaginal exposure therapy, which is one of the components of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, cannot be easily applied to all patients and in cases like those virtual reality can be used as an alternative or a supportive psychotherapeutic technique. Most studies using virtual reality have focused on anxiety disorders, mainly in specific phobias, but some extend to other disorders such as eating disorders, drug dependence, pain control and palliative care and rehabilitation. Main characteristics of virtual reality therapy are: "interaction", "immersion", and "presence". High levels of "immersion" and "presence" are associated with increased response to exposure therapy in virtual environments, as well as better therapeutic outcomes and sustained therapeutic gains. Typical devices that are used in order patient's immersion to be achieved are the Head-Mounted Displays (HMD), which are only for individual use, and the computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE), which is a multiuser. Virtual reality therapy's disadvantages lie in the difficulties that arise due to the demanded specialized technology skills, devices' cost and side effects. Therapists' training is necessary in order for them to be able to manipulate the software and the hardware and to adjust it to each case's needs. Devices' cost is high but as technology continuously improves it constantly decreases. Immersion during virtual reality therapy can induce mild and temporary side effects such as nausea, dizziness or headache. Until today, however, experience shows that virtual reality offers several advantages. Patient's avoidance to be exposed in phobic stimuli is reduced via the use of virtual reality since the patient is exposed to them as many times as he

  2. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? : A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343319594; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials

  3. Reality in Virtual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Frank; Pettersson, Michael

    The development of ITC has increased focus onto distance learning programs worldwide. Most universities today offer distance learning programs that are based on the Internet. This development represents a fundamental change in the very logic of being a university. It is no longer enough to rely...... characteristics of the program, however, it is particularly interesting to investigate the role that virtual studying serves in the construction of reality and meaning. Furthermore, as it is assumed that experiences cannot be separated from who one is (being-in-the world), the process of human change during...

  4. Virtual Reality in Neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasieńko Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes current information on the use of modern IT solutions and virtual-reality (VR-based technologies in medical rehabilitation. A review of current literature on VR-based interventions and their indications, benefits and limitations in patients with nervous system diseases was conducted. The popularity of VR-based training as a tool used for rehabilitation of patients with acute and chronic deficits in both sensory-motor and cognitive disorders is increasing. Still, there is a need for large randomized trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of VR-based rehabilitation techniques in different disease entities. .

  5. Virtual Reality, Combat, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Emily Austin; Bodary, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief examination of the evolution of virtual reality devices that illustrates how the development of this new medium is influenced by emerging technologies and by marketing pressures. Notes that understanding these influences may help prepare for the role of technical communicators in building virtual reality applications for education…

  6. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a methodological review using CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motraghi, Terri E; Seim, Richard W; Meyer, Eric C; Morissette, Sandra B

    2014-03-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an extension of traditional exposure therapy and has been used to treat a variety of anxiety disorders. VRET utilizes a computer-generated virtual environment to present fear-relevant stimuli. Recent studies have evaluated the use of VRET for treatment of PTSD; however, a systematic evaluation of the methodological quality of these studies has yet to be conducted. This review aims to (a) identify treatment outcome studies examining the use of VRET for the treatment of PTSD and (b) appraise the methodological quality of each study using the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and its 2008 extension for nonpharmacologic interventions. Two independent assessors conducted a database search (PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar) of studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 that reported outcome data comparing VRET with another type of treatment or a control condition. Next, a CONSORT quality appraisal of each study was completed. The search yielded nine unique studies. The CONSORT appraisal revealed that the methodological quality of studies examining VRET as a treatment for PTSD was variable. Although preliminary findings suggest some positive results for VRET as a form of exposure treatment for PTSD, additional research using well-specified randomization procedures, assessor blinding, and monitoring of treatment adherence is warranted. Movement toward greater standardization of treatment manuals, virtual environments, and equipment would further facilitate interpretation and consolidation of this literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Patterson, David R; Sharar, Sam R

    2009-03-01

    Scientific evidence for the viability of hypnosis as a treatment for pain has flourished over the past two decades (Rainville, Duncan, Price, Carrier and Bushnell, 1997; Montgomery, DuHamel and Redd, 2000; Lang and Rosen, 2002; Patterson and Jensen, 2003). However its widespread use has been limited by factors such as the advanced expertise, time and effort required by clinicians to provide hypnosis, and the cognitive effort required by patients to engage in hypnosis.The theory in developing virtual reality hypnosis was to apply three-dimensional, immersive, virtual reality technology to guide the patient through the same steps used when hypnosis is induced through an interpersonal process. Virtual reality replaces many of the stimuli that the patients have to struggle to imagine via verbal cueing from the therapist. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual reality may be useful in delivering hypnosis, and to summarize the scientific literature to date. We will also explore various theoretical and methodological issues that can guide future research.In spite of the encouraging scientific and clinical findings, hypnosis for analgesia is not universally used in medical centres. One reason for the slow acceptance is the extensive provider training required in order for hypnosis to be an effective pain management modality. Training in hypnosis is not commonly offered in medical schools or even psychology graduate curricula. Another reason is that hypnosis requires far more time and effort to administer than an analgesic pill or injection. Hypnosis requires training, skill and patience to deliver in medical centres that are often fast-paced and highly demanding of clinician time. Finally, the attention and cognitive effort required for hypnosis may be more than patients in an acute care setting, who may be under the influence of opiates and benzodiazepines, are able to impart. It is a challenge to make hypnosis a standard part of care in this environment

  8. Virtual reality in posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavainen, Timo; Toppila, Esko; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Forsman, Pia M; Juhola, Martti; Starck, Jukka

    2006-04-01

    Balance dysfunctions are common, especially among elderly people. Present methods for the diagnosis and evaluation of severity of dysfuntion have limited value. We present a system that makes it easy to implement different visual and mechanical perturbations for clinical investigations of balance and visual-vestibular interaction. The system combines virtual reality visual stimulation with force platform posturography on a moving platform. We evaluate our contruction's utility in a classification task between 33 healthy controls and 77 patients with Ménière's disease, using a series of tests with different visual and mechanical stimuli. Responses of patients and controls differ significantly in parameters computed from stabilograms. We also show that the series of tests achieves a classification accuracy slightly over 80% between controls and patients.

  9. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  10. Diaphragmatic breathing during virtual reality exposure therapy for aviophobia: functional coping strategy or avoidance behavior? a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Youssef; Diemer, Julia; Müller, Jana; Brütting-Schick, Johanna; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2017-01-18

    Although there is solid evidence for the efficacy of in vivo and virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy for a specific phobia, there is a significant debate over whether techniques promoting distraction or relaxation have impairing or enhancing effects on treatment outcome. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of diaphragmatic breathing (DB) as a relaxation technique during VR exposure treatment. Twenty-nine patients with aviophobia were randomly assigned to VR exposure treatment either with or without diaphragmatic breathing (six cycles per minute). Subjective fear ratings, heart rate and skin conductance were assessed as indicators of fear during both the exposure and the test session one week later. The group that experienced VR exposure combined with diaphragmatic breathing showed a higher tendency to effectively overcome the fear of flying. Psychophysiological measures of fear decreased and self-efficacy increased in both groups with no significant difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that diaphragmatic breathing during VR exposure does not interfere with the treatment outcome and may even enhance treatment effects of VR exposure therapy for aviophobic patients. Retrospectively registered. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02990208 . Registered 07 December 2016.

  11. Virtual reality and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa M; Perpiñá, Conxa; García Palacios, Azucena; Riva, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology consisting on a graphic environment in which the user, not only has the feeling of being physically present in a virtual world, but he/she can interact with it. The first VR workstations were designed for big companies in order to create environments that simulate certain situations to train professionals. However, at this moment a great expansion of this technology is taking place in several fields, including the area of health. Especially interesting for us is the use of VR as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of psychological disorders. Compared to the traditional treatments, VR has many advantages (e.g., it is a protected environment for the patient, he/she can re-experience many times the feared situation, etc.). There are already data on the effectiveness of this technology in the treatment of different psychological disorders; here anxiety disorders, eating disorders and sexual disorders are reviewed. Finally, this chapter ends with some words about the limitations of VR and future perspectives.

  12. Virtual reality in telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) can be considered as the leading edge of a general evolution of present communication interfaces involving the television, computer, and telephone. The main characteristic of this evolution is the full immersion of the human sensorimotor channels into a vivid and global communication experience. Because telemedicine principally focuses on transmitting medical information, VR has the potential to enhance this function. Particularly, VR can be used in telemedicine as an advanced communication interface, which enables a more intuitive mode of interacting with information, and as a flexible environment that enhances the feeling of physical presence during the interaction. In this article, the state of the art in VR-based telemedicine applications is described. This technology is now used in remote or augmented surgery as well as surgical training, which are critically dependent on eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use virtual environments in medical visualization and for assessment and rehabilitation in neuropsychology. This article also discusses technological, ergonomical, and human factor issues, and specific guidelines are presented for expanding the use of VR in telemedicine.

  13. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far.

  14. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  15. Virtual reality for spherical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Rafal; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    Paper presents virtual reality application framework and application concept for mobile devices. Framework uses Google Cardboard library for Android operating system. Framework allows to create virtual reality 360 video player using standard OpenGL ES rendering methods. Framework provides network methods in order to connect to web server as application resource provider. Resources are delivered using JSON response as result of HTTP requests. Web server also uses Socket.IO library for synchronous communication between application and server. Framework implements methods to create event driven process of rendering additional content based on video timestamp and virtual reality head point of view.

  16. Emotional response to virtual reality exposure across different cultures: the role of the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Mosso, José Luis; Mosso, Dejanira; Pineda, Erika; Ruíz, Norma Leticia; Ramíez, Miriam; Morales, José Luis; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have shown the ability of media--television, movies, and virtual reality (VR) experiences--to elicit emotions. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how the different factors involved--user related and medium related--play a role in producing an emotional response during a VR experience. We investigate this issue, analyzing the role played by the cultural and technological backgrounds of the users in the emotional responses to VR. Specifically, we use the "core affect" model of emotions developed by Russell (2003) to explore how these factors influence the way in which participants experience virtual worlds. Our sample includes 20 Mexican participants: 8 living in El Tepeyac, a small rural and isolated Mexican village characterized by a very primitive culture, and 12 high civilized inhabitants of Mexico City. The "Green Valley," a noninteractive, relaxing immersive environment showing a mountain landscape around a calm lake, was used to induce relaxation in the two groups during an ambulatory surgical operation. To investigate the effects of VR on the relaxation process, we measured participants' physiological (heart rate) and emotional (VAS-A) responses before, during, and after the operation. The results show that VR significantly modified the core affect (reduced arousal) in all participants but that the final emotional response produced by this change was influenced by the attribution process: the civilized inhabitants of Mexico City, who were able to attribute the reduced arousal to the VR experience, reported a significant reduction in the self-reported level of anxiety, while people from El Tepeyac showed a reduction in their physiological reactions but not in their perceived anxiety.

  17. The ethnography of virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Ljiljana 1

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible application of ethnographic research in the realm of virtual reality, especially in the relationship between cultures in virtual communities. This represents an entirely new area of ethnographic research and therefore many adjustments in the research design are needed for example, a development of a specific method of data gathering and tools for their verification. A virtual, cyber space is a version of social space more or less synchronous with it, but without the, "real", that is, physical presence of the people who create it. This virtual reality, defined and bounded by virtual space, is in fact real - and though we are not able to observe real, physical parameters of its existence, we can perceive its consequences. In sum, an innovative ethnographic research method is fully applicable for exploring the realm of virtual reality; in order to do so we need to expand, in addition to the new research design and methods, the field of science itself.

  18. Virtual Reality and Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István TÓZSA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.

  19. A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Price, Matthew; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Gerardi, Maryrose; Dunlop, Boadie; Davis, Michael; Bradley, Bekh; Duncan, Erica J; Rizzo, Albert; Ressler, Kerry J

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. PTSD symptoms significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment across all conditions and were maintained at 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no overall differences in symptoms between D-cycloserine and placebo at any time. Alprazolam and placebo differed significantly on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score at posttreatment and PTSD diagnosis at 3 months posttreatment; the alprazolam group showed a higher rate of PTSD (82.8%) than the placebo group (47.8%). Between-session extinction learning was a treatment-specific enhancer of outcome for the D-cycloserine group only. At posttreatment, the D-cycloserine group had the lowest cortisol reactivity and smallest startle response during virtual reality scenes. A six-session virtual reality treatment was associated with reduction in PTSD diagnoses and symptoms in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, although there was no control condition for the virtual reality exposure. There was no advantage of D-cycloserine for PTSD symptoms in primary analyses. In secondary analyses, alprazolam impaired recovery and D-cycloserine enhanced virtual reality outcome in patients who demonstrated within-session learning. D-cycloserine augmentation reduced cortisol and startle reactivity more than did alprazolam or placebo, findings that are consistent with those in the animal literature.

  20. Baseline psychophysiological and cortisol reactivity as a predictor of PTSD treatment outcome in virtual reality exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja; Gerardi, Maryrose; Breazeale, Kathryn G; Price, Matthew; Davis, Michael; Duncan, Erica; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh; Rizzo, Albert; Tuerk, Peter W; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2016-07-01

    Baseline cue-dependent physiological reactivity may serve as an objective measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, prior animal model and psychological studies would suggest that subjects with greatest symptoms at baseline may have the greatest violation of expectancy to danger when undergoing exposure based psychotherapy; thus treatment approaches which enhanced the learning under these conditions would be optimal for those with maximal baseline cue-dependent reactivity. However methods to study this hypothesis objectively are lacking. Virtual reality (VR) methodologies have been successfully employed as an enhanced form of imaginal prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Our goal was to examine the predictive nature of initial psychophysiological (e.g., startle, skin conductance, heart rate) and stress hormone responses (e.g., cortisol) during presentation of VR-based combat-related stimuli on PTSD treatment outcome. Combat veterans with PTSD underwent 6 weeks of VR exposure therapy combined with either d-cycloserine (DCS), alprazolam (ALP), or placebo (PBO). In the DCS group, startle response to VR scenes prior to initiation of treatment accounted for 76% of the variance in CAPS change scores, p treatment response in the ALP group, p = 0.04. We propose that baseline cue-activated physiological measures will be sensitive to predicting patients' level of response to exposure therapy, in particular in the presence of enhancement (e.g., DCS). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Virtual reality technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mihelj, Matjaž; Beguš, Samo

    2014-01-01

    As virtual reality expands from the imaginary worlds of science fiction and pervades every corner of everyday life, it is becoming increasingly important for students and professionals alike to understand the diverse aspects of this technology. This book aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the theoretical and practical elements of virtual reality, from the mathematical and technological foundations of virtual worlds to the human factors and the applications that enrich our lives: in the fields of medicine, entertainment, education and others. After providing a brief introduction to the topic, the book describes the kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of virtual worlds. It explores the many ways a computer can track and interpret human movement, then progresses through the modalities that make up a virtual world: visual, acoustic and haptic. It explores the interaction between the actual and virtual environments, as well as design principles of the latter. The book closes with an examination of diff...

  2. Virtual reality exposure therapy as treatment for pain catastrophizing in fibromyalgia patients: proof-of-concept study (Study Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linzette D; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Louw, Quinette A

    2011-04-30

    Albeit exercise is currently advocated as one of the most effective management strategies for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); the implementation of exercise as a FMS treatment in reality is significantly hampered by patients' poor compliance. The inference that pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance in FMS patients, justifies considering the alteration of pain catastrophizing in improving compliance towards exercises in FMS patients. The aim of this study is to provide proof-of-concept for the development and testing of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS patients. Two interlinked experimental studies will be conducted. Study 1 aims to objectively ascertain if neurophysiological changes occur in the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing, when catastrophizing FMS subjects are exposed to visuals of exercise activities. Study 2 aims to ascertain the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of exposure to visuals of exercise activities as a treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS subjects. Twenty subjects will be selected from a group of FMS patients attending the Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa and randomly allocated to either the VRET (intervention) group or waiting list (control) group. Baseline neurophysiological activity for subjects will be collected in study 1 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In study 2, clinical improvement in pain catastrophizing will be measured using fMRI (objective) and the pain catastrophizing scale (subjective). The premise is if exposing FMS patients to visuals of various exercise activities trigger the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing; then as a treatment, repeated exposure to visuals of the exercise activities using a VRET program could possibly decrease exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS patients. Proof-of-concept will either be

  3. Controlling Social Stress in Virtual Reality Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006

  4. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hartanto

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  5. Single-session gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia vs. traditional exposure therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-02

    Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with

  6. Trauma management therapy with virtual-reality augmented exposure therapy for combat-related PTSD: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher; Neer, Sandra M; Bowers, Clint A; Trachik, Benjamin; Uhde, Thomas W; Grubaugh, Anouk

    2017-08-23

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) realistically incorporates traumatic cues into exposure therapy and holds promise in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a randomized controlled trial of 92 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans and active duty military personnel with combat-related PTSD, we compared the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy (TMT; VRET plus a group treatment for anger, depression, and social isolation) to VRET plus a psychoeducation control condition. Efficacy was evaluated at mid- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Consistent with our hypothesis, VRET resulted in significant decreases on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist-Military version for both groups. Also consistent with our hypothesis, significant decreases in social isolation occurred only for those participants who received the TMT group component. There were significant decreases for depression and anger for both groups, although these occurred after VRET and before group treatment. All treatment gains were maintained six-months later. Although not part of the original hypotheses, sleep was not improved by either intervention and remained problematic. The results support the use of VRET as an efficacious treatment for combat-related PTSD, but suggest that VRET alone does not result in optimal treatment outcomes across domains associated with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The therapist user interface of a virtual reality exposure therapy system in the treatment of fear of flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.; van der Mast, C.; Sandino, G.; Gunawan, L.T.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) technology to support the treatment of patients with phobia, such as the fear of flying, is getting considerable research attention. Research mainly focuses on the patient experience and the effect of the treatment. In this paper, however, the focus is on the

  8. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  9. Virtual Reality in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolsek, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of virtual reality from an education perspective. Defines the technology in terms of equipment and participatory experience, examines the potential applications of virtual reality in education and training, and considers the concerns and limitations of the technology. Overall, research indicates that virtual reality offers…

  10. Treatment of flying phobia using virtual reality exposure with or without cognitive restructuring: participants’ preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Arbona, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juana; Serrano Zárate, Berenice; García-Palacios, Azucena; Quero, Soledad; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio analiza las preferencias de los participantes sobre dos modalidades de tratamiento para el miedo a volar (MV): Tratamiento de exposición mediante realidad virtual (VRET) o VRET más reestructuración cognitiva (VRET + CR). Se contrabalanc

  11. Virtual reality exposure therapy as treatment for pain catastrophizing in fibromyalgia patients: proof-of-concept study (Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spottiswoode Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albeit exercise is currently advocated as one of the most effective management strategies for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; the implementation of exercise as a FMS treatment in reality is significantly hampered by patients' poor compliance. The inference that pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance in FMS patients, justifies considering the alteration of pain catastrophizing in improving compliance towards exercises in FMS patients. The aim of this study is to provide proof-of-concept for the development and testing of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS patients. Methods Two interlinked experimental studies will be conducted. Study 1 aims to objectively ascertain if neurophysiological changes occur in the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing, when catastrophizing FMS subjects are exposed to visuals of exercise activities. Study 2 aims to ascertain the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of exposure to visuals of exercise activities as a treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in FMS subjects. Twenty subjects will be selected from a group of FMS patients attending the Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa and randomly allocated to either the VRET (intervention group or waiting list (control group. Baseline neurophysiological activity for subjects will be collected in study 1 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In study 2, clinical improvement in pain catastrophizing will be measured using fMRI (objective and the pain catastrophizing scale (subjective. Discussion The premise is if exposing FMS patients to visuals of various exercise activities trigger the functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophizing; then as a treatment, repeated exposure to visuals of the exercise activities using a VRET program could possibly decrease exercise-related pain catastrophizing

  12. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  13. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Smeenk, R.J.M.; Mazy, A.; Jacques, P.; Argüello, L.; Mills, S.

    2003-01-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company

  14. Virtual Reality: Ready or Not!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joan E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development and current status of virtual reality (VR) and VR research. Market potentials for VR are discussed, including the entertainment industry, health care and medical training, flight and other simulators, and educational possibilities. A glossary of VR-related terms is included. (LRW)

  15. Targeting pain catastrophization in patients with fibromyalgia using virtual reality exposure therapy: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linzette Deidrè; Louw, Quinette Abegail; Grimmer, Karen Anne; Meintjes, Ernesta

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance to exercises among patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Alteration of pain catastrophizing in this group is thus warranted. This study aimed to provide proof-of-concept of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, case-controlled study was conducted (fibromyalgia syndrome group and matched control group). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire neural correlates. The functional magnetic resonance imaging task consisted of two stimuli: active (exercise activity visuals) and passive (relaxing visuals). Structural images and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrasts were acquired for the conditions and compared within subjects/groups and between groups. Statistic images were thresholded using corrected clusters (determined by Z>2.3; level of significance: 0.05). [Results] Thirteen fibromyalgia syndrome subjects and nine healthy matched controls were included. The right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right posterior cerebellum, left thalamus, and left supramarginal gyrus were activated in the fibromyalgia syndrome subjects. [Conclusion] The study results provide preliminary proof indicating that exposing patients with fibromyalgia syndrome to visuals of exercises elicits neurophysiological changes in functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophization and add to the current body of knowledge regarding the possibility of objectively identifying cognitive behavioral strategies like pain catastrophization.

  16. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Kate E; Lange, Belinda; George, Stacey; Deutsch, Judith E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Crotty, Maria

    2017-11-20

    Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity.Secondary objectives: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction, quality of life, and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2017), CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The review authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included 72 trials that involved 2470 participants. This review includes 35 new studies in addition to the studies included in the previous version of this review. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions varied in terms of both the goals of treatment and the virtual reality devices used. The risk of bias present in many studies was unclear due to poor reporting. Thus, while there are a large

  17. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  18. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan

    This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

  19. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  20. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy combined with two pharmacotherapies in the treatment of agoraphobia

    OpenAIRE

    Marién González Lorenzo; Wenceslao Peñate Castro; Carmen Teresa Pitti González; Juan Manuel Bethencourt Pérez; Juan Antonio de la Fuente Portero; Ramón Gracia Marco

    2011-01-01

    Actualmente, se consideran tratamientos eficaces para la agorafobia algunos psicofármacos, la terapia cognitiva conductual (TCC) y la combinación de ambos. Entre los tratamientos psicológicos se han desarrollado nuevas alternativas terapéuticas, tales como técnicas de exposición con realidad virtual (TERV). El objetivo de este estudio experimental ha sido evaluar, en una muestra de pacientes con agorafobia (N = 64), la eficacia de la TERV combinada con dos psicofármacos (venlafaxina y paroxet...

  1. Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy combined with two pharmacotherapies in the treatment of agoraphobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marién González Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se consideran tratamientos eficaces para la agorafobia algunos psicofármacos, la terapia cognitiva conductual (TCC y la combinación de ambos. Entre los tratamientos psicológicos se han desarrollado nuevas alternativas terapéuticas, tales como técnicas de exposición con realidad virtual (TERV. El objetivo de este estudio experimental ha sido evaluar, en una muestra de pacientes con agorafobia (N = 64, la eficacia de la TERV combinada con dos psicofármacos (venlafaxina y paroxetina, utilizando un sistema virtual formado por siete escenarios. Para ello, se compararon cinco tipos de tratamiento: cuatro grupos de tratamientos combinados y un grupo de tratamiento psicofarmacológico. Se tomaron medidas en el pre-tratamiento, post-tratamiento y en el seguimiento a los seis meses, y como variables dependientes se consideraron medidas de agorafobia y ansiedad. Los resultados mostraron que todos los grupos eran estadísticamente significativos, tanto en el postratamiento como en el seguimiento a los seis meses. Atendiendo a la eficacia clínica, los resultados mostraron que los grupos de tratamiento combinado con TERV disminuyeron las puntuaciones de agorafobia y ansiedad, manteniéndolas en el tiempo, más que las técnicas de tratamiento tradicional.

  2. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  3. Virtual reality exposure using three-dimensional images for the treatment of social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Gebara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

  4. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed. PMID:26675895

  5. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-12-10

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.

  6. Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveistrup Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtual Reality (VR provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs, haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.

  7. Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveistrup, Heidi

    2004-12-10

    Virtual Reality (VR) provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs), haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral treatment and antidepressants combined with virtual reality exposure for patients with chronic agoraphobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Peñate Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se comparó la eficacia de la exposición a estímulos virtuales combinada con terapia cognitivo-conductual (VRET con un programa tradicional cognitivo-conductual (CBT para reducir la sintomatología fóbica en una muestra de personas con agorafobia de larga evolución. Se utilizó un diseño entre sujetos con tres condiciones experimentales (grupo VRET, N = 30; grupo CBT, N = 30; y grupo con sólo medicación, N = 20 y medidas repetidas (pre, post- tratamiento y seguimiento a los seis meses. Todos los pacientes estaban tomando antidepresivos. Los resultados mostraron que todas las terapias fueron estadísticamente eficaces, tanto en el post-tratamiento como en el seguimiento. El grupo VRET mostró mayores mejoras clínicas en el seguimiento. El grupo CBT mostró las tasas más altas de abandono. VRET probablemente juega un papel intermedio para una exposición eficiente a los estímulos fóbicos. Más allá de las ventajas de un procedimiento VRET para el tratamiento de la agorafobia en términos de coste-beneficios, este estudio también destaca los posibles beneficios en la mejora en la motivación y adherencia al tratamiento.

  9. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Kate E; George, Stacey; Thomas, Susie; Deutsch, Judith E; Crotty, Maria

    2015-02-12

    Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation. In particular, commercial gaming consoles have been rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2011. To determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity. To determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance activity, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction and quality of life, voxels or regions of interest identified via imaging, and adverse events. Additionally, we aimed to comment on the feasibility of virtual reality for use with stroke patients by reporting on patient eligibility criteria and recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November 2013), EMBASE (1980 to November 2013) and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance function and activity, and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included 37 trials that involved 1019 participants. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions

  10. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-13

    Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.

  11. Virtual Reality based Learning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on studies of the existing literature, focusing on the states-of-the-arts on virtual reality (VR) and its potential uses in learning. Different platforms have been used to improve the learning effects of VR that offers exciting opportunities in various fields. As more and more students want in a distance, part-time, or want to continue their education, VR has attracted considerable attention in learning, training, and traditional education. VR based learning enables oper...

  12. Virtual Reality for Sport Training

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Cheryl Ann

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been successfully applied to a broad range of training domains; however, to date there is little research investigating its benefits for sport training. In this work we investigated the feasibility and usefulness of using VR for two sport subdomains: sport psychology and sport biomechanics. In terms of sport psychology training, high-fidelity VR systems could be used to display realistic 3D environments to induce anxiety, allowing resilience-training systems to prepar...

  13. A hitchhiker's guide to virtual reality

    CERN Document Server

    McMenemy , Karen

    2007-01-01

    A Hitchhiker's Guide to Virtual Reality brings together under one cover all the aspects of graphics, video, audio, and haptics that have to work together to make virtual reality a reality. Like any good guide, it reveals the practical things you need to know, from the viewpoint of authors who have been there. This two-part guide covers the science, technology, and mathematics of virtual reality and then details its practical implementation. The first part looks at how the interface between human senses and technology works to create virtual reality, with a focus on vision, the most important s

  14. Virtual reality and anthropology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recheis, Wolfgang E-mail: wolfgang.recheis@uibk.ac.at; Weber, Gerhard W.; Schaefer, Katrin; Knapp, Rudolf; Seidler, Horst; Zur Nedden, Dieter

    1999-08-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimens were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology.

  15. Creating state of the art, next-generation Virtual Reality exposure therapies for anxiety disorders using consumer hardware platforms: design considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Philip; Miloff, Alexander; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Powers, Mark B; Carlbring, Per

    2017-09-01

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic "Big Data" that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  16. Virtual Reality: Emerging Applications and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality is an emerging technology that has resulted in rapid expansion in the development of virtual immersive environments for use as educational simulations in schools, colleges and universities. This article presents an overview of virtual reality, describes a number of applications currently being used by special educators for…

  17. Virtual Reality in Education The next challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Carlos Samaniego Villarroel

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality is a very interesting topic, but quite far from us apparently the Latin American reality is too far to technological advances and therefore costs us understand how they serve educational purposes...

  18. Enhancing tourism with augmented and virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...

  19. Virtual Reality for Materials Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...

  20. Virtual Reality as Treatment for Fear of Flying: A Review of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure has recently emerged as an important tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying. There have been numerous empirical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure as compared to other treatments including in vivo exposure, progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive therapy,…

  1. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  2. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  3. Reality Check: Basics of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Tara J

    2017-01-01

    Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality applications all aim to enhance a user's current experience or reality. While variations of this technology are not new, within the last few years there has been a significant increase in the number of artificial reality devices or applications available to the general public. This column will explain the difference between augmented, virtual, and mixed reality and how each application might be useful in libraries. It will also provide an overview of the concerns surrounding these different reality applications and describe how and where they are currently being used.

  4. Virtual reality concepts and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A manual for both designers and users, comprehensively presenting the current state of experts' knowledge on virtual reality (VR) in computer science, mechanics, optics, acoustics, physiology, psychology, ergonomics, ethics, and related area. Designed as a reference book and design guide to help the reader develop a VR project, it presents the reader with the importance of the user's needs and various aspects of the human computer interface (HCI). It further treats technical aspects of VR, hardware and software implementations, and details on the sensory and psycho-sensory interfaces. Providin

  5. ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00225336; Moyse, Edward; Bianchi, Riccardo Maria

    2015-01-01

    We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists - for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice - OculusRift VR system, the development environment - UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/virtual p...

  6. Effect of Virtual Reality Exposure and Aural Stimuli on Eye Contact, Directional Focus, and Focus of Attention of Novice Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…

  7. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Application in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, William D.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)

  8. The virtual reality framework for engineering objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ivankov, Petr R.; Ivankov, Nikolay P.

    2006-01-01

    A framework for virtual reality of engineering objects has been developed. This framework may simulate different equipment related to virtual reality. Framework supports 6D dynamics, ordinary differential equations, finite formulas, vector and matrix operations. The framework also supports embedding of external software.

  9. Rationalizing virtual reality based on manufacturing paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damgrave, Roy Gerhardus Johannes; Lutters, Diederick; Drukker, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Comparing the evolvement of the manufacturing industry of the last century to the way virtual reality is used nowadays some remarkable similarities come to light. Current virtual reality equipment requires a high level of craftsmanship to achieve the maximum results, and often equipment is specially

  10. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  11. Virtual reality compared with in vivo exposure in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphanie; Robillard, Geneviève; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Évelyne; Forget, Hélène; Loranger, Claudie; Roucaut, François Xavier

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundPeople with social anxiety disorder (SAD) fear social interactions and may be reluctant to seek treatments involving exposure to social situations. Social exposure conducted in virtual reality (VR), embedded in individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), could be an answer.AimsTo show that conducting VR exposure in CBT for SAD is effective and is more practical for therapists than conducting exposure in vivoMethodParticipants were randomly assigned to either VR exposure (n = 17), in vivo exposure (n = 22) or waiting list (n = 20). Participants in the active arms received individual CBT for 14 weekly sessions and outcome was assessed with questionnaires and a behaviour avoidance test. (Trial registration number ISRCTN99747069)ResultsImprovements were found on the primary (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and all five secondary outcome measures in both CBT groups compared with the waiting list. Conducting exposure in VR was more effective at post-treatment than in vivo on the primary outcome measure and on one secondary measure. Improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. VR was significantly more practical for therapists than in vivo exposure.ConclusionsUsing VR can be advantageous over standard CBT as a potential solution for treatment avoidance and as an efficient, cost-effective and practical medium of exposure. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  12. Virtual reality excursions with programs in C

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Christopher D

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en

  13. ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists – for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice – OculusRift VR system, the development environment – UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/vir...

  14. Virtual reality and language work

    OpenAIRE

    Gallet-Blanchard, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Pour la raison évidente, mais non rédhibitoire que la réalité virtuelle a la réputation d’être inabordable pour des universités peu argentées, pratiquement aucune investigation n’a été faite dans ce domaine. Après avoir pris part à diverses conférences au Centre Pompidou à Paris et lu Virtual Reality de Howard Rheingold, je pense que nous ne devons plus nous poser le problème de ce que nous pouvons faire, mais de ce que nous voulons faire désormais. De plus, au lieu de nous plaindre de la mau...

  15. Exploring Moral Action Using lmmersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: N62909-14-l-Nl 19 Exploring Moral Actions Using lmmersive Virtual Reality event LAB Entorns virtuals en neurociencias i tecnologia...Entornos virtua/es en neurociencias y tecnologfa Experimental virtual environments for neuroscience University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

  16. Virtual reality representations in contemporary media

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The idea of virtual realities has a long and complex historical trajectory, spanning from Plato's concept of the cave and the simulacrum, to artistic styles such as Trompe L'oeil, and more recently developments in 3D film, television and gaming. However, this book will pay particular attention to the time between the 1980s to the 1990s when virtual reality and cyberspace were represented, particularly in fiction, as a wondrous technology that enabled transcendence from the limitations of physical embodiment. The purpose of this critical historical analysis of representations of virtual reality

  17. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  18. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  19. Handbook for evaluation studies in virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore; Koeffel, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) applications are spreading and attract industries since VR technologies are becoming more affordable, powerful and robust. VR applications inherently call for human-computer interaction, which in turn calls for system and usability evaluations, typically through measurement...

  20. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be…

  1. Virtual Reality and Simulation in Neurosurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Virtual Reality Exposure Tool as Psychological Preparation for Elective Pediatric Day Care Surgery: Methodological Approach for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wijnen, Rene Mh; Utens, Elisabeth Mwj

    2017-09-11

    Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU). The VRE tool is highly realistic and resembles the operating room environment accurately. With this tool, children will not only be able to explore the operating room environment, but also get accustomed to general anesthesia procedures. The PREoperative Virtual reality Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing (PREVIEW) study will be conducted. In this single-blinded RCT, 200 consecutive patients (aged 4 to 12 years) undergoing elective day care surgery for dental, oral, or ear-nose-throat problems, will be randomly allocated to the preoperative VRE intervention or CAU. The primary outcome is change in child state anxiety level between baseline and induction of anesthesia. Secondary outcome measures include child's postoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, postoperative pain, use of analgesics, health care use, and pre- and postoperative parental anxiety. The VRE tool has been developed. Participant recruitment began March 2017 and is expected to be completed by September 2018. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effect of a VRE tool to prepare children for surgery. The VRE intervention is expected to significantly diminish preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and the use of postoperative analgesics in pediatric patients. The tool could create a less stressful experience for both

  3. Cochrane review: virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, K; George, S; Thomas, S; Deutsch, J E; Crotty, M

    2012-09-01

    Virtual reality and interactive video gaming are innovative therapy approaches in the field of stroke rehabilitation. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality on motor function after stroke. The impact on secondary outcomes including activities of daily living was also assessed. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared virtual reality with an alternative or no intervention were included in the review. The authors searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, electronic databases, trial registers, reference lists, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings and contacted key researchers and virtual reality manufacturers. Search results were independently examined by two review authors to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Nineteen studies with a total of 565 participants were included in the review. Variation in intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. Virtual reality was found to be significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving upper limb function (standardised mean difference, SMD) 0.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.25 to 0.81)) based on seven studies, and activities of daily living (ADL) function (SMD 0.81, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22) based on three studies. No statistically significant effects were found for grip strength (based on two studies) or gait speed (based on three studies). Virtual reality appears to be a promising approach however, further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  4. The Application of Virtual Reality on Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zehui

    The features and classifications of Virtual Reality Techniques have been summarized and recommendation of applying Virtual Reality on distance education has been made. Future research is needed on the design and implementation of virtual classroom and courseware.

  5. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-11-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials applying VRET to specific phobias and measuring treatment outcome by means of behavioral laboratory tests or recordings of behavioral activities in real-life. Data sources were searches of databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane). We included in total 14 clinical trials on specific phobias. Results revealed that patients undergoing VRET did significantly better on behavioral assessments following treatment than before treatment, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g = 1.23. Furthermore, patients undergoing VRET performed better on behavioral assessments at post-treatment than patients on wait-list (g = 1.41). Additionally, results of behavioral assessment at post-treatment and at follow-up revealed no significant differences between VRET and exposure in vivo (g = -0.09 and 0.53, respectively). Finally, behavioral measurement effect sizes were similar to those calculated from self-report measures. The findings demonstrate that VRET can produce significant behavior change in real-life situations and support its application in treating specific phobias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction to Virtual Reality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Chris

    2009-01-01

    As an emerging technology for learning, virtual reality (VR) dates back four decades, to early work by Ivan Sutherland in the late 1960s. At long last, interactive media are emerging that offer the promise of VR in everyday settings. Quasi-VR already is commonplace in 2-1/2-D virtual environments like Second Life and in massively multiplayer…

  7. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  8. Mobile devices, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Digital Geoscience Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, H.; De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.

    2016-12-01

    Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in geoscience education. Affordances include instructor-student communication and class management in large classrooms, virtual and augmented reality applications, digital mapping, and crowd-sourcing. Mobile technologies have spawned the sub field of mobile learning or m-learning, which is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. Geoscientists have traditionally engaged in non-digital mobile learning via fieldwork, but digital devices are greatly extending the possibilities, especially for non-traditional students. Smartphones and tablets are the most common devices but smart glasses such as Pivothead enable live streaming of a first-person view (see for example, https://youtu.be/gWrDaYP5w58). Virtual reality headsets such as Google Cardboard create an immersive virtual field experience and digital imagery such as GigaPan and Structure from Motion enables instructors and/or students to create virtual specimens and outcrops that are sharable across the globe. Whereas virtual reality (VR) replaces the real world with a virtual representation, augmented reality (AR) overlays digital data on the live scene visible to the user in real time. We have previously reported on our use of the AR application called FreshAiR for geoscientific "egg hunts." The popularity of Pokémon Go demonstrates the potential of AR for mobile learning in the geosciences.

  9. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Environments for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…

  10. Sensorimotor Training in Virtual Reality: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Adamovich, Sergei V.; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization. Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targete...

  11. Virtual reality and hallucination: a technoetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Diana R.

    2008-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.

  12. Virtual reality, augmented reality?I call it i-Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Grossmann, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    The new term improved reality (i-Reality) is suggested to include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). It refers to a real world that includes improved, enhanced and digitally created features that would offer an advantage on a particular occasion (i.e., a medical act). I-Reality may help us bridge the gap between the high demand for medical providers and the low supply of them by improving the interaction between providers and patients.

  13. Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by numerous outcome studies. Similar research for children is lagging behind. The outcome studies on the use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in children currently address only specific phobias, and all of the available trials are reviewed in this article. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for the treatment of school and spider phobias. A study with adolescents suggests that, at least for social anxiety, exposure stimuli would be more effective if they were developed specifically for younger populations. Virtual reality may not increase children's motivation towards therapy unless their fearful apprehension is addressed before initiating the treatment.

  14. Mixed Reality with HoloLens: Where Virtual Reality Meets Augmented Reality in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Oren M; Rudy, Hayeem L; Lefkowitz, Aaron; Weimer, Katie A; Marks, Shelby M; Stern, Carrie S; Garfein, Evan S

    2017-11-01

    Virtual reality and augmented reality devices have recently been described in the surgical literature. The authors have previously explored various iterations of these devices, and although they show promise, it has become clear that virtual reality and/or augmented reality devices alone do not adequately meet the demands of surgeons. The solution may lie in a hybrid technology known as mixed reality, which merges many virtual reality and augmented realty features. Microsoft's HoloLens, the first commercially available mixed reality device, provides surgeons intraoperative hands-free access to complex data, the real environment, and bidirectional communication. This report describes the use of HoloLens in the operating room to improve decision-making and surgical workflow. The pace of mixed reality-related technological development will undoubtedly be rapid in the coming years, and plastic surgeons are ideally suited to both lead and benefit from this advance.

  15. Virtual Reality: A Definition History - A Personal Essay

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This essay, written in 1998 by an active participant in both virtual reality development and the virtual reality definition debate, discusses the definition of the phrase "Virtual Reality" (VR). I start with history from a personal perspective, concentrating on the debate between the "Virtual Reality" and "Virtual Environment" labels in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Definitions of VR based on specific technologies are shown to be unsatisfactory. I propose the following definition of VR, b...

  16. Cognitive training on stroke patients via virtual reality-based serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Carla; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Pacheco, José; Brito, Rodrigo; Soares, Fabio; Santos, Nuno; Barata, Ana Filipa

    2017-02-01

    Use of virtual reality environments in cognitive rehabilitation offers cost benefits and other advantages. In order to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality application for neuropsychological rehabilitation, a cognitive training program using virtual reality was applied to stroke patients. A virtual reality-based serious games application for cognitive training was developed, with attention and memory tasks consisting of daily life activities. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to two conditions: exposure to the intervention, and waiting list control. The results showed significant improvements in attention and memory functions in the intervention group, but not in the controls. Overall findings provide further support for the use of VR cognitive training applications in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Improvements in memory and attention functions following a virtual reality-based serious games intervention. Training of daily-life activities using a virtual reality application. Accessibility to training contents.

  17. The use of virtual reality in acrophobia research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlos M; Waters, Allison M; Hine, Trevor J; Wallis, Guy

    2009-06-01

    Acrophobia, or fear of heights, is a widespread and debilitating anxiety disorder affecting perhaps 1 in 20 adults. Virtual reality (VR) technology has been used in the psychological treatment of acrophobia since 1995, and has come to dominate the treatment of numerous anxiety disorders. It is now known that virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) regimens are highly effective for acrophobia treatment. This paper reviews current theoretical understanding of acrophobia as well as the evolution of its common treatments from the traditional exposure therapies to the most recent virtually guided ones. In particular, the review focuses on recent innovations in the use of VR technology and discusses the benefits it may offer for examining the underlying causes of the disorder, allowing for the systematic assessment of interrelated factors such as the visual, vestibular and postural control systems.

  18. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational

  19. Magnetic resonance urography by virtual reality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Navid; Sangild, Thomas; Terkildsen, Søren Vorre; Deding, Dorthe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a 3D visualization of the urinary tract by a novel virtual reality approach, and to evaluate the usefulness of this method for papillary classification as compared with 2D urogram obtained by maximum intensity projection (MIP). In one healthy pig, magnetic resonance urography was performed using a T1-weighted 3D gradient echo pulse sequence. Post-processing was performed by means of an MIP algorithm and by using 3D virtual reality modelling, followed by manual classification of papillae as being either simple or compound. The 2D MIP urogram demonstrated 6 simple and 6 compound papillae, whereas the 3D urogram demonstrated 5 simple and 7 compound papillae. In both urograms, some papillae were unsuccessfully classified. The possibility of using virtual reality devices allowed 3D rotation and offered additional diagnostic information. However, further studies should reveal its feasibility in diseased kidneys.

  20. Beat the Fear of Public Speaking: Mobile 360° Video Virtual Reality Exposure Training in Home Environment Reduces Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar-Rutenfrans, Snežana; Ketelaars, Loes E H; van Gisbergen, Marnix S

    2017-10-01

    With this article, we aim to increase our understanding of how mobile virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can help reduce speaking anxiety. Using the results of a longitudinal study, we examined the effect of a new VRET strategy (Public Speech Trainer, PST), that incorporates 360° live recorded VR environments, on the reduction of public speaking anxiety. The PST was developed as a 360° smartphone application for a VR head-mounted device that participants could use at home. Realistic anxiety experiences were created by means of live 360° video recordings of a lecture hall containing three training sessions based on graded exposure framework; empty classroom (a) and with a small (b) and large audience (c). Thirty-five students participated in all sessions using PST. Anxiety levels were measured before and after each session over a period of 4 weeks. As expected, speaking anxiety significantly decreased after the completion of all PST sessions, and the decrement was the strongest in participants with initially high speaking anxiety baseline levels. Results also revealed that participants with moderate and high speaking anxiety baseline level differ in the anxiety state pattern over time. Conclusively and in line with habituation theory, the results supported the notion that VRET is more effective when aimed at reducing high-state anxiety levels. Further implications for future research and improvement of current VRET strategies are discussed.

  1. The photon: A virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that every photon is, in a sense, virtual - being emitted and then sooner or later absorbed. As the motif of a quantum radiation state, the photon shares these characteristics of any virtual state: that it is not directly observable; and that it can signify only one of a number of indeterminable intermediates, between matter states that are directly measurable. Nonetheless, other traits of real and virtual behavior are usually quite clearly differentiable. How 'real', the...

  2. Laparoscopic baseline ability assessment by virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Frantzides, Constantine T; Sasso, Lisa M

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of any surgical skill is time-consuming and difficult. Currently, there are no accepted metrics for most surgical skills, especially laparoscopic skills. Virtual reality has been utilized for laparoscopic training of surgical residents. Our hypothesis is that this technology can be utilized for laparoscopic ability metrics. This study involved medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience. All students were taken into a porcine laboratory in order to assess two operative tasks (measuring a piece of bowel and placing a piece of bowel into a laparoscopic bag). Then they were taken into an inanimate lab with a Minimally Invasive Surgery Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR). Each student repeatedly performed one task (placing a virtual reality ball into a receptacle). The students' scores and times from the animate lab were compared with average economy of movement and times from the MIST-VR. The MIST-VR scored both hands individually. Thirty-two first- and second-year medical students were included in the study. There was statistically significant (P reality trainer and operative tasks. While not all of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation, the majority of the possible relationships demonstrated statistically significant correlation. Virtual reality may be an avenue for measuring laparoscopic surgical ability.

  3. På rejse med Virtual Reality i billedkunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Lyk, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    , de skulle have. Fokus. I artiklen er der særligt fokus på hvordan læringscentrede designprocesser og Virtual Reality tilsammen kan understøtte erfaringslæring. Konklusion. Eleverne fik en større forståelse af teknologi og kreative designprocesser ved at fungere som informanter og designpartnere i...... designforløbet. Eleverne fik igennem design af de fysiske modeller og besøget i Virtual Reality formidlet to oplevelser af deres modeller, som styrkede grundlaget for erfaringsbaseret læring. Erfaringsbaseret læring kombinerer oplevelse, refleksion, abstraktion og aktiv eksperimenteren i en proces, som...

  4. Manually locating physical and virtual reality objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Karen B; Kimmel, Ryan A; Bartholomew, Aaron; Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael L; Radwin, Robert G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary environments for studying human performance. Previously, VR researchers primarily considered differences between virtual and physical distance estimation rather than reaching for close-up objects. Fourteen participants completed manual targeting tasks that involved reaching for corners on equivalent physical and virtual boxes of three different sizes. Predicted errors were calculated from a geometric model based on user interpupillary distance, eye location, distance from the eyes to the projector screen, and object. Users were 1.64 times less accurate (p virtual versus physical box corners using the hands. Predicted virtual targeting errors were on average 1.53 times (p virtual targets but not significantly different for close-up virtual targets. Target size, location, and distance, in addition to binocular disparity, affected virtual object targeting inaccuracy. Observed virtual box inaccuracy was less than predicted for farther locations, suggesting possible influence of cues other than binocular vision. Human physical interaction with objects in VR for simulation, training, and prototyping involving reaching and manually handling virtual objects in a CAVE are more accurate than predicted when locating farther objects.

  5. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  6. Virtual Reality and Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Education itself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges with attention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition. Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)…

  7. Clinical observations during virtual reality therapy for specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, B K; Wiederhold, M D

    1999-01-01

    Virtual environments offer a new method of providing exposure therapy to patients with specific phobias. Although the stimuli (three-dimensional computer simulations) is new, the method of systematically desensitizing the patient to phobic stimuli until habituation occurs is a concept that was formally introduced by Joseph Wolpe over 40 years ago. Our article discusses some of the clinical observations that have been made during nearly 500 virtual reality exposure therapy sessions with patients and research participants who have come to our center in the past 15 months with a fear of flying or driving.

  8. Health Education capabilities Based on Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Paulo Vinícius de Farias; Machado, Liliane dos Santos; Santos,Sérgio Ribeiro dos; Romero, Renata Olívia Gadelha

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of virtual reality is to create three-dimensional environments that users can explore and manipulate with the feeling of being immersed in realistic simulations. VR systems are mainly characterized by a high degree of realism in their simulation of real world experiences or even fictitious situations. Medicine and healthcare are benefiting from VR, especially the collaborative virtual environments for teaching various procedures that enable distance education as well as collabor...

  9. The social construction of virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Golubinskaya Anastasia Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article is aimed to rethinking the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann in the context of digital society. The conception of virtual reality helps to find new traits of the world in everyday life: intersubjectivity, temporality, schemes of typification and other social-constructivist concepts that receive new meanings. The author proposes to research the way of the world transformation “here and now” in the age of virtualization of social acts, and how these changes ...

  10. [Virtual reality in the treatment of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbos, Eric; Boyer, Laurent; Lançon, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    Virtual reality is a media allowing users to interact in real time with computerized virtual environments. The application of this immersive technology to cognitive behavioral therapies is increasingly exploited for the treatment of mental disorders. The present study is a review of literature spanning from 1992 to 2012. It depicts the utility of this new tool for assessment and therapy through the various clinical studies carried out on subjects exhibiting diverse mental disorders. Most of the studies conducted on tested subjects attest to the significant efficacy of the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) for the treatment of distinct mental disorders. Comparative studies of VRET with the treatment of reference (the in vivo exposure component of the cognitive behavioral therapy) document an equal efficacy of the two methods and in some cases a superior therapeutic effect in favor of the VRET. Even though clinical experiments set on a larger scale, extended follow-up and studies about factors influencing presence are needed, virtual reality exposure represents an efficacious, confidential, affordable, flexible, interactive therapeutic method which application will progressively widened in the field of mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual Reality: Toward Fundamental Improvements in Simulation-Based Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Richard A.; Mattoon, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role and effectiveness of virtual reality in simulation-based training. The theoretical and practical implications of verity, integration, and natural versus artificial interface are discussed; a three-dimensional classification scheme for virtual reality is described; and the relationship between virtual reality and other…

  12. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Plastic Surgery: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Yong Oock

    2017-05-01

    Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.

  13. Visualizing Cumulus Clouds in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on interactively visualizing, and ultimately simulating, cumulus clouds both in virtual reality (VR) and with a standard desktop computer. The cumulus clouds in question are found in data sets generated by Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), which are used to simulate a small section

  14. Evaluation of Virtual Reality Training Using Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…

  15. Virtual Reality for Training and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet-d'Huart, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the application of virtual reality (VR) to training and lifelong learning. A number of considerations concerning the design of VR applications are included. The introduction is dedicated to the more general aspects of applying VR to training. From multiple perspectives, we will provide an overview of existing applications with…

  16. Virtual Reality: theoretical basis, practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a powerful multimedia visualization technique offering a range of mechanisms by which many new experiences can be made available. This paper deals with the basic nature of VR, the technologies needed to create it, and its potential, especially for helping disabled people. It also offers an overview of some examples of existing VR systems.

  17. Virtual reality simulation in endovascular surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2008-08-01

    Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.

  18. Virtual Reality Training Environments: Contexts and Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Stephen W.; Kenney, Patrick J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the contexts where virtual reality (VR) training environments might be appropriate; examines the advantages and disadvantages of VR as a training technology; and presents a case study of a VR training environment used at the NASA Johnson Space Center in preparation for the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. (AEF)

  19. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  20. Are Learning Styles Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…

  1. Collaborative architectural design in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this PhD research a method and software prototype is developed for COLlaborative Architectural Design In VIRtual reality. The method consists of developing versions of a concept for a building and the evaluation of them with criteria. Every team member makes his own versions; otherwise they would

  2. Stencil cutouts for virtual reality inputs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ausmeier, Natalie J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR) is widely used in training simulators of dangerous or expensive vehicles such as aircraft or heavy mining machinery. The vehicles often have very complicated controls that users need to master before attempting to operate a real...

  3. Dynamic 3D echocardiography in virtual reality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); J.S. Vletter-McGhie (Jackie); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. METHODS: Three-dimensional echocardiographic

  4. Natural Language Navigation Support in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luin, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Giagourta, V.; Strintzis, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to

  5. Physics Education in Virtual Reality: An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Hannes; Meyer, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths…

  6. Virtual reality simulation of basic pulmonary procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...

  7. Revolutionizing Education: The Promise of Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Rene

    2018-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to revolutionize education, as it immerses students in their learning more than any other available medium. By blocking out visual and auditory distractions in the classroom, it has the potential to help students deeply connect with the material they are learning in a way that has never been possible before.…

  8. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  9. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Goodrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.

  10. Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool (IDVVRT) Phase II effort was for the design and development of an innovative Data Visualization Environment Tool (DVET) for NASA engineers and scientists, enabling them to visualize complex multidimensional and multivariate data in a virtual environment. The objectives of the project were to: (1) demonstrate the transfer and manipulation of standard engineering data in a virtual world; (2) demonstrate the effects of design and changes using finite element analysis tools; and (3) determine the training and engineering design and analysis effectiveness of the visualization system.

  11. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ling

    Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating

  12. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  13. Virtual Reality in Education The next challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carlos Samaniego Villarroel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a very interesting topic, but quite far from us apparently the Latin American reality is too far to technological advances and therefore costs us understand how they serve educational purposes. This paper will seek to publicize what is virtual reality, how the peripherals used to use, works and of course educational implications in first world countries, and how we could in our country use these technologies with pilot programs that allow our children and young people supplement their knowledge. What role do smartphones in this concept and how companies like Google and Samsung are playing an important play in the popularization of these tools, although many see them as a game or fad, there is no doubt that within a few years will be very important in the educational field.

  14. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Terras

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this

  15. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  16. Poster: Virtual reality interaction using mobile devices

    KAUST Repository

    Aseeri, Sahar A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we aim to implement and evaluate alternative approaches for interacting with virtual environments on mobile devices for navigation, object selection and manipulation. Interaction with objects in virtual worlds using traditional input such as current state-of-the-art devices is often difficult and could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. We have developed new methods to perform different kinds of interactions using a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone) both as input device, performing selection and manipulation of objects, and as output device, utilizing the screen as an extra view (virtual camera or information display). Our hypothesis is that interaction via mobile devices facilitates simple tasks like the ones described within immersive virtual reality systems. We present here our initial implementation and result. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Virtual reality negotiation training system with virtual cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to

  18. Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bergeron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients’ symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points, changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies.

  19. Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2015-01-01

    Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients' symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points), changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies.

  20. Controlling a stream of paranoia evoking events in a virtual reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isnanda, R.G.; Brinkman, W.P.; Veling, W.; van der Gaag, M.; Neerincx, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although virtual reality exposure has been reported as a method to induce paranoid thought, little is known about mechanisms to control specific virtual stressors. This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of controlling the stream of potential paranoia evoking events in a virtual

  1. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness.

    OpenAIRE

    Menshikova Galina Ya.; Kovalev Artem I.; Klimova Oxana A.; Barabanschikova Valentina V.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS). The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of th...

  2. The photon: a virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.

    2005-08-01

    It has been observed that every photon is, in a sense, virtual - being emitted and then sooner or later absorbed. As the motif of a quantum radiation state, the photon shares these characteristics of any virtual state: that it is not directly observable; and that it can signify only one of a number of indeterminable intermediates, between matter states that are directly measurable. Nonetheless, other traits of real and virtual behavior are usually quite clearly differentiable. How 'real', then, is the photon? To address this and related questions it is helpful to look in detail at the quantum description of light emission and absorption. A straightforward analysis of the dynamic electric field, based on quantum electro-dynamics, reveals not only the entanglement of energy transfer mechanisms usually regarded as 'radiative' and 'radiationless'; it also gives significant physical insights into several other electromagnetic topics. These include: the propagating and non-propagating character in electromagnetic fields; near-zone and wave-zone effects; transverse and longitudinal character; the effects of retardation, manifestations of quantum uncertainty and issues of photon spin. As a result it is possible to gain a clearer perspective on when, or whether, the terms 'real' and 'virtual' are helpful descriptors of the photon.

  3. Physiological measures and self-report to evaluate neutral virtual reality worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, B.; De Vliegher, D.; Ling, Y.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using virtual reality technology for exposure therapy to treat patients with anxiety disorders is attracting considerable research attention. The ability to monitor patient anxiety level helps therapists to set appropriate anxiety arousing situations. Physiological measures have been put forward as

  4. The Perceptions of CEIT Postgraduate Students Regarding Reality Concepts: Augmented, Virtual, Mixed and Mirror Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taçgin, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine perception of postgraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) students regarding the concepts of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Virtuality (AV) and Mirror Reality; and to offer a table that includes differences and similarities between…

  5. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.

  6. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters—either driven by a human or by a computer—allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature. PMID:28420150

  7. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-04-16

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters-either driven by a human or by a computer-allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature.

  8. Optoelectronics technologies for Virtual Reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2017-08-01

    Solutions in the field of virtual reality are very strongly associated with optoelectronic technologies. This applies to both process design and operation of VR applications. Technologies such as 360 cameras and 3D scanners significantly improve the design work. What is more, HMD displays with high field of view or optoelectronic Motion Capture systems and 3D cameras guarantee an extraordinary experience in immersive VR applications. This article reviews selected technologies from the perspective of their use in a broadly defined process of creating and implementing solutions for virtual reality. There is also the ability to create, modify and adapt new approaches that show team own work (SteamVR tracker). Most of the introduced examples are effectively used by authors to create different VR applications. The use of optoelectronic technology in virtual reality is presented in terms of design and operation of the system as well as referring to specific applications. Designers and users of VR systems should take a close look on new optoelectronics solutions, as they can significantly contribute to increased work efficiency and offer completely new opportunities for virtual world reception.

  9. Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Ebola Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Echeverri, Lina; Maccapani, Fabio; Berryman, Lizzy; Burkle, Frederick M; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Both virtual and hybrid simulation training offer a realistic and effective educational framework and opportunity to provide virtual exposure to operational public health skills that are essential for infection control and Ebola treatment management. This training is designed to increase staff safety and create a safe and realistic environment where trainees can gain essential basic and advanced skills.

  10. The Virtual Tablet: Virtual Reality as a Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronister, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the field of human-computer interaction, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have been rapidly growing areas of interest and concerted development effort thanks to both private and public research. At NASA, a number of groups have explored the possibilities afforded by AR and VR technology, among which is the IT Advanced Concepts Lab (ITACL). Within ITACL, the AVR (Augmented/Virtual Reality) Lab focuses on VR technology specifically for its use in command and control. Previous work in the AVR lab includes the Natural User Interface (NUI) project and the Virtual Control Panel (VCP) project, which created virtual three-dimensional interfaces that users could interact with while wearing a VR headset thanks to body- and hand-tracking technology. The Virtual Tablet (VT) project attempts to improve on these previous efforts by incorporating a physical surrogate which is mirrored in the virtual environment, mitigating issues with difficulty of visually determining the interface location and lack of tactile feedback discovered in the development of previous efforts. The physical surrogate takes the form of a handheld sheet of acrylic glass with several infrared-range reflective markers and a sensor package attached. Using the sensor package to track orientation and a motion-capture system to track the marker positions, a model of the surrogate is placed in the virtual environment at a position which corresponds with the real-world location relative to the user's VR Head Mounted Display (HMD). A set of control mechanisms is then projected onto the surface of the surrogate such that to the user, immersed in VR, the control interface appears to be attached to the object they are holding. The VT project was taken from an early stage where the sensor package, motion-capture system, and physical surrogate had been constructed or tested individually but not yet combined or incorporated into the virtual environment. My contribution was to combine the pieces of

  11. Experiential exposure to texting and walking in virtual reality: A randomized trial to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E

    2017-05-01

    Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not

  12. The social construction of virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubinskaya Anastasia Valerievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to rethinking the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann in the context of digital society. The conception of virtual reality helps to find new traits of the world in everyday life: intersubjectivity, temporality, schemes of typification and other social-constructivist concepts that receive new meanings. The author proposes to research the way of the world transformation “here and now” in the age of virtualization of social acts, and how these changes effect human social nature and reflective processes.

  13. Feedback from video for virtual reality Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsap, L V

    2000-10-27

    Important preconditions for wide acceptance of virtual reality (VR) systems include their comfort, ease and naturalness to use. Most existing trackers super from discomfort-related issues. For example, body-based trackers (hand controllers, joysticks, helmet attachments, etc.) restrict spontaneity and naturalness of motion, while ground-based devices (e.g., hand controllers) limit the workspace by literally binding an operator to the ground. There are similar problems with controls. This paper describes using real-time video with registered depth information (from a commercially available camera) for virtual reality navigation. Camera-based setup can replace cumbersome trackers. The method includes selective depth processing for increased speed, and a robust skin-color segmentation for accounting illumination variations.

  14. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  15. Virtual reality for physical and motor rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Patrice L (Tamar); Levin, Mindy F

    2014-01-01

    While virtual reality (VR) has influenced fields as varied as gaming, archaeology, and the visual arts, some of its most promising applications come from the health sector. Particularly encouraging are the many uses of VR in supporting the recovery of motor skills following accident or illness. Virtual Reality for Physical and Motor Rehabilitation reviews two decades of progress and anticipates advances to come. It offers current research on the capacity of VR to evaluate, address, and reduce motor skill limitations, and the use of VR to support motor and sensorimotor function, from the most basic to the most sophisticated skill levels. Expert scientists and clinicians explain how the brain organizes motor behavior, relate therapeutic objectives to client goals, and differentiate among VR platforms in engaging the production of movement and balance. On the practical side, contributors demonstrate that VR complements existing therapies across various conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic bra...

  16. Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboul

    2012-01-01

    A beyond human knowledge and reach, robotics is strongly involved in tackling challenges of new emerging multidisciplinary fields. Together with humans, robots are busy exploring and working on the new generation of ideas and problems whose solution is otherwise impossible to find. The future is near when robots will sense, smell and touch people and their lives. Behind this practical aspect of human-robotics, there is a half a century spanned robotics research, which transformed robotics into a modern science. The Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality is a compilation of emerging application areas of robotics. The book covers robotics role in medicine, space exploration and also explains the role of virtual reality as a non-destructive test bed which constitutes a premise of further advances towards new challenges in robotics. This book, edited by two famous scientists with the support of an outstanding team of fifteen authors, is a well suited reference for robotics researchers and scholars from related ...

  17. Virtual Reality and Haptics for Product Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.

  18. Virtual reality environments for health professional education

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Nakul; Kyaw, Bhone M.; Všetečková, Jitka; Dev, Parvati; Paul, Pradeep; Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Kononowicz, Andrezej; Masiello, Italo; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Nikolaou, Charoula K.; Zary, Nabil; Car, Josip

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of virtual reality environment (VRE)-based educational interventions for health professionals on knowledge, skills, and participants??? attitude towards and satisfaction with the interventions. Additionally, this review will assess the interventions' economic impact (cost and cost effectiveness), patient-related outcomes and unintended adverse effects of VRE-based educational inter...

  19. Transcending the self in immersive virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Mel; Sánchez-Vives, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists have discovered various experimental setups that suggest that our body representation is surprisingly flexible, where the brain can easily be tricked into the illusion that a rubber hand is your hand or that a manikin body is your body. These multisensory illusions work well in immersive virtual reality (IVR). What is even more surprising is that such embodiment induces perceptual, attitudinal and behavioural changes that are concomitant with the displayed body type....

  20. The Virtual Reality Modeling Language and Java

    OpenAIRE

    Brutzman, Don

    1998-01-01

    The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and Java provide a standardized, portable and platform-independent way to render dynamic, interactive 3D scenes across the Internet. Integrating two powerful and portable software languages provides interactive 3D graphics plus complete programming capabilities plus network access. Intended for programmers and scene authors, this paper provides a VRML overview, synopsizes the open development history of the specification, provdes a condensed summ...

  1. Physics Education in Virtual Reality: An Example

    OpenAIRE

    Hannes Kaufmann; Bernd Meyer

    2009-01-01

    We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths and other properties of objects before, during and after experiments. Innovative teaching content is presented thatexploits the strengths of the 3D...

  2. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. International workshop on multimodal virtual and augmented reality (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on

  4. Virtual reality simulators and training in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological benefits of virtual reality for patients in rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow

    2009-05-01

    Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

  6. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Plastic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.

  7. Virtual reality in the treatment of persecutory delusions: randomised controlled experimental study testing how to reduce delusional conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Bradley, Jonathan; Antley, Angus; Bourke, Emilie; DeWeever, Natalie; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel; Clark, David M

    2016-07-01

    Persecutory delusions may be unfounded threat beliefs maintained by safety-seeking behaviours that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being successfully processed. Use of virtual reality could facilitate new learning. To test the hypothesis that enabling patients to test the threat predictions of persecutory delusions in virtual reality social environments with the dropping of safety-seeking behaviours (virtual reality cognitive therapy) would lead to greater delusion reduction than exposure alone (virtual reality exposure). Conviction in delusions and distress in a real-world situation were assessed in 30 patients with persecutory delusions. Patients were then randomised to virtual reality cognitive therapy or virtual reality exposure, both with 30 min in graded virtual reality social environments. Delusion conviction and real-world distress were then reassessed. In comparison with exposure, virtual reality cognitive therapy led to large reductions in delusional conviction (reduction 22.0%, P = 0.024, Cohen's d = 1.3) and real-world distress (reduction 19.6%, P = 0.020, Cohen's d = 0.8). Cognitive therapy using virtual reality could prove highly effective in treating delusions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Virtual Reality: A Dream Come True or a Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Richard; Bailey, Dan

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a new medium which allows total stimulation of one's senses through human/computer interfaces. VR has applications in training simulators, nano-science, medicine, entertainment, electronic technology, and manufacturing. This paper focuses on some current and potential problems of virtual reality and virtual environments…

  9. Avatars, Affordances, and Interfaces: Virtual Reality Tools for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Hilary

    Virtual reality technology offers the promise of interaction with a computer-based environment that engages visual, auditory, and tactile perception. Three interrelated virtual reality design topics are particularly relevant to visual literacy. The first is the concept of avatars. Avatars are agents that appear in a virtual world representing the…

  10. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  11. Cue reactivity in virtual reality: the role of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Megan M; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C; Bordnick, Patrick S; Day, Susan X; Armsworth, Mary W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it remains poorly understood whether contextual cues from the environment contribute to craving increases in addition to specific cues, like cigarettes. This study examined the role of contextual cues in a VR environment to evoke craving. Smokers were exposed to a virtual convenience store devoid of any specific cigarette cues followed by exposure to the same convenience store with specific cigarette cues added. Smokers reported increased craving following exposure to the virtual convenience store without specific cues, and significantly greater craving following the convenience store with cigarette cues added. However, increased craving recorded after the second convenience store may have been due to the pre-exposure to the first convenience store. This study offers evidence that an environmental context where cigarette cues are normally present (but are not), elicits significant craving in the absence of specific cigarette cues. This finding suggests that VR may have stronger ecological validity over traditional cue reactivity exposure methods by exposing smokers to the full range of cigarette-related environmental stimuli, in addition to specific cigarette cues, that smokers typically experience in their daily lives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Augmented Reality versus Virtual Reality for 3D Object Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketom, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5 percent on average compared to AR ( ). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3 percent slower in VR than in AR ( ). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.

  13. The concept of strong and weak virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Lisewski, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    We approach the virtual reality phenomenon by studying its relationship to set theory, and we investigate the case where this is done using the wellfoundedness property of sets. Our hypothesis is that non-wellfounded sets (hypersets) give rise to a different quality of virtual reality than do familiar wellfounded sets. We initially provide an alternative approach to virtual reality based on Sommerhoff's idea of first and second order self-awareness; both categories of self-awareness are consi...

  14. Sensorimotor training in virtual reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, Sergei V; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization.Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targeted brain networks, which in turn can potentially speed up the recovery process. Here we review the existing experimental evidence regarding the beneficial effects of training in virtual environments on the recovery of function in the areas of gait,upper extremity function and balance, in various patient populations. We also discuss possible mechanisms underlying these effects. We feel that future research in the area of virtual rehabilitation should follow several important paths. Imaging studies to evaluate the effects of sensory manipulation on brain activation patterns and the effect of various training parameters on long term changes in brain function are needed to guide future clinical inquiry. Larger clinical studies are also needed to establish the efficacy of sensorimotor rehabilitation using VR in various clinical populations and most importantly, to identify VR training parameters that are associated with optimal transfer to real-world functional improvements.

  15. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  16. Capturing differences in dental training using a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, I; Mushtaq, F; Allsop, M J; Al-Saud, L M; Tickhill, N; Potter, C; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M

    2018-02-01

    Virtual reality simulators are becoming increasingly popular in dental schools across the world. But to what extent do these systems reflect actual dental ability? Addressing this question of construct validity is a fundamental step that is necessary before these systems can be fully integrated into a dental school's curriculum. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the Simodont (a haptic virtual reality dental simulator) to differences in dental training experience. Two hundred and eighty-nine participants, with 1 (n = 92), 3 (n = 79), 4 (n = 57) and 5 (n = 61) years of dental training, performed a series of tasks upon their first exposure to the simulator. We found statistically significant differences between novice (Year 1) and experienced dental trainees (operationalised as 3 or more years of training), but no differences between performance of experienced trainees with varying levels of experience. This work represents a crucial first step in understanding the value of haptic virtual reality simulators in dental education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using virtual reality to analyze sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bideau, Benoit; Kulpa, Richard; Vignais, Nicolas; Brault, Sébastien; Multon, Franck; Craig, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Improving performance in sports can be difficult because many biomechanical, physiological, and psychological factors come into play during competition. A better understanding of the perception-action loop employed by athletes is necessary. This requires isolating contributing factors to determine their role in player performance. Because of its inherent limitations, video playback doesn't permit such in-depth analysis. Interactive, immersive virtual reality (VR) can overcome these limitations and foster a better understanding of sports performance from a behavioral-neuroscience perspective. Two case studies using VR technology and a sophisticated animation engine demonstrate how to use information from visual displays to inform a player's future course of action.

  18. Virtual reality in neuroscience research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J; Alicea, Bradly; Biocca, Frank A

    2011-11-03

    Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly being used by neuroscientists to simulate natural events and social interactions. VR creates interactive, multimodal sensory stimuli that offer unique advantages over other approaches to neuroscientific research and applications. VR's compatibility with imaging technologies such as functional MRI allows researchers to present multimodal stimuli with a high degree of ecological validity and control while recording changes in brain activity. Therapists, too, stand to gain from progress in VR technology, which provides a high degree of control over the therapeutic experience. Here we review the latest advances in VR technology and its applications in neuroscience research.

  19. Communication in the age of virtual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Biocca, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses virtual reality (VR) -- a tantalizing communication medium whose essence challenges our most deeply held notions of what communication is or can be. The editors have gathered an expert team of engineers, social scientists, and cultural theorists for the first extensive treatment of human communication in this exciting medium. The first part introduces the reader to VR's state-of-the-art as well as future trends. In the next section, leading research scientists discuss how knowledge of communication can be used to build more effective and exciting communication applicati

  20. Virtual reality in rehabilitation after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnova-Goleva V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After a stroke many people have serious problems in motion activity, decline in cognitive activity, as well as a number of psychological problems that may accompany the man for many years. Motivational rehabilitation component plays a decisive role in the process of recovery after suffering a stroke. At present one of the most successful methods of rehabilitation is considered to be a recovery through "observation-imitation”, because this method enhances the plasticity of the brain and, as a result, rehabilitation potential. Modern rehabilitation using virtual reality had demonstrated good results to improve motor and cognitive skills, as well as the psychological condition

  1. Showing Complex Astrophysical Settings Through Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel; Smith, Denise; Smith, Louis Chad; Lawton, Brandon; Lockwood, Alexandra; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), NASA’s next great observatory launching in spring 2019, will routinely showcase astrophysical concepts that will challenge the public's understanding. Emerging technologies such as virtual reality bring the viewer into the data and the concept in previously unimaginable immersive detail. For example, we imagine a spacefarer inside a protoplanetary disk, seeing the accretion process directly. STScI is pioneering some tools related to JWST for showcasing at AAS, and in local events, which I highlight here. If we develop materials properly tailored to this medium, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before.

  2. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting...... virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body...

  3. Virtual reality simulation of basic pulmonary procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...... procedures, each on a VR bronchoscopy simulator. They performed 3 diagnostic bronchoscopies, 2 bronchoalveolar lavages, and 3 procedures in which they used all the available biopsy tools (needle, brush, and forceps) that could be used for tumors of increasing procedural difficulty. After the procedures...

  4. Virtual reality cues for binge drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Kreiner, David S; Chapman, Marla D; Stark-Wroblewski, Kim

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the ability of virtual reality (VR) cue exposure to trigger a desire for alcohol among binge-drinking students. Fifteen binge-drinking college students and eight students who were nonbingers were immersed into a neutral-cue environment or room (underwater scenes), followed by four alcohol-cue rooms (bar, party, kitchen, argument), followed by a repeat of the neutral room. The virtual rooms were computer generated via head-mounted visual displays with associated auditory and olfactory stimuli. In each room, participants reported their subjective cravings for alcohol, the amount of attention given to the sight and smell of alcohol, and how much they were thinking of drinking. A 2 x 6 (type of drinker by VR room) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the responses to each question. After alcohol exposure, binge drinkers reported significantly higher cravings for and thoughts of alcohol than nonbinge drinkers, whereas differences between the groups following the neutral rooms were not significant.

  5. Solid Modelling Interaction with Sensors for Virtual Reality Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The imperative part of strong displaying in virtual reality framework is to improve the movement of a user with definitive movement control in genuine intelligent condition. In a real environment motion characteristic is based on sensors and servomechanisms where as in virtual reality systems the motion fundamentals are kinematic in nature. To achieve physically correct interactivity suitable dynamic constraints, should be imposed which can be obtained by augmented reality interface. Beyond input and output hardware, the underlying software plays a very important role in virtual reality systems. It is responsible for the managing of input/output devices, analysing incoming data and generating proper feedback. This research paper focusses on movement displaying for connection between CAD models and Virtual Reality Models using 3ds Max 2017 and Unity 3d softwares. The paper portrays different equipment arrangement of sensors and Arduino for virtual reality welding.

  6. Virtual reality for automotive design evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, George G.

    1995-01-01

    A general description of Virtual Reality technology and possible applications was given from publicly available material. A video tape was shown demonstrating the use of multiple large-screen stereoscopic displays, configured in a 10' x 10' x 10' room, to allow a person to evaluate and interact with a vehicle which exists only as mathematical data, and is made only of light. The correct viewpoint of the vehicle is maintained by tracking special glasses worn by the subject. Interior illumination was changed by moving a virtual light around by hand; interior colors are changed by pointing at a color on a color palette, then pointing at the desired surface to change. We concluded by discussing research needed to move this technology forward.

  7. Treatment of acrophobia in virtual reality: The role of immersion and presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijn, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Biemond, R.; de Wilde de Ligny, C.; Schuemie, M.J.; van der Mast, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with acrophobia. Feelings of presence in VRET were systematically varied by using either a head-mounted display (HMD) (low presence) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE) (high presence).

  8. ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Software Documentation]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.

  9. ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Computer software]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.

  10. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleja Pavol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study. A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  11. Virtual reality simulator for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D; Wills, D; Verma, M

    2003-01-01

    To develop computer simulation of steps in vitreoretinal surgery using virtual reality technology. A workstation with three-dimensional position tracking stylus was attached to a Pentium II desktop PC with a graphic accelerator. Computer algorithms were developed using Open GL and Microsoft Visual C++ languages to control the interaction and update the visual feedback tracking the instruments. Soft tissue computer modelling was carried out to mimic the removal of a vitreous opacity. Lens touch with the instruments was also detected. Mathematical modelling to allow for lens distortion was taken into account. A virtual reality computer model has been developed that can simulate initial steps of vitreoretinal surgery. Soft tissue modelling of the vitreous opacity and its removal by the vitrector was successfully simulated. The movements of the active and passive instruments in the dummy eye corresponded to the movements on the computer screen. On evaluation of the system, there was a minimal but discernable time lag between the stylus movement and the visual feedback. There was no tactile feedback when the lens touch was simulated. No further complex vitreoretinal surgery simulation was possible at this stage.

  12. Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A.; Golianu, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. PMID:28644422

  13. 3D Flow visualization in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, Noah; Dhillon, Ranbir; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    By viewing fluid dynamic isosurfaces in virtual reality (VR), many of the issues associated with the rendering of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen can be addressed. In addition, viewing a variety of unsteady 3D data sets in VR opens up novel opportunities for education and community outreach. In this work, the vortex wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel was visualized using a three-dimensional structural model of Q-criterion isosurfaces rendered in virtual reality using the HTC Vive. Utilizing the Unity cross-platform gaming engine, a program was developed to allow the user to control and change this model's position and orientation in three-dimensional space. In addition to controlling the model's position and orientation, the user can ``scroll'' forward and backward in time to analyze the formation and shedding of vortices in the wake. Finally, the user can toggle between different quantities, while keeping the time step constant, to analyze flow parameter relationships at specific times during flow development. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an award from NYS Department of Economic Development (DED) through the Syracuse Center of Excellence.

  14. Applying virtual reality to remote control of mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is based on virtual reality to assisted pick and place tasks. Virtual reality can be utilized to control remote robot for pick and place element. The operator monitored and controlled the situation information of working site by Human Machine Interface. Therefore, we worked in harsh or dangerous environments that thing can be avoided. The procedure to operate mobile robot in virtual reality describes as follow: An experiment site with really experimental equipment is first established. Then, the experimental equipment and scene modeling are input to virtual reality for establishing a environment similar to the reality. Finally, the remote mobile robot is controlled to operate pick and place tasks through wireless communication by the object operation in virtual reality. The robot consists of a movable robot platform and robotic arm. The virtual reality is constructed by EON software; the Human Machine Interface is established by Visual Basic. The wireless connection is equipped the wireless Bluetooth, which is set the PC and PLC controller. With experimental tests to verify the robot in virtual reality and the wireless remote control, the robot could be operated and controlled to successfully complete pick and place tasks in reality by Human Machine Interface.

  15. SYNTHETIC DESIGN AND THE ART OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence modern design in both theatre and film productions. This paper is of the view that Virtual Reality, as an operational phrase in modern and post- modern theatre and film, has become a .... lights and colour to graphically produce architecture or sculptural images. In a similar development, most current Virtual Reality ...

  16. Treatment of Complicated Grief Using Virtual Reality: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, C.; Osma, J.; Palacios, A. Garcia; Guillen, V.; Banos, R.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first work exploring the application of new technologies, concretely virtual reality, to facilitate emotional processing in the treatment of Complicated Grief. Our research team has designed a virtual reality environment (EMMA's World) to foster the expression and processing of emotions. In this study the authors present a description…

  17. The ethics of representation and action in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    1999-01-01

    This essay addresses ethical aspects of the design and use of virtual reality (VR) systems, focusing on the behavioral options made available in such systems and the manner in which reality is represented or simulated in them. An assessment is made of the morality of immoral behavior in virtual

  18. Designing a Virtual-Reality-Based, Gamelike Math Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…

  19. Virtual reality: Avatars in human spaceflight training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad

    2012-02-01

    With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to

  20. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  1. Virtual reality, augmented reality…I call it i-Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    The new term improved reality (i-Reality) is suggested to include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). It refers to a real world that includes improved, enhanced and digitally created features that would offer an advantage on a particular occasion (i.e., a medical act). I-Reality may help us bridge the gap between the high demand for medical providers and the low supply of them by improving the interaction between providers and patients.

  2. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo: public virtual reality setup for asymmetric collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  3. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  4. Virtual Reality as a Complementary Therapy to Sexual Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cismaru Inescu, Adina; Andrianne, Robert; Triffaux, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality has gained traction as a research, education and treatment tool. Virtual reality is a system that immerses people in virtual worlds and improves clinicians’ traditional treatments for addictive disorders, eating disorders, phobias, and stroke rehabilitation. Sex addiction is a dysregulation of sexual desire, characterized by excessive sexual behavior (between 5-15 sexual activities/day, for more than 6 months, after the age of 15). Hypersexuality highlights disturbances in hum...

  5. A virtual reality scenario for all seasons: the virtual classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Albert A; Bowerly, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen; Klimchuk, Dean; Mitura, Roman; Parsons, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    Treatment and rehabilitation of the cognitive, psychological, and motor sequelae of central nervous system dysfunction often relies on assessment instruments to inform diagnosis and to track changes in clinical status. Typically, these assessments employ paper-and-pencil psychometrics, hands-on analog/computer tests, and rating of behavior within the context of real-world functional environments. Virtual reality offers the option to produce and distribute identical "standard" simulation environments in which performance can be measured and rehabilitated. Within such digital scenarios, normative data can be accumulated for performance comparisons needed for assessment/diagnosis and for treatment/rehabilitation purposes. In this manner, reusable archetypic virtual environments constructed for one purpose can also be applied for applications addressing other clinical targets. This article will provide a review of such a retooling approach using a virtual classroom simulation that was originally developed as a controlled stimulus environment in which attention processes could be systematically assessed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This system is now being applied to other clinical targets including the development of tests that address other cognitive functions, eye movement under distraction conditions, social anxiety disorder, and the creation of an earthquake safety training application for children with developmental and learning disabilities.

  6. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  7. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  8. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  9. Virtual reality for freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, John R; Hofbauer, Maximilian; Bastien, Renaud; Griessner, Johannes; Higgins, Peter; Farooqui, Sarfarazhussain; Fischer, Ruth M; Nowikovsky, Karin; Haubensak, Wulf; Couzin, Iain D; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Straw, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Standard animal behavior paradigms incompletely mimic nature and thus limit our understanding of behavior and brain function. Virtual reality (VR) can help, but it poses challenges. Typical VR systems require movement restrictions but disrupt sensorimotor experience, causing neuronal and behavioral alterations. We report the development of FreemoVR, a VR system for freely moving animals. We validate immersive VR for mice, flies, and zebrafish. FreemoVR allows instant, disruption-free environmental reconfigurations and interactions between real organisms and computer-controlled agents. Using the FreemoVR platform, we established a height-aversion assay in mice and studied visuomotor effects in Drosophila and zebrafish. Furthermore, by photorealistically mimicking zebrafish we discovered that effective social influence depends on a prospective leader balancing its internally preferred directional choice with social interaction. FreemoVR technology facilitates detailed investigations into neural function and behavior through the precise manipulation of sensorimotor feedback loops in unrestrained animals.

  10. Brief virtual reality therapy for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M

    2002-12-01

    The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.

  11. A 3D virtual reality ophthalmoscopy trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; O'Connor, Jake; Taylor, Lewis; Carruthers, David

    2017-04-12

    Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill that medical students often find difficult to become proficient in. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an innovative 3D virtual reality (VR) training application to support learning these skills. The VR ophthalmoscope was developed by a clinical team and technologist using the unity game engine, smartphone and virtual reality headset. It has a series of tasks that include performing systematic eye examinations, identifying common eye pathologies and a knowledge quiz. As part of their clinical training, 15 fourth-year medical students were surveyed for their views on this teaching approach. The Technology Acceptance Model was used to evaluate perceived usefulness and ease of use. Data were also collected on the usability of the app, together with the students' written comments about it. Users agreed that the teaching approach improved their understanding of ophthalmoscopy (n = 14), their ability to identify landmarks in the eye (n = 14) and their ability to recognise abnormalities (n = 15). They found the app easy to use (n = 15), the teaching approach informative (n = 13) and that it would increase students' confidence when performing these tasks in future (n = 15). Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill DISCUSSION: The evaluation showed that a VR app can successfully simulate the processes involved in performing eye examinations. The app was highly rated for all elements of perceived usefulness, ease of use and usability. Medical students stated that they would like to be taught other medical skills in this way in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  12. Utilization of Virtual Reality Content in Grade 6 Social Studies Using Affordable Virtual Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Steven O. Zantua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality is fast becoming a breakthrough in education technology and is headed towards a path where learning has become immersive. Virtual reality (VR offers both learners and educators a great opportunity to bridge gaps in the pedagogical sense. With the emergence of the Google Cardboard (GCB platform, a low-cost, virtual reality gadget comes a wide range of opportunities for educators and institutions to bring about an immersive type of learning environment for the 21st-century learner. Using Grade 6 Middle school students, this research explores the learning outcomes and student reactions using the GCB and Google Expeditions application. The study showed no significant difference in pre-test scores of the control and experimental group. There is however, a significant difference in the scores of the experimental group compared to the control group after post-test. Utilizing t-test in comparing the two groups, it was found that the mean of the post-test scores for Group A (experimental was significantly higher than Group B(control. The result of the independent samples t-test was significant, t(18 = 2.33, p = .032, suggesting that the mean of posttest score was significantly different between Groups A and B. This difference in score performance gives light to how VR can be used as a tool that enhances the learning experience. By using VR technology that is low cost and effective, more institutions will be able to help students learn better.

  13. Instrument Motion Metrics for Laparoscopic Skills Assessment in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A

    2016-11-01

    To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications.   This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...

  15. Possible Application of Virtual Reality in Geography Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojšić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oculus Rift, and subsequently accelerated in the year 2014 by occurrence of Google Cardboard. Nowadays, for the first time in history, immersive virtual reality is available to millions of people. In the mid 2015 Google commenced developing Expeditions Pioneer Program aiming to massively utilise the Google Cardboard platform in education. Expeditions and other VR apps can enhance geography teaching and learning. Realistic experience acquired by utilisation of virtual reality in teaching process significantly overcome possibilities provided by images and illustrations in the textbook. Besides literature review on usage of virtual reality in education this paper presents suggestion of VR mobile apps that can be used together with the Google Cardboard head mounted displays (HMDs in geography classes, thereby emphasising advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles which may occur in introducing the immersive virtual reality in the educational process.

  16. ENGEMBANGAN VIRTUAL CLASS UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN AUGMENTED REALITY BERBASIS ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifiana Arief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a having preparation to arrange learning unit, b analyzing and developing the content of learning materials, c designing storyboard or scenario of the virtual class, d making website of virtual class, e implementing the website as facility of online learning for Augmanted Reality. The available facilities in virtual class were to check learning units, to choose and download the material in the forms of e-book and presentation slides, to open the relevant website link for material enrichment as well as students’ practice with pre-test and post-test for measuring students’ understanding. By implementing virtual class for Augmanted Reality learning based Android, it is expected to provide alternative learning strategies for students that are interesting and easy to understand. The students are expected to be able to utilize this facility optimally in order to achieve the purposes of learning process and graduates’ competence. Keywords: VirtualClass, Augmented Reality (AR

  17. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  18. Simulating hemispatial neglect with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheux, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Yasuko

    2007-07-19

    Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.

  19. Using virtual reality to assess user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Francisco; Noriega, Paulo; Duarte, Emília; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how user experience (UX) evaluation can benefit from the use of virtual reality (VR). UX is usually evaluated in laboratory settings. However, considering that UX occurs as a consequence of the interaction between the product, the user, and the context of use, the assessment of UX can benefit from a more ecological test setting. VR provides the means to develop realistic-looking virtual environments with the advantage of allowing greater control of the experimental conditions while granting good ecological validity. The methods used to evaluate UX, as well as their main limitations, are identified.The currentVR equipment and its potential applications (as well as its limitations and drawbacks) to overcome some of the limitations in the assessment of UX are highlighted. The relevance of VR for UX studies is discussed, and a VR-based framework for evaluating UX is presented. UX research may benefit from a VR-based methodology in the scopes of user research (e.g., assessment of users' expectations derived from their lifestyles) and human-product interaction (e.g., assessment of users' emotions since the first moment of contact with the product and then during the interaction). This article provides knowledge to researchers and professionals engaged in the design of technological interfaces about the usefulness of VR in the evaluation of UX.

  20. Personality traits and virtual reality performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Hoffmann, Henry; Vitz, Martina; Oertli, Daniel; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Surgeons' personalities have been described as different from those of the general population, but this was based on small descriptive studies limited by the choice of evaluation instrument. Furthermore, although the importance of the human factor in team performance has been recognized, the effect of personality traits on technical performance is unknown. This study aimed to compare surgical residents' personality traits with those of the general population and to evaluate whether an association exists between their personality traits and technical performance using a virtual reality (VR) laparoscopy simulator. In this study, 95 participants (54 residents with basic, 29 with intermediate laparoscopic experience, and 12 students) underwent personality assessment using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and performed five VR tasks of the Lap Mentor™ basic tasks module. The residents' personality traits were compared with those of the general population, and the association between VR performance and personality traits was investigated. Surgical residents showed personality traits different from those of the general population, demonstrating lower neuroticism, higher extraversion and conscientiousness, and male residents showed greater openness. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for gender and surgical experience, none of the personality traits was found to be an independent predictor of technical performance. Surgical residents present distinct personality traits that differ from those of the general population. These traits were not found to be associated with technical performance in a virtual environment. The traits may, however, play an important role in team performance, which in turn is highly relevant for optimal surgical performance.

  1. Dynamic 3D echocardiography in virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoons Maarten L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes. Conclusion this report shows that dynamic holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited.

  2. The Internet and medical collaboration using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen Yau; O'Grady, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) provides a large amount of data but the presentation of the data to a physician can be less than satisfactory. Ideally, the image data should be available to physicians in interactive 3D to allow for improved visualization, planning and diagnosis. A virtual reality representation that not only allows for the manipulation of the image but also allows for the user to, in effect, move inside the image remotely would be ideal. In this paper the research associated with virtual reality is discussed. A formalism is then presented to create, from the CT data, the virtual reality world in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. An implementation is described of this formalism that uses the Internet to allow for users in remote locations to view and manipulate the virtual worlds.

  3. [What do virtual reality tools bring to child and adolescent psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, S; de Sevin, E; Sagaspe, P; Claret, A; Philip, P; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Bouvard, M P

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality is a relatively new technology that enables individuals to immerse themselves in a virtual world. It offers several advantages including a more realistic, lifelike environment that may allow subjects to "forget" they are being assessed, allow a better participation and an increased generalization of learning. Moreover, the virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, and can also be used to evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and to aid rehabilitation of cognitive abilities. The use of virtual reality to treat various psychiatric disorders in adults (phobic anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, addictions…) and its efficacy is supported by numerous studies. Similar research for children and adolescents is lagging behind. This may be particularly beneficial to children who often show great interest and considerable success on computer, console or videogame tasks. This article will expose the main studies that have used virtual reality with children and adolescents suffering from psychiatric disorders. The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by various studies. Most of the studies attest to the significant efficacy of the virtual reality exposure therapy (or in virtuo exposure). In children, studies have covered arachnophobia social anxiety and school refusal phobia. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for treatment in anxiety disorders. Several studies have reported the clinical use of virtual reality technology for children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy. Researches are found to be focused on communication and on learning and social imitation skills. Virtual reality is also well accepted by subjects with ASD. The virtual environment offers

  4. Effect of virtual reality training on laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian R; Soerensen, Jette L; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2009-01-01

    -14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pincreased in a clinically relevant manner using proficiency based virtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee...

  5. A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Second-Level Treatment Approaches for Treatment-Resistant Adults with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Assessing the Benefits of Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Forcano, Laura; Riesco, Nadine; Sánchez, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Dakanalis, Antonios

    2017-11-01

    A question that arises from the literature on therapy is whether second-level treatment is effective for patients with recurrent binge eating who fail first-level treatment. It has been shown that subjects who do not stop binge eating after an initial structured cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) programme benefit from additional CBT (A-CBT) sessions; however, it has been suggested that these resistant patients would benefit even more from cue exposure therapy (CET) targeting features associated with poor response (e.g. urge to binge in response to a cue and anxiety experienced in the presence of binge-related cues). We assessed the effectiveness of virtual reality-CET as a second-level treatment strategy for 64 patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who had been treated with limited results after using a structured CBT programme, in comparison with A-CBT. The significant differences observed between the two groups at post-treatment in dimensional (behavioural and attitudinal features, anxiety, food craving) and categorical (abstinence rates) outcomes highlighted the superiority of virtual reality-CET over A-CBT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-27

    Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared

  7. The Dark Shadow of Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR technology are entering nursing education at a rapid speed (Foronda et al., 2017. VR has been reported in the nursing literature to significantly improve students’ performance (Jenson & Forsyth, 2012; Park, 2016; Foronda et al., 2017 even though the body of evidence in terms of the number and research quality of peer reviewed research papers is not yet substantial enough to identify VR technology’s effectiveness. However, VR is not actually reality. VR may not actually reflect reality. Young people (and even adults may not perceive the different between reality and VR. They may not yet be mature enough to distinguish the difference. However, VR technology are going much further than traditional educational methods by allowing humans to experience a much higher level of immersion through a virtual image. Even the gap between advances in VR technology and its application to education science is widening, causing serious concern. The advance in VR technology is value-neutral. As with all things, whether something is good or bad depends on how humans use it. VR can be useful, for example, when it enables scholars to attend an international conference without traveling to the physical convention center. VR provides the ability to speak, listen, and discuss in real time. Those using VR can choose to view a featured or real-time image of the other participants as if they were actually at the conference. Further, remote participants can feel touch through electronic sensors attached to their body. How amazing! The problem with VR lies in the fact that we are not ready to cope with any possible harmful influences caused by advances in VR technology. But what is the “Dark Shadow of VR,” and why does it cause concern, particularly in pedagogy? Luc Besson’s 2017 film Valerian and the City of a Thousand Plants showed an exceptional VR world, “Big Market,” a shopping-focused VR platform. But such a world is no longer strictly

  8. Towards augmented reality: The dialectics of physical and virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guga Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaces generated by new media technologies, no matter how abstract they may be, represent a qualitatively new form of the media environment. Moreover, they are integrated into everyday life in a way that they have become the constituents of social reality. Based on dualistic Cartesian understanding of real and virtual space, virtuality still carries a connotation of 'other' world, which is ontologically and phenomenologically different from 'reality'. However, virtuality as a characteristic of new media technologies should neither be equated with illusion, deception or fiction nor set in opposition to reality, given that it embodies real interactions. Instead, we could say that there are different types or levels of reality and that the virtual exists as reality qualitatively different from that of physical reality. Today, when every place on the planet, as well as social, political, and cultural activities, have their digital manifestations, can we still talk about virtual space as an isolated phenomenon? The ubiquitous use of new media technologies such as smartphones or wearables has profoundly transformed the experience of modern man. It is more and more determined by technologically mediated reality, i.e. augmented reality. In this regard, the key issues that will be addressed in this article are the ways technologically mediated spaces redefine not only the social relationships, but also the notions of identity, embodiment, and the self.

  9. INTERACTIVE MOTION PLATFORMS AND VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Thöndel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  10. Leveraging Virtual Reality for the Benefit of Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.

    2017-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.

  11. User Interface for Volume Rendering in Virtual Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jonathan; Reuling, Dennis; Grimm, Jan; Pfau, Andreas; Lefloch, Damien; Lambers, Martin; Kolb, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Volume Rendering applications require sophisticated user interaction for the definition and refinement of transfer functions. Traditional 2D desktop user interface elements have been developed to solve this task, but such concepts do not map well to the interaction devices available in Virtual Reality environments. In this paper, we propose an intuitive user interface for Volume Rendering specifically designed for Virtual Reality environments. The proposed interface allows transfer function d...

  12. Exploring Urban Environments Using Virtual and Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Liarokapis, Fotis; Brujic-Okretic, Vesna; Papakonstantinou, Stelios

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of specific system architecture, based on mobile device, for navigation in urban environments. The aim of this work is to assess how virtual and augmented reality interface paradigms can provide enhanced location based services using real-time techniques in the context of these two different technologies. The virtual reality interface is based on faithful graphical representation of the localities of interest, coupled with sensory information on the location ...

  13. Virtual Reality Training: "Cybersickness" and Effects on Sensorimotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.

  14. Integrating Virtual Reality (VR) into traditional instructional design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... on a robot. This model is useful for performing operations in dangerous and risky environments such as control of nuclear plants and celestial exploration. Fig. 1: Example of Telepresence VR system. •. Mixed Reality(Augmented Reality). This model involves the seamless merging of real space and virtual ...

  15. Role of virtual reality for cerebral palsy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Tirosh, Emanuel; Fehlings, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Virtual reality is the use of interactive simulations to present users with opportunities to perform in virtual environments that appear, sound, and less frequently, feel similar to real-world objects and events. Interactive computer play refers to the use of a game where a child interacts and plays with virtual objects in a computer-generated environment. Because of their distinctive attributes that provide ecologically realistic and motivating opportunities for active learning, these technologies have been used in pediatric rehabilitation over the past 15 years. The ability of virtual reality to create opportunities for active repetitive motor/sensory practice adds to their potential for neuroplasticity and learning in individuals with neurologic disorders. The objectives of this article is to provide an overview of how virtual reality and gaming are used clinically, to present the results of several example studies that demonstrate their use in research, and to briefly remark on future developments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  17. Subsurface data visualization in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing

  18. Data Visualization Using Immersive Virtual Reality Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.

    2013-01-01

    The growing complexity of scientific data poses serious challenges for an effective visualization. Data sets, e.g., catalogs of objects detected in sky surveys, can have a very high dimensionality, ~ 100 - 1000. Visualizing such hyper-dimensional data parameter spaces is essentially impossible, but there are ways of visualizing up to ~ 10 dimensions in a pseudo-3D display. We have been experimenting with the emerging technologies of immersive virtual reality (VR) as a platform for a scientific, interactive, collaborative data visualization. Our initial experiments used the virtual world of Second Life, and more recently VR worlds based on its open source code, OpenSimulator. There we can visualize up to ~ 100,000 data points in ~ 7 - 8 dimensions (3 spatial and others encoded as shapes, colors, sizes, etc.), in an immersive virtual space where scientists can interact with their data and with each other. We are now developing a more scalable visualization environment using the popular (practically an emerging standard) Unity 3D Game Engine, coded using C#, JavaScript, and the Unity Scripting Language. This visualization tool can be used through a standard web browser, or a standalone browser of its own. Rather than merely plotting data points, the application creates interactive three-dimensional objects of various shapes, colors, and sizes, and of course the XYZ positions, encoding various dimensions of the parameter space, that can be associated interactively. Multiple users can navigate through this data space simultaneously, either with their own, independent vantage points, or with a shared view. At this stage ~ 100,000 data points can be easily visualized within seconds on a simple laptop. The displayed data points can contain linked information; e.g., upon a clicking on a data point, a webpage with additional information can be rendered within the 3D world. A range of functionalities has been already deployed, and more are being added. We expect to make this

  19. Relaxation with Immersive Natural Scenes Presented Using Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Mayer, Michael D; Fellows, Abigail M; Cowan, Devin R; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) can provide exposure to nature for those living in isolated confined environments. We evaluated VR-presented natural settings for reducing stress and improving mood. There were 18 participants (9 men, 9 women), ages 32 ± 12 yr, who viewed three 15-min 360° scenes (an indoor control, rural Ireland, and remote beaches). Subjects were mentally stressed with arithmetic before scenes. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate variability measured psycho-physiological arousal. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the 15-question Modified Reality Judgment and Presence Questionnaire (MRJPQ) measured mood and scene quality. Reductions in EDA from baseline were greater at the end of the natural scenes compared to the control scene (-0.59, -0.52, and 0.32 μS, respectively). The natural scenes reduced negative affect from baseline ( 1.2 and 1.1 points), but the control scene did not ( 0.4 points). MRJPQ scores for the control scene were lower than both natural scenes (4.9, 6.7, and 6.5 points, respectively). Within the two natural scenes, the preferred scene reduced negative affect ( 2.4 points) more than the second choice scene ( 1.8 points) and scored higher on the MRJPQ (6.8 vs. 6.4 points). Natural scene VR provided relaxation both objectively and subjectively, and scene preference had a significant effect on mood and perception of scene quality. VR may enable relaxation for people living in isolated confined environments, particularly when matched to personal preferences.Anderson AP, Mayer MD, Fellows AM, Cowan DR, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Relaxation with immersive natural scenes presented using virtual reality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):520526.

  20. VIRTUAL WOLVERHAMPTON: RECREATING THE HISTORIC CITY IN VIRTUAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Ramsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While many towns and cities have historic origins, the modern urban landscape is often unrecognisable from the past. Over the last two thousand years innumerable changes have occurred, from the Roman period to the Industrial Revolution, culminating in wide scale development and redevelopment of towns and cities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Fragments of the past survive as extant buildings, monuments, and areas, and are offered protection through mechanisms such as the National Heritage List for England. However, these buildings are part of a dynamic and changing environment, and their place within their original landscape not always visible. Meanwhile, the advent of mainstream and accessible immersive virtual reality offers opportunities to recreate and explore the past, and to disseminate a deeper understanding of the history and historic context of our heritage assets to a broader audience via new technologies. This paper discusses a project based on Wolverhampton that aims to create immersive and 360° experiences of the historic city that allows the user or viewer to explore how the city might have been in the past from a ‘first person’ perspective. It uses multiple approaches to gather, verify and validate archival data, records, maps and building style information. The project itself is a work-in-progress, with various approaches being explored. It looks at sources of information used to inform the virtual world; software and methodologies used to create the model; different forms of VR output; potential forms of funding for wider dissemination; and problems encountered so far.

  1. Katalog Penjualan Rumah Berbasis Android Menggunakan Teknologi Augmented Reality dan Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alders Paliling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan teknologi augmented reality kian diminati oleh pihak produsen untuk memasarkan produk  yang dihasilkan. Teknologi augmented reality mampu meproyeksikan objek dua dimensi ataupun tiga dimensi kedalam lingkungan nyata. Teknologi virtual reality mampu membawa pengguna masuk kedalam lingkungan virtual sehingga pengguna merasa berada dalam lingkungan virtual. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknologi augmented reality yang mampu memproyeksikan objek tiga dimensi rumah sehingga katalog menjadi lebih nyata,  dan teknologi virtual reality yang membuat pengguna berinteraksi langsung dengan objek tiga dimensi rumah dan merasa berada di dalam rumah. Aplikasi yang dibangun memanfaatkan sensor accelerometer yang tertanam dalam perangkat mobile android yang memungkinkan pengguna melihat seisi ruangan dengan memiringkan perangkat mobile android kekiri dan kekanan. Jumlah kamera virtual yang digunakan berjumlah lima yang diletakkan di ruang tamu, ruang keluarga, ruang kamar utama, ruang kamar anak, dan ruang dapur. Aplikasi ini berjalan pada platform android dan menggunakan personal komputer sebagai server yang menyimpan data informasi rumah. Dengan adanya aplikasi ini pengguna dapat merasakan suasana berbeda dalam melihat sebuah katalog. . Kata kunci—Augmentd Reality, Virtual Reality, Katalog, Android

  2. Fear of falling: efficacy of virtual reality associated with serious games in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fanny Levy,1 Pierre Leboucher,2 Gilles Rautureau,2 Odile Komano,2 Bruno Millet,1 Roland Jouvent1 1Department of Adults Psychiatry, 2PRISME-Virtual Reality, ICM-A- IHU, UPMC UMR_S 975, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, GH Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France Objective: Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking, we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology.Methods: Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games.Results: Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants’ scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups.Conclusion: Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism. Keywords: fear of falling, virtual reality exposure therapy, serious games, phobia, anxiety disorders

  3. Physiological measures and self-report to evaluate neutral virtual reality worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Busscher, B; De Vliegher, D.; Ling, Y.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using virtual reality technology for exposure therapy to treat patients with anxiety disorders is attracting considerable research attention. The ability to monitor patient anxiety level helps therapists to set appropriate anxiety arousing situations. Physiological measures have been put forward as objective indicators of anxiety levels. Because of individual variation, they need a baseline recording which is often conducted in neutral virtual worlds which do not include phobic stressors. Sti...

  4. Using Immersive Virtual Reality for Electrical Substation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eduardo H.; Paludo, Juliana A.; Cordeiro, Carlúcio S.; Domingues, Leonardo R.; Gadbem, Edgar V.; Euflausino, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Usually, distribution electricians are called upon to solve technical problems found in electrical substations. In this project, we apply problem-based learning to a training program for electricians, with the help of a virtual reality environment that simulates a real substation. Using this virtual substation, users may safely practice maneuvers…

  5. 3D Virtual Reality Check: Learner Engagement and Constructivist Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…

  6. An Interactive Mixed Reality Framework for Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Papagiannakis, G.; Magnenat-Thalmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and robust Mixed Reality (MR) framework that allows for real-time interaction with Virtual Humans in real and virtual environments under consistent illumination. We will look at three crucial parts of this system: interaction, animation and global

  7. Intelligent Decision-Support in Virtual Reality Healthcare & Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis Brooks, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    and the ‘Hermeneutic Action Research Recursive Reflection’ model have emerged from a body of virtual reality research called SoundScapes. The work targets all ages and all abilities through gesture-control of responsive multimedia within Virtual Interactive Space (VIS). VIS is an interactive information environment...

  8. Using Virtual Reality to Help Students with Social Interaction Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity to…

  9. Virtual Reality as a Tool in the Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Pereira, Adriana Soares

    2012-01-01

    The virtual reality is being more and more used in the education, enabling the student to find out, to explore and to build his own knowledge. This paper presents an Educational Software for presence or distance education, for subjects of Formal Language, where the student can manipulate virtually the target that must be explored, analyzed and…

  10. Markov queue game with virtual reality strategies | Nwobi-Okoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non cooperative markov game with several unique characteristics was introduced. Some of these characteristics include: the existence of a single phase multi server queuing model and markovian transition matrix/matrices for each game, introduction of virtual situations (virtual reality) or dummies to improve the chances ...

  11. Use of Virtual Reality Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Learning in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…

  12. A virtual reality dialogue system for the treatment of social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kang, N.; de Vliegher, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Neerincx, M.A.; Konstan, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    People with social phobia have a severe fear of everyday social situations. In this paper we describe a virtual reality exposure therapy system specifically designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while

  13. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Mateu; María José Lasala; Xavier Alamán

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by MDPI (http://www.mdpi.org). Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes. In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, ab...

  14. Virtual Reality: When “Real” Becomes Real

    OpenAIRE

    Whittinghill, David

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality has moved out of the lab and into our living rooms. With it comes an entire new medium for entertainment, simulation, and social interaction. Its potential impact on humanity, however, is actually far more profound. VR provides not just a new digital content delivery platform. It creates, in literal fact, an entire new class of human experience. A virtual experience is only virtual according to our intellects, but to every other fiber of our perceptual system, the experience i...

  15. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleja Pavol; Kozlovská Mária

    2017-01-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools ...

  16. Disguising Rotational Gain for Redirected Walking in Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Anders Glud; Elbaek, Jacob; Mortensen, Mathias Helmuth

    2016-01-01

    In virtual reality environments that allow users to walk freely, the area of the virtual environment (VE) is constrained to the size of the tracking area. By using redirection techniques, this problem can be partially circumvented; one of the techniques involves rotating the user more or less...... in the virtual world than in the physical world; this technique is referred to as rotational gain. This paper seeks to further investigate this area, examining the effect of visual density in the VE....

  17. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  18. Speculations on the representation of architecture in virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Bundgård, Ture Slot

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the present and future possibilities of representation models of architecture in new media such as virtual reality, seen in the broader context of tradition, perception, and neurology. Through comparative studies of real and virtual scenarios using eye tracking, the paper...... discusses if the constantly evolving toolset for architectural representation has in itself changed the core values of architecture, or if it is rather the level of skilful application of technology that can inflict on architecture and its quality. It is easy to contemplate virtual reality as an extension...... to the visual field of perception. However, this should not necessarily imply an acceptance of the dominance of vision over the other senses, and the much-criticized retinal architecture with its inherent loss of plasticity. Recent neurology studies indicate that 3D representation models in virtual reality...

  19. Virtual Reality as an Educational and Training Tool for Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes, Juan A; García Peñalvo, Francisco J; Estella, Jesús Mª Gonçalvez; Ledesma, Mª José Sánchez; Ruisoto, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Until very recently, we considered Virtual Reality as something that was very close, but it was still science fiction. However, today Virtual Reality is being integrated into many different areas of our lives, from videogames to different industrial use cases and, of course, it is starting to be used in medicine. There are two great general classifications for Virtual Reality. Firstly, we find a Virtual Reality in which we visualize a world completely created by computer, three-dimensional and where we can appreciate that the world we are visualizing is not real, at least for the moment as rendered images are improving very fast. Secondly, there is a Virtual Reality that basically consists of a reflection of our reality. This type of Virtual Reality is created using spherical or 360 images and videos, so we lose three-dimensional visualization capacity (until the 3D cameras are more developed), but on the other hand we gain in terms of realism in the images. We could also mention a third classification that merges the previous two, where virtual elements created by computer coexist with 360 images and videos. In this article we will show two systems that we have developed where each of them can be framed within one of the previous classifications, identifying the technologies used for their implementation as well as the advantages of each one. We will also analize how these systems can improve the current methodologies used for medical training. The implications of these developments as tools for teaching, learning and training are discussed.

  20. Virtual reality and its use as occupational therapeutic resource: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayane Leoncio Caiana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtual Reality is defined as the interface between the user and the computer simulation of a given environment or activity, providing interaction through multiple sensory channels found in video games or computers, offering different experiences to the individual. It is a growing practice in health professions, including Occupational Therapy. Objective: To analyze how virtual reality has been used in occupational therapy processes through a search in national publications that have used this approach in recent years. Method: An integrative literature review was conducted at CAPES, LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, periodicals of Occupational Therapy (Journal of Occupational Therapy - USP and Occupational Therapy Notebooks - UFSCar, and Google Scholar (book chapters between 2004 and 2014, with the following descriptors: Occupational Therapy, Video Game, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, Computer Assisted Therapy, and User-Computer Interface. Results: Fifteen articles were selected in compliance with the inclusion criteria. It was observed that most works addressed Virtual Reality as an evaluative method (n = 07; 46.6%, intervening in neurological disorders (n = 10; 66.6%, used more frequently by adolescent audience (n = 07; 46.6%. The computer is the most commonly used equipment in the interventions (n = 10; 66.6%. Conclusion: Virtual Reality is an important tool in promoting health, and it is also used in various treatments. Its use has grown among occupational therapists, but it is still an area that needs to be diligently evidenced, so that it can serve as an aid to update techniques.

  1. Evaluating Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training for Industrial Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…

  2. Preventing teen smoking with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemire, K; Beil, J; Swan, R W

    1999-01-01

    Smoking incidence is rising among adolescents but not adults. Although many prevention programs are effective, there is room for improvement. This pilot project combined the welldocumented benefits of Life Skills Training (LST) with the unique multisensory, 3D qualities of virtual environment (VE) technology to address some of the disadvantages of traditional prevention programs. In an 8-week pilot study, 72 seventh-grade students were randomly assigned to either LST, VE, or nonintervention control groups. The VE system included goggles, synthesized speech, spatial trackers on head and hand, a hand-held controller, and a speech recognition system. Questionnaires measured participants' smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. A bogus pipeline procedure was used to increase reliability of the self-report measures. Pre-exposure data showed no significant differences between groups on the questionnaire. Post-exposure data indicated improvements in attitudes in the LST and VE groups. In addition, the VE group showed more accurate information concerning peer and adult cigarette use and more likelihood of using coping and refusal skills. Usability and acceptability questionnaire data showed ease of use and learning and that participants would use VE technology frequently if it were available to them at school. These data indicated that this VE application is a promising tool for keeping teens healthy.

  3. Towards immersive and adaptive augmented reality exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünser, Andreas; Grasset, Raphaël; Farrant, Hamish

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel augmented reality based exposure therapy system for phobia treatment. This allows patients to see virtual fear stimuli overlaid onto the real world and to fully interact with them in real time. Extending on previous work, we focus on creating a controllable and interactive system (through gesture recognition and physiological sensors) with a visually realistic context. Our goal is a very life-like system that allows full parameterization over stimulus intensity and other factors necessary for an effective exposure therapy system.

  4. Immersive Virtual Reality with Applications to Tele-Operation and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Object Manipulation in Immersive Virtual Environments", in the Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, Greenville, SC, March, 2016. [15] Goyette...Immersive Virtual Reality with Applications to Tele-Operation and Training The proposed project aims to develop a fundamental framework for...establishing an immersive virtual reality environment for robust and scalable human robotics interaction in a cooperative intelligent architecture at the

  5. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  6. Augmented-Virtual Reality: How to improve education systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernandez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students’ learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students’ knowledge acquisition. Stakeholders in the educational role of technology include students, faculty members, institutions, and manufacturers. While the benefits of such technologies are still under investigation, the technology landscape offers opportunities to enhance face-to-face and online teaching, including contributions in the understanding of abstract concepts and training in real environments and situations. Barriers to technology use involve limited adoption of augmented and virtual reality technologies, and, more directly, necessary training of teachers in using such technologies within meaningful educational contexts. The author proposes a six-step methodology to aid adoption of these technologies as basic elements within the regular education: training teachers; developing conceptual prototypes; teamwork involving the teacher, a technical programmer, and an educational architect; and producing the experience, which then provides results in the subsequent two phases wherein teachers are trained to apply augmented- and virtual-reality solutions within their teaching methodology using an available subject-specific experience and then finally implementing the use of the experience in a regular subject with students. The essay concludes with discussion of the business opportunities facing virtual reality in face-to-face education as well as augmented and virtual reality in online education.

  7. The Impact of Virtual Reality on Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0-10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted.

  8. Immersive Virtual Reality in a University Setting: Creating an Authentic Learning Environment Through the Virtual Golden Foods Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros A. Yahaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An authentic learning environment is learning that involves real world problems that are relevant to the learners and relate to their real life experience. Research indicates that Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools can facilitate in creating authentic learning environment, thus improving student learning, interaction and satisfaction. Previous research has focused on using various forms of ICT such as online learning and web-based learning into the classroom. However, little attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating immersive Virtual Reality (VR technology into the university classroom. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation (VGFC is a simulated Virtual Reality (VR organization being developed for use in teaching and learning at a large technology based university in Australia. This study focuses on authentic learning environment where students learn about decision making in complex business contexts throughout the semester which culminates in immersive VR exposure. The findings report that immersive VR environment helps to increase students’ understanding of decision making concepts.

  9. The distortion of reality perception in schizophrenia patients, as measured in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Anna; Weinshall, Daphna; Peled, Avi

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Reality is an interactive three-dimensional computer generated environment. Providing a complex and multi-modal environment, VR can be particularly useful for the study of complex cognitive functions and brain disorders. Here we used a VR world to measure the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients. 43 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls navigated in a VR environment and were asked to detect incoherencies, such as a cat barking or a tree with red leaves. Whereas the healthy participants reliably detected incoherencies in the virtual experience, 88% of the patients failed in this task. The patients group had specific difficulty in the detection of audio-visual incoherencies; this was significantly correlated with the hallucinations score of the PANSS. By measuring the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients, we demonstrated that Virtual Reality can serve as a powerful experimental tool to study complex cognitive processes.

  10. Ocular effects of virtual reality headset wear in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Philip R K; Phillips, John R

    2017-11-23

    Virtual Reality (VR) headsets create immersion by displaying images on screens placed very close to the eyes, which are viewed through high powered lenses. Here we investigate whether this viewing arrangement alters the binocular status of the eyes, and whether it is likely to provide a stimulus for myopia development. We compared binocular status after 40-minute trials in indoor and outdoor environments, in both real and virtual worlds. We also measured the change in thickness of the ocular choroid, to assess the likely presence of signals for ocular growth and myopia development. We found that changes in binocular posture at distance and near, gaze stability, amplitude of accommodation and stereopsis were not different after exposure to each of the 4 environments. Thus, we found no evidence that the VR optical arrangement had an adverse effect on the binocular status of the eyes in the short term. Choroidal thickness did not change after either real world trial, but there was a significant thickening (≈10 microns) after each VR trial (p < 0.001). The choroidal thickening which we observed suggest that a VR headset may not be a myopiagenic stimulus, despite the very close viewing distances involved.

  11. A new possibility in thoracoscopic virtual reality simulation training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2015-01-01

    and intermediate experienced thoracic surgeons, but not very useful as a training tool for experienced surgeons. The metric scores were not statistically significant between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe a commercially available virtual reality simulator for a VATS lobectomy. More than......OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. METHODS: Experienced...... VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014...

  12. Integration of immersive virtual reality in Communication Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ubaldo Cuesta Cambra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area promotes the integration of new technologies in didactic innovation and it aims to improve skills. It has been requested by students at the Complutense University of Madrid, who have a digital native profile or millennial. This article is a study about implementation of immersive virtual reality in the practical part of the subjects related to business communication. Specifically, it applied in the subject Crisis Communication. The methodology is a survey and three focus groups for professors and students. The conclusions say that the implementation of immersive virtual reality improves the expectations and interest of students. It also improves the skills acquired and the practical part of the subjects of communication improve employment of students of the Degree, which is one of their main causes of dissatisfaction. The full implementation of mobile telephony suggests using virtual reality devices adapted to them rather than “caves” (C.A.V.E. or consoles.

  13. Virtual reality: a retrospective analysis of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Fandejeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such an ambiguous concept as «virtual reality». The growth of interest in the idea of virtual reality has caused widespread use of the term in different meanings. But it is not developed a unified philosophical concept of this phenomenon still. It is possible to speak about virtuality only contextually. In this paper we study the main stages of formation and development of the «virtual» concept in the field of scientific knowledge from European antiquity to the postmodern era. As a result two tenches of interpretation of a concept of virtus which are based on Plato or Aristotle’s interpretation of the over – empirical one were revealed. In the modern knowledge it was allocated three approaches to the interpretation of virtuality: ontological, private­scientific and approach, shaped by the development of computer and information technologies. Along with it, the retrospective analysis of the Indian philosophical thought for signs ideas virtuality in the ancient texts is carried out. These features were found in the concept of Maya. For the analysis were used the signs of virtual reality  developed by N. A. Nosov: porozhdennost (produced by, a relevanced; an autonomy; an integrative.

  14. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Crocetta,Tânia Brusque; Oliveira, Sandra Rogéria de; Liz, Carla Maria de; Andrade, Alexandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their wo...

  15. Fear of falling: efficacy of virtual reality associated with serious games in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Komano, Odile; Millet, Bruno; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking), we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology. Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games. Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants' scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups. Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism.

  16. Football simulator in virtual reality using Kinect and Htc Vive

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Gonzalo, Guillem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of incorporating real world objects into the virtual reality world and its usage inside the gaming community. Using Kinect camera and HTC Vive glasses we recreated a football simulator where the user is able to play with a real ball while watching it in virtual reality. To achieve our goal, we present a mix of image processing algorithms that are be able to track the ball with only depth given by Kinect. Furthermore, a dynamic-link library is generated from t...

  17. Diagnosis of acute unilateral vestibular deficit by virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Renzo; Cesarani, Antonio; Meloni, Francesco; Passali, Francesco Maria; Mora, Francesco; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Barbieri, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study was to establish a new diagnostic approach, through the use of virtual reality, to the study of the subjective vertical bar in unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. We subjected 174 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction (ages 18-82 years) to vestibular diagnosis with the virtual reality system. We changed the classic configuration of the subjective visual vertical into a subjective visual horizontal bar. This technique revealed values of the subjective visual horizontal outside the normal range in 91% of patients.

  18. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  19. [Virtual pleuroscopy of diaphragmatic pleura: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carette, M-F; Chabchoub, H; Tassart, M; Korzec, J; Marsault, C; Khalil, A

    2008-02-01

    Evaluate the feasibility of the virtual pleuroscopy (VP) in the detection of the pleural plaques. Twenty consecutive patients, having asbestos exposure, explored by unenhanced multidetector CT-scan (Siemens, Sensation 16). The imaging parameters were as follows: beam width, 12 mm; beam pitch, 1; and reconstruction thickness, 1mm every 0.8mm at 120 kV and 180 mA. The image display used a surface-rendering algorithm and produced perspective red-scale images with a matrix of 512 x 512. Each VP image simulated a coned-down view, with a variable cone angle to explore the diaphragmatic pleura. The camera was placed 1 to 2 cm above the diaphragmatic dome. Four views are studied by diaphragm: crâniocaudal, lateral tangential, anterior and posterior. The observed virtual pleura aspect was classified in 5 groups (gr): gr 1: Rib band, gr 2: lobulated pleural thickening, gr 3: spicular, gr 4: plaques and gr 5: nodules. The results were compared to the other MDCT images using multiplanar reformatting. The visualization of each diaphragm was optimal (35/40; 87.5%), limited (3/40; round atelectasis and asbestosis) or impossible (2/40; asbestosis). The classifications of the studied 38 diaphragmatic pleura were: gr 1 (n=15), gr 2 (n=5), gr 3 (n=11), gr 4 (n=7), gr 5 (n=0). The MDCT analysis showed normal pleura for both gr 1 and gr 2, a confirmed or beginning of fibrosis for gr 3 and confirmed the presence of pleural plaques on the diaphragmatic pleura in all cases of gr 4. The virtual pleuroscopy is a reality. It is a feasible technique. Other studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary results.

  20. A Virtual Reality-Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    N00014-93-C-0279 Fmi Repd - A Vitual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Pa A-1 9 June 21,1994 Appendix A - Literature Search Chares J...Leaf Systems, Inc. e ARPA Contract number N00014-93-C-0279 Fmal Report -A Vitual Reality -Base Simuilation Of Abdominal Surgery Page A-22 June 21, 1994...415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The

  1. Virtual Charter Schools: Realities and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Virtual charter schools have emerged over the last decade as an increasingly popular alternative to traditional public schooling. Unlike their face-to-face counterparts, virtual charter schools educate students through blended or entirely online curricula. They present a host of new policy issues that should be scrutinized in order to ensure that…

  2. Collaboration and dialogue in Virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...... on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through...

  3. [Application of virtual reality technique in forensic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Hui-xia; Liu, Liang

    2005-05-01

    This article reviewed general information, application and progress of the virtual reality (VR) technique. Lectures showed that the VR technique would impact and prompt the teaching, experiment, research and application of forensic pathology with the development of operation guiding system, virtual autopsy, micro-imaging technique. Because of the limitation of software, hardware and the expense, the VR technique needed to be improved and perfected.

  4. Phenomenological classification of cultural heritage: role of virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuk-Jin Lee

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Human consciousness is always the consciousness toward some thing and our perception of cultural heritage is no exception. Thus, understanding human cognition is closely related to understanding how the perceptible objects are classified in human mind. The perceptible objects include both physical and virtual experiences and thoughts, and it is important and necessary to analyze the types and the effective levels of those objects. With the emergence of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies ...

  5. Reducing latency when using Virtual Reality for teaching in sport

    OpenAIRE

    P Iskandar, Yulita Hanum; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Latency is a frequently cited shortcoming of Virtual Reality (VR) applications. To compensate for excessive latency, prediction mechanisms may use sophisticated mathematical algorithms, which may not be appropriate for complex virtual teaching applications. This paper suggests that heuristic prediction algorithms could be used to develop more effective and general systems for VR educational applications. A fast synchronization squash simulation illustrates where heuristic prediction can be us...

  6. A virtual reality platform for modeling cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Jasso, Hector; Triesch, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    We present a virtual reality platform for developing and evaluating embodied models of cognitive development. The platform facilitates structuring of the learning agent, of its visual environment, and of other virtual characters that interact with the learning agent. It allows us to systematically study the role of the visual and social environment for the development of particular cognitive skills in a controlled fashion. We describe how it is currently being used for constructing an embodie...

  7. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasaku, K; Negoro, M; Himeno, R

    2001-12-22

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had masterslave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  8. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasaku, K.; Negoro, M.; Himeno, R.

    2001-01-01

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had master-slave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  9. The co-definition of self: conversations in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantamesse, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Conversation analysis can take the form of a qualitative methodology for the exploration of discursive productions, whose main goal is the formulation of hypotheses for reading psychosocial interaction through descriptive models of interlocution. Therefore, in this study, conversations in a shared Virtual Environment have been analyzed in order to understand the specific structure, dynamics, and phenomenology of Virtual Reality effects on the "interactive micro-chains" that constitute the communicative thread of daily experience.

  10. AL-HARM EXPANSION MOVIE BASED ON VIRTUAL REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alanoud Salem; Sara Musallam; El-Shaimaa Nada; Ahmed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Animated movies are excellent virtual environments for creating models in high quality. Animated movies can include 3D models, sounds and lights effects, and detailed maps. In this paper, a virtual reality movie is applied to Al-Haram Expansion stages including the future stage of expansion. 3DMAX program is used to rich the maximum benefits of using 3D modeling. Maps with details are built by using ARCGIS program in order to understand the real difference between the three dif...

  11. Research of the Remote Experiment System Based on Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Liangyu; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiufang

    The remote education based on Virtual Reality technology is one of the leading developmental ways in modern education. The present researching status of VR technology's application in the remote experiment is analyzed and the characteristics are summarized in this paper. Then the remote experiment system is designed and the learning mode of the 3-D virtual experiment, the virtual experiment model based on Internet, the functional modules of virtual experiment system are studied. The network-based system of remote virtual experiment is built with the programming languages VRML and JavaScript. Furthermore, the remote experiment system on fatigue test of the drive axle is developed and some key problems in the remote virtual experiment are realized.

  12. The need for virtual reality simulators in dental education: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elby Roy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.

  13. Usability evaluation of low-cost virtual reality hand and arm rehabilitation games

    OpenAIRE

    Na Jin Seo, PhD; Jayashree Arun Kumar, MS; Pilwon Hur, PhD; Vincent Crocher, PhD; Binal Motawar, PT, MS; Kishor Lakshminarayanan, MS

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of lower-cost motion tracking devices enables home-based virtual reality rehabilitation activities and increased accessibility to patients. Currently, little documentation on patients' expectations for virtual reality rehabilitation is available. This study surveyed 10 people with stroke for their expectations of virtual reality rehabilitation games. This study also evaluated the usability of three lower-cost virtual reality rehabilitation games using a survey and House of Quali...

  14. The need for virtual reality simulators in dental education: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M; George, Roy

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.

  15. COLLABORATION AND DIALOGUE IN VIRTUAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gyldendahl Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM, “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through the dialogue. The result of this study shows that “Virtual Reality”, as a tool, creates some changes in the dialogue conditions which affect the learning process. The use of “Virtual Reality” requires a very precise framing about the system's ability to facilitate a collaborative learning process. The analysis identifies several clear opportunities about incorporating gamification mechanisms known from e.g. video games software.

  16. Virtual Reality Interaction Using Mobile Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Aseeri, Sahar A.

    2013-07-01

    With the use of an immersive display system such as CAVE system, the user is able to realize a 3D immersive virtual environment realistically. However, interacting with virtual worlds in CAVE systems using traditional input devices to perform easy operations such as manipulation, object selection, and navigation is often difficult. This difficulty could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. Our research aims to implement and evaluate alternative approaches of interaction with immersive virtual environments on mobile devices for manipulation and object selection tasks. As many researchers have noted, using a mobile device as an interaction device has a number of advantages, including built-in display, built-in control, and touch screen facility. These advantages facilitate simple tasks within immersive virtual environments. This research proposes new methods using mobile devices like Smart-phones to perform di↵erent kinds of interactions both as an input device, (e.g. performing selection and manipulation of objects) and as an output device (e.g. utilizing the screen as an extra view for a virtual camera or information display). Moreover, we developed a prototype system to demonstrate and informally evaluate these methods. The research conclusion suggests using mobile devices as a 3D-controller. This will be a more intuitive approach to interact within the virtual environment.

  17. Virtual Reality Applications for Stress Management Training in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Argenton, Luca; Toniazzi, Nicola; Aceti, Luciana; Mantovani, Fabrizia

    2016-12-01

    Stress Management Training programs are increasingly being adopted in the military field for resilience empowerment and primary stress prevention. In the last several years, advanced technologies (virtual reality in particular) have been integrated in order to develop more innovative and effective stress training programs for military personnel, including soldiers, pilots, and other aircrew professionals. This systematic review describes experimental studies that have been conducted in recent years to test the effectiveness of virtual reality-based Stress Management Training programs developed for military personnel. This promising state-of-the-art technology has the potential to be a successful new approach in empowering soldiers and increasing their resilience to stress. To provide an overview from 2001 to 2016 of the application of virtual reality for Stress Management Training programs developed for the military, a computer-based search for relevant publications was performed in several databases. Databases used in the search were PsycINFO, Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), PubMed, and Medline. The search string was: ("Virtual Reality") AND ("Military") AND ["Stress Training" OR ("Stress Management")]. There were 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The main observation to be drawn from this review is that virtual reality can provide interactive Stress Management Training to decrease levels of perceived stress and negative affect in military personnel. This technology appears to be a promising tool for assessing individuals' resilience to stress and for identifying the impact that stress can have on physiological reactivity and performance.Pallavicini F, Argenton L, Toniazzi N, Aceti L, Mantovani F. Virtual realtiy applications for stress management training in the military. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1021-1030.

  18. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  19. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  20. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  1. The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova G. Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS. The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment. Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°. Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness. Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.

  2. Collaboration and dialogue in Virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each o...... identifies several clear opportunities about incorporating gamification mechanisms known from e.g. video games software.......“Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...

  3. Who am I - and if so, where? An experiment on personality in online virtual realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aas, B.G.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual realities form a new technical platform, raising scientific questions about the human mind, communication and identity. There is hardly any scientific research on the influence of a virtual reality on the identity perception and the personality of a user of these virtual realities. The

  4. Education about Hallucinations Using an Internet Virtual Reality System: A Qualitative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowlees, Peter M.; Cook, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. Method: This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients…

  5. The use of virtual reality in visualizing land property | Quaye-Ballard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses virtual reality as a visualization tool such that users could interact with a developed application medium, as if they are inside the virtual environment presenting the application. Virtual reality as a presentational medium offers different views of reality which real estate agents could use to visualize estate ...

  6. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  7. Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Paul; Takemura, Haruo; Utsumi, Akira; Kishino, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we discuss augmented reality (AR) displays in a general sense, within the context of a reality-virtuality (RV) continuum, encompassing a large class of `mixed reality' (MR) displays, which also includes augmented virtuality (AV). MR displays are defined by means of seven examples of existing display concepts in which real objects and virtual objects are juxtaposed. Essential factors which distinguish different MR display systems from each other are presented, first by means of a table in which the nature of the underlying scene, how it is viewed, and the observer's reference to it are compared, and then by means of a three dimensional taxonomic framework comprising: extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor. A principal objective of the taxonomy is to clarify terminology issues and to provide a framework for classifying research across different disciplines.

  8. Collaborative virtual reality based advanced cardiac life support training simulator using virtual reality principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabal; Vankipuram, Akshay; Ashby, Aaron; Vankipuram, Mithra; Gupta, Ashish; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Josey, Karen; Tinker, Linda; Smith, Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is a series of team-based, sequential and time constrained interventions, requiring effective communication and coordination of activities that are performed by the care provider team on a patient undergoing cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. The state-of-the-art ACLS training is conducted in a face-to-face environment under expert supervision and suffers from several drawbacks including conflicting care provider schedules and high cost of training equipment. The major objective of the study is to describe, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel approach of delivering ACLS training to care providers using the proposed virtual reality simulator that can overcome the challenges and drawbacks imposed by the traditional face-to-face training method. We compare the efficacy and performance outcomes associated with traditional ACLS training with the proposed novel approach of using a virtual reality (VR) based ACLS training simulator. One hundred and forty-eight (148) ACLS certified clinicians, translating into 26 care provider teams, were enrolled for this study. Each team was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: control (traditional ACLS training), persuasive (VR ACLS training with comprehensive feedback components), or minimally persuasive (VR ACLS training with limited feedback components). The teams were tested across two different ACLS procedures that vary in the degree of task complexity: ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VFib/VTach) and pulseless electric activity (PEA). The difference in performance between control and persuasive groups was not statistically significant (P=.37 for PEA and P=.1 for VFib/VTach). However, the difference in performance between control and minimally persuasive groups was significant (P=.05 for PEA and P=.02 for VFib/VTach). The pre-post comparison of performances of the groups showed that control (P=.017 for PEA, P=.01 for VFib/VTach) and

  9. Virtual Reality Research at TNO-FEL

    OpenAIRE

    Jense, G.J.; Kuijper, F.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual environmens(VE) technology is expected to make a big impact on future training and simulation systems. Direct stimulation of human senses (eyesight, auditory, tactile) and new paradigms for user input will improve the realism of simulations and thereby the effectiveness of training and simulation systems. After briefly summarising earlier work done at TNO-FEL, a definition of virtual environment simulations is proposed, along with a classification of various types of VE systems. This ...

  10. Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,

  11. Retention of Mastoidectomy Skills After Virtual Reality Simulation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR) simul...

  12. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  13. Validation of a novel virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Persson, Jan E. U.; Wolswijk, Richard G. H.; Ihse, Ingmar; Schijven, Marlies P.; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of

  14. Issues Surrounding the Use of Virtual Reality in Geographic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisichenko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    As with all classroom innovations intended to improve geographic education, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) poses issues for consideration prior to endorsing its use. Of these, effectiveness, implementation, and safe use need to be addressed. Traditionally, sense of place, geographic knowledge, and firsthand experiences provided by field…

  15. New Desktop Virtual Reality Technology in Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) that immerses users in a 3D environment through use of headwear, body suits, and data gloves has demonstrated effectiveness in technical and professional education. Immersive VR is highly engaging and appealing to technically skilled young Net Generation learners. However, technical difficulty and very high costs have kept…

  16. Transforming Clinical Imaging Data for Virtual Reality Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B.; Rosset, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in anatomical informatics, three-dimensional (3D) modeling, and virtual reality (VR) methods have made computer-based structural visualization a practical tool for education. In this article, the authors describe streamlined methods for producing VR "learning objects," standardized interactive software modules for anatomical sciences…

  17. Virtual Reality and Cyberspace: From Science Fiction to Science Fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of virtual reality (VR), or cyberspace, and describes some of the research and development efforts currently being carried out in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Applications of VR in interactive computer-aided design (CAD), the military, leisure activities, spaceflight, teleconferencing, and medicine are…

  18. Innovative virtual reality measurements for embryonic growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground Innovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique. Methods In a longitudinal study, three-dimensional

  19. Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

  20. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  1. Virtual Reality Augmentation for Functional Assessment and Treatment of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B.

    2007-01-01

    Stuttering characteristics, assessment, and treatment principles present challenges to assessment and treatment that can be addressed with virtual reality (VR) technology. This article describes how VR can be used to assist clinicians in meeting some of these challenges with adults who stutter. A review of current VR research at the Stuttering…

  2. Virtual Reality Hypermedia Design Frameworks for Science Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, R. William; Oh, Byron; Check, Rosa

    This paper reports on a study that conceptualizes a research framework to aid software design and development for virtual reality (VR) computer applications for instruction in the sciences. The framework provides methodologies for the processing, collection, examination, classification, and presentation of multimedia information within hyperlinked…

  3. Application of Virtual Reality for Visual Presentation in the Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer Graphics (CG) and Virtual Reality (VR) are becoming very useful in the mineral industry as tools by which engineers, managers and planners can communicate complex engineering designs to the relevant end users in 3- dimensional (3D) presentations. Although 2-dimensional (2D) presentations of technical ...

  4. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  5. VirtualTable: a projection augmented reality game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    2015-01-01

    VirtualTable is a projection augmented reality installation where users are engaged in an interactive tower defense game. The installation runs continuously and is designed to attract people to a table, which the game is projected onto. Any number of players can join the game for an optional period...

  6. Augmented Virtual Reality: How to Improve Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students' learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students' knowledge acquisition.…

  7. Embryonic staging using a 3D virtual reality system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that Carnegie Stages could be assigned to embryos visualized with a 3D virtual reality system. METHODS: We analysed 48 3D ultrasound scans of 19 IVF/ICSI pregnancies at 7-10 weeks' gestation. These datasets were visualized as 3D

  8. Virtual reality simulator for vitreoretinal surgery using integrated OCT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Igor; Banerjee, Pat; Luo, Jia; Luciano, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real patients for practicing vitreoretinal surgery using different pathologic scenarios.

  9. How to Create a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Noel

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project which developed a shared electronic environment of virtual reality using satellite telecommunications technologies to create desktop multimedia networking. The origins of the concept of shared electronic space are explained, and the importance for human communication of sharing both audio and visual space simultaneously is…

  10. Virtual reality training versus blended learning of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia Anja; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Background: Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Methods: Laparoscopy-naïve medical students...

  11. Visual Realism and Presence in a Virtual Reality Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Jonatan Salling; Larsen, Oliver Stevns; Vendelbo, Kasper Bøgelund

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) has finally entered the homes of consumers, and a large number of the available applications are games. This paper presents a between-subjects study (n=50) exploring if vi-sual realism (polygon count and texture resolution) affects pres-ence during a scenario involving gameplay...

  12. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  13. Visualization and labeling of point clouds in virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Sun, Yongbin; Greenwald, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Virtual Reality (VR) application for labeling and handling point cloud data sets. A series of room-scale point clouds are recorded as a video sequence using a Microsoft Kinect. The data can be played and paused, and frames can be skipped just like in a video player. The user can walk...

  14. Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Iris; Skouen, Jan Sture; Hofstad, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper...

  15. Utilising Virtual Reality in Alcohol Studies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durl, James; Dietrich, Timo; Pang, Bo; Potter, Leigh-Ellen; Carter, Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Background: The resurgence of interest in virtual reality (VR) in recent years has been exciting for health educators and researchers, yet little is known about VR's effectiveness. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of the prevalence of VR in alcohol studies and assess its effectiveness. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles…

  16. Conveying Architectural Form and Space with Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the user experience of non-specialists viewing and navigating in an architectural native (Revit) BIM model in Virtual Reality (VR) with a head mounted display (HMD). The perceived sense of presence as well as the quality of vision and total VR experience...

  17. Teaching Marketing through a Micro-Economy in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    Teaching retailing principles to students is a challenge because although real-world wholesale and retail decision making very heavily depends on dynamic conditions, classroom exercises are limited to abstract discussions and role-playing. This article describes two interlocking class projects taught using the virtual reality of secondlife.com,…

  18. Integrating Virtual Reality (VR) into traditional instructional design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most technical programs in Nigeria's tertiary institutions lack the desired laboratories to impact technical skills to the students. This has led to the production of pseudo-illustrates as graduates and this accounts for reasons why many employers are saying Nigerian graduates are not employable. Virtual Reality (VR) can ...

  19. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  20. A DBR Framework for Designing Mobile Virtual Reality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas Donald; Cook, Stuart; Aiello, Stephen; Christie, Duncan; Sinfield, David; Steagall, Marcus; Aguayo, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a design based research (DBR) framework for designing mobile virtual reality learning environments. The application of the framework is illustrated by two design-based research projects that aim to develop more authentic educational experiences and learner-centred pedagogies in higher education. The projects highlight the first…

  1. Virtual Reality: A Tool for Cartographic Visualization | Quaye-Ballard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visualization methods in the analysis of geographical datasets are based on static models, which restrict the visual analysis capabilities. The use of virtual reality, which is a three-dimensional (3D) perspective, gives the user the ability to change viewpoints and models dynamically overcomes the static limitations of ...

  2. Virtual reality-based medical training and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboulafia, Annette Løw T.; Lövquist, Erik; Shorten, George Declan

    2012-01-01

    The current focus on patient safety and evidence-based medical education has led to an increased interest in utilising virtual reality (VR) for medical training. The development of VR-based systems require experts from different disciplines to collaborate with shared and agreed objectives through...

  3. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...

  4. Virtual reality simulators for rock engineering related training.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Squelch, A

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated by SIMRAC and CSIR Miningtek as a means of providing an enhancement to current training methods that will lead to more effective hazard awareness training programmes. A VR training simulator developed under...

  5. Virtual reality training for endoscopic surgery: voluntary or obligatory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, K. W.; van der Wal, W. A.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed to train basic endoscopic surgical skills outside of the operating room. An important issue is how to create optimal conditions for integration of these types of simulators into the surgical training curriculum. The willingness of

  6. Virtual Reality: An Experiential Tool for Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Several Virtual Reality (VR) applications for the understanding, assessment and treatment of mental health problems have been developed in the last 15 years. Typically, in VR the patient learns to manipulate problematic situations related to his/her problem. In fact, VR can be described as an advanced form of human-computer interface that is able…

  7. Improving Weight Maintenance Using Virtual Reality (Second Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…

  8. The Future of Virtual Reality in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    As state boards of education and other state policymakers consider the future of schools, sorting fad technology from technology that accelerates learning is key. Virtual reality (VR) is one such technology with promise that seems unlikely to fizzle. Hailed as potentially transformative for education and still in the early stages of application,…

  9. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  10. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures.

  11. Self-Characterstics and Sound in Immersive Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    This experiment aimed to investigate whether a user controlling a full body avatar via real time motion tracking in an immersive virtual reality setup, would estimate the weight of the virtual avatar differently if the footstep sounds are manipulated using three different audio filter settings....... The visual appearance of the avatar was available in two sizes. The subjects performed six walks with each audio configuration active once over two ground types. After completing each walk, the participants were asked to estimate the weight of the virtual avatar and the suitability of the audio feedback...

  12. Virtual Reality and Cellular Phones as a Complementary Intervention for Veterans with PTSD and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    efficacy a novel adjunctive behavioral intervention for Veterans (N = 38) with PTSD and co-occurring addiction . The experimental intervention was...conducted during 10 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE) for PTSD, and used a virtual reality-based cue exposure platform to reduce craving to addiction ...Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder 15% 15% Agoraphobia 0% 0% Social Phobia 5% 0% Specific Phobia 0

  13. Using Virtual Reality For Outreach Purposes in Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Le Menn, Erwan; Beaunay, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    2016 has been a year marked by a technological breakthrough : the availability for the first time to the general public of technologically mature virtual reality devices. Virtual Reality consists in visually immerging a user in a 3D environment reproduced either from real and/or imaginary data, with the possibility to move and eventually interact with the different elements. In planetology, most of the places will remain inaccessible to the public for a while, but a fleet of dedicated spacecraft's such as orbiters, landers and rovers allow the possibility to virtually reconstruct the environments, using image processing, cartography and photogrammetry. Virtual reality can then bridge the gap to virtually "send" any user into the place and enjoy the exploration.We are investigating several type of devices to render orbital or ground based data of planetological interest, mostly from Mars. The most simple system consists of a "cardboard" headset, on which the user can simply use his cellphone as the screen. A more comfortable experience is obtained with more complex systems such as the HTC vive or Oculus Rift headsets, which include a tracking system important to minimize motion sickness. The third environment that we have developed is based on the CAVE concept, were four 3D video projectors are used to project on three 2x3m walls plus the ground. These systems can be used for scientific data analysis, but also prove to be perfectly suited for outreach and education purposes.

  14. Interactive Scientific Visualization in 3D Virtual Reality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.

  15. Virtual Reality and its Implementation in Transport Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Jurum-Kipke

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of our environment is based on the informationthat reach us by means of our sensory organs, andwhich are subsequently processed in our brains. Digital interpretationimplemented to mathematical models of the studiedsubjects brings us to the so-called virtual reality that allows us toreplace some natural human senses, in this case the visualones, by computer-generated infonnation. The procedure is expandedto three-dimensional (3D scanning i. e. searching ofthe special form of the obse1ved subject/object, then digital recordingof the space point cloud (pixels which correspond tothe item, then vectorisation of the fonn, rendering and finallyanimation. In this way, by watching the display, the impressionof the virtual environment can be generated in the human perception.Moreover, in this way the human model can be realizedin a characteristic way in such a virtual space. The implementationof this virtual reality, in accordance with the possibilitiesthat it provides, has been the subject of very intensive researchin the world, and in Croatia as well. The work presentssome possibilities of applying virtual reality in the field of ergonomicanalysis of the collision process of two vehicles.

  16. Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of the arm after hemiplegic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, J H; Lennon, S; McGoldrick, M C; McNeill, M D J; McDonough, S M

    2012-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of a trial to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality-mediated therapy compared to conventional physiotherapy in the motor rehabilitation of the arm following stroke, and to provide data for a power analysis to determine numbers for a future main trial. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical research facility. Eighteen people with a first stroke, 10 males and 8 females, 7 right and 2 left side most affected. Mean time since stroke 10.8 months. Participants were randomized to a virtual reality group or a conventional arm therapy group for nine sessions over three weeks. The upper limb Motricity Index and the Action Research Arm Test were completed at baseline, post intervention and six weeks follow-up. Outcome data were obtained from 95% of participants at the end of treatment and at follow-up: one participant withdrew. Compliance was high; only two people reported side-effects from virtual reality exposure. Both groups demonstrated small (7-8 points on upper limb Motricity Index and 4 points on the Action Research Arm Test), but non-significant, changes to their arm impairment and activity levels. A randomized controlled trial of virtual reality-mediated therapy comparable to conventional therapy would be feasible, with some suggested improvements in recruitment and outcome measures. Seventy-eight participants (39 per group) would be required for a main trial.

  17. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  18. Virtual reality exposure-based therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of its efficacy, the adequacy of the treatment protocol, and its acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Botella,1 Berenice Serrano,1 Rosa M Baños,2 Azucena Garcia-Palacios1 1Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 2Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain Introduction: The essential feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to one or more traumatic events. According to evidence-based intervention guidelines and empirical evidence, one of the most extensively researched and validated treatments for PTSD is prolonged exposure to traumatic events; however, exposure therapy can present some limitations. Virtual reality (VR can help to improve prolonged exposure because it creates fictitious, safe, and controllable situations that can enhance emotional engagement and acceptance. Objective: In addition to carrying out a review to evaluate the efficacy of VR exposure-based therapy (VR-EBT for the treatment of PTSD, the aim of this study was to contribute to analyzing the use of VR-EBT by: first, evaluating the adequacy of psychological treatment protocols that use VR-EBT to treat PTSD; and second, analyzing the acceptability of VR-EBT. Method: We performed a replica search with descriptors and databases used in two previous reviews and updated to April 2015. Next, we carried out an evaluation of the efficacy, adequacy, and acceptability of VR-EBT protocols. Results: Results showed that VR-EBT was effective in the treatment of PTSD. The findings related to adequacy showed that not all studies using VR-EBT reported having followed the clinical guidelines for evidence-based interventions in the treatment of PTSD. Regarding acceptability, few studies evaluated this subject. However, the findings are very promising, and patients reported high acceptability and satisfaction with the inclusion of VR in the treatment of PTSD. Conclusion: The main weaknesses identified in this review focus on the need for more controlled studies, the need to standardize treatment

  19. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  20. Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees’ learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application. PMID:24527175

  1. Virtual Reality Research at TNO-FEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jense, G.J.; Kuijper, F.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual environmens(VE) technology is expected to make a big impact on future training and simulation systems. Direct stimulation of human senses (eyesight, auditory, tactile) and new paradigms for user input will improve the realism of simulations and thereby the effectiveness of training and

  2. Investigating self-representation with virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The main issue addressed in this thesis is the degree to which the representation of our body is flexible, and what possible implication this has. By using the virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm, we provided evidence for a dissociation between subjective ownership perception and the skin

  3. Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-01-16

    The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees' learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application.

  4. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  5. Assessment of Virtual Reality Environments for designactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Trakunsaranakom, Channarong; Noël, Frédéric; Marin, Philippe,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this research is the performance assessment of 3D visualization and interaction devices for designactivities. Experiments are expected to determine the virtual environments that best fit the dedicated activities.Classification of technologies is proposed on the basis of its apparent relevance to reach intuitive support tothe design activity but a method to provide a more complete and objective assessment is proposed. To checkthe proposed assessment method, a...

  6. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  7. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mateu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  8. PAST AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF 3-D (VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Foreman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality (virtual environment technology, VET has been widely available for twenty years. In that time, the benefits of using virtual environments (VEs have become clear in many areas of application, including assessment and training, education, rehabilitation and psychological research in spatial cognition. The flexibility, reproducibility and adaptability of VEs are especially important, particularly in the training and testing of navigational and way-finding skills. Transfer of training between real and virtual environments has been found to be reliable. However, input device usage can compromise spatial information acquisition from VEs, and distances in VEs are invariably underestimated. The present review traces the evolution of VET, anticipates future areas in which developments are likely to occur, and highlights areas in which research is needed to optimise usage.

  9. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  10. Vestibulo-ocular reflex modification after virtual environment exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, S; Picciotti, P; Sergi, B; Di Nardo, W; Paludetti, G; Ottaviani, F

    2001-01-01

    Immersion in an illusory world is possible by means of virtual reality (VR), where environmental perception is modified by artificial sensorial stimulation. The application of VR for the assessment and rehabilitation of pathologies affecting the vestibular system, in terms of both diagnosis and care, could represent an interesting new line of research. Our perception of reality is in fact based on static and dynamic spatial information perceived by our senses. During head movements in a virtual environment the images on the display and the labyrinthine information relative to the head angular accelerations differ and therefore a visuo-vestibular conflict is present. It is known that mismatches between visual and labyrinthine information may modify the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex (VOR) gain. We studied the post-immersion modifications in 20 healthy subjects (mean age 25 years) exposed to a virtual environment for 20 min by wearing a head-mounted display. VOR gain and phase were measured by means of harmonic sinusoidal stimulation in the dark before, at the end of and 30 min after VR exposure. A VOR gain reduction was observed in all subjects at the end of VR exposure which disappeared after 30 min. Our data show that exposure to a virtual environment can induce a temporary modification of the VOR gain. This finding can be employed to enable an artificial, instrumental modification of the VOR gain and therefore opens up new perspectives in the assessment and rehabilitation of vestibular diseases.

  11. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Morina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women)

  12. Virtual reality in neurosurgical education: part-task ventriculostomy simulation with dynamic visual and haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemole, G Michael; Banerjee, P Pat; Luciano, Cristian; Neckrysh, Sergey; Charbel, Fady T

    2007-07-01

    Mastery of the neurosurgical skill set involves many hours of supervised intraoperative training. Convergence of political, economic, and social forces has limited neurosurgical resident operative exposure. There is need to develop realistic neurosurgical simulations that reproduce the operative experience, unrestricted by time and patient safety constraints. Computer-based, virtual reality platforms offer just such a possibility. The combination of virtual reality with dynamic, three-dimensional stereoscopic visualization, and haptic feedback technologies makes realistic procedural simulation possible. Most neurosurgical procedures can be conceptualized and segmented into critical task components, which can be simulated independently or in conjunction with other modules to recreate the experience of a complex neurosurgical procedure. We use the ImmersiveTouch (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL) virtual reality platform, developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago, to simulate the task of ventriculostomy catheter placement as a proof-of-concept. Computed tomographic data are used to create a virtual anatomic volume. Haptic feedback offers simulated resistance and relaxation with passage of a virtual three-dimensional ventriculostomy catheter through the brain parenchyma into the ventricle. A dynamic three-dimensional graphical interface renders changing visual perspective as the user's head moves. The simulation platform was found to have realistic visual, tactile, and handling characteristics, as assessed by neurosurgical faculty, residents, and medical students. We have developed a realistic, haptics-based virtual reality simulator for neurosurgical education. Our first module recreates a critical component of the ventriculostomy placement task. This approach to task simulation can be assembled in a modular manner to reproduce entire neurosurgical procedures.

  13. Biosimmer: A Virtual Reality Simulator for Training First Responders in a BW Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawver, D.M.; Sobel, A.L.; Stansfield, S.A.

    1998-11-11

    BioSimMER (Bioterrorism Simulated Medical Emergency Response) is a Virtual Reality-based mission rehearsal and training environment. BioSimMER employs contingency-oriented, multiple-path algorithms and MOESINIOPS focused on real-world operations. BioSimMER is network-based and immerses multiple trainees in a high resolution synthetic environment, including virtual casualties and instruments that they may interact with and manipulate. Trainees are represented as individuals by virtual human Avatars. The simulation consists of several components: virtual casualties dynamically manifest the symptoms of their injuries and respond to the intervention of the trainees. Agent transport analysis is used to simulate casualty exposures and to drive the responses of simulated sensors/detectors. The selected prototype scenario is representative of combined injuries anticipated in BW operations.

  14. Stereoscopic virtual reality presurgical planning for cerebrospinal otorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Luo; Yang, De-Lin; Wu, Jin-Song

    2010-07-01

    We present a complicated case of spontaneous cerebrospinal otorrhea, which had not been cured despite undergoing 5 surgical interventions in the past. The disability to identify the location of the fistula was the main crux of the past failures. On this occasion, stereoscopic virtual reality presurgical planning was applied to identify the exact location of the fistula and a surgical simulation was performed, and was later confirmed during the actual operation. Interactive manipulation in a stereoscopic virtual environment makes the decision making process easier in the treatment of cerebrospinal otorrhea.

  15. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  16. Treatment of acrophobia in virtual reality: the role of immersion and presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijn, Merel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Biemond, Roeline; de Wilde de Ligny, Claudius; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G

    2004-02-01

    In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with acrophobia. Feelings of presence in VRET were systematically varied by using either a head-mounted display (HMD) (low presence) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE) (high presence). VRET in general was found to be more effective than no treatment. No differences were found in effectiveness between VRET using an HMD or CAVE. Results were maintained at 6 months follow-up. Results of VRET were comparable with those of exposure in vivo (Cyberpsychology and Behavior 4 (2001) 335). In treatment completers no relationship was found between presence and anxiety. Early drop-outs experienced less acrophobic complaints and psychopathology in general at pre-test. They also experienced less presence and anxiety in the virtual environment used in session one as compared to patients that completed VRET.

  17. Phenomenological classification of cultural heritage: role of virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Jin Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness is always the consciousness toward some thing and our perception of cultural heritage is no exception. Thus, understanding human cognition is closely related to understanding how the perceptible objects are classified in human mind. The perceptible objects include both physical and virtual experiences and thoughts, and it is important and necessary to analyze the types and the effective levels of those objects. With the emergence of Virtual Reality (VR technologies in cultural heritage field, it is necessary to understand how and why different cognitive media such as realor visual reality including VR, are differently recognized by people. This study suggests the philosophical and theoretical frame for the usage of phenomenological classfication and analysis. By using this new classification with the case of Korean built heritage, the role of VR is explained in cultural discourse of the community.

  18. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Alaric; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Sung Tae; Pardeshi, Sunil; Lee, Seung Hyun; Eun, Sung-Jong; Whangbo, Taeg Keun

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.

  19. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected. PMID:27706017

  20. Fundamental arthroscopic skill differentiation with virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kelsey; Pedowitz, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and validity of virtual reality modules as part of the educational approach to mastering arthroscopy in a safe environment by assessing the ability to distinguish between experience levels. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate whether experts have greater ambidexterity than do novices. Three virtual reality modules (Swemac/Augmented Reality Systems, Linkoping, Sweden) were created to test fundamental arthroscopic skills. Thirty participants-10 experts consisting of faculty, 10 intermediate participants consisting of orthopaedic residents, and 10 novices consisting of medical students-performed each exercise. Steady and Telescope was designed to train centering and image stability. Steady and Probe was designed to train basic triangulation. Track and Moving Target was designed to train coordinated motions of arthroscope and probe. Metrics reflecting speed, accuracy, and efficiency of motion were used to measure construct validity. Steady and Probe and Track a Moving Target both exhibited construct validity, with better performance by experts and intermediate participants than by novices (P reality modules developed through task deconstruction. Participants with the most arthroscopic experience performed better and were more consistent than novices on all 3 virtual reality modules. Greater arthroscopic experience correlates with more symmetry of ambidextrous performance. However, further adjustment of the modules may better simulate fundamental arthroscopic skills and discriminate between experience levels. Arthroscopy training is a critical element of orthopaedic surgery resident training. Developing techniques to safely and effectively train these skills is critical for patient safety and resident education. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmented Virtual Reality: How to Improve Education Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students’ learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students’ knowledge acquisition. Stakeholders in the educational role of technology include students, faculty members, institutions, and manufacturers. While the benefits of suc...

  2. Integrating eye tracking in virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Júlio Miguel Gomes Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis reports on research done for the integration of eye tracking technology into virtual reality environments, with the goal of using it in rehabilitation of patients who suffered from stroke. For the last few years, eye tracking has been a focus on medical research, used as an assistive tool  to help people with disabilities interact with new technologies  and as an assessment tool  to track the eye gaze during computer interactions. However, tracking more complex gaze behavio...

  3. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Kao Yung-Chou; Lee Chung-Shuo; Liu Zhi-Ren; Lin Yu-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR) t...

  4. Interact: A Mixed Reality Virtual Survivor for Holocaust Testimonies

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Minhua; Coward, Sarah; Walker, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present Interact---a mixed reality virtual survivor for Holocaust education. It was created to preserve the powerful and engaging experience of listening to, and interacting with, Holocaust survivors, allowing future generations of audience access to their unique stories. Interact demonstrates how advanced filming techniques, 3D graphics and natural language processing can be integrated and applied to specially-recorded testimonies to enable users to ask questions and receive...

  5. Virtual reality simulator for vitreoretinal surgery using integrated OCT data

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Igor; Banerjee, Pat; Luo, Jia; Luciano, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Igor Kozak,1 Pat Banerjee,2 Jia Luo,2 Cristian Luciano21King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Vitreoretinal Division, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real p...

  6. Effect of Virtual Reality on Cognition in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Lee Suk; Park, Ji Young

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality on the recovery of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Method Twenty-eight patients (11 males and 17 females, mean age 64.2) with cognitive impairment following stroke were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the virtual reality (VR) group (n=15) or the control group (n=13). The VR group received both virtual reality training and computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, whereas the control group received only computer-based cognitive rehabilitation. To measure, activity of daily living cognitive and motor functions, the following assessment tools were used: computerized neuropsychological test and the Tower of London (TOL) test for cognitive function assessment, Korean-Modified Barthel index (K-MBI) for functional status evaluation, and the motricity index (MI) for motor function assessment. All recruited patients underwent these evaluations before rehabilitation and four weeks after rehabilitation. Results The VR group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, visual and auditory continuous performance tests (CPT), forward digit span test (DST), forward and backward visual span tests (VST), visual and verbal learning tests, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores, while the control group showed significant improvement in the K-MMSE, forward DST, visual and verbal learning tests, trail-making test-type A, TOL, K-MBI, and MI scores after rehabilitation. The changes in the visual CPT and backward VST in the VR group after rehabilitation were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that virtual reality training combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation may be of additional benefit for treating cognitive impairment in stroke patients. PMID:22506159

  7. Try Before You Buy: Using Virtual Reality for Travel Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez San Juan, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International Hotel and Tourism Management Technological innovations have been transforming the way we handle tourism. Virtual reality (VR), one of the most recent commercially available technologies, is an underexplored marketing opportunity for destination marketing organizations (DMOs) and for companies within the tourism industry. This emerging technology can help to build a closer relationship between DMOs and the traveler. Within this context, it is predicted that ...

  8. Virtual reality - ja det er virkelig allerede en realitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2016-01-01

    Allerede tilbage i 1980’erne kunne forskningen i medier og informationsteknologier fremvise de første prototyper på 3D virtual reality. Man kan spekulere længe over, hvad der egentligt motiverede forskningen på det tidspunkt. En motivation kunne være den ingeniørmæssige: Er det muligt at skabe en...

  9. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S

    2012-01-01

    Background. Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. Objective. To review randomized controlled trials....... Skills in laparoscopic surgery can be increased by proficiency-based procedural VR simulator training. There is substantial evidence (grade IA - IIB) to support the use of VR simulators in laparoscopic training....

  10. Methamphetamine Craving Induced in an Online Virtual Reality Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Culbertson, Christopher; Nicolas, Sam; Zaharovits, Itay; London, Edythe D.; De La Garza, Richard; Brody, Arthur L.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess self-reported craving and physiological reactivity in a methamphetamine virtual reality (METH-VR) cue model created using Second Life, a freely available online gaming platform. Seventeen, non-treatment seeking, individuals that abuse methamphetamine (METH) completed this one-day, outpatient, within-subjects study. Participants completed four test sessions: 1) METH-VR 2) neutral-VR 3) METH-video 4) neutral-video in a counterbalanced (latin square) fash...

  11. Collaborative virtual reality environments for computational science and design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papka, M. E.

    1998-02-17

    The authors are developing a networked, multi-user, virtual-reality-based collaborative environment coupled to one or more petaFLOPs computers, enabling the interactive simulation of 10{sup 9} atom systems. The purpose of this work is to explore the requirements for this coupling. Through the design, development, and testing of such systems, they hope to gain knowledge that allows computational scientists to discover and analyze their results more quickly and in a more intuitive manner.

  12. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Yung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR technology has therefore being paid great attention in emulating expensive small and/or huge and heavy equipment. Virtual reality can be characterized as 3D extension with Immersion, Interaction and Imagination. This paper was then be focused on the study of virtual reality in the assistance of CNC machine tool demonstration and exhibition. A commercial CNC machine tool was used in this study to illustrate the effectiveness and usability of using virtual reality for an exhibition. The adopted CNC machine tool is a large and heavy mill-turn machine with the width up to eleven meters and weighted about 35 tons. A head-mounted display (HMD was attached to the developed VR CNC machine tool for the immersion viewing. A user can see around the 3D scene of the large mill-turn machine and the operation of the virtual CNC machine can be actuated by bare hand. Coolant was added to demonstrate more realistic operation while collision detection function was also added to remind the operator. The developed VR demonstration system has been presented in the 2017 Taipei International Machine Tool Show (TIMTOS 2017. This case study has shown that young engineers and/or students are very impressed by the VR-based demonstration while elder persons could not adapt themselves easily to the VR-based scene because of eyesight issues. However, virtual reality has successfully being adopted and integrated with the CNC machine tool in an international show. Another machine tool on

  13. Distributed Virtual Reality: System Concepts for Cooperative Training and Commanding in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Freund

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the development of virtual reality technology for automation applications at the IRF is to provide the framework for Projective Virtual Reality which allows users to "project" their actions in the virtual world into the real world primarily by means of robots but also by other means of automation. The framework is based on a new task-oriented approach which builds on the "task deduction" capabilities of a newly developed virtual reality system and a task planning component. The advantage of this new approach is that robots which work at great distances from the control station can be controlled as easily and intuitively as robots that work right next to the control station. Robot control technology now provides the user in the virtual world with a "prolonged arm" into the physical environment, thus paving the way for a new quality of userfriendly man machine interfaces for automation applications. Lately, this work has been enhanced by a new structure that allows to distribute the virtual reality application over multiple computers. With this new step, it is now possible for multiple users to work together in the same virtual room, although they may physically be thousands of miles apart. They only need an Internet or ISDN connection to share this new experience. Last but not least, the distribution technology has been further developed to not just allow users to cooperate but to be able to run the virtual world on many synchronized PCs so that a panorama projection or even a cave can be run with 10 synchronized PCs instead of high-end workstations, thus cutting down the costs for such a visualization environment drastically and allowing for a new range of applications.

  14. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  15. Virtual Reality Website of Indonesia National Monument and Its Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardijono, B. A.; Hendajani, F.; Sudiro, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    National Monument (Monumen Nasional) is an Indonesia National Monument building where located in Jakarta. This monument is a symbol of Jakarta and it is a pride monument of the people in Jakarta and Indonesia country. This National Monument also has a museum about the history of the Indonesian country. To provide information to the general public, in this research we created and developed models of 3D graphics from the National Monument and the surrounding environment. Virtual Reality technology was used to display the visualization of the National Monument and the surrounding environment in 3D graphics form. Latest programming technology makes it possible to display 3D objects via the internet browser. This research used Unity3D and WebGL to make virtual reality models that can be implemented and showed on a Website. The result from this research is the development of 3-dimensional Website of the National Monument and its objects surrounding the environment that can be displayed through the Web browser. The virtual reality of whole objects was divided into a number of scenes, so that it can be displayed in real time visualization.

  16. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  17. Role of computer vision in augmented virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Molineros, Jose

    1995-03-01

    An important issue in augmented virtual reality is making the virtual world sensitive to the current state of the surrounding real world as the user interacts with it--changing gaze, manipulating an object, etc. For providing the right virtual stimulus at the right position and time, the system needs some sensor to interpret the surrounding scene. Computer vision holds great potential in providing the necessary interpretation of the scene. We present the preliminary design of a computer vision-based augmented reality system for helping a human in assembling an industrial part from its components. The context of assembly helps in keeping the computer vision task simple by exploiting the geometric model of the assembly components for recognition and pose estimation. The augmentation stimuli include labeling of objects in the scene, helping with sequencing using an assembly planner, visualization of assembly at different stages, handling errors by the human operator, etc. Such a system would have potential applications in assembling complex parts, maintenance, and education. We will present an overview of the design of the system and discuss some of the issues involved in computer vision-based augmented reality.

  18. Virtual reality: a proposal for pelvic floor muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Simone; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Silva, Valéria Regina; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo C; Riccetto, Cássio

    2015-11-01

    This video's proposal was to present one of the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training programs, used in our research, that we designed as a virtual reality intervention protocol and investigated its effects on PFM contractility. Two clinical, controlled and prospective studies were conducted, one with 19 nulliparous women without urinary symptoms, who were evaluated by both electromyography and digital palpation (DP) and another with 27 postmenopausal women with mixed urinary symptoms (assessed by both ICIQ UI-SF and ICIQ-OAB), evaluated by vaginal dynamometry and DP, with a total of 46 women in both studies. This protocol was designed so that the participant would play a video game, seated on a pressure base platform, while commanding it through her pelvic movements. Using a virtual reality game, five activities were performed during 30 min, twice a week, with a total of 10 sessions. A significant increase in PFM strength was found in both the nulliparous (p = 0.0001) and the postmenopausal (p = 0.0001) groups of women, as ascertained by DP. A significant increase in postmenopausal women's muscle strength and endurance assessed by dynamometry (p = 0.05) and a concomitant decrease in their urinary symptoms, were observed. This virtual reality program promoted an increase in PFM contractility and a decrease in postmenopausal urinary symptoms.

  19. First person experience of body transfer in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Mel; Spanlang, Bernhard; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-05-12

    Altering the normal association between touch and its visual correlate can result in the illusory perception of a fake limb as part of our own body. Thus, when touch is seen to be applied to a rubber hand while felt synchronously on the corresponding hidden real hand, an illusion of ownership of the rubber hand usually occurs. The illusion has also been demonstrated using visuomotor correlation between the movements of the hidden real hand and the seen fake hand. This type of paradigm has been used with respect to the whole body generating out-of-the-body and body substitution illusions. However, such studies have only ever manipulated a single factor and although they used a form of virtual reality have not exploited the power of immersive virtual reality (IVR) to produce radical transformations in body ownership. Here we show that a first person perspective of a life-sized virtual human female body that appears to substitute the male subjects' own bodies was sufficient to generate a body transfer illusion. This was demonstrated subjectively by questionnaire and physiologically through heart-rate deceleration in response to a threat to the virtual body. This finding is in contrast to earlier experimental studies that assume visuotactile synchrony to be the critical contributory factor in ownership illusions. Our finding was possible because IVR allowed us to use a novel experimental design for this type of problem with three independent binary factors: (i) perspective position (first or third), (ii) synchronous or asynchronous mirror reflections and (iii) synchrony or asynchrony between felt and seen touch. The results support the notion that bottom-up perceptual mechanisms can temporarily override top down knowledge resulting in a radical illusion of transfer of body ownership. The research also illustrates immersive virtual reality as a powerful tool in the study of body representation and experience, since it supports experimental manipulations that would

  20. Utilization of virtual reality for reading the superheated emulsion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Sobrinho, Jose C.; Santo, Andre C.E.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Mol, Antonio C.A., E-mail: volksparati@hotmail.com, E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a method based on Virtual Reality for reading the Superheated Emulsion Detector (Bubble Detector). The proposed method is an alternative to: automatic counters offered by the manufacturers of detectors, since they have a relatively high cost (acquisition, maintenance and periodic calibration), and visual counting of detectors, since it only has an advantage when there are a small number of bubbles. The method starts with the collection of detector's digital images in order to obtain a sequence of images to create an animation that is displayed with the help of Virtual Reality. To this end, it is modeled, using OpenGL graphics library, a virtual environment for visualizing and manipulating virtual detector. It is made, then a calibration of this virtual environment thus ensuring the correspondence of the model with reality. The reading of the detector (bubbles count) is made visually by the user with the assistance of stereo vision and a 3D cursor to navigation, marking and counting the bubbles. The user views a further auxiliary display that shows the three-dimensional cursor position, the labeled amount of bubbles and the measured dose. After testing, the following results were achieved: better precision in counting the bubbles compared with the 10% reported by the manufacturer of the automatic reader; achieving a low cost tool that requires no calibration constant in the process of maintenance and/or lifetime; minimizing the problem of manual counting for large number of bubbles and ease of use, because can be operated by a common user. (author)

  1. Virtual reality training for health-care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fabrizia; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Emerging changes in health-care delivery are having a significant impact on the structure of health-care professionals' education. Today it is recognized that medical knowledge doubles every 6-8 years, with new medical procedures emerging everyday. While the half-life of medical information is so short, the average physician practices 30 years and the average nurse 40 years. Continuing education thus represents an important challenge to face. Recent advances in educational technology are offering an increasing number of innovative learning tools. Among these, Virtual Reality represents a promising area with high potential of enhancing the training of health-care professionals. Virtual Reality Training can provide a rich, interactive, engaging educational context, thus supporting experiential learning-by-doing; it can, in fact, contribute to raise interest and motivation in trainees and to effectively support skills acquisition and transfer, since the learning process can be settled within an experiential framework. Current virtual training applications for health-care differ a lot as to both their technological/multimedia sophistication and to the types of skills trained, varying for example from telesurgical applications to interactive simulations of human body and brain, to virtual worlds for emergency training. Other interesting applications include the development of immersive 3D environments for training psychiatrists and psychologists in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper has the main aim of discussing the rationale and main benefits for the use of virtual reality in health-care education and training. Significant research and projects carried out in this field will also be presented, followed by discussion on key issues concerning current limitations and future development directions.

  2. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  3. Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M

    2017-11-01

    Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applied virtual reality at the Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R. Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a way for humans to use computers in visualizing, manipulating and interacting with large geometric data bases. This paper describes a VR infrastructure and its application to marketing, modeling, architectural walk through, and training problems. VR integration techniques used in these applications are based on a uniform approach which promotes portability and reusability of developed modules. For each problem, a 3D object data base is created using data captured by hand or electronically. The object's realism is enhanced through either procedural or photo textures. The virtual environment is created and populated with the data base using software tools which also support interactions with and immersivity in the environment. These capabilities are augmented by other sensory channels such as voice recognition, 3D sound, and tracking. Four applications are presented: a virtual furniture showroom, virtual reality models of the North Carolina Global TransPark, a walk through the Dresden Fraunenkirche, and the maintenance training simulator for the National Guard.

  5. Virtual reality at nuclear issues : a review study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: ana.legey@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)

  6. Applications of virtual reality in individuals with alcohol misuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiţă, Alexandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as "alcohol" and its derivates, and virtual reality. We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mobile Virtual Reality : A Solution for Big Data Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, E.; Seichter, N. D.; D'sa, A.; Werner, L. A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pursuits in geological sciences and other branches of quantitative sciences often require data visualization frameworks that are in continual need of improvement and new ideas. Virtual reality is a medium of visualization that has large audiences originally designed for gaming purposes; Virtual reality can be captured in Cave-like environment but they are unwieldy and expensive to maintain. Recent efforts by major companies such as Facebook have focussed more on a large market , The Oculus is the first of such kind of mobile devices The operating system Unity makes it possible for us to convert the data files into a mesh of isosurfaces and be rendered into 3D. A user is immersed inside of the virtual reality and is able to move within and around the data using arrow keys and other steering devices, similar to those employed in XBox.. With introductions of products like the Oculus Rift and Holo Lens combined with ever increasing mobile computing strength, mobile virtual reality data visualization can be implemented for better analysis of 3D geological and mineralogical data sets. As more new products like the Surface Pro 4 and other high power yet very mobile computers are introduced to the market, the RAM and graphics card capacity necessary to run these models is more available, opening doors to this new reality. The computing requirements needed to run these models are a mere 8 GB of RAM and 2 GHz of CPU speed, which many mobile computers are starting to exceed. Using Unity 3D software to create a virtual environment containing a visual representation of the data, any data set converted into FBX or OBJ format which can be traversed by wearing the Oculus Rift device. This new method for analysis in conjunction with 3D scanning has potential applications in many fields, including the analysis of precious stones or jewelry. Using hologram technology to capture in high-resolution the 3D shape, color, and imperfections of minerals and stones, detailed review and

  8. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  9. Virtual reality environments for post-stroke arm rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoin Christian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Optimal practice and feedback elements are essential requirements for maximal motor recovery in patients with motor deficits due to central nervous system lesions. Methods A virtual environment (VE was created that incorporates practice and feedback elements necessary for maximal motor recovery. It permits varied and challenging practice in a motivating environment that provides salient feedback. Results The VE gives the user knowledge of results feedback about motor behavior and knowledge of performance feedback about the quality of pointing movements made in a virtual elevator. Movement distances are related to length of body segments. Conclusion We describe an immersive and interactive experimental protocol developed in a virtual reality environment using the CAREN system. The VE can be used as a training environment for the upper limb in patients with motor impairments.

  10. Virtual Burglary: Exploring the Potential of Virtual Reality to Study Burglary in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sintemaartensdijk, I.; van Prooijen, J-W.; van Gelder, J-L.; Otte, M.; Nee, Claire; Demetriou, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) to study burglary by measuring user responses on the subjective, physiological, and behavioral levels. Furthermore, it examines the influence of individual dispositions, such as sensation seeking and self-control, on behavior

  11. Virtual and augmented reality technologies in Human Performance: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Brusque Crocetta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Today's society is influenced by Information and Communication Technologies. Toys that were once built by hand have been reinterpreted and have become highly commercialized products. In this context, games using Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR technologies are present in the everyday lives of children, youth and adults. Objective : To investigate how Physical Education professionals in Brazil have been making use of AR and VR games to benefit their work. Materials and methods : We only included studies that addressed exercise or physical activity using AR or VR games. We searched the databases of Virtual Health Library (VHL and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, using the words augmented reality, virtual reality, exergames, Wii and serious games. Results : Nineteen articles were included in the systematic review. The most frequently used device was the Nintendo(r Wii, with over 25 different kinds of games. With regard to the subjects of the studies, four studies were conducted with healthy individuals (mean = 65.7, three with patients with Parkinson's disease (mean = 18.0, three with elderly women (mean = 7.7 and two with patients with stroke injury (mean = 6.0. Conclusion : Many physical therapists and occupational therapists use serious games with AR or VR technologies as another work tool, especially for rehabilitation practices. The fact that these technologies are also used in Physical Education classes in Brazil indicates that electronic games are available and can be a tool that can contribute to the widespread adoption of exercise as an enjoyable form of recreation.

  12. Realidade virtual no tratamento do transtorno de pânico Virtual reality in treatment of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Regine de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de realidade virtual (RV é útil no tratamento de exposição em pacientes com transtorno de pânico (TP. Em ambientes virtuais, os pacientes experimentam alterações fisiológicas, psíquicas e somáticas similares aos sintomas em situações da vida real, facilitando o processo de habituação. OBJETIVO: Divulgar o panorama atual do uso de RV no tratamento do TP. MÉTODO: A literatura sobre o tratamento do TP a partir da RV foi revisada com metodologia sistemática na base de dados PubMed, por meio das palavras-chave: virtual reality e panic disorder. RESULTADOS: O tratamento do TP com RV está em geral associado a bons resultados e à boa aceitabilidade por parte dos pacientes. São poucos os estudos que mensuram respostas fisiológicas durante a exposição, apesar da importância destes dados para avaliação da eficácia do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da utilidade do tratamento do TP por RV ser verificada nos estudos, constata-se necessidade de estudos controlados e protocolos de tratamento padronizados.Virtual reality (VR is a valuable tool in exposure treatment of panic disorder (PD. In virtual environments the patients experience similar physiological, psychic and somatic changes as in real life situations facilitating the habituation process. OBJECTIVE: We intend to divulge the current panorama of VR in treatment of PD. METHOD: The literature on VR treatment for PD was revised with a systematic methodology in the PubMed database, using the keywords: virtual reality and panic disorder. RESULTS: Virtual exposure treatment of PD usually shows good results and a great patient acceptability. Only a few studies measure physiological responses during the exposure despite the importance of these data for evaluation of the treatment effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Although the VR treatment for PD usefulness is clear in the trials, a lack of controlled studies and standardized treatment protocols are verified.

  13. Training for percutaneous renal access on a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yu, Cheng-fan; Liu, Jin-shun; Wang, Gang; Zhu, He; Na, Yan-qun

    2013-01-01

    The need to develop new methods of surgical training combined with advances in computing has led to the development of virtual reality surgical simulators. The PERC Mentor(TM) is designed to train the user in percutaneous renal collecting system access puncture. This study aimed to validate the use of this kind of simulator, in percutaneous renal access training. Twenty-one urologists were enrolled as trainees to learn a fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous renal accessing technique. An assigned percutaneous renal access procedure was immediately performed on the PERC Mentor(TM) after watching instruction video and an analog operation. Objective parameters were recorded by the simulator and subjective global rating scale (GRS) score were determined. Simulation training followed and consisted of 2 hours daily training sessions for 2 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the training session, trainees were evaluated performing the same procedure. The post-training evaluation was compared to the evaluation of the initial attempt. During the initial attempt, none of the trainees could complete the appointed procedure due to the lack of experience in fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous renal access. After the short-term training, all trainees were able to independently complete the procedure. Of the 21 trainees, 10 had primitive experience in ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Trainees were thus categorized into the group of primitive experience and inexperience. The total operating time and amount of contrast material used were significantly lower in the group of primitive experience versus the inexperience group (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The training on the virtual reality simulator, PERC Mentor(TM), can help trainees with no previous experience of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous renal access to complete the virtual manipulation of the procedure independently. This virtual reality simulator may become an important training and evaluation tool in

  14. Dawn of the new everything a journey through virtual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Jaron

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality has long been one of the dominant clichés of science fiction. Now Virtual Reality is a reality: those big headsets that make people look ridiculous, even while radiating startled delight; the place where war veterans overcome PTSD, surgeries are trialled, aircraft and cities are designed. But VR is far more interesting than any single technology, however spectacular. It is, in fact, the most effective device ever invented for researching what a human being actually is – and how we think and feel. More than thirty years ago, legendary computer scientist, visionary and artist Jaron Lanier pioneered its invention. Here, in what is likely to be one of the most unusual books you ever read, he blends scientific investigation, philosophical thought experiment and his memoir of a life lived at the centre of digital innovation to explain what VR really is: the science of comprehensive illusion; the extension of the intimate magic of earliest childhood into adulthood; a hint of what life would be li...

  15. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: virtual reality training and learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Ni, Yuhua; Zhang, Yinan; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua; Wang, Hanbo

    2014-01-01

    To explore the role that virtual reality training might play in the learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy. A total of 1326 laparoscopic varicocelectomy cases performed by 16 participants from July 2005 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The participants were divided into 2 groups: group A was trained by laparoscopic trainer boxes; group B was trained by a virtual reality training course preoperatively. The operation time curves were drafted, and the learning, improving, and platform stages were divided and statistically confirmed. The operation time and number of cases in the learning and improving stages of both groups were compared. Testicular artery sparing failure and postoperative hydroceles rate were statistically analyzed for the confirmation of the learning curve. The learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy was 15 cases, and with 14 cases more, it came into the platform stage. The number of cases for the learning stages of both groups showed no statistical difference (P=.49), but the operation time of group B for the learning stage was less than that of group A (Pvirtual reality training shortened the operation time in the learning stage and hastened the trainees' steps in the improving stage, but did not shorten the learning curve as expected to.

  16. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    Modern physiologically based binaural models employ internal delay lines in the pathways from left and right peripheries to central processing nuclei. Various models apply the delay lines differently, and give different predictions for the detection of dichotic pitches, wherein listeners hear a virtual tone in the noise background. Two dichotic pitch stimuli (Huggins pitch and binaural coherence edge pitch) with low boundary frequencies were used to test the predictions by two different models. The results from five experiments show that the relative dichotic pitch strengths support the equalization-cancellation model and disfavor the central activity pattern (CAP) model. The CAP model makes predictions for the lateralization of Huggins pitch based on interaural time differences (ITD). By measuring human lateralization for Huggins pitches with two different types of phase boundaries (linear-phase and stepped phase), and by comparing with lateralization of sine-tones, it was shown that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli is similar to that of the corresponding sine-tones, and the lateralizations of Huggins pitch stimuli with the two different boundaries were even more similar to one another. The results agreed roughly with the CAP model predictions. Agreement was significantly improved by incorporating individualized scale factors and offsets into the model, and was further unproved with a model including compression at large ITDs. Furthermore, ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees, were consistently lateralized on the left or right based on individual asymmetries---which introduces the concept of "earedness". Interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural time difference (ITD) are two different forms of temporal cues. With varying frequency, an auditory system based on IPD or ITD gives different quantitative predictions on lateralization. A lateralization experiment with sine tones tested whether human auditory system is an

  17. Augmented versus virtual reality laparoscopic simulation: what is the difference? A comparison of the ProMIS augmented reality laparoscopic simulator versus LapSim virtual reality laparoscopic simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Sanne M. B. I.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Schijven, Marlies P.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging new modality for laparoscopic skills training; however, most simulators lack realistic haptic feedback. Augmented reality (AR) is a new laparoscopic simulation system offering a combination of physical objects and VR simulation. Laparoscopic

  18. Validity of assessing child feeding with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Goldring, Megan R; Turner, Sara A; Cohen, Rachel W; Kistler, William D

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of parents' child feeding behavior is challenging, and there is need for additional methodological approaches. Virtual reality technology allows for the creation of behavioral measures, and its implementation overcomes several limitations of existing methods. This report evaluates the validity and usability of the Virtual Reality (VR) Buffet among a sample of 52 parents of children aged 3-7. Participants served a meal of pasta and apple juice in both a virtual setting and real-world setting (counterbalanced and separated by a distractor task). They then created another meal for their child, this time choosing from the full set of food options in the VR Buffet. Finally, participants completed a food estimation task followed by a questionnaire, which assessed their perceptions of the VR Buffet. Results revealed that the amount of virtual pasta served by parents correlated significantly with the amount of real pasta they served, r s  = 0.613, p virtual and real apple juice, r s  = 0.822, p < .0001. Furthermore, parents' perception of the calorie content of chosen foods was significantly correlated with observed calorie content (r s  = 0.438, p = .002), and parents agreed that they would feed the meal they created to their child (M = 4.43, SD = 0.82 on a 1-5 scale). The data presented here demonstrate that parent behavior in the VR Buffet is highly related to real-world behavior, and that the tool is well-rated by parents. Given the data presented and the potential benefits of the abundant behavioral data the VR Buffet can provide, we conclude that it is a valid and needed addition to the array of tools for assessing feeding behavior. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Integration of metabolic networks and gene expression in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Engin, Levent; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Dickerson, Julie A

    2005-09-15

    Metabolic networks combine metabolism and regulation. These complex networks are difficult to understand and visualize due to the amount and diverse types of information that need to be represented. For example, pathway information gives indications of interactions. Experimental data, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data, give snapshots of the system state. Stereoscopic virtual environments provide a true three-dimensional representation of metabolic networks, which can be intuitively manipulated, and may help to manage the data complexity. MetNet3D, a 3D virtual reality system, allows a user to explore gene expression and metabolic pathway data simultaneously. Normalized gene expression data are processed in R and visualized as a 3D plot. Users can find a particular gene of interest or a cluster of genes that behave similarly and see how these genes function in metabolic networks from MetNetDB, a database of Arabidopsis metabolic networks, using animated network graphs. Interactive virtual reality, with its enhanced ability to display more information, makes such integration more effective by abstracting key relationships. MetNet3D and some sample datasets are available at http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/research/sites/metnet/Download/Download.htm. Color snapshots and movies are available at http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/research/sites/metnet/Bioinformatics/SupplementaryInformation.htm.

  20. Mastering Energy Management During Rowing Using Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugge Luc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on one of the most important factors in rowing performance which is the ability demonstrated by elite rowers to regulate their effort during a 2000m race in order to produce their best performance. Experts are known to adopt a particular pacing strategy with a fast-start profile. The purpose of our study was to test by using virtual reality whether novice rowers were able to acquire this energy management skill during a 2000m race, with positive consequences for their rowing performance. Participants from the Avatar group were instructed to track a virtual boat, which velocity was previously calibrated to follow the appropriate to-be-learned velocity profile. This group was contrasted with a control group, which followed a classic training procedure. Our results indicate that the avatar group improved its performance (decrease in race duration, learned and maintained the expert profile. These effects were absent in the control group. Together, these results indicate that virtual reality can be used to accelerate the learning of energy-related skills.