Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R
It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...
This thesis presents researches and experiments performed in collaboration with a psychiatrist in order to validate and improve the use of virtual reality in social phobia psychotherapy. Cognitive and behavioral therapies are strongly based on the exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli. Virtual reality seems to be appropriate for such exposures as it allows for on-demand reproduction of reality. The idea has been validated for the treatment of various phobias but is more delicate in the case o...
Experiencing anxiety is essential for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to be effective in curing patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, some patients drop out in VRET due to the lack of feeling anxiety. Presence - which refers to the feeling of being in the virtual environment -
Experiencing anxiety is essential for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to be effective in curing patients suffering from anxiety disorders. However, some patients drop out in VRET due to the lack of feeling anxiety. Presence - which refers to the feeling of being in the virtual environment - has been considered an important mechanism that leads to the experience of anxiety. Therefore, understanding the relationship between presence and anxiety and finding ways to improve presence in VR...
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page
A growing body of literature suggests that virtual reality is a successful tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Virtual reality (VR) researchers posit the construct of presence, defined as the interpretation of an artificial stimulus as if it were real, to be a presumed factor that enables anxiety to be felt during virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE). However, a handful of empirical studies on the relation between presence and anxiety in VRE have yielded mixed f...
Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane
This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth centur...
Klinger, Evelyne; Légeron, Patrick; Roy, Stéphane; Chemin, Isabelle; Lauer, Françoise; Nugues, Pierre
Social phobia is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Graded exposure to feared social situations (either in vivo or by imagining the situations) is fundamental to obtain an improvement of the anxious symptoms. Virtual reality (VR) may be an alternative to these standard exposure techniques and seems to bring significant advantages by allowing exposures to numerous and varied situations. Moreover studies have shown that human subjects are appropriately sensitive to virtual environments. This chapter reports the definition of a VR-based clinical protocol and a study to treat social phobia using virtual reality techniques. The virtual environments used in the treatment reproduce four situations that social phobics feel the most threatening: performance, intimacy, scrutiny and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors when coping with social situations, with the aim of reducing her or his anxiety in the corresponding real life situations. Some studies have been carried out using virtual reality in the treatment of fear of public speaking, which is only a small part of the symptomatology of most of social phobic patients. The novelty of our work is to address a larger group of situations that the phobic patients experience with high anxiety. In our protocol, the efficacy of the virtual reality treatment is compared to well established and well validated group cognitive-behavioral treatment.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page
A growing body of literature suggests that virtual reality is a successful tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Virtual reality (VR) researchers posit the construct of presence, defined as the interpretation of an artificial stimulus as if it were real, to be a presumed factor that enables anxiety to be felt during virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE). However, a handful of empirical studies on the relation between presence and anxiety in VRE have yielded mixed findings. The current study tested the following hypotheses about the relation between presence and anxiety in VRE with a clinical sample of fearful flyers: (1) presence is related to in-session anxiety; (2) presence mediates the extent that pre-existing (pre-treatment) anxiety is experienced during exposure with VR; (3) presence is positively related to the amount of phobic elements included within the virtual environment; (4) presence is related to treatment outcome. Results supported presence as a factor that contributes to the experience of anxiety in the virtual environment as well as a relation between presence and the phobic elements, but did not support a relation between presence and treatment outcome. The study suggests that presence may be a necessary but insufficient requirement for successful VRE.
Full Text Available Applying head-mounted displays (HMDs and virtual reality scenarios in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET promises to alleviate combat-related post-traumatic stress disorders (among others. Its basic premise is that, through virtual scenarios, patients may re-engage immersively with situations that provoke anxiety, thereby reducing fear and psychosomatic stress. In this context, HMDs and visualizations should be considered not merely as devices for entertainment purposes or tools for achieving pragmatic objectives but also as a means to instruct and guide patients’ imagination and visual perception in triggering traumatic experiences. Under what perceptual and therapeutic conditions is virtual therapy to be considered effective? Who is the “ideal” patient for such therapy regimes, both in terms of his/her therapeutic indications and his/her perceptual readiness to engage with VR scenarios? In short, how are “treatable” patients conceptualized by and within virtual therapy? From a media-theory perspective, this essay critically explores various aspects of the VRET application Bravemind in order to shed light on conditions of virtual exposure therapy and conceptions of subjectivity and traumatic experience that are embodied and replicated by such HMD-based technology.
until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED " VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous...potential benefits to society could revolutionize everyday life. The various components that make up a virtual reality system are described in detail
Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Bruynzeel, M.; Drost, L.; Van der Mast, C.A.P.G.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-budget virtual reality exposure versus exposure in vivo in a within-group design in 10 individuals suffering from acrophobia. Virtual reality exposure was found to be at least as effective as exposure in vivo on anxiety and
Kang, Ki Doo; Hajek, Brian K.; Lee, Yon Sik; Shin, Yoo Jin
To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times
Rafael Thomaz da Costa
Full Text Available A growing number of researches has appeared on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET to treat anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article was to review some evidences that support the VRET efficacy to treat driving phobia. The studies were identified through computerized search (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Scielo databases from 1984 to 2007. Some findings are promising. Anxiety/avoidance ratings declined from pre to post-treatment. VRET may be used as a first step in the treatment of driving phobia, as long as it may facilitate the in vivo exposure, thus reducing risks and high costs of such exposure. Notwithstanding, more randomized/controlled clinical trials are required to prove its efficacy.
Diemer, Julia; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter
Anxiety disorders are among the most frequently encountered psychiatric disorders. Recommended treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and/or medication. In recent years, beneficial effects of virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy have been shown, making this technique a promising addition to CBT. However, the ability of VR to mimic threatening stimuli in a way comparable to in vivo cues has been discussed. In particular, it has been questioned whether VR is capable of provoking psychophysiological symptoms of anxiety. Since psychophysiological arousal is considered a prerequisite for effective exposure treatment, this systematic review aims to evaluate the evidence for the potential of VR exposure to evoke and modulate psychophysiological fear reactions. PubMed and PsycINFO/Academic Search Premier databases were searched. Thirty-eight studies investigating challenge or habituation effects were included. VR exposure does provoke psychophysiological arousal, especially in terms of electrodermal activity. Results on psychophysiological habituation in VR are inconclusive. Study design and methodological rigour vary widely. Despite several limitations, this review provides evidence that VR exposure elicits psychophysiological fear reactions in patients and healthy subjects, rendering VR a promising treatment for anxiety disorders, and a potent research tool for future investigations of psychophysiological processes and their significance during exposure treatment.
Powers, M.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
There is now a substantial literature investigating virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) as a viable treatment option for anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis we provide effect size estimates for virtual reality treatment in comparison to in vivo exposure and control conditions (waitlist,
Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Sharma, Ratika; Jongh, Ad De
popularity as an effective treatment for anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article is to determine the applicability of VRET in the treatment of dental phobia of two patients. Two case examples of female dental patients, aged 56 and 24 years, who met the criteria for dental phobia according to the Phobia Checklist, illustrate the use of VRET in the dental setting. VRET that is used as a psychological treatment for dental fear and dental phobia can potentially be given by a non-specialist (for example dental assistant), thereby making it a cost-effective therapy for the treatment of dental phobia. Clinical relevance: This article is the first of its kind to demonstrate Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) in the treatment of dental anxiety.
Ben-Moussa, Maher; Rubo, Marius; Debracque, Coralie; Lange, Wolf-Gero
The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. “DJINNI” is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR) exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient’s state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup. PMID:28503155
Ben-Moussa, Maher; Rubo, Marius; Debracque, Coralie; Lange, Wolf-Gero
The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. "DJINNI" is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR) exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient's state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup.
Full Text Available The present paper explores the benefits and the capabilities of various emerging state-of-the-art interactive 3D and Internet of Things technologies and investigates how these technologies can be exploited to develop a more effective technology supported exposure therapy solution for social anxiety disorder. “DJINNI” is a conceptual design of an in vivo augmented reality (AR exposure therapy mobile support system that exploits several capturing technologies and integrates the patient’s state and situation by vision-based, audio-based, and physiology-based analysis as well as by indoor/outdoor localization techniques. DJINNI also comprises an innovative virtual reality exposure therapy system that is adaptive and customizable to the demands of the in vivo experience and therapeutic progress. DJINNI follows a gamification approach where rewards and achievements are utilized to motivate the patient to progress in her/his treatment. The current paper reviews the state of the art of technologies needed for such a solution and recommends how these technologies could be integrated in the development of an individually tailored and yet feasible and effective AR/virtual reality-based exposure therapy. Finally, the paper outlines how DJINNI could be part of classical cognitive behavioral treatment and how to validate such a setup.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy (VRET to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET. Unlike virtual reality (VR, which entails a complete virtual environment (VE, augmented reality (AR limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the 20th century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed safely to the object(s of their fear, without the costs associated with programming complete virtual environments. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper also raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the definition of an AR related term, the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment (ARE, the development of alternative geospatial referencing systems, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat social phobia. Overall, it may be said that the use of ARET, although promising, is still in its infancy but that, given a continued cooperation between clinical and technical teams, ARET has the potential of going well beyond the treatment of small animal phobia.
Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Pachana, N.A.; Laidlaw, K.
We reviewed the literature on virtual reality techniques in older adults. Although treatment of specific phobias in older adults by virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is feasible and might be effective, this has yet not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The few controlled studies
Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa; Fernando Moraes de Oliveira; Regina Serrão Lanzillotti; Raquel Gonçalves; Luis Alfredo Vidal de Carvalho
This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper.
Rosa Maria Esteves Moreira da Costa
Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper.
Oliveira, F. M.; Lanzillotti, R. S.; Da Costa, R. M. E. M.; Gonçalves, R.; Ventura, P.; Carvalho, L. A. V. de
This paper describes the main characteristics of two integrated systems that explore Virtual Reality technology and Fuzzy Logic to support and to control the assessment of people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during the Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. The integration of different technologies, the development methodology and the test procedures are described throughout the paper. Peer Reviewed
Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane
This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.
Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane
This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073
Ter Heijden, N.; Brinkman, W.P.
Research on Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) to treat social phobia is not new. Still few studies focus on creating an elaborate conversation between the patient and characters in a virtual environment. This study focuses on techniques to run a semi-scripted conversation between virtual
Newby, Gregory B.
Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…
Quero, Soledad; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina
Interoceptive exposure (IE) is a standard component of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia. The virtual reality (VR) program "Panic-Agoraphobia" has several virtual scenarios designed for applying exposure to agoraphobic situations; it can also simulate physical sensations. This work examines patients'…
Anderson, Page L; Price, Matthew; Edwards, Shannan M; Obasaju, Mayowa A; Schmertz, Stefan K; Zimand, Elana; Calamaras, Martha R
This is the first randomized trial comparing virtual reality exposure therapy to in vivo exposure for social anxiety disorder. Participants with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who identified public speaking as their primary fear (N = 97) were recruited from the community, resulting in an ethnically diverse sample (M age = 39 years) of mostly women (62%). Participants were randomly assigned to and completed 8 sessions of manualized virtual reality exposure therapy, exposure group therapy, or wait list. Standardized self-report measures were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, and process measures were collected during treatment. A standardized speech task was delivered at pre- and posttreatment, and diagnostic status was reassessed at 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance showed that, relative to wait list, people completing either active treatment significantly improved on all but one measure (length of speech for exposure group therapy and self-reported fear of negative evaluation for virtual reality exposure therapy). At 12-month follow-up, people showed significant improvement from pretreatment on all measures. There were no differences between the active treatments on any process or outcome measure at any time, nor differences on achieving partial or full remission. Virtual reality exposure therapy is effective for treating social fears, and improvement is maintained for 1 year. Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.
Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Brahnam, S.; Jain, L.C.
In the past 10 years virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become a viable alternative for exposure in vivo, the gold standard for the treatment of anxiety disorders. VRET is often regarded as a natural extension of the systematic exposure component of (cognitive) behavior therapy. The
Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction
Meyerbröker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Wiederhold, B.K.; Bouchard, S.; Riva, G.
In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The level of presence in VRET was compared between using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Results indicate
Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Jouvent, Roland
Virtual reality therapy is already used for anxiety disorders as an alternative to in vivo and in imagino exposure. To our knowledge, however, no one has yet proposed using remote virtual reality (e-virtual reality). The aim of the present study was to assess e-virtual reality in an acrophobic population. Six individuals with acrophobia each underwent six sessions (two sessions per week) of virtual reality exposure therapy. The first three were remote sessions, while the last three were traditional sessions in the physical presence of the therapist. Anxiety (STAI form Y-A, visual analog scale, heart rate), presence, technical difficulties and therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) were measured. In order to control the conditions in which these measures were made, all the sessions were conducted in hospital. None of the participants dropped out. The remote sessions were well accepted. None of the participants verbalized reluctance. No major technical problems were reported. None of the sessions were cancelled or interrupted because of software incidents. Measures (anxiety, presence, therapeutic alliance) were comparable across the two conditions. e-Virtual reality can therefore be used to treat acrophobic disorders. However, control studies are needed to assess online feasibility, therapeutic effects and the mechanisms behind online presence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.
Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…
Pitti, Carmen T; Peñate, Wenceslao; de la Fuente, Juan; Bethencourt, Juan M; Roca-Sánchez, María J; Acosta, Leopoldo; Villaverde, María L; Gracia, Ramón
This study compares the differential efficacy of three groups of treatments for agoraphobia: paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy, paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy and virtual reality exposure, and a group with only paroxetine. 99 patients with agoraphobia were finally selected. Both combined treatment groups received 11 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and one of the groups was also exposed to 4 sessions of virtual reality treatment. Treatments were applied in individual sessions once a week for 3 months. The three treatment groups showed statistically significant improvements. In some measures, combined treatment groups showed greater improvements. The virtual reality exposure group showed greater improvement confronting phobic stimuli. Treatments combining psychopharmacological and psychological therapy showed greater efficacy. Although the use of new technologies led to greater improvement, treatment adherence problems still remain.
Opriş, David; Pintea, Sebastian; García-Palacios, Azucena; Botella, Cristina; Szamosközi, Ştefan; David, Daniel
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a promising intervention for the treatment of the anxiety disorders. The main objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of VRET, used in a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral framework, with that of the classical evidence-based treatments, in anxiety disorders. A comprehensive search of the literature identified 23 studies (n = 608) that were included in the final analysis. The results show that in the case of anxiety disorders, (1) VRET does far better than the waitlist control; (2) the post-treatment results show similar efficacy between the behavioral and the cognitive behavioral interventions incorporating a virtual reality exposure component and the classical evidence-based interventions, with no virtual reality exposure component; (3) VRET has a powerful real-life impact, similar to that of the classical evidence-based treatments; (4) VRET has a good stability of results over time, similar to that of the classical evidence-based treatments; (5) there is a dose-response relationship for VRET; and (6) there is no difference in the dropout rate between the virtual reality exposure and the in vivo exposure. Implications are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review,
Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten
Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This
Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Winer, Eliot H.; Schwagler, Brad E.; Ang, Eu Jin
This report examined whether Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) could be used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident. Six individuals reporting either full or severe subsyndromal PTSD completed 10 sessions of VRET, which was conducted using software designed to…
Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.; Neerincx, M.A.
Current developments of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) system focus mainly on systems that can be used in health clinics under the direct supervision of a therapist. Offering patients however the possibility to do this treatment at home would make VRET more accessible. In this paper we
Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Álvarez, Javier; Guillén, Verónica; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa
This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes. We conclude that VR is a useful tool to improve exposure therapy and it can be a good option to analyze the processes and mechanisms involved in exposure therapy and the ways this strategy can be enhanced. In the coming years, there will be a significant expansion of VR in routine practice in clinical contexts.
Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.
Mühlbauer, Andreas; Shiban, Youssef; Diemer, Julia Elisabeth; Müller, Jana; Brütting-Schick, Johanna; Pauli, Paul
Background Although there is solid evidence for the efficacy of in vivo and virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy for a specific phobia, there is a significant debate over whether techniques promoting distraction or relaxation have impairing or enhancing effects on treatment outcome. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of diaphragmatic breathing (DB) as a relaxation technique during VR exposure treatment. Method Twenty-nine patients with aviophobia were randomly a...
Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies, such as virtual reality, has been employed in the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal of augmenting exposure treatment, which is already considered to be the first-line treatment for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. To evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET in the treatment of PTSD, we performed a systematic review of published articles using the following electronic databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PILOTS. Eligibility criteria included the use of patients diagnosed with PTSD according to DSM-IV, the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and the use of virtual reality for performing exposure. 10 articles were selected, seven of which showed that VRET produced statistically significant results in comparison to the waiting list. However, no difference was found between VRET and exposure treatment. Of these 10, four were randomized, two were controlled but not randomized and four were non-controlled. The majority of the articles used head-mounted display virtual reality (VR equipment and VR systems specific for the population that was being treated. Dropout rates do not seem to be lower than in traditional exposure treatment. However, there are a few limitations. Because this is a new field of research, there are few studies in the literature. There is also a need to standardize the number of sessions used. The randomized studies were analyzed to assess the quality of the methodology, and important deficiencies were noted, such as the non-use of intent-to- treat-analysis and the absence of description of possible concomitant treatments and comorbidities. Preliminary data suggest that VRET is as efficacious as traditional exposure treatment and can be especially useful in the treatment of patients who are resistant to traditional exposure.
Angststoornissen kunnen behandeld worden met exposure-therapie, een van de hoofdcomponenten van cognitieve gedragstherapie. Bij exposure-therapie wordt de patiënt blootgesteld aan datgene waar hij bang voor is zonder dat de gevreesde consequentie optreedt. Dit gebeurt meestal in het echt (exposure
Bissonnette, Josiane; Dubé, Francis; Provencher, Martin D; Moreno Sala, Maria T
Music performance anxiety affects numerous musicians, with many of them reporting impairment of performance due to this problem. This exploratory study investigated the effects of virtual reality exposure training on students with music performance anxiety. Seventeen music students were randomly assigned to a control group (n=8) or a virtual training group (n=9). Participants were asked to play a musical piece by memory in two separate recitals within a 3-week interval. Anxiety was then measured with the Personal Report of Confidence as a Performer Scale and the S-Anxiety scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y). Between pre- and post-tests, the virtual training group took part in virtual reality exposure training consisting of six 1-hour long sessions of virtual exposure. The results indicate a significant decrease in performance anxiety for musicians in the treatment group for those with a high level of state anxiety, for those with a high level of trait anxiety, for women, and for musicians with high immersive tendencies. Finally, between the pre- and post-tests, we observed a significant increase in performance quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group.
Chinazzo, Giorgia; Chamilothori, Kynthia; Wienold, Jan; Andersen, Marilyne
This study investigates the effect of short exposure to coloured light on thermal perception. To give the impression of natural daylight passing through coloured filters, but avoiding the drawbacks of conducting an experiment with daylight, continuously changing due to daily and seasonal variations, and to weather conditions, we investigate the use of Virtual Reality as a means to control the visual conditions, creating a hybrid environment with thermal and visual stimuli from the real and vi...
Norr, Aaron M; Smolenski, Derek J; Katz, Andrea C; Rizzo, Albert A; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Koenen-Woods, Patricia; Reger, Mark A; Reger, Greg M
The majority of studies comparing active psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) do not find significant differences at posttreatment. This was the case in a recent trial examining prolonged exposure (PE) and virtual reality exposure (VRE) among active-duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. Matching individual patients to specific treatments provides a potential avenue to improve significantly the public health impact of effective treatments for PTSD. A composite moderator approach was used to identify profiles of patients who would see superior PTSD symptom reduction in VRE or PE to inform future treatment matching. Active duty U.S. army soldiers (N = 108) were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing VRE and PE in the treatment of PTSD stemming from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Eighteen baseline variables were examined to identify treatment response heterogeneity in two patient groups: those with a superior response to PE and those with a superior response to VRE. The final composite moderator comprised four of 18 baseline variables. Results revealed that patients who were predicted to see greater PTSD symptom reduction in VRE were likely to be younger, not taking antidepressant medication, had greater PTSD hyperarousal symptoms, and were more likely to have greater than minimal suicide risk. Results suggest that treatment matching based on patient profiles could meaningfully improve treatment efficacy for combat-related PTSD. Future research can build on these results to improve our understanding of how to improve treatment matching for PTSD. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...
Rothbaum, B O; Hodges, L; Smith, S; Lee, J H; Price, L
Fear of flying (FOF) affects an estimated 10-25% of the population. Patients with FOF (N = 49) were randomly assigned to virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy, standard exposure (SE) therapy, or a wait-list (WL) control. Treatment consisted of 8 sessions over 6 weeks, with 4 sessions of anxiety management training followed by either exposure to a virtual airplane (VRE) or exposure to an actual airplane at the airport (SE). A posttreatment flight on a commercial airline measured participants' willingness to fly and anxiety during flight immediately after treatment. The results indicated that VRE and SE were both superior to WL, with no differences between VRE and SE. The gains observed in treatment were maintained at a 6-month follow up. By 6 months posttreatment, 93% of VRE participants and 93% of SE participants had flown. VRE therapy and SE therapy for treatment of FOF were unequivocally supported in this controlled study.
Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O
This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina
In this workshop-presentation, we described the evolution of virtual reality technologies and our research from 3D virtual worlds, 3D virtual environments built in gaming environments such as Unity 3D, 360-degree videos, and mobile virtual reality via Google Expeditions. For each of these four technologies, we discussed the affordances of the technologies and how they contribute towards learning and teaching. We outlined the significance of students being aware of the different virtual realit...
Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)
Iguchi, Yukihiro; Louka, Michael; Johnsen, Terje
The Fugen Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was shut down permanently in March 2003, and preparatory activities are underway to decommission the Fugen NPS. It is necessary to accomplish the decommissioning economically and rationally by optimizing the workload, exposure dose and waste mass. This is important at the planning stage of the decommissioning. Virtual reality (VR) technology may prove beneficial to this process with regard to minimizing the workers' radiation exposure as well as contributing towards achieving efficient use of manpower. It could also be a valuable tool in the actual dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides an effective medium in presentations for public acceptance as well as for communication with relevant engineers. The VRdose project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Halden Virtual Reality Centre is doing research and development of VR technology for use in the decommissioning process at the Fugen NPS. This is technically an extensive project, touching on many of the present challenges in the VR area such as visual simulation and animation, interaction with objects in a virtual environment and scenario generation and optimisation. This paper describes the present status and future of the system. (Author)
Morina, N.; Ijntema, H.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...
Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj
The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...
Malińska, Marzena; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Bugajska, Joanna; Grabowski, Andrzej
The study assessed the incidence and intensity of subjective symptoms indicating simulator sickness among the persons with no inclination to motion sickness, immersed in virtual reality (VR) by watching an hour long movie in the stereoscopic (three-dimensional - 3D) and non-stereoscopic (two-dimensional - 2D) versions and after an hour long training using virtual reality, called sVR. The sample comprised 20 healthy young men with no inclination to motion sickness. The participants' subjective sensations, indicating symptoms of simulator sickness were assessed using the questionnaire completed by the participants immediately, 20 min and 24 h following the test. Grandjean's scale was used to assess fatigue and mood. The symptoms were observed immediately after the exposure to sVR. Their intensity was higher than after watching the 2D and 3D movies. A significant relationship was found between the eye pain and the type of exposure (2D, 3D and sVR) (Chi2)(2) = 6.225, p < or = 0.05); the relationship between excessive perspiration and the exposure to 31) movie and sVR was also noted (Chi2(1) = 9.173, p < or = 0.01). Some symptoms were still observed 20 min after exposure to sVR. The comparison of Grandjean's scale results before and after the training in sVR handing showed significant differences in 11 out of 14 subscales. Before and after exposure to 3D movie, the differences were significant only for the "tired-fatigued" subscale (Z = 2.501, p < or = 0.012) in favor of "fatigued". Based on the subjective sensation of discomfort after watching 2D and 3D movies it is impossible to predict symptoms of simulator sickness after training using sVR.
Tronnier, V M; Staubert, A; Bonsanto, M M; Wirtz, C R; Kunze, S
Virtual reality enables users to immerse themselves in a virtual three-dimensional world and to interact in this world. The simulation is different from the kind in computer games, in which the viewer is active but acts in a nonrealistic world, or on the TV screen, where we are passively driven in an active world. In virtual reality elements look realistic, they change their characteristics and have almost real-world unpredictability. Virtual reality is not only implemented in gambling dens and the entertainment industry but also in manufacturing processes (cars, furniture etc.), military applications and medicine. Especially the last two areas are strongly correlated, because telemedicine or telesurgery was originated for military reasons to operate on war victims from a secure distance or to perform surgery on astronauts in an orbiting space station. In medicine and especially neurosurgery virtual-reality methods are used for education, surgical planning and simulation on a virtual patient.
Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.
Yoones A. Sekhavat
Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.
McCann, Russell A; Armstrong, Christina M; Skopp, Nancy A; Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Smolenski, Derek J; June, Jennifer D; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Reger, Greg M
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders; however, the overall quality of the VRET RCT literature base has yet to be evaluated. This study reviewed 27 VRET RCTs and the degree of adherence to 8 RCT research design criteria derived from existing standards. Adherence to the study quality criteria was generally low as the articles met an average 2.85 criteria (SD=1.56). None of the studies met more than six quality criteria. Study quality did not predict effect size; however, a reduction in effect size magnitude was observed for studies with larger sample sizes when comparing VRET to non-active control groups. VRET may be an effective method of treatment but caution should be exercised in interpreting the existing body of literature supporting VRET relative to existing standards of care. The need for well-designed VRET research is discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.
Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.
Raghav, Kumar; Van Wijk, A J; Abdullah, Fawzia; Islam, Md Nurul; Bernatchez, Marc; De Jongh, Ad
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is found to be a promising and a viable alternative for in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobias. However, its usefulness for treating dental phobia is unexplored. The aims of the present study are to determine: (a) the efficacy of VRET versus informational pamphlet (IP) control group in terms of dental trait and state anxiety reductions at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months follow-up (b) the real-time physiological arousal [heart rate (HR)] of VRET group participants during and following therapy (c) the relation between subjective (presence) and objective (HR) measures during VRET. This study is a single blind, randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms in which participants will be allocated to VRET or IP with a ratio of 1:1. Thirty participants (18-50 years) meeting the Phobia Checklist criteria of dental phobia will undergo block randomization with allocation concealment. The primary outcome measures include participants' dental trait anxiety (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Dental Fear Survey) and state anxiety (Visual Analogue Scale) measured at baseline (T0), at intervention (T1), 1-week (T2), 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T4) follow-up. A behavior test will be conducted before and after the intervention. The secondary outcome measures are real-time evaluation of HR and VR (Virtual Reality) experience (presence, realism, nausea) during and following the VRET intervention respectively. The data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. This study uses novel non-invasive VRET, which may provide a possible alternative treatment for dental anxiety and phobia. ISRCTN25824611 , Date of registration: 26 October 2015.
Kennedy, Robert S.; Jones, Marshall B.; Lilienthal, Michael G.; Harm, Deborah L.
Motion sickness symptoms are an unwanted by-product of exposure to virtual environments. This problem is not new and was reported in the early flight simulators and experiments on ego motions and vection. The cardinal symptom of motion sickness is, of course, vomiting, but this symptom is ordinarily preceded by a variety of other symptoms. In his classic studies of motion sickness conducted before and during World War II, G. R. Wendt introduced a three point scale to score motion sickness beyond a vomit/no vomit dichotomy. Later, Navy scientists developed a Motion Sickness Questionnaire (MSQ), originally for use in a slowly rotating room. In the last 20 years the MSQ has been used in a series of studies of air, sea, and space sickness. Only recently, however, has it been appreciated that symptom patterns in the MSQ are not uniform but vary with the way sickness is induced. In seasickness, for example, nausea is the most prominent symptom. In Navy simulators, however, the most common symptom is eye strain, especially when cathode ray tubes are employed in the simulation. The latter result was obtained in a survey of over 1,500 pilot exposures. Using this database, Essex scientists conducted a factor analysis of the MSQ. We found that signs and symptoms of motion sickness fell mainly into three clusters: 1) oculomotor disturbance, 2) nausea and related neurovegetative problems, and 3) disorientation, ataxia, and vertigo. We have since rescored the MSQ results obtained in Navy simulators in terms of these three components. We have also compared these and other profiles obtained from three different vitual reality systems to profiles obtained in sea sickness, space sickness, and alcohol intoxication. We will show examples of these various profiles and point out simularities and differences among them which indicate aspects of what might be called 'virtual-reality sickness'.
Kang, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Riemsdijk, M.B. van; Neerincx, M.A.
Motivation - The project is to reduce the therapist's workload in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders and explore cognitive ergonomic factors in the design of an internet-delivered multi-patient treatment system. Research questions - The aim can be achieved by system
Intended to provide a basic understanding of virtual reality (VR) from an educational perspective, this article describes the debate between conceptual and technological orientations to VR; the conceptual orientation to VR; technological definitions of VR, artificial reality, and cyberspace; dimensions of VR; and VR's impact on education. (11…
University students were surveyed to learn what they know about virtual realities. The two studies were administered with a half-year interval in which the students (N=90, specializing either in mathematics and science, or in social science and humanities) were asked to name particular examples of virtual realities. The second, but not the first study, was administered after the participants had the chance to see the movie "Avatar" (no investigation was held into whether they really saw it). While the students in both studies widely believed that activities such as social networking and online gaming represent virtual realities, some other examples provided by the students in the two studies differ: in the second study the participants expressed a better understanding of the items related to virtual realities. At the same time, not a single participant reported particular psychological states (either regular or altered) as examples of virtual realities. Profound popularization efforts need to be done to acquaint the public, including college students, with virtual realities and let the public adequately understand how such systems work.
Aiken, Mary P; Berry, Mike J
Visual and auditory information has dominated the field of virtual reality (VR). Evaluation of the role of sensory stimulation in VR has highlighted olfactory stimulation as a potentially powerful yet underutilized therapeutic tool. Early studies of immersive environments, which were run as experiments, incorporated smell in the virtual experience; however, olfaction in virtual environment design and development has arguably failed to maintain a position commensurate with its sensory capacity...
Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim
Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanism and may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social stressors was examined in participants with different liability to psychosis. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis and 53 controls were exposed to social stressors (crowdedness, ethnic minority status and hostility) in a Virtual Reality environment. Heart rate variability parameters and skin conductance levels were measured at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. High psychosis liability groups had significantly increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability compared to low liability groups both at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power were reduced, while the LF/HF ratio was similar between groups. The number of virtual social stressors significantly affected heart rate, HF, LF/HF and skin conductance level. There was no interaction between psychosis liability and amount of virtual social stress. High liability to psychosis is associated with decreased parasympathetic activity in virtual social environments, which reflects generally high levels of arousal, rather than increased autonomic reactivity to social stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curcio Igor D.D.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the state of the art of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality technologies and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environment technologies, their pedagogical implications are strongly related to a well-designed theoretical framework.
Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj
The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...
MÉRIENNE , Frédéric
Virtual reality aims at immersing a user in a virtual environment. Dedicated virtual reality technologies of human–computer interaction enable to make the link between the user and a virtual environment in capturing the user’s motion, acting on his senses as well as computing the virtual experience in real-time. The immersion in virtual environment is evaluated through the user’s perception and reaction. Virtual reality is used in a large variety of application domains which need multisensory...
Virtual Reality aims at creating an artificial environment that can be perceived as a substitute to a real setting. Much effort in research and development goes into the creation of virtual environments that in their majority are perceivable only by eyes and hands. The multisensory nature of our perception, however, allows and, arguably, also expects more than that. As long as we are not able to simulate and deliver a fully sensory believable virtual environment to a user, we could make use of the fully sensory, multi-modal nature of real objects to fill in for this deficiency. The idea is to purposefully integrate real artifacts into the application and interaction, instead of dismissing anything real as hindering the virtual experience. The term virtual reality - denoting the goal, not the technology - shifts from a core virtual reality to an “enriched” reality, technologically encompassing both the computer generated and the real, physical artifacts. Together, either simultaneously or in a hybrid way, real and virtual jointly provide stimuli that are perceived by users through their senses and are later formed into an experience by the user's mind.
Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…
Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Price, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila; Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O
Several cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Foa, Keane, Friedman, & Cohen, 2008). The bulk of PTSD treatment research has relied on pre-post designs, which are limited in their ability to investigate the therapeutic process over time. The present study investigated the relations between PTSD symptom clusters using symptom assessment at pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment using cross-lagged panel design over the course of Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE) treatment. Participants were 156 Iraq and/or Afghanistan veterans who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD due to military trauma. Using structural equation modeling, the final reexperiencing model demonstrated good fit, χ 2 (34)=39.95, p=.22; RMSEA=.034, 90% CI: [0.00, 0.07], CFI=.993, and results suggested that reexperiencing at pretreatment demonstrated a significant effect on numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal at midtreatment, and reexperiencing symptoms at midtreatment demonstrate a significant effect on each of the three symptom clusters at posttreatment. These findings suggest that reexperiencing symptoms are indeed a key aspect of the therapeutic process within exposure therapy for PTSD. Additional research examining the impact of reexperiencing-focused intervention strategies on treatment outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.
To reduce plant down time during irradiated fuel cell dismantling at Torness Power Station, a new visualisation technique has been used for the manipulator. Complex computer graphics packages were used to provide a ''Virtual Reality'' environment which allowed the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell to be simulated. Significant cost savings have been achieved due to reductions in lost output. The virtual reality environment is at present being extended to the design and deployment of a new manipulator for in-vessel inspection of the boiler. (UK)
Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M.; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim
Background: Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanismand may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina
We showed a variety of virtual reality technologies, and through examples, we discussed how virtual reality technology is transforming work styles and workplaces. Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in almost all domains starting from arts, environmental causes to medical education and disaster management training, and to supporting patients with Dementia. Thus, an awareness of the virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability ski...
Wallach, Helene S; Safir, Marilyn P; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
To determine the utility of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRE) in comparison with Cognitive Therapy (CT ) and with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT). Subjects suffering from public speaking anxiety (PSA) were randomly allocated to VRE and CT , and received 12 therapy sessions, employing standardized treatment manuals. Outcome (questionnaires, observer and self ratings of a behavioral task) was compared to results of subjects in a previous study CBT and Wait List Controls who were not significantly different on demographic data. CT was not superior to VRE on cognitive measures, but was superior to VRE on one behavioral measure (LSAS fear). VRE was superior to CT on one behavioral measure (fear reduction on a behavioral task). No differences were found between either CT , or VRE, and CBT and all were superior to WL. Subject group was small and homogeneous. It appeared advisable to increase number of therapy sessions. VRE and CT proved to be equally effective to CBT in reducing PSA relative to a control group, with minimal differential effects between them. Therefore, employing either one may be satisfactory and sufficient.
Pantelidis, Veronica S.
Considers the concept of virtual reality; reviews its history; describes general uses of virtual reality, including entertainment, medicine, and design applications; discusses classroom uses of virtual reality, including a software program called Virtus WalkThrough for use with a computer monitor; and suggests future possibilities. (34 references)…
The article describes potential applications of personal computer-based virtual reality software. The applications are being investigated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories for the Canadian deuterium-uranium (Candu) reactor. Objectives include: (1) reduction of outage duration and improved safety, (2) cost-effective and safe maintenance of equipment, (3) reduction of exposure times and identification of overexposure situations, (4) cost-effective training in a virtual control room simulator, (5) human factors evaluation of design interface, and (6) visualization of conceptual and detailed designs of critical nuclear field environments. A demonstration model of a typical reactor control room, the use of virtual reality in outage planning, and safety issues are outlined
Costa, Rafael T da; Carvalho, Marcele R de; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E
To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions. The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants. Thirteen women were selected. Eight were able to complete the protocol. After VRET, there was a decrease in the frequency of distorted thoughts and state anxiety scores, as well as a slight improvement in quality of life. Subjective discomfort scores, heart rate variation, and sense of presence scores confirmed that there was sense of presence in the virtual reality environment. All patients showed some degree of improvement and demonstrated different levels of anxiety in subsequent in vivo driving experiences. Our findings suggest that VRET could be used to facilitate in vivo exposure, because it can induce presence/immersion and reduce anxiety in patients with specific phobia. Furthermore, VRET is not associated with any type of risk.
Rafael T. da Costa
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET sessions. Methods: The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants’ sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants. Results: Thirteen women were selected. Eight were able to complete the protocol. After VRET, there was a decrease in the frequency of distorted thoughts and state anxiety scores, as well as a slight improvement in quality of life. Subjective discomfort scores, heart rate variation, and sense of presence scores confirmed that there was sense of presence in the virtual reality environment. Conclusion: All patients showed some degree of improvement and demonstrated different levels of anxiety in subsequent in vivo driving experiences. Our findings suggest that VRET could be used to facilitate in vivo exposure, because it can induce presence/immersion and reduce anxiety in patients with specific phobia. Furthermore, VRET is not associated with any type of risk.
New interactive computer technologies are having a significant influence on medical education, training, and practice. The newest innovation in computer technology, virtual reality, allows an individual to be immersed in a dynamic computer-generated, three-dimensional environment and can provide realistic simulations of surgical procedures. A new virtual reality hysteroscope passes through a sensing device that synchronizes movements with a three-dimensional model of a uterus. Force feedback is incorporated into this model, so the user actually experiences the collision of an instrument against the uterine wall or the sensation of the resistance or drag of a resectoscope as it cuts through a myoma in a virtual environment. A variety of intrauterine pathologies and procedures are simulated, including hyperplasia, cancer, resection of a uterine septum, polyp, or myoma, and endometrial ablation. This technology will be incorporated into comprehensive training programs that will objectively assess hand-eye coordination and procedural skills. It is possible that by incorporating virtual reality into hysteroscopic training programs, a decrease in the learning curve and the number of complications presently associated with the procedures may be realized. Prospective studies are required to assess these potential benefits.
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are emerging areas of research and product development in enterprise companies. This talk will discuss industry standard tools and current areas of application in the commercial market. Attendees will gain insights into how to research, design, and (most importantly) ship, world class products. The presentation will recount the lessons learned to date developing a Virtual Reality tool to solve physics problems resulting from trying to perform aircraft maintenance on ships at sea.
Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study:
Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; van Wijk, Arjen; Sharma, Ratika; de Jongh, Ad
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been used to treat a variety of fears and phobias. To determine the feasibility (i.e. safety and efficacy) of using VRET to treat dental phobia. Safety was evaluated by determining any adverse events or symptom exacerbation. Efficacy of VRET was evaluated by comparing the reduction in dental anxiety scores (measured 16 times within a 14-week study period, and at 6-month follow-up), and its behavioural effects with that of an informational pamphlet (IP) on ten randomized patients with dental phobia using a controlled multiple baseline design. Participants' heart rate response during VRET, and their experience post-VRET, were indexed. No personal adverse events or symptom exacerbation occurred. Visual analysis and post-hoc intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in dental anxiety scores [higher PND (percentage of non-overlap data) scores of 100% and lower POD (percentage of overlap data) of 0%, Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, F (1,8) = 8.61, p = 0.019, and Dental Fear Scale, F (1,8) = 10.53, p = 0.012], and behavioural avoidance in the VRET compared with the IP group [d = 4.2 and -1.4, respectively). There was no increase in average heart rate during VRET. Of the nine treatment completers, six (four from the VRET group and two from the IP group) no longer had dental phobia at 6-month follow-up. Four of the five VRET participants, but none of the IP participants, scheduled a dental treatment appointment following the intervention. VRET is a feasible alternative for patients with dental phobia.
Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.
An early experience in deploying a manipulator to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell at Torness Power Station, quickly highlighted that special visualisation techniques were required to achieve a successful deployment and reduce plant system down time. This visualisation was later realised through the IGRIP software pakcage operating on a Silicon Graphics computing engine, which provides a 'Non-Immersive' Virtual Reality environment. Within this environment, models of the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling cell were generated along with a model of the manipulator, allowing manipulator deployment to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell be modelled. It is estimated that the first use of this new environment provided a significant saving to Scottish Nuclear in potential lost output. The use of this virtual reality environment is currently being extended into the design and deployment of a new manipulator for Torness in vessel inspection, the Boiler Inspection Manipulator. (author)
Ejsing, Sebastian Kirkegaard; Vintersborg, Kathrine Mosbæk; Benford-Brown, Cory George; Turner, Daniel Severin Pohl
This paper details the findings of a qualitative reception analysis performed in collaboration with Hospice Sjælland, as to the potentials of Virtual Reality technology in providing entertainment and respite. The analysis was performed utilizing a theoretical analytical model based on Kim Schrøder’s ‘Multidimensional Model of Mass Media Reception’ to discourse gathered from six interviews with four patients from Hospice Sjælland. Supporting this model was supplementary literature on cognitive...
Wilms, Inge Linda
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....
Parsons, T. D.; Riva, G.; Parsons, S. J.; Mantovani, F.; Newbutt, N.; Lin, L.; Venturini, E.; Hall, T.
Virtual reality technologies allow for controlled simulations of affectively engaging background narratives. These virtual environments offer promise for enhancing emotionally relevant experiences and social interactions. Within this context virtual reality can allow instructors, therapists, neuropsychologists, and service providers to offer safe, repeatable, and diversifiable interventions that can benefit assessments and learning in both typically developing children and children with disab...
Gullaksen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kristoffer Merrild; Siegel, Viktor; Labuz, Patrick Ravn
This project is sparked by the contemporary evolvement that has been happening with consumer Virtual Reality technology and an interest for looking into the military industrial complex. The paper describes how Virtual Reality as a concept has evolved historically since the 19th century and how it has since entered the military and consumer market. The implementation of Virtual Reality is described in order to analyse it by using Technology-Oriented Scenario Analysis, as described by Francesco...
For decades, virtual reality artwork has existed in a small but highly influential niche in the world of electronic and new media art. Since the early 1990's, virtual reality installations have come to define an extreme boundary point of both aesthetic experience and technological sophistication. Classic virtual reality artworks have an almost mythological stature - powerful, exotic, and often rarely exhibited. Today, art in virtual environments continues to evolve and mature, encompassing everything from fully immersive CAVE experiences to performance art in Second Life to the use of augmented and mixed reality in public space. Art in Virtual Reality 2010 is a public exhibition of new artwork that showcases the diverse ways that contemporary artists use virtual environments to explore new aesthetic ground and investigate the continually evolving relationship between our selves and our virtual worlds.
Marins, E.R.; Cotelli do Espírito Santo, A.; Abreu Mól, A. C. de; Cunha, G.; Landau, L.
A technician undergoing radioprotection training must learn to use radiation detectors. Practical exercises involve being near to radiation sources. The work here presented reduces the exposure to individuals using a virtual environment to achieve preliminary apprenticeship prior using real radioactive sources. (authors)
Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Morina, N.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results
Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials
Mitrousia, V; Giotakos, O
During the last decade a number of studies have been conducted in order to examine if virtual reality exposure therapy can be an alternative form of therapy for the treatment of mental disorders and particularly for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Imaginal exposure therapy, which is one of the components of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, cannot be easily applied to all patients and in cases like those virtual reality can be used as an alternative or a supportive psychotherapeutic technique. Most studies using virtual reality have focused on anxiety disorders, mainly in specific phobias, but some extend to other disorders such as eating disorders, drug dependence, pain control and palliative care and rehabilitation. Main characteristics of virtual reality therapy are: "interaction", "immersion", and "presence". High levels of "immersion" and "presence" are associated with increased response to exposure therapy in virtual environments, as well as better therapeutic outcomes and sustained therapeutic gains. Typical devices that are used in order patient's immersion to be achieved are the Head-Mounted Displays (HMD), which are only for individual use, and the computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE), which is a multiuser. Virtual reality therapy's disadvantages lie in the difficulties that arise due to the demanded specialized technology skills, devices' cost and side effects. Therapists' training is necessary in order for them to be able to manipulate the software and the hardware and to adjust it to each case's needs. Devices' cost is high but as technology continuously improves it constantly decreases. Immersion during virtual reality therapy can induce mild and temporary side effects such as nausea, dizziness or headache. Until today, however, experience shows that virtual reality offers several advantages. Patient's avoidance to be exposed in phobic stimuli is reduced via the use of virtual reality since the patient is exposed to them as many times as he
Full Text Available This article includes current information on the use of modern IT solutions and virtual-reality (VR-based technologies in medical rehabilitation. A review of current literature on VR-based interventions and their indications, benefits and limitations in patients with nervous system diseases was conducted. The popularity of VR-based training as a tool used for rehabilitation of patients with acute and chronic deficits in both sensory-motor and cognitive disorders is increasing. Still, there is a need for large randomized trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of VR-based rehabilitation techniques in different disease entities. .
Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.
The utility of virtual reality computer graphics in telepresence applications is not hard to grasp and promises to be great. When the virtual world is entirely synthetic, as opposed to real but remote, the utility is harder to establish. Vehicle simulators for aircraft, vessels, and motor vehicles are proving their worth every day. Entertainment applications such as Disney World's StarTours are technologically elegant, good fun, and economically viable. Nevertheless, some of us have no real desire to spend our lifework serving the entertainment craze of our sick culture; we want to see this exciting technology put to work in medicine and science. The topics covered include the following: testing a force display for scientific visualization -- molecular docking; and testing a head-mounted display for scientific and medical visualization.
Thrush, Emily Austin; Bodary, Michael
Presents a brief examination of the evolution of virtual reality devices that illustrates how the development of this new medium is influenced by emerging technologies and by marketing pressures. Notes that understanding these influences may help prepare for the role of technical communicators in building virtual reality applications for education…
Husain, Dilshad D.
In rural towns where sparse population and few business are barriers, virtual reality may be the only way to bring work-based learning to students. A partnership between a small-town high school, the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and a high-tech business will enable students to explore the workplace using virtual reality. (JOW)
Motraghi, Terri E; Seim, Richard W; Meyer, Eric C; Morissette, Sandra B
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an extension of traditional exposure therapy and has been used to treat a variety of anxiety disorders. VRET utilizes a computer-generated virtual environment to present fear-relevant stimuli. Recent studies have evaluated the use of VRET for treatment of PTSD; however, a systematic evaluation of the methodological quality of these studies has yet to be conducted. This review aims to (a) identify treatment outcome studies examining the use of VRET for the treatment of PTSD and (b) appraise the methodological quality of each study using the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement and its 2008 extension for nonpharmacologic interventions. Two independent assessors conducted a database search (PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar) of studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 that reported outcome data comparing VRET with another type of treatment or a control condition. Next, a CONSORT quality appraisal of each study was completed. The search yielded nine unique studies. The CONSORT appraisal revealed that the methodological quality of studies examining VRET as a treatment for PTSD was variable. Although preliminary findings suggest some positive results for VRET as a form of exposure treatment for PTSD, additional research using well-specified randomization procedures, assessor blinding, and monitoring of treatment adherence is warranted. Movement toward greater standardization of treatment manuals, virtual environments, and equipment would further facilitate interpretation and consolidation of this literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.
Virtual-reality glasses might still be on the starting blocks, but plenty of companies are working on the technology. Margaret Harris tries on some examples at the Photonics West show in San Francisco
Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.
Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Patterson, David R; Sharar, Sam R
Scientific evidence for the viability of hypnosis as a treatment for pain has flourished over the past two decades (Rainville, Duncan, Price, Carrier and Bushnell, 1997; Montgomery, DuHamel and Redd, 2000; Lang and Rosen, 2002; Patterson and Jensen, 2003). However its widespread use has been limited by factors such as the advanced expertise, time and effort required by clinicians to provide hypnosis, and the cognitive effort required by patients to engage in hypnosis.The theory in developing virtual reality hypnosis was to apply three-dimensional, immersive, virtual reality technology to guide the patient through the same steps used when hypnosis is induced through an interpersonal process. Virtual reality replaces many of the stimuli that the patients have to struggle to imagine via verbal cueing from the therapist. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual reality may be useful in delivering hypnosis, and to summarize the scientific literature to date. We will also explore various theoretical and methodological issues that can guide future research.In spite of the encouraging scientific and clinical findings, hypnosis for analgesia is not universally used in medical centres. One reason for the slow acceptance is the extensive provider training required in order for hypnosis to be an effective pain management modality. Training in hypnosis is not commonly offered in medical schools or even psychology graduate curricula. Another reason is that hypnosis requires far more time and effort to administer than an analgesic pill or injection. Hypnosis requires training, skill and patience to deliver in medical centres that are often fast-paced and highly demanding of clinician time. Finally, the attention and cognitive effort required for hypnosis may be more than patients in an acute care setting, who may be under the influence of opiates and benzodiazepines, are able to impart. It is a challenge to make hypnosis a standard part of care in this environment
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Hodges, Larry; Anderson, Page L; Price, Larry; Smith, Samantha
This study reports the 12-month follow-up from patients with the fear of flying who were treated in a controlled study and randomly assigned (n = 49) to virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy, standard exposure (SE) therapy, or to a wait-list control (WL). VRE and SE were equally superior to WL. At 12 months posttreatment, data were gathered on 24 of the 30 (80%) patients who were assigned to VRE or SE. Patients maintained their treatment gains, and 92% of VRE participants and 91% of SE participants had flown on a real airplane since the graduation flight. This is the 1st year-long follow-up of patients having been treated with VRE and indicates that short-term treatment can have lasting effects.
Zahrt, John D.; Papcun, George; Childers, Randy A.; Rubin, Naama
We wish to walk into a photograph just as Alice walked into the looking glass. From a mathematical perspective, this problem is exceedingly ill-posed (e.g. Is that a large, distant object or a small, nearby object?). A human expert can supply a large amount of a priori information that can function as mathematical constraints. The constrained problem can then be attacked with photogrammetry to obtain a great deal of quantitative information which is otherwise only qualitatively apparent. The user determines whether the object to be analyzed contains two or three vanishing points, then selects an appropriate number of points from the photon to enable the code to compute the locations of the vanishing points. Using this information and the standard photogrammetric geometric algorithms, the location of the camera, relative to the structure, is determined. The user must also enter information regarding an absolute sense of scale. As the vectors from the camera to the various points chosen from the photograph are determined, the vector components (coordinates) are handed to a virtual reality software package. Once the objects are entered, the appropriate surfaces of the 3D object are `wallpapered' with the surface from the photograph. The user is then able to move through the virtual scene. A video will demonstrate our work.
Lange, T; Indelicato, D J; Rosen, J M
Virtual reality in surgery and, more specifically, in surgical training, faces a number of challenges in the future. These challenges are building realistic models of the human body, creating interface tools to view, hear, touch, feel, and manipulate these human body models, and integrating virtual reality systems into medical education and treatment. A final system would encompass simulators specifically for surgery, performance machines, telemedicine, and telesurgery. Each of these areas will need significant improvement for virtual reality to impact medicine successfully in the next century. This article gives an overview of, and the challenges faced by, current systems in the fast-changing field of virtual reality technology, and provides a set of specific milestones for a truly realistic virtual human body.
Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley
Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571
Pallavi Halarnkar; Sahil Shah; Harsh Shah; Hardik Shah; Anuj Shah
Virtual Reality is a major asset and aspect of our future. It is the key to experiencing, feeling and touching the past, present and the future. It is the medium of creating our own world, our own customized reality. It could range from creating a video game to having a virtual stroll around the universe, from walking through our own dream house to experiencing a walk on an alien planet. With virtual reality, we can experience the most intimidating and gruelling situations by playing safe and...
Pilarczyk, Rafal; Skarbek, Władysław
Paper presents virtual reality application framework and application concept for mobile devices. Framework uses Google Cardboard library for Android operating system. Framework allows to create virtual reality 360 video player using standard OpenGL ES rendering methods. Framework provides network methods in order to connect to web server as application resource provider. Resources are delivered using JSON response as result of HTTP requests. Web server also uses Socket.IO library for synchronous communication between application and server. Framework implements methods to create event driven process of rendering additional content based on video timestamp and virtual reality head point of view.
Gavrilović Ljiljana 1
Full Text Available This paper discusses possible application of ethnographic research in the realm of virtual reality, especially in the relationship between cultures in virtual communities. This represents an entirely new area of ethnographic research and therefore many adjustments in the research design are needed for example, a development of a specific method of data gathering and tools for their verification. A virtual, cyber space is a version of social space more or less synchronous with it, but without the, "real", that is, physical presence of the people who create it. This virtual reality, defined and bounded by virtual space, is in fact real - and though we are not able to observe real, physical parameters of its existence, we can perceive its consequences. In sum, an innovative ethnographic research method is fully applicable for exploring the realm of virtual reality; in order to do so we need to expand, in addition to the new research design and methods, the field of science itself.
This book compiles eight contributions devoted to the topical question about the relation between virtuality and reality. In the theoretical frame of quantum and relativistic particle physics, the concept of virtuality is used according to its strict and precise meaning. In this context, particles are generally invented before their discovery. Some famous historical experiments which led to the postulation and then the discovery of new particles are mentioned. These examples are used to illustrate and to discuss the concept of virtuality as well as the physical reality of virtual processes. But, how can the concept of virtuality in other scientific fields be applied ? In order to answer this question, the concepts of virtuality and reality are discussed in other branches of physics as well as in other fields such as geophysics, cosmology and biology. Philosophical and sociological implications of virtual realities are also considered. Moreover, in relation to virtuality and reality, the connections between modeling, simulation and experimentation, their respective roles, the advantages and risks of their use are discussed (in relation to nuclear sciences and geophysical problems) (N.T.)
Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Price, Matthew; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Gerardi, Maryrose; Dunlop, Boadie; Davis, Michael; Bradley, Bekh; Duncan, Erica J; Rizzo, Albert; Ressler, Kerry J
The authors examined the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure augmented with D-cycloserine or alprazolam, compared with placebo, in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to military trauma. After an introductory session, five sessions of virtual reality exposure were augmented with D-cycloserine (50 mg) or alprazolam (0.25 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial for 156 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD. PTSD symptoms significantly improved from pre- to posttreatment across all conditions and were maintained at 3, 6, and 12 months. There were no overall differences in symptoms between D-cycloserine and placebo at any time. Alprazolam and placebo differed significantly on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score at posttreatment and PTSD diagnosis at 3 months posttreatment; the alprazolam group showed a higher rate of PTSD (82.8%) than the placebo group (47.8%). Between-session extinction learning was a treatment-specific enhancer of outcome for the D-cycloserine group only. At posttreatment, the D-cycloserine group had the lowest cortisol reactivity and smallest startle response during virtual reality scenes. A six-session virtual reality treatment was associated with reduction in PTSD diagnoses and symptoms in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, although there was no control condition for the virtual reality exposure. There was no advantage of D-cycloserine for PTSD symptoms in primary analyses. In secondary analyses, alprazolam impaired recovery and D-cycloserine enhanced virtual reality outcome in patients who demonstrated within-session learning. D-cycloserine augmentation reduced cortisol and startle reactivity more than did alprazolam or placebo, findings that are consistent with those in the animal literature.
Discusses issues surrounding virtual reality and "virtual books." Suggests that those who are exploring the territory of virtual realities are already helping to expand and enrich expectations and visions for integrating technology into reading and writing. (RS)
Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M.; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality
Mihelj, Matjaž; Beguš, Samo
As virtual reality expands from the imaginary worlds of science fiction and pervades every corner of everyday life, it is becoming increasingly important for students and professionals alike to understand the diverse aspects of this technology. This book aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the theoretical and practical elements of virtual reality, from the mathematical and technological foundations of virtual worlds to the human factors and the applications that enrich our lives: in the fields of medicine, entertainment, education and others. After providing a brief introduction to the topic, the book describes the kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of virtual worlds. It explores the many ways a computer can track and interpret human movement, then progresses through the modalities that make up a virtual world: visual, acoustic and haptic. It explores the interaction between the actual and virtual environments, as well as design principles of the latter. The book closes with an examination of diff...
Gourlay, D; Lun, K C; Liya, G
This paper describes recent research that proposes virtual reality techniques as a therapy for patients with cognitive and psychological problems. Specifically this applies to victims of conditions such as traumatic brain injury, Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Additionally virtual reality therapy offers an alternative to current desensitization techniques for the treatment of phobias Some important issues are examined including means of user interaction, skills transfer to the real world, and side-effects of virtual reality exposure.
McLay, Robert N; McBrien, Colleen; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K
Exposure therapy (ET) has been observed to be an effective modality for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, efforts have been made to use virtual reality (VR) to enhance outcome with modes of ET. How such therapy applies to service members who are facing the reality of a combat deployment has been unknown. This case series documents the first use of VR-based therapy to the treatment of PTSD in a combat theater. Results of therapy are reported from a mental health clinic in Camp Fallujah, Iraq. Combat PTSD constituted a relatively small percentage of overall mental health patients seen. Those who did present with PTSD were offered VR-based ET or traditional ET. Patients who received either treatment modality showed significant gains, and no service member in treatment had to be medically evacuated because of ongoing PTSD symptoms. This demonstrates that ET, with or without the use of VR, can be an effective means of helping service members with mental health issues while they serve in theater.
Ngai, Irene; Tully, Erin C; Anderson, Page L
Psychoanalytic theory and some empirical research suggest the working alliance follows a "rupture and repair" pattern over the course of therapy, but given its emphasis on collaboration, cognitive behavioral therapy may yield a different trajectory. The current study compares the trajectory of the working alliance during two types of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder - virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) and exposure group therapy (EGT), one of which (VRE) has been proposed to show lower levels of working alliance due to the physical barriers posed by the technology (e.g. no eye contact with therapist during exposure). Following randomization, participants (N = 63) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder received eight sessions of manualized EGT or individual VRE and completed a standardized self-report measure of working alliance after each session. Hierarchical linear modeling showed overall high levels of working alliance that changed in rates of growth over time; that is, increases in working alliance scores were steeper at the beginning of therapy and slowed towards the end of therapy. There were no differences in working alliance between the two treatment groups. Results neither support a rupture/repair pattern nor the idea that the working alliance is lower for VRE participants. Findings are consistent with the idea that different therapeutic approaches may yield different working alliance trajectories.
Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Tone, Erin B; Anderson, Page L
Virtual reality exposure (VRE) has been shown to be effective for treating a variety of anxiety disorders, including social phobia. Presence, or the level of connection an individual feels with the virtual environment, is widely discussed as a critical construct both for the experience of anxiety within a virtual environment and for a successful response to VRE. Two published studies show that whereas generalized presence relates to fear ratings during VRE, it does not relate to treatment response. However, presence has been conceptualized as multidimensional, with three primary factors (spatial presence, involvement, and realness). These factors can be linked to other research on the facilitation of fear during exposure, inhibitors of treatment response (e.g., distraction), and more recent theoretical discussions of the mechanisms of exposure therapy, such as Bouton's description of expectancy violation. As such, one or more of these components of presence may be more strongly associated with the experience of fear during VRE and treatment response than the overarching construct. The current study (N=41) evaluated relations between three theorized components of presence, fear ratings during VRE, and treatment response for VRE for social phobia. Results suggest that total presence and realness subscale scores were related to in-session peak fear ratings. However, only scores on the involvement subscale significantly predicted treatment response. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006
Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G M; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Edvardsen, O; Steensrud, T
Virtual reality technology has found new applications in industry over the last few years. Medical literature has for several years predicted a break-through in this technology for medical education. Although there is a great potential for this technology in medical education, there seems to be a wide gap between expectations and actual possibilities at present. State of the technology was explored by participation at the conference "Medicine meets virtual reality V" (San Diego Jan. 22-25 1997) and a visit to one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality in medical education. In this paper we introduce some of the basic terminology and technology, review some of the topics covered by the conference, and describe projects running in one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality technology for medical education. With this information in mind, we discuss potential applications of the current technology in medical education. Current virtual reality systems are judged to be too costly and their usefulness in education too limited for routine use in medical education.
Miloff, Alexander; Lindner, Philip; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
Traditional one-session exposure therapy (OST) in which a patient is gradually exposed to feared stimuli for up to 3 h in a one-session format has been found effective for the treatment of specific phobias. However, many individuals with specific phobia are reluctant to seek help, and access to care is lacking due to logistic challenges of accessing, collecting, storing, and/or maintaining stimuli. Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy may improve upon existing techniques by facilitating access, decreasing cost, and increasing acceptability and effectiveness. The aim of this study is to compare traditional OST with in vivo spiders and a human therapist with a newly developed single-session gamified VR exposure therapy application with modern VR hardware, virtual spiders, and a virtual therapist. Participants with specific phobia to spiders (N = 100) will be recruited from the general public, screened, and randomized to either VR exposure therapy (n = 50) or traditional OST (n = 50). A behavioral approach test using in vivo spiders will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures will include spider phobia questionnaires and self-reported anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Outcomes will be assessed using a non-inferiority design at baseline and at 1, 12, and 52 weeks after treatment. VR exposure therapy has previously been evaluated as a treatment for specific phobias, but there has been a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials. A new generation of modern, consumer-ready VR devices is being released that are advancing existing technology and have the potential to improve clinical availability and treatment effectiveness. The VR medium is also particularly suitable for taking advantage of recent phobia treatment research emphasizing engagement and new learning, as opposed to physiological habituation. This study compares a market-ready, gamified VR spider phobia exposure application, delivered using consumer VR hardware, with
Beidel, Deborah C; Frueh, B Christopher; Neer, Sandra M; Bowers, Clint A; Trachik, Benjamin; Uhde, Thomas W; Grubaugh, Anouk
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) realistically incorporates traumatic cues into exposure therapy and holds promise in the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a randomized controlled trial of 92 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans and active duty military personnel with combat-related PTSD, we compared the efficacy of Trauma Management Therapy (TMT; VRET plus a group treatment for anger, depression, and social isolation) to VRET plus a psychoeducation control condition. Efficacy was evaluated at mid- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Consistent with our hypothesis, VRET resulted in significant decreases on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist-Military version for both groups. Also consistent with our hypothesis, significant decreases in social isolation occurred only for those participants who received the TMT group component. There were significant decreases for depression and anger for both groups, although these occurred after VRET and before group treatment. All treatment gains were maintained six-months later. Although not part of the original hypotheses, sleep was not improved by either intervention and remained problematic. The results support the use of VRET as an efficacious treatment for combat-related PTSD, but suggest that VRET alone does not result in optimal treatment outcomes across domains associated with PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pair, Jarrell; Allen, Brian; Dautricourt, Matthieu; Treskunov, Anton; Liewer, Matt; Graap, Ken; Reger, Greg; Rizzo, Albert
.... The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale, technical specifications, application features, and user-centered design process for the development of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application...
Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja; Gerardi, Maryrose; Breazeale, Kathryn G; Price, Matthew; Davis, Michael; Duncan, Erica; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh; Rizzo, Albert; Tuerk, Peter W; Rothbaum, Barbara O
Baseline cue-dependent physiological reactivity may serve as an objective measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, prior animal model and psychological studies would suggest that subjects with greatest symptoms at baseline may have the greatest violation of expectancy to danger when undergoing exposure based psychotherapy; thus treatment approaches which enhanced the learning under these conditions would be optimal for those with maximal baseline cue-dependent reactivity. However methods to study this hypothesis objectively are lacking. Virtual reality (VR) methodologies have been successfully employed as an enhanced form of imaginal prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Our goal was to examine the predictive nature of initial psychophysiological (e.g., startle, skin conductance, heart rate) and stress hormone responses (e.g., cortisol) during presentation of VR-based combat-related stimuli on PTSD treatment outcome. Combat veterans with PTSD underwent 6 weeks of VR exposure therapy combined with either d-cycloserine (DCS), alprazolam (ALP), or placebo (PBO). In the DCS group, startle response to VR scenes prior to initiation of treatment accounted for 76% of the variance in CAPS change scores, p < 0.001, in that higher responses predicted greater changes in symptom severity over time. Additionally, baseline cortisol reactivity was inversely associated with treatment response in the ALP group, p = 0.04. We propose that baseline cue-activated physiological measures will be sensitive to predicting patients' level of response to exposure therapy, in particular in the presence of enhancement (e.g., DCS). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…
Louka, Michael N.
This paper is a brief introduction to virtual reality technology. It discusses the meaning of the term 'Virtual Reality', introduces common hardware and software technology, and provides a brief overview of applications and research areas (author) (ml)
Laver, Kate E; Lange, Belinda; George, Stacey; Deutsch, Judith E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Crotty, Maria
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity.Secondary objectives: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on: gait and balance, global motor function, cognitive function, activity limitation, participation restriction, quality of life, and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2017), CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries and reference lists. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ("an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion") in adults after stroke. The primary outcome of interest was upper limb function and activity. Secondary outcomes included gait and balance and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The review authors contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included 72 trials that involved 2470 participants. This review includes 35 new studies in addition to the studies included in the previous version of this review. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions varied in terms of both the goals of treatment and the virtual reality devices used. The risk of bias present in many studies was unclear due to poor reporting. Thus, while there are a large
Auld, Lawrence W. S.; Pantelidis, Veronica S.
Describes the Virtual Reality and Education Lab (VREL) established at East Carolina University to study the implications of virtual reality for elementary and secondary education. Highlights include virtual reality software evaluation; hardware evaluation; computer-based curriculum objectives which could use virtual reality; and keeping current…
Anamika Modi*; Ayush Jaiswal; Princy Jain
This report provides a short study of the field of virtual reality, highlighting application domains, technological requirements, and currently available solutions. In today’s market, virtual reality is playing an crucial role for the humans. If we consider the foreign countries than using virtual reality they try to create the same feelings not only for the school children’s as well as for the upper education. In this paper, we have study the technologies used in virtual reality.
Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur
This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed.
McGreevy, Michael W.
Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Berg, T.W. van den; Smeenk, R.J.M.; Mazy, A.; Jacques, P.; Argüello, L.; Mills, S.
The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company
Mcgreevy, Michael W.
Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.
Pantelidis, Veronica S.
Virtual Reality (VR) offers benefits to engineering education. This article defines VR and describes types; outlines reasons for using VR in engineering education; provides guidelines for using VR; presents a model for determining when to use VR; discusses VR applications; and describes hardware and software needed for a low-budget VR and…
Lewis, Joan E.
Describes the development and current status of virtual reality (VR) and VR research. Market potentials for VR are discussed, including the entertainment industry, health care and medical training, flight and other simulators, and educational possibilities. A glossary of VR-related terms is included. (LRW)
Virtual reality technology is commonly thought to have few, if any, applications beyond the national research laboratories, the aerospace industry, and the entertainment world. A team at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is developing applications for virtual reality technology that make it a practical, viable, portable, and cost-effective business and training tool. The technology transfer is particularly applicable to the waste management industry and has become a tool that can serve the entire work force spectrum, from industrial sites to business offices. For three and a half years, a small team of WHC personnel has been developing an effective and practical method of bringing virtual reality technology to the job site. The applications are practical, the results are repeatable, and the equipment costs are within the range of present-day office machines. That combination can evolve into a competitive advantage for commercial business interests. The WHC team has contained system costs by using commercially available equipment and personal computers to create effective virtual reality work stations for less than $20,000
Coleman, J; Nduka, C C; Darzi, A
The nature of laparoscopic surgery makes it likely to benefit from current and future developments in virtual reality and telepresence technology. High-definition screens, three-dimensional sensory feedback and remote dextrous manipulation will be the next major developments in laparoscopic surgery. Simulators may be used in surgical training and in the evaluation of surgical capability.
Erolin, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger
This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist, and investigate cross-discipline collaborations in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills, before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
We take our world to be an objective reality, but is it? The assumption that the physical world exists in and of itself has struggled to assimilate the findings of modern physics for some time now. For example, an objective space and time would just "be", but in relativity, space contracts and time dilates. Likewise objective "things" should just inherently exist, but the entities of quantum theory are probability of existence smears, that spread, tunnel, superpose and entangle in physically ...
Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo
SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.
This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…
Discussion of changes in society that have resulted from information and communication technologies focuses on changes in libraries and a new market for library services with new styles of clients. Highlights client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. (Author/LRW)
The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....
Lindberg, Frank; Pettersson, Michael
professors most often decide what and when one could learn by providing the context and substance. In this perspective, the student has a role which is close to the one of a passive receiver, and s/he is mainly preoccupied with the problem of generating substance in memory most efficiently. Today, technology......-time educational logic. There are fewer attempts to use ICT according to a different pedagogical perspective than the old professor authoritarian model. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate some challenges virtual students experience when facing a new ICT-based learning situation. We will try to explore...... and develop understandings of what it might mean to be a student when learning occurs within a virtual problem based learning landscape. When students are used to the traditional classroom, challenges appear in the twilight zone between two pedagogical practices. How do the students cope with challenges...
Cristiane M. Gebara
Full Text Available Objective:To test a potential treatment for social phobia, which provides exposure to phobia-inducing situations via computer-generated, three-dimensional images, using an open clinical trial design.Methods:Twenty-one patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia took part in the trial. Treatment consisted of up to 12 sessions of exposure to relevant images, each session lasting 50 minutes.Results:Improvements in social anxiety were seen in all scales and instruments used, including at follow-up 6 months after the end of treatment. The average number of sessions was seven, as the participants habituated rapidly to the process. Only one participant dropped out.Conclusion:This study provides evidence that exposure to computer-generated three-dimensional images is relatively inexpensive, leads to greater treatment adherence, and can reduce social anxiety. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings.
van den Berg, Thomas J.; Smeenk, Roland J. M.; Mazy, Alain; Jacques, Patrick; Arguello, Luis; Mills, Simon
The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company costs. This can accomplished by increasing the automation and remote testing ("teletesting") capabilities of the test centre. Main problems related to teletesting are a lack of situational awareness and the separation of control over the test environment. The objective of the activity is to evaluate the use of distributed computing and Virtual Reality technology to support the teletesting of a payload under vacuum conditions, and to provide a unified man-machine interface for the monitoring and control of payload, vacuum chamber and robotics equipment. The activity includes the development and testing of a "Virtual Reality Teletesting System" (VRTS). The VRTS is deployed at one of the ESA certified test centres to perform an evaluation and test campaign using a real payload. The VRTS is entirely written in the Java programming language, using the J2EE application model. The Graphical User Interface runs as an applet in a Web browser, enabling easy access from virtually any place.
Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.
Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen
Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.
Wenceslao Peñate Castro
Full Text Available En este estudio se comparó la eficacia de la exposición a estímulos virtuales combinada con terapia cognitivo-conductual (VRET con un programa tradicional cognitivo-conductual (CBT para reducir la sintomatología fóbica en una muestra de personas con agorafobia de larga evolución. Se utilizó un diseño entre sujetos con tres condiciones experimentales (grupo VRET, N = 30; grupo CBT, N = 30; y grupo con sólo medicación, N = 20 y medidas repetidas (pre, post- tratamiento y seguimiento a los seis meses. Todos los pacientes estaban tomando antidepresivos. Los resultados mostraron que todas las terapias fueron estadísticamente eficaces, tanto en el post-tratamiento como en el seguimiento. El grupo VRET mostró mayores mejoras clínicas en el seguimiento. El grupo CBT mostró las tasas más altas de abandono. VRET probablemente juega un papel intermedio para una exposición eficiente a los estímulos fóbicos. Más allá de las ventajas de un procedimiento VRET para el tratamiento de la agorafobia en términos de coste-beneficios, este estudio también destaca los posibles beneficios en la mejora en la motivación y adherencia al tratamiento.
Weiss, P L; Jessel, A S
Virtual reality (VR) entails the use of advanced technologies, including computers and various multimedia peripherals, to produce a simulated (i.e. virtual) environment that users perceive as comparable to real world objects and events. With the aid of specially designed transducers and sensors, users interact with displayed images, moving and manipulating virtual objects, and performing other actions in a way that engenders a feeling of actual presence (immersion) in the simulated environment. The unique features and flexibility of VR give it extraordinary potential for use in work-related applications. It permits users to experience and interact with a life-like model or environment, in safety and at convenient times, while providing a degree of control over the simulation that is usually not possible in the real-life situation. The work-related applications that appear to be most promising are those that employ virtual reality for visualization and representation, distance communication and education, hands-on training, and orientation and navigation. This article presents an overview to the concepts of VR focusing on its applications in a variety of work settings. Issues related to potential difficulties in using VR including side effects and the transfer of skills learned in the virtual environment to the real world are also reviewed.
Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sanchez-Diaz, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virgínia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José
Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Fifty eight outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and 135 healthy participants were exposed to 10 craved virtual foods and a neutral cue in four experimental virtual environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and cafeteria). After exposure to each VR scenario, food craving and anxiety were assessed. The frequency/severity of episodes of uncontrollable overeating was also assessed and body mass index was measured prior to the exposure. In both groups, craving and anxiety responses when exposed to the food-related virtual environments were significantly higher than in the neutral-cue virtual environment. However, craving and anxiety levels were higher in the clinical group. Furthermore, cue-elicited anxiety was better at discriminating between clinical and healthy groups than cue-elicited craving. This study provides evidence of the ability of food-related VR environments to provoke food craving and anxiety responses in BN and BED patients and highlights the need to consider both responses during treatment. The results support the use of VR-CET in the treatment of eating disorder patients characterized by binge-eating and people with high bulimic symptoms.
Giovancarli, Camille; Malbos, Eric; Baumstarck, Karine; Parola, Nathalie; Pélissier, Marie-Florence; Lançon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent
Successful interventions have been developed for smoking cessation, but the success of smoking relapse prevention interventions has been limited. In particular, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been hampered by a high relapse rate. Because relapses can be due to the presence of conditions associated with tobacco consumption (such as drinking in bars with friends), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can generate synthetic environments that represent risk situations for the patient in the context of relapse prevention. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT coupled with VRET, in comparison to CBT alone, in the prevention of smoking relapse. The secondary objectives are to assess the impact of CBT coupled with VRET on anxiety, depression, quality of life, self-esteem and addictive comorbidities (such as alcohol, cannabis, and gambling). A third objective examines the feasibility and acceptability of VR use considering elements such as presence, cybersickness and number of patients who complete the VRET program. The present study is a 14-month (2 months of therapy followed by 12 months of follow-up), prospective, comparative, randomized and open clinical trial, involving two parallel groups (CBT coupled with VRET versus CBT alone). The primary outcome is the proportion of individuals with tobacco abstinence at 6 months after the end of the therapy. Abstinence is defined by the total absence of tobacco consumption assessed during a post-test interview and with an apparatus that measures the carbon monoxide levels expired. A total of 60 individuals per group will be included. This study is the first to examine the efficacy of CBT coupled with VRET in the prevention of smoking relapse. Because VRET is simple to use and has a low cost, this interactive therapeutic method might be easily implemented in clinical practice if the study confirms its efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02205060 (registered 25 July 2014).
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark
Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.
PORSSUT, Thibault; CHARDONNET, Jean-Rémy
International audience; We present a first study where we combine two asymetric virtual reality systems for telecollaboration purposes: a CAVE system and a head-mounted display (HMD), using a server-client type architecture. Experiments on a puzzle game in limited time, alone and in collaboration, show that combining asymetric systems reduces cognitive load. Moreover, the participants reported preferring working in collaboration and showed to be more efficient in collaboration. These results ...
McMenemy , Karen
A Hitchhiker's Guide to Virtual Reality brings together under one cover all the aspects of graphics, video, audio, and haptics that have to work together to make virtual reality a reality. Like any good guide, it reveals the practical things you need to know, from the viewpoint of authors who have been there. This two-part guide covers the science, technology, and mathematics of virtual reality and then details its practical implementation. The first part looks at how the interface between human senses and technology works to create virtual reality, with a focus on vision, the most important s
Recheis, Wolfgang; Weber, Gerhard W.; Schaefer, Katrin; Knapp, Rudolf; Seidler, Horst; Zur Nedden, Dieter
Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimens were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology
Lindner, Philip; Miloff, Alexander; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Powers, Mark B; Carlbring, Per
Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic "Big Data" that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.
Full Text Available This article looks at the idea that the virtual archaeological reconstructions seen in museums cannot be considered Virtual Reality (VR as they are based on an artistic conception of the discipline. The cause is to be found in the origins of Archaeology, which began in the 18th century and was closely linked to the History of Art. In the era of New Technologies, this concept has become both the cause and the consequence: determining the characteristics of VR from within the discipline, whilst simultaneously reinforcing the virtual reconstructions.To assess the relationship between VR and Archaeology, we must first establish a definition of Virtual Reality. Subsequently, we can take a brief look at the history so as to be able to understand the evolution of Archaeology and museums. This leads us to the analysis of some examples of VR in museums, from which we can gain conclusions on the current use of VR. Finally, we look at the possibilities for VR in terms of publicising Archaeology.
Describes the Virtual Reality Roving Vehicle project developed at the University of Washington to teach students in grades 4 through 12 about virtual reality. Topics include teacher workshops; virtual worlds created by students; learning outcomes compared with traditional instruction; and the effect of student characteristics, including gender, on…
Ludlow, Barbara L.
Virtual reality is an emerging technology that has resulted in rapid expansion in the development of virtual immersive environments for use as educational simulations in schools, colleges and universities. This article presents an overview of virtual reality, describes a number of applications currently being used by special educators for…
Laver, Kate E; George, Stacey; Thomas, Susie; Deutsch, Judith E; Crotty, Maria
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as new treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation. In particular, commercial gaming consoles are being rapidly adopted in clinical settings; however, there is currently little information about their effectiveness. To evaluate the effects of virtual reality and interactive video gaming on upper limb, lower limb and global motor function after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (March 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2010), EMBASE (1980 to March 2010) and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries, conference proceedings, reference lists and contacted key researchers in the area and virtual reality equipment manufacturers. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ('an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion') in adults after stroke. The primary outcomes of interest were: upper limb function and activity, gait and balance function and activity and global motor function. Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The authors contacted all investigators to obtain missing information. We included 19 trials which involved 565 participants. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions and outcome measures varied, limiting the ability to which studies could be compared. Intervention approaches in the included studies were predominantly designed to improve motor function rather than cognitive function or activity performance. The majority of participants were relatively young and more than one year post stroke. results were statistically significant for arm function (standardised
Lewis, C H; Griffin, M J
Virtual reality environments have many potential applications in medicine, including surgical training, tele-operated robotic surgery, assessment and rehabilitation of behavioural and neurological disorders and diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of physical disabilities. Although there is much potential for the use of immersive virtual reality environments in clinical applications, there are problems which could limit their ultimate usability. Some users have experienced side-effects during and after exposure to virtual reality environments. The symptoms include ocular problems, disorientation and balance disturbances, and nausea. Susceptibility to side-effects can be affected by age, ethnicity, experience, gender and physical fitness, as well as the characteristics of the display, the virtual environment and the tasks. The characteristics of the virtual reality system have also been shown to affect the ability of users to perform tasks in a virtual environment. Many of these effects can be attributed to delays between the sampling of head and limb positions and the presentation of an appropriate image on the display. The introduction of patients to virtual reality environments, for assessment, therapy or rehabilitation, raises particular safety and ethical issues. Patients exposed to virtual reality environments for assessment and rehabilitation may have disabilities which increase their susceptibility to certain side-effects. Special precautions therefore need to be taken to ensure the safety and effectiveness of such virtual reality applications. These precautions include minimisation of possible side-effects at the design stage. Factors are identified which are likely to affect the incidence of side-effects during and after exposures, and which need to be understood in order to minimise undesirable consequences. There is also a need for the establishment of protocols for monitoring and controlling exposures of patients to virtual reality environments. Issues
Lamela, B.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Mreino, A.; Sarti, F.
In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina
Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in several domains - in arts and film-making, for environmental causes, in medical education, in disaster management training, in sports broadcasting, in entertainment, and in supporting patients with dementia. An awareness of virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability skills for current and future workplaces.\\ud \\ud In this webinar, we will describe the evolution of virtual reality technolog...
Augmented and virtual reality are on the advance. In the last twelve months, several interesting devices have entered the market. Since tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world and has become one of the major players in international commerce, the aim of this thesis was to examine how tourism could be enhanced with augmented and virtual reality. The differences and functional principles of augmented and virtual reality were investigated, general uses were described ...
V. A. Abramova
In post-nonclassical science in studying of spontaneous systems it is important to consider a narrow orientation of perception in the solution of specific objectives, in this context, perception of symbolical transformations at various levels – subjective and objective. The virtual reality widespread now thanks to enhancement of information and communication technologies consists of hypertrophied effects of virtualization of reality where the virtual image has nothing in common with reality, ...
Grillon, Helena; Riquier, Francoise; Herbelin, Bruno
, is identical in content and structure for each patient. This study’s second goal is to use the confines of virtual exposure to objectively evaluate a specific parameter present in social phobia, namely eye contact avoidance, by using an eye-tracking system. Analysis of our results shows...... that there is a tendency to improvement in both the questionnaires and eye contact avoidance....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...
Chou, Betty; Handa, Victoria L
This article explores the pros and cons of virtual reality simulators, their abilities to train and assess surgical skills, and their potential future applications. Computer-based virtual reality simulators and more conventional box trainers are compared and contrasted. The virtual reality simulator provides objective assessment of surgical skills and immediate feedback further to enhance training. With this ability to provide standardized, unbiased assessment of surgical skills, the virtual reality trainer has the potential to be a tool for selecting, instructing, certifying, and recertifying gynecologists.
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus
Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.
Brigham, Tara J
Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality applications all aim to enhance a user's current experience or reality. While variations of this technology are not new, within the last few years there has been a significant increase in the number of artificial reality devices or applications available to the general public. This column will explain the difference between augmented, virtual, and mixed reality and how each application might be useful in libraries. It will also provide an overview of the concerns surrounding these different reality applications and describe how and where they are currently being used.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Rothbaum, Barbara O.
Virtual reality exposure has recently emerged as an important tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying. There have been numerous empirical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure as compared to other treatments including in vivo exposure, progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive therapy,…
Uranüs, Selman; Yanik, Mustafa; Bretthauer, Georg
Although the many advantages of laparoscopic surgery have made it an established technique, training in laparoscopic surgery posed problems not encountered in conventional surgical training. Virtual reality simulators open up new perspectives for training in laparoscopic surgery. Under realistic conditions in real time, trainees can tailor their sessions with the VR simulator to suit their needs and goals, and can repeat exercises as often as they wish. VR simulators reduce the number of experimental animals needed for training purposes and are suited to the pursuit of research in laparoscopic surgery.
A manual for both designers and users, comprehensively presenting the current state of experts' knowledge on virtual reality (VR) in computer science, mechanics, optics, acoustics, physiology, psychology, ergonomics, ethics, and related area. Designed as a reference book and design guide to help the reader develop a VR project, it presents the reader with the importance of the user's needs and various aspects of the human computer interface (HCI). It further treats technical aspects of VR, hardware and software implementations, and details on the sensory and psycho-sensory interfaces. Providin
Parsons, Thomas D; Riva, Giuseppe; Parsons, Sarah; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Newbutt, Nigel; Lin, Lin; Venturini, Eva; Hall, Trevor
Virtual reality (VR) technologies allow for controlled simulations of affectively engaging background narratives. These virtual environments offer promise for enhancing emotionally relevant experiences and social interactions. Within this context, VR can allow instructors, therapists, neuropsychologists, and service providers to offer safe, repeatable, and diversifiable interventions that can benefit assessments and learning in both typically developing children and children with disabilities. Research has also pointed to VR's capacity to reduce children's experience of aversive stimuli and reduce anxiety levels. Although there are a number of purported advantages of VR technologies, challenges have emerged. One challenge for this field of study is the lack of consensus on how to do trials. A related issue is the need for establishing the psychometric properties of VR assessments and interventions. This review investigates the advantages and challenges inherent in the application of VR technologies to pediatric assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
INSPIRE-00225336; Moyse, Edward; Bianchi, Riccardo Maria
We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists - for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice - OculusRift VR system, the development environment - UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/virtual p...
Orman, Evelyn K.
This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…
Milheim, William D.
An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)
Dijkstra, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
This paper describes a review of an ongoing research project which aims to develop a conjoint analysis and virtual reality (CA&VR) system as part of a design information system in virtual reality. The research project aims to develop a design system that can be used for interactive design and
Damgrave, Roy Gerhardus Johannes; Lutters, Diederick; Drukker, J. W.
Comparing the evolvement of the manufacturing industry of the last century to the way virtual reality is used nowadays some remarkable similarities come to light. Current virtual reality equipment requires a high level of craftsmanship to achieve the maximum results, and often equipment is specially
Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.
Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…
Defines virtual reality as a particular type of experience (in terms of "presence" and "telepresence") rather than as a collection of hardware. Maintains that media technologies can be classified and studied in terms of vividness and interactivity, two attributes on which virtual reality ranks very high. (SR)
Hassan, I; Bin Dayne, K; Kappus, C; Gerdes, B; Rothmund, M; Hellwig, D
The increasing use of minimally invasive surgery, which has a longer learning curve compared to open surgery lets the necessity to develop training programs to improve endoscopic skills of trainees become ever clearer. The aim of this study was to compare the endoscopic skills of neurosurgeons versus general surgeons at first exposure to a virtual reality simulator. 72 general surgeons who visited the 122nd Conference of the German Surgeons Society (DGCH in Munich 2005) and 35 neuroendoscopic surgeons, who visited the Third World Conference of the International Study Group of Neuroendoscopy (ISGNE in Marburg 2005) participated in this study. Each participant performed the basic module "clip application" on the virtual reality simulator (LapSim). All participants were given the same pretest instructions. Time to complete the task, error score and economy of motion were recorded. The general surgeons performed the clip application faster, but with more errors than neuroendoscopic surgeons. However, the difference of both parameters was not significant. Both surgeon groups have a similar score for economy of motion. Although neuroendoscopic surgeons were exposed to a foreign procedure and unfamiliar equipment, they were able to perform virtual endoscopy with similar accuracy as general surgeons, who are adapted to these endoscopic instruments and procedures and do these daily.
Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphanie; Robillard, Geneviève; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Évelyne; Forget, Hélène; Loranger, Claudie; Roucaut, François Xavier
Background People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) fear social interactions and may be reluctant to seek treatments involving exposure to social situations. Social exposure conducted in virtual reality (VR), embedded in individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), could be an answer. Aims To show that conducting VR exposure in CBT for SAD is effective and is more practical for therapists than conducting exposure in vivo Method Participants were randomly assigned to either VR exposure ( n = 17), in vivo exposure ( n = 22) or waiting list ( n = 20). Participants in the active arms received individual CBT for 14 weekly sessions and outcome was assessed with questionnaires and a behaviour avoidance test. (Trial registration number ISRCTN99747069) Results Improvements were found on the primary (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and all five secondary outcome measures in both CBT groups compared with the waiting list. Conducting exposure in VR was more effective at post-treatment than in vivo on the primary outcome measure and on one secondary measure. Improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. VR was significantly more practical for therapists than in vivo exposure. Conclusions Using VR can be advantageous over standard CBT as a potential solution for treatment avoidance and as an efficient, cost-effective and practical medium of exposure. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Watkins, Christopher D
Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en
The objective is to analyze the use of the emerging 3D computer technology of VirtualReality in the use of relieving pain in physically impaired conditions such as burn victims,amputees, and phantom limb patients, during therapy and medical procedures. Virtualtechnology generates a three dimensional visual virtual world in which enables interaction.Comparison will be made between the emerging technology of the Virtual Reality and methodsusually used, which are the use of medicine. Medicine ha...
Schramka, Filip; Arisona, Stefan; Joos, Michael; Erath, Alexander
This paper presents a cycling simulator implemented using consumer virtual reality hardware and additional off-the-shelf sensors. Challenges like real time motion tracking within the performance requirements of state of the art virtual reality are successfully mastered. Retrieved data from digital motion processors is sent over Bluetooth to a render machine running Unity3D. By processing this data a bicycle is mapped into virtual space. Physically correct behaviour is simulated and high quali...
Thurley, Kay; Ayaz, Aslı
Over the last decade virtual reality (VR) setups for rodents have been developed and utilized to investigate the neural foundations of behavior. Such VR systems became very popular since they allow the use of state-of-the-art techniques to measure neural activity in behaving rodents that cannot be easily used with classical behavior setups. Here, we provide an overview of rodent VR technologies and review recent results from related research. We discuss commonalities and differences as well as merits and issues of different approaches. A special focus is given to experimental (behavioral) paradigms in use. Finally we comment on possible use cases that may further exploit the potential of VR in rodent research and hence inspire future studies.
Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration
We present ATLASrift - a Virtual Reality application that provides an interactive, immersive visit to ATLAS experiment. We envision it being used in two different ways: first as an educational and outreach tool - for schools, universities, museums and interested individuals, and secondly as an event viewer for ATLAS physicists – for them it will provide a much better spatial awareness of an event, track and jet directions, occupancies and interactions with detector structures. Using it, one can learn about the experiment as a whole, visit individual sub-detectors, view real interactions, or take a scripted walkthrough explaining questions physicists are trying to answer. We briefly describe our platform of choice – OculusRift VR system, the development environment – UnrealEngine, and, in detail, the numerous technically demanding requirements that had to be fulfilled in order to provide a comfortable user experience. Plans for future versions include making the experience social by adding multi-user/vir...
Two concepts of virtual reality are competing in the cyber world, virtual reality as total adaptability and virtual reality as the simulation of possible worlds. Virtuality as adaptability in industrial production leads to a closer consideration of individual con-sumer demand and to de-massified production. It implies a stronger reference of pro-duction to the reality of consumer needs. The aesthetic concept of virtual reality as pos-sible words and fictional realities can imply a loss of rea...
Martens, J.B.; Qi, W.; Aliakseyeu, D.; Kok, A.J.F.; Liere, van R.; Hoven, van den E.; Ijsselsteijn, W.; Kortuem, G.; Laerhoven, van K.; McClelland, I.; Perik, E.; Romero, N.; Ruyter, de B.
We demonstrate basic 2D and 3D interactions in both a Virtual Reality (VR) system, called the Personal Space Station, and an Augmented Reality (AR) system, called the Visual Interaction Platform. Since both platforms use identical (optical) tracking hardware and software, and can run identical
Ta-Ko Huang; Chi-Hsun Yang; Yu-Hsin Hsieh; Jen-Chyan Wang; Chun-Cheng Hung
The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of th...
Valente, Luis; Clua, Esteban; Silva, Alexandre Ribeiro; Feijó, Bruno
This paper proposes the concept of "live-action virtual reality games" as a new genre of digital games based on an innovative combination of live-action, mixed-reality, context-awareness, and interaction paradigms that comprise tangible objects, context-aware input devices, and embedded/embodied interactions. Live-action virtual reality games are "live-action games" because a player physically acts out (using his/her real body and senses) his/her "avatar" (his/her virtual representation) in t...
The idea of virtual realities has a long and complex historical trajectory, spanning from Plato's concept of the cave and the simulacrum, to artistic styles such as Trompe L'oeil, and more recently developments in 3D film, television and gaming. However, this book will pay particular attention to the time between the 1980s to the 1990s when virtual reality and cyberspace were represented, particularly in fiction, as a wondrous technology that enabled transcendence from the limitations of physical embodiment. The purpose of this critical historical analysis of representations of virtual reality
Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng
Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.
Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng
Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651
Hedburg, John; Alexander, Shirley
Discusses situated learning and virtual reality, focusing on the pedagogical aspects of the technology and its importance in achieving a learning environment which challenges and supports effective learning. (AEF)
S. Serap Kurbanoğlu
Full Text Available In this paper virtual reality technology and how libraries might be affected by this technology are examined. Virtual reality sets out to address a problem. The problem is that of user-friendliness of computer systems. Needless to say, the current generation of computers still involves a barrier between human and machine. This is keyboard or mouse on the human side, and the screen on the computer side. If computers are really going to become a part of everyone’s normal day to day experiences, they, must allow users to visualise information in a way familiar to them, not the way the computers forces them to. Virtual reality provides such a way. With the increasing amounts of information available in electronic form, it is clear that virtual reality technology will have a profound impact on libraries.
This report documents the state of development of enhanced and virtual reality-based systems in medicine. Virtual reality systems seek to simulate a surgical procedure in a computer-generated world in order to improve training. Enhanced reality systems seek to augment or enhance reality by providing improved imaging alternatives for specific patient data. Virtual reality represents a paradigm shift in the way we teach and evaluate the skills of medical personnel. Driving the development of virtual reality-based simulators is laparoscopic abdominal surgery, where there is a perceived need for better training techniques; within a year, systems will be fielded for second-year residency students. Further refinements over perhaps the next five years should allow surgeons to evaluate and practice new techniques in a simulator before using them on patients. Technical developments are rapidly improving the realism of these machines to an amazing degree, as well as bringing the price down to affordable levels. In the next five years, many new anatomical models, procedures, and skills are likely to become available on simulators. Enhanced reality systems are generally being developed to improve visualization of specific patient data. Three-dimensional (3-D) stereovision systems for endoscopic applications, head-mounted displays, and stereotactic image navigation systems are being fielded now, with neurosurgery and laparoscopic surgery being major driving influences. Over perhaps the next five years, enhanced and virtual reality systems are likely to merge. This will permit patient-specific images to be used on virtual reality simulators or computer-generated landscapes to be input into surgical visualization instruments. Percolating all around these activities are developments in robotics and telesurgery. An advanced information infrastructure eventually will permit remote physicians to share video, audio, medical records, and imaging data with local physicians in real time
Full Text Available The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Keywords: OSCE, Dental simulator, Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Dentistry
This Master Thesis concerns a telepresence implementation which utilizes state-of-the-art virtual reality combined with live 360 degree video. Navigation interfaces for telepresence with virtual reality headsets were developed and evaluated through a user study. An evaluation of telepresence as a communication media was performed, comparing it to video communication. The result showed that telepresence was a better communication media than video communication.
McCabe, Aimee; McPolin, Daniel
Virtual reality is a rapidly emerging technology, driven by the computer gaming industry. The maturity of the concept, combined with modern hardware, is delivering an experience which offers a useful commercial tool for industry and educators. This article discusses the uses of virtual reality within structural engineering and provides an understanding of how it can be incorporated easily and efficiently for design purposes and beyond.
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Tilling, Steve; Needham, Richard
The Open University, Field Studies Council and Association for Science Education are conducting research into the use of Google Expeditions and other virtual reality tools to a) augment and extend field work experiences; and b) as an additional tool in the classrooms along with resources such as videos, photographs. \\ud \\ud The following aspects were discussed in this workshop:\\ud \\ud Does the virtual reality technology improve student engagement, and what are the implications for teachers?\\u...
Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pantelidis, Veronica S.
Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be…
Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wijnen, Rene Mh; Utens, Elisabeth Mwj
Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU). The VRE tool is highly realistic and resembles the operating room environment accurately. With this tool, children will not only be able to explore the operating room environment, but also get accustomed to general anesthesia procedures. The PREoperative Virtual reality Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing (PREVIEW) study will be conducted. In this single-blinded RCT, 200 consecutive patients (aged 4 to 12 years) undergoing elective day care surgery for dental, oral, or ear-nose-throat problems, will be randomly allocated to the preoperative VRE intervention or CAU. The primary outcome is change in child state anxiety level between baseline and induction of anesthesia. Secondary outcome measures include child's postoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, postoperative pain, use of analgesics, health care use, and pre- and postoperative parental anxiety. The VRE tool has been developed. Participant recruitment began March 2017 and is expected to be completed by September 2018. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effect of a VRE tool to prepare children for surgery. The VRE intervention is expected to significantly diminish preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and the use of postoperative analgesics in pediatric patients. The tool could create a less stressful experience for both
Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wijnen, Rene MH
Background Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. Objective The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU). Methods The VRE tool is highly realistic and resembles the operating room environment accurately. With this tool, children will not only be able to explore the operating room environment, but also get accustomed to general anesthesia procedures. The PREoperative Virtual reality Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing (PREVIEW) study will be conducted. In this single-blinded RCT, 200 consecutive patients (aged 4 to 12 years) undergoing elective day care surgery for dental, oral, or ear-nose-throat problems, will be randomly allocated to the preoperative VRE intervention or CAU. The primary outcome is change in child state anxiety level between baseline and induction of anesthesia. Secondary outcome measures include child’s postoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, postoperative pain, use of analgesics, health care use, and pre- and postoperative parental anxiety. Results The VRE tool has been developed. Participant recruitment began March 2017 and is expected to be completed by September 2018. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effect of a VRE tool to prepare children for surgery. The VRE intervention is expected to significantly diminish preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and the use of postoperative analgesics in pediatric patients. The tool
Homan, Willem J.
Examines virtual reality (VR), and discusses the dilemma of defining VR, the limitations of the current technology, and the implications of VR for education. Highlights include a VR experience; human factors and the interface; and altered reality versus VR. (Author/AEF)
Laver, K; George, S; Thomas, S; Deutsch, J E; Crotty, M
Virtual reality and interactive video gaming are innovative therapy approaches in the field of stroke rehabilitation. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality on motor function after stroke. The impact on secondary outcomes including activities of daily living was also assessed. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared virtual reality with an alternative or no intervention were included in the review. The authors searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, electronic databases, trial registers, reference lists, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings and contacted key researchers and virtual reality manufacturers. Search results were independently examined by two review authors to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Nineteen studies with a total of 565 participants were included in the review. Variation in intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. Virtual reality was found to be significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving upper limb function (standardised mean difference, SMD) 0.53, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.25 to 0.81)) based on seven studies, and activities of daily living (ADL) function (SMD 0.81, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22) based on three studies. No statistically significant effects were found for grip strength (based on two studies) or gait speed (based on three studies). Virtual reality appears to be a promising approach however, further studies are required to confirm these findings.
Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials applying VRET to specific phobias and measuring treatment outcome by means of behavioral laboratory tests or recordings of behavioral activities in real-life. Data sources were searches of databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane). We included in total 14 clinical trials on specific phobias. Results revealed that patients undergoing VRET did significantly better on behavioral assessments following treatment than before treatment, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g = 1.23. Furthermore, patients undergoing VRET performed better on behavioral assessments at post-treatment than patients on wait-list (g = 1.41). Additionally, results of behavioral assessment at post-treatment and at follow-up revealed no significant differences between VRET and exposure in vivo (g = -0.09 and 0.53, respectively). Finally, behavioral measurement effect sizes were similar to those calculated from self-report measures. The findings demonstrate that VRET can produce significant behavior change in real-life situations and support its application in treating specific phobias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paslakis, Georgios; Fauck, Vanessa; Röder, Kathrin; Rauh, Elisabeth; Rauh, Manfred; Erim, Yesim
The acute urge to be physically active is a relevant clinical phenomenon in patients suffering from eating disorders. In this study with n = 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa and n = 10 female patients with bulimia nervosa, a virtual reality (VR) jogging paradigm was applied as a novel highly immersive 3D exposure paradigm. Patients were asked to rate their acute urge to be physically active during the exposure procedure. A 10-item self-report questionnaire (smQ) was developed to capture the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of the acute urge to move. We hypothesized that exposure would lead to habituation of the urge to be physically active. We also hypothesized that leptin levels would be associated with the degree of the subjective urge to be physically active, while habituation would be associated with a decrease in stress hormones (α-amylase, cortisol, and cortisone in saliva). A statistically significant change in subjective scores in the smQ from baseline to postexposure was seen. Our novel VR paradigm may serve as a therapeutic tool for exposure and habituation of the urge of acutely engaging in physical activity in patients with eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Veronica S. Pantelidis
Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. Thisarticle lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed.Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions onwhen to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine whento use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.
Ferrington, Gary; Loge, Kenneth
Discusses virtual reality (VR) technology and its possible uses in military training, medical education, industrial design and development, the media industry, and education. Three primary applications of VR in the learning process--visualization, simulation, and construction of virtual worlds--are described, and pedagogical and moral issues are…
As an emerging technology for learning, virtual reality (VR) dates back four decades, to early work by Ivan Sutherland in the late 1960s. At long last, interactive media are emerging that offer the promise of VR in everyday settings. Quasi-VR already is commonplace in 2-1/2-D virtual environments like Second Life and in massively multiplayer…
Crompton, H.; De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.
Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in geoscience education. Affordances include instructor-student communication and class management in large classrooms, virtual and augmented reality applications, digital mapping, and crowd-sourcing. Mobile technologies have spawned the sub field of mobile learning or m-learning, which is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. Geoscientists have traditionally engaged in non-digital mobile learning via fieldwork, but digital devices are greatly extending the possibilities, especially for non-traditional students. Smartphones and tablets are the most common devices but smart glasses such as Pivothead enable live streaming of a first-person view (see for example, https://youtu.be/gWrDaYP5w58). Virtual reality headsets such as Google Cardboard create an immersive virtual field experience and digital imagery such as GigaPan and Structure from Motion enables instructors and/or students to create virtual specimens and outcrops that are sharable across the globe. Whereas virtual reality (VR) replaces the real world with a virtual representation, augmented reality (AR) overlays digital data on the live scene visible to the user in real time. We have previously reported on our use of the AR application called FreshAiR for geoscientific "egg hunts." The popularity of Pokémon Go demonstrates the potential of AR for mobile learning in the geosciences.
Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick
Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Van Der Gaag, Mark
The use of virtual reality (VR) in psychological treatment is expected to increase. Cybersickness (CS) is a negative side effect of VR exposure and is associated with treatment dropout. This study aimed to investigate the following: (a) if gender differences in CS can be replicated, (b) if
AREVA Projects is one of the 6 business units of New AREVA and it is dedicated to engineering works in a vast fan of activities from mining to waste management via uranium chemistry and nuclear fuel recycling. AREVA projects has opted for innovation to improve performance. Since 2012 virtual reality has been used through the creation of a room equipped with a high-definition screen and stereoscopic goggles. At the beginning virtual reality was used to test and validate procedures for handling equipment thanks to a dynamical digital simulation of this equipment. Now virtual reality is massively used to validate the design phase of projects without having to fabricate a physical mock-up which saves time. The next step in the use of virtual reality is the implementation of a new version of devices like helmets, gloves... that will allow a better interaction with the virtual world. The continuously increasing of computer power is always pushing back the limits of what is possible in virtual reality. (A.C.)
Settgast , Volker; Pirker , Johanna; Lontschar , Stefan; Maggale , Stefan; Gütl , Christian
Part 2: Use and Evaluation of Digital Entertainment; International audience; This paper describes the evaluation of three different scenarios in the fully immersive room-based virtual environment DAVE (Definitely Affordable Virtual Environment) and a head-mounted display, the Oculus Rift. The evaluation focuses on comparing the two immersive environments and three different scenarios (observation, emotion in a roller coaster, and interaction) in regards to typical virtual-reality characterist...
Slattery, Diana R.
Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.
Ota, D; Loftin, B; Saito, T; Lea, R; Keller, J
Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology that can teach surgeons new procedures and can determine their level of competence before they operate on patients. Also VR allows the trainee to return to the same procedure or task several times later as a refresher course. Laparoscopic surgery is a new operative technique which requires the surgeon to observe the operation on a video-monitor and requires the acquisition of new skills. VR simulation could duplicate the operative field and thereby enhance training and reduce the need for expensive animal training models. Our preliminary experience has shown that we have the technology to model tissues and laparoscopic instruments and to develop in real time a VR learning environment for surgeons. Another basic need is to measure competence. Surgical training is an apprenticeship requiring close supervision and 5-7 years of training. Technical competence is judged by the mentor and has always been subjective. If VR surgical simulators are to play an important role in the future, quantitative measurement of competence would have to be part of the system. Because surgical competence is "vague" and is characterized by such terms as "too long, too short" or "too close, too far," it is possible that the principles of fuzzy logic could be used to measure competence in a VR surgical simulator. Because a surgical procedure consists of a series of tasks and each task is a series of steps, we will plan to create two important tasks in a VR simulator and validate their use. These tasks consist of laparoscopic knot tying and laparoscopic suturing. Our hypothesis is that VR in combination with fuzzy logic can educate surgeons and determine when they are competent to perform these procedures on patients.
Richir , Simon; Fuchs , Philippe; Lourdeaux , Domitile; Millet , Dominique; BUCHE , Cédric; Querrec , Ronan
International audience; The convergence of technologies currently observed in the field of Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, robotics and consumer electronic reinforces the trend of new applications appearing every day. But when transferring knowledge acquired from research to businesses, research laboratories are often at a loss because of a lack of knowledge of the design and integration processes in creating an industrial scale product. In fact, the innovation approaches that take a good...
Tepper, Oren M; Rudy, Hayeem L; Lefkowitz, Aaron; Weimer, Katie A; Marks, Shelby M; Stern, Carrie S; Garfein, Evan S
Virtual reality and augmented reality devices have recently been described in the surgical literature. The authors have previously explored various iterations of these devices, and although they show promise, it has become clear that virtual reality and/or augmented reality devices alone do not adequately meet the demands of surgeons. The solution may lie in a hybrid technology known as mixed reality, which merges many virtual reality and augmented realty features. Microsoft's HoloLens, the first commercially available mixed reality device, provides surgeons intraoperative hands-free access to complex data, the real environment, and bidirectional communication. This report describes the use of HoloLens in the operating room to improve decision-making and surgical workflow. The pace of mixed reality-related technological development will undoubtedly be rapid in the coming years, and plastic surgeons are ideally suited to both lead and benefit from this advance.
Defines and describes virtual reality technology and differentiates between virtual learning environment, learning material, and learning tools. Links learning rationales to virtual reality technology to pave conceptual foundations for application of virtual reality technology education. Constructivism, case-based learning, problem-based learning,…
This essay, written in 1998 by an active participant in both virtual reality development and the virtual reality definition debate, discusses the definition of the phrase "Virtual Reality" (VR). I start with history from a personal perspective, concentrating on the debate between the "Virtual Reality" and "Virtual Environment" labels in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Definitions of VR based on specific technologies are shown to be unsatisfactory. I propose the following definition of VR, b...
Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Carla; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Pacheco, José; Brito, Rodrigo; Soares, Fabio; Santos, Nuno; Barata, Ana Filipa
Use of virtual reality environments in cognitive rehabilitation offers cost benefits and other advantages. In order to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality application for neuropsychological rehabilitation, a cognitive training program using virtual reality was applied to stroke patients. A virtual reality-based serious games application for cognitive training was developed, with attention and memory tasks consisting of daily life activities. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to two conditions: exposure to the intervention, and waiting list control. The results showed significant improvements in attention and memory functions in the intervention group, but not in the controls. Overall findings provide further support for the use of VR cognitive training applications in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Improvements in memory and attention functions following a virtual reality-based serious games intervention. Training of daily-life activities using a virtual reality application. Accessibility to training contents.
Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.
Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational
It is shown that a hypothesis about gravity having a virtual cause implies there are two primary reference frames, a reality and a functional virtual reality and an equivalence principle relating the two is postulated. A mathematical expression relating the primary reference frames to the state of reality provides an explanation of particle-wave duality and resolves the controversy about the speed of gravity. A model for motion, time and particle formation is briefly discussed, in which the hypothesis about the virtual cause of gravity and supporting postulates are valid. It is further shown that such model provides solutions to unsolved paradoxes and a unification of consistent but contradictory ancient theories of matter and motion. Finally, a reference is made about the basis for devising experiments and testing the predictions of the model.
Stupar-Rutenfrans, Snežana; Ketelaars, Loes E H; van Gisbergen, Marnix S
With this article, we aim to increase our understanding of how mobile virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can help reduce speaking anxiety. Using the results of a longitudinal study, we examined the effect of a new VRET strategy (Public Speech Trainer, PST), that incorporates 360° live recorded VR environments, on the reduction of public speaking anxiety. The PST was developed as a 360° smartphone application for a VR head-mounted device that participants could use at home. Realistic anxiety experiences were created by means of live 360° video recordings of a lecture hall containing three training sessions based on graded exposure framework; empty classroom (a) and with a small (b) and large audience (c). Thirty-five students participated in all sessions using PST. Anxiety levels were measured before and after each session over a period of 4 weeks. As expected, speaking anxiety significantly decreased after the completion of all PST sessions, and the decrement was the strongest in participants with initially high speaking anxiety baseline levels. Results also revealed that participants with moderate and high speaking anxiety baseline level differ in the anxiety state pattern over time. Conclusively and in line with habituation theory, the results supported the notion that VRET is more effective when aimed at reducing high-state anxiety levels. Further implications for future research and improvement of current VRET strategies are discussed.
Majgaard, Gunver; Lyk, Patricia Bianca
, de skulle have. Fokus. I artiklen er der særligt fokus på hvordan læringscentrede designprocesser og Virtual Reality tilsammen kan understøtte erfaringslæring. Konklusion. Eleverne fik en større forståelse af teknologi og kreative designprocesser ved at fungere som informanter og designpartnere i...... designforløbet. Eleverne fik igennem design af de fysiske modeller og besøget i Virtual Reality formidlet to oplevelser af deres modeller, som styrkede grundlaget for erfaringsbaseret læring. Erfaringsbaseret læring kombinerer oplevelse, refleksion, abstraktion og aktiv eksperimenteren i en proces, som...
Tossavainen, Timo; Juhola, Martti; Ilmari, Pyykö; Aalto, Heikki; Toppila, Esko
People relying much on vision in the control of posture are known to have an elevated risk of falling. Dependence on visual control is an important parameter in the diagnosis of balance disorders. We have previously shown that virtual reality methods can be used to produce visual stimuli that affect balance, but suitable stimuli need to be found. In this study the effect of six different virtual reality stimuli on the balance of 22 healthy test subjects was evaluated using force platform posturography. According to the tests two of the stimuli have a significant effect on balance.
Chen, Karen B; Kimmel, Ryan A; Bartholomew, Aaron; Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael L; Radwin, Robert G
In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary environments for studying human performance. Previously, VR researchers primarily considered differences between virtual and physical distance estimation rather than reaching for close-up objects. Fourteen participants completed manual targeting tasks that involved reaching for corners on equivalent physical and virtual boxes of three different sizes. Predicted errors were calculated from a geometric model based on user interpupillary distance, eye location, distance from the eyes to the projector screen, and object. Users were 1.64 times less accurate (p virtual versus physical box corners using the hands. Predicted virtual targeting errors were on average 1.53 times (p virtual targets but not significantly different for close-up virtual targets. Target size, location, and distance, in addition to binocular disparity, affected virtual object targeting inaccuracy. Observed virtual box inaccuracy was less than predicted for farther locations, suggesting possible influence of cues other than binocular vision. Human physical interaction with objects in VR for simulation, training, and prototyping involving reaching and manually handling virtual objects in a CAVE are more accurate than predicted when locating farther objects.
Jeffs, Tara L.
The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Education itself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges with attention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition. Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)…
Orzechowski, M.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries, de B.
This paper describes Virtual Reality as an environment to collect information about user satisfaction. Because Virtual Reality (VR) allows visualization with added interactivity, this form of representation bas particular advantages when presenting new designs. The paper reports on the development
Kageyama, Akira; Tomiyama, Asako
We have developed a software framework for scientific visualization in immersive-type, room-sized virtual reality (VR) systems, or Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVEs). This program, called Multiverse, allows users to select and invoke visualization programs without leaving CAVE’s VR space. Multiverse is a kind of immersive “desktop environment” for users, with a three-dimensional graphical user interface. For application developers, Multiverse is a software framework with useful class ...
Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Steinicke, Franke
Recent technological developments have finally brought virtual reality (VR) out of the laboratory and into the hands of developers and consumers. However, a number of challenges remain. Virtual travel is one of the most common and universal tasks performed inside virtual environments, yet enabling...... users to navigate virtual environments is not a trivial challenge—especially if the user is walking. In this article, we initially provide an overview of the numerous virtual travel techniques that have been proposed prior to the commercialization of VR. Then we turn to the mode of travel...... that is the most difficult to facilitate, that is, walking. The challenge of providing users with natural walking experiences in VR can be divided into two separate, albeit related, challenges: (1) enabling unconstrained walking in virtual worlds that are larger than the tracked physical space and (2) providing...
Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen
Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how...
Reid, Robert D.; Sykes, Wylmarie
Discusses the use of virtual reality as an educational tool. Highlights include examples of virtual reality in public schools that lead to a more active learning process, simulated environments, integrating virtual reality into any curriculum, benefits to teachers and students, and overcoming barriers to implementation. (LRW)
Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Yong Oock
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Gladstone, H B; Raugi, G J; Berg, D; Berkley, J; Weghorst, S; Ganter, M
In the 20th century, virtual reality has predominantly played a role in training pilots and in the entertainment industry. Despite much publicity, virtual reality did not live up to its perceived potential. During the past decade, it has also been applied for medical uses, particularly as training simulators, for minimally invasive surgery. Because of advances in computer technology, virtual reality is on the cusp of becoming an effective medical educational tool. At the University of Washington, we are developing a virtual reality soft tissue surgery simulator. Based on fast finite element modeling and using a personal computer, this device can simulate three-dimensional human skin deformations with real-time tactile feedback. Although there are many cutaneous biomechanical challenges to solve, it will eventually provide more realistic dermatologic surgery training for medical students and residents than the currently used models.
Discussion of virtual reality (VR) focuses on research and development being carried out at NYNEX to solve business problems. Component technologies are described; design decisions are considered, including interactivity, connectivity, and locus of control; potential perils of VR are discussed, including user dissociation; and areas of promise are…
Markova T. V.
Full Text Available the article is devoted to the study of virtual reality as a social phenomenon. Through an appeal to the past, its genesis is analyzed, as well as its significance in modern realities. The latter is viewed from both a social and a personal point of view. Comparing the number of supporters of virtual communication with the number of people of conservative views, conclusions are drawn about the tendency to depart from the usual communication. It allows to assert that the problem of the termination of live communication is relevant to this day. Inferences allow us to assert that the problem of replacing real communication is different. After looking at the positive consequences, the introduction of the mind into virtual reality, it is affirmed that there are good sides to this action. Through analysis, the causes of entering the World Wide Web are generated. In conclusion, the question is raised about the need for virtual reality in everyday life, its problems, as well as the prospects for development.
Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl
"Virtual reality" adds a new dimension to problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architecture and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each other. Combined with "Building Information…
Kaufmann, Hannes; Meyer, Bernd
We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths…
Chung, Byoung Ha; Chung, B. H.; You, H. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, J. B.; Choi, I. S.; Won, T. W.; Bae, J. B.; Kang, H. K.; Jang, J. M.; Heo, J. W.; Park, M. Y.; Kyun, H. S.; Lee, C. J. [Post Media Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
In this research task, we want to develop the most suitable design of Spent Fuel Management Facility and develop 3D simulator for our illustration by applying method as such as graphics, simulation, kinematics, dynamics, and collision detection in virtual reality. Through this, we set the capability of making verification on modifying existing conceptual design as our final objective. 6 tabs., 35 figs. (author)
Tsang, J S
Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.
Ausmeier, Natalie J
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR) is widely used in training simulators of dangerous or expensive vehicles such as aircraft or heavy mining machinery. The vehicles often have very complicated controls that users need to master before attempting to operate a real...
van Luin, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Giagourta, V.; Strintzis, M.G.
We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to
Pind Jörgensson, Finnur Kári; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Llopis, Hermes Sampedro
and acoustics into the virtual reality sphere adds another dimension to the experience. It both makes the immersion more believable, and in the context of building design, makes it easy and intuitive to try out different acoustic designs and soundscapes. In traditional auralization, although a very powerful...
Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan
This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…
Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian
Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study...
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to revolutionize education, as it immerses students in their learning more than any other available medium. By blocking out visual and auditory distractions in the classroom, it has the potential to help students deeply connect with the material they are learning in a way that has never been possible before.…
Dowding, Tim J.
Defines virtual reality and describes its application to psychomotor skills training. A description of a system that could be used to teach a college course in physical therapy, including the use of miniature computer workstation, sensory gloves, a programmable mannequin, and other existing technology, is provided. (Contains 10 references.) (KRN)
A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); J.S. Vletter-McGhie (Jackie); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)
textabstractBACKGROUND: This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. METHODS: Three-dimensional echocardiographic
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) environments opens the door to conduct hazard-free experiments aimed at understanding how people would behave in case of an emergency. The exploration of this systems would help to better design safety systems in complex scenarios to increase its safety robustness in case of unwanted events.
This thesis focuses on interactively visualizing, and ultimately simulating, cumulus clouds both in virtual reality (VR) and with a standard desktop computer. The cumulus clouds in question are found in data sets generated by Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), which are used to simulate a small section
Pivik, Jayne; McComas, Joan; Macfarlane, Ian; Laflamme, Marc
Describes the design and evaluation of a desktop virtual reality program that was developed to teach children about the accessibility and attitudinal barriers encountered by their peers with mobility impairments. Investigated attitudes, grade levels, familiarity with individuals with a disability, and gender. (Author/LRW)
Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…
Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.
Dryer, David A.
The Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool (IDVVRT) Phase II effort was for the design and development of an innovative Data Visualization Environment Tool (DVET) for NASA engineers and scientists, enabling them to visualize complex multidimensional and multivariate data in a virtual environment. The objectives of the project were to: (1) demonstrate the transfer and manipulation of standard engineering data in a virtual world; (2) demonstrate the effects of design and changes using finite element analysis tools; and (3) determine the training and engineering design and analysis effectiveness of the visualization system.
Chen, XiJing; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Lidan; Winkler, Markus; Pauli, Paul; Sui, Nan; Li, Yonghui
Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE, in comparison to MBRP alone or treatment as usual, on craving and emotional responses in people with methamphetamine use disorders. The study is a parallel randomized controlled study including 180 participants with methamphetamine use disorders. Three parallel groups will receive 8 weeks of MBRP combined with VRCE, MBRP alone, or treatment as usual, respectively. Craving, virtual cue reactivity, anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, mindfulness and drug-related attention bias will be assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months of follow-up. This innovative study aims at investigating the effects of MBRP combined with VRCE in people with SUDs. The combined intervention may have important clinical implications for relapse prevention due to its ease of application and high cost-effectiveness. This study may also stimulate research on the neuronal and psychological mechanisms of MBRP in drug addiction. ChiCTR-INR-17013041. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating
Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.
Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária
We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies
Melissa M. Terras
Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this
Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto
Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.
Aseeri, Sahar A.
In this work we aim to implement and evaluate alternative approaches for interacting with virtual environments on mobile devices for navigation, object selection and manipulation. Interaction with objects in virtual worlds using traditional input such as current state-of-the-art devices is often difficult and could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. We have developed new methods to perform different kinds of interactions using a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone) both as input device, performing selection and manipulation of objects, and as output device, utilizing the screen as an extra view (virtual camera or information display). Our hypothesis is that interaction via mobile devices facilitates simple tasks like the ones described within immersive virtual reality systems. We present here our initial implementation and result. © 2013 IEEE.
Needham, Caroline; Wilkinson, Caroline; Soames, Roger
This project aims to create a three-dimensional digital model of the human hand and wrist which can be virtually 'dissected' through a haptic interface. Tissue properties will be added to the various anatomical structures to replicate a realistic look and feel. The project will explore the role of the medical artist and investigate the cross-discipline collaborations required in the field of virtual anatomy. The software will be used to train anatomy students in dissection skills before experience on a real cadaver. The effectiveness of the software will be evaluated and assessed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.
A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to
Huang, Ta-Ko; Yang, Chi-Hsun; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Hung, Chun-Cheng
The OSCE is a reliable evaluation method to estimate the preclinical examination of dental students. The most ideal assessment for OSCE is used the augmented reality simulator to evaluate. This literature review investigated a recently developed in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) starting of the dental history to the progress of the dental skill. As result of the lacking of technology, it needs to depend on other device increasing the success rate and decreasing the risk of the surgery. The development of tracking unit changed the surgical and educational way. Clinical surgery is based on mature education. VR and AR simultaneously affected the skill of the training lesson and navigation system. Widely, the VR and AR not only applied in the dental training lesson and surgery, but also improved all field in our life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Bergeron, Mathieu; Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J
Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients' symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points), changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies.
Full Text Available Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients’ symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points, changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies.
Through a $7.5 million U.S. Department of Education grant, students at the Hudson (Massachusetts) Public Schools "attend" Virtual High School--a network of 30 schools in 10 states. Kids attend classes any time, work collaboratively, and choose among innovative, timely, technologically rich course offerings. Other sites are described.…
Full Text Available With the upcoming generation of virtual reality HMDs, new virtual worlds, scenarios, and games are created especially for them. These are no longer bound to a remote screen or a relatively static user, but to an HMD as a more immersive device. This article discusses requirements for virtual scenarios implemented in new-generation HMDs to achieve a comfortable user experience. Furthermore, the effects of positional tracking are introduced and the relation between the user’s virtual and physical body is analyzed. The observations made are exemplified by existing software prototypes. They indicate how the term “virtual reality,” with all its loaded connotations, may be reconceptualized to express the peculiarities of HMDs in the context of gaming, entertainment, and virtual experiences.
Taçgin, Zeynep; Arslan, Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to determine perception of postgraduate Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) students regarding the concepts of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Virtuality (AV) and Mirror Reality; and to offer a table that includes differences and similarities between…
Busscher, B.; De Vliegher, D.; Ling, Y.; Brinkman, W.P.
Using virtual reality technology for exposure therapy to treat patients with anxiety disorders is attracting considerable research attention. The ability to monitor patient anxiety level helps therapists to set appropriate anxiety arousing situations. Physiological measures have been put forward as
Piszczek, Marek; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pomianek, Mateusz; Szustakowski, Mieczysław
Solutions in the field of virtual reality are very strongly associated with optoelectronic technologies. This applies to both process design and operation of VR applications. Technologies such as 360 cameras and 3D scanners significantly improve the design work. What is more, HMD displays with high field of view or optoelectronic Motion Capture systems and 3D cameras guarantee an extraordinary experience in immersive VR applications. This article reviews selected technologies from the perspective of their use in a broadly defined process of creating and implementing solutions for virtual reality. There is also the ability to create, modify and adapt new approaches that show team own work (SteamVR tracker). Most of the introduced examples are effectively used by authors to create different VR applications. The use of optoelectronic technology in virtual reality is presented in terms of design and operation of the system as well as referring to specific applications. Designers and users of VR systems should take a close look on new optoelectronics solutions, as they can significantly contribute to increased work efficiency and offer completely new opportunities for virtual world reception.
Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas
Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.
In the field of human-computer interaction, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have been rapidly growing areas of interest and concerted development effort thanks to both private and public research. At NASA, a number of groups have explored the possibilities afforded by AR and VR technology, among which is the IT Advanced Concepts Lab (ITACL). Within ITACL, the AVR (Augmented/Virtual Reality) Lab focuses on VR technology specifically for its use in command and control. Previous work in the AVR lab includes the Natural User Interface (NUI) project and the Virtual Control Panel (VCP) project, which created virtual three-dimensional interfaces that users could interact with while wearing a VR headset thanks to body- and hand-tracking technology. The Virtual Tablet (VT) project attempts to improve on these previous efforts by incorporating a physical surrogate which is mirrored in the virtual environment, mitigating issues with difficulty of visually determining the interface location and lack of tactile feedback discovered in the development of previous efforts. The physical surrogate takes the form of a handheld sheet of acrylic glass with several infrared-range reflective markers and a sensor package attached. Using the sensor package to track orientation and a motion-capture system to track the marker positions, a model of the surrogate is placed in the virtual environment at a position which corresponds with the real-world location relative to the user's VR Head Mounted Display (HMD). A set of control mechanisms is then projected onto the surface of the surrogate such that to the user, immersed in VR, the control interface appears to be attached to the object they are holding. The VT project was taken from an early stage where the sensor package, motion-capture system, and physical surrogate had been constructed or tested individually but not yet combined or incorporated into the virtual environment. My contribution was to combine the pieces of
Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E
Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not
Grissom, F.; Goza, Sharon P.; Goza, S. Michael
Virtual reality (VR) when defined as a computer generated, immersive, three dimensional graphics environment which provides varying degrees of interactivity, remains an expensive, highly specialized application, yet to find its way into the school, home, or business. As a novel approach to a theme park-type attraction, though, its use can be justified. This paper describes how a virtual reality 'tour of the human digestive system' was created for the Omniplex Science Museum of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The customers main objectives were: (1) to educate; (2) to entertain; (3) to draw visitors; and (4) to generate revenue. The 'Edutainment' system ultimately delivered met these goals. As more such systems come into existence the resulting library of licensable programs will greatly reduce development costs to individual institutions.
A beyond human knowledge and reach, robotics is strongly involved in tackling challenges of new emerging multidisciplinary fields. Together with humans, robots are busy exploring and working on the new generation of ideas and problems whose solution is otherwise impossible to find. The future is near when robots will sense, smell and touch people and their lives. Behind this practical aspect of human-robotics, there is a half a century spanned robotics research, which transformed robotics into a modern science. The Advances in Robotics and Virtual Reality is a compilation of emerging application areas of robotics. The book covers robotics role in medicine, space exploration and also explains the role of virtual reality as a non-destructive test bed which constitutes a premise of further advances towards new challenges in robotics. This book, edited by two famous scientists with the support of an outstanding team of fifteen authors, is a well suited reference for robotics researchers and scholars from related ...
This book covers all topics relevant for the design of haptic interfaces and teleoperation systems. The book provides the basic knowledge required for understanding more complex approaches and more importantly it introduces all issues that must be considered for designing efficient and safe haptic interfaces. Topics covered in this book provide insight into all relevant components of a haptic system. The reader is guided from understanding the virtual reality concept to the final goal of being able to design haptic interfaces for specific tasks such as nanomanipulation. The introduction chapter positions the haptic interfaces within the virtual reality context. In order to design haptic interfaces that will comply with human capabilities at least basic understanding of human sensors-motor system is required. An overview of this topic is provided in the chapter related to human haptics. The book does not try to introduce the state-of-the-art haptic interface solutions because these tend to change quickly. On...
St-Jacques, Julie; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bélanger, Claude
The first objective of this study was to assess if a combined treatment with mostly virtual reality-based (in virtuo) exposure increases phobic children's motivation toward therapy compared to children who only receive in vivo exposure. Another objective was the assessment of motivation as a predictor of treatment outcome. Thirty-one DSM-IV-diagnosed arachnophobic participants aged from 8 to 15 years were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: in vivo exposure alone or in virtuo plus in vivo exposure. Measures of motivation were taken at pretest and at the end of each part of the treatment; some other measures were taken at each session. The "Why Are You in Therapy?" questionnaire for children was the target measure of motivation and the main variable in the study. Outcome measures were taken at pretest, at the end of each part of the treatment, and at the 6-month follow-up. This study was conducted between September 2006 and March 2007. The results showed that children who received in virtuo exposure did not show a higher level of motivation toward their treatment than those who received in vivo exposure, but statistically significant interactions were found for both parts of the treatment. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that motivation was a significant predictor of outcome (P virtual reality did not increase motivation toward psychotherapy. At the end of the second part of therapy, all participants were comparably efficient in facing a live tarantula. These results bear important clinical implications concerning how to use virtual reality with children and concerning motivation of children toward therapy in general. They are discussed in the light of how to present in virtuo therapy to children. (c) Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Debiar, A.; Loverini, M.J.; Annibal, M.
The CEA's robotics and remote control service has developed an innovative control unit for the MAESTRO manipulator (modular arm and efficient system for tele-robotics), allowing for the association of robotics and virtual reality. Applications are aimed at preparing tasks and missions in nuclear reactor maintenance and monitoring, enhancing video images with synthetic images, and assisting the operator's task allowing him to feel all the interactions between the robot and the obstacles
Virtual reality (VR) has recently become a real hit. Also, an increasing number of mobile devices that are used for everyday needs support and are powerful enough to run VR applications. As a result, the market is growing in number of VR glasses, which project the image from mobile device screens to user eyes. These glasses can be from different manufacturers and different shapes. Many VR glasses do not provide any additional controllers for interaction with the mobile device. The user is lim...
Hannes Kaufmann; Bernd Meyer
We present an immersive virtual reality (VR) application for physics education. It utilizes a recent physics engine developed for the PC gaming market to simulate physical experiments correctly and accurately. Students are enabled to actively build their own experiments and study them. A variety of tools are provided to analyze forces, mass, paths and other properties of objects before, during and after experiments. Innovative teaching content is presented thatexploits the strengths of the 3D...
Botella Arbona, Cristina; García Palacios, Azucena; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Bretón-López, Juana
Many medical procedures produce acute pain that in most cases is quite disturbing for the individual. Medication is the treatment of choice for acute pain. However, given the involvement of psychological aspects in the experience of pain, psychological techniques are being used as an effective adjunct to alleviate pain related to medical procedures. In the last years a new technology is demonstrating an enormous potential in this field: Virtual Reality (VR) distraction. In this ar...
Elisa R. Zanier
Full Text Available In this perspective, we discuss the potential of virtual reality (VR in the assessment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury, a silent epidemic of extremely high burden and no pharmacological therapy available. VR, endorsed by the mobile and gaming industries, is now available in more usable and cheaper tools allowing its therapeutic engagement both at the bedside and during the daily life at chronic stages after injury with terrific potential for a longitudinal disease modifying effect.
Maria Teresa Restivo
Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.
assist learning disabled students in gaining such skills. This VIRART researchers are also working on providing support for autistic students. In this...on the use of VR to help autistic children. In their first effort, these researchers used Street World to investigate the usability of the technology ...ANALYSES Educational Uses of Virtual Reality Technology Christine Youngblut mm QUALITY INSPECTED B, 19980325 036 / . , This work was conducted
Barletta, Michael; Crete, Jean-Maurice; Pickett, Susan
Virtual reality (VR) tools have already been developed and deployed in the nuclear industry, including in nuclear power plant construction, project management, equipment and system design, and training. Recognized as powerful tools for, inter alia, integration of data, simulation of activities, design of facilities, validation of concepts and mission planning, their application in nuclear safeguards is still very limited. However, VR tools may eventually offer transformative potential for evolving the future safeguards system to be more fully information-driven. The paper focuses especially on applications in the area of training that have been underway in the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It also outlines future applications envisioned for safeguards information and knowledge management, and information-analytic collaboration. The paper identifies some technical and programmatic pre-requisites for realizing the integrative potential of VR technologies. If developed with an orientation to integrating applications through compatible platforms, software, and models, virtual reality tools offer the long-term potential of becoming a real 'game changer,' enabling a qualitative leap in the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards. The IAEA invites Member States, industry, and academia to make proposals as to how such integrating potential in the use of virtual reality technology for nuclear safeguards could be realized. (author)
Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)
Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.
Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric
Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hürst, W.O.; Iwai, Daisuke; Balakrishnan, Prabhakaran
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are expected by many to become the next wave of computing with significant impacts on our daily lives. Motivated by this, we organized a workshop on “Multimodal Virtual and Augmented Reality (MVAR)” at the 18th ACM International Conference on
Abdul-Hadi Ghazi Abulrub
Full Text Available Virtual reality has achieved an adequate level of development for it to be considered in innovative applications such as education, training, and research in higher education. Virtual reality offers both opportunities and challenges for the educational sector. One of the challenges of virtual reality technology is the costs associated which have been unaffordable for educational institutes. However, in recent years, computer hardware and software development has made it more feasible to incorporate virtual reality technology into future teaching strategies. Despite the cost challenges, educational benefits of implementing virtual reality remain compelling. This paper explains virtual reality principle and describes the interactive educational environment developed at WMG, the University of Warwick. It also discusses the benefits of using state-of-the-art 3D photorealistic interactive and immersive virtual environment for engineering undergraduates and postgraduate teaching, learning and training.
Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos
Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow
Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.
Full Text Available Recently, virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Freeman, Daniel; Bradley, Jonathan; Antley, Angus; Bourke, Emilie; DeWeever, Natalie; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel; Clark, David M.
Background Persecutory delusions may be unfounded threat beliefs maintained by safety-seeking behaviours that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being successfully processed. Use of virtual reality could facilitate new learning. Aims To test the hypothesis that enabling patients to test the threat predictions of persecutory delusions in virtual reality social environments with the dropping of safety-seeking behaviours (virtual reality cognitive therapy) would lead to greater delusion reduction than exposure alone (virtual reality exposure). Method Conviction in delusions and distress in a real-world situation were assessed in 30 patients with persecutory delusions. Patients were then randomised to virtual reality cognitive therapy or virtual reality exposure, both with 30 min in graded virtual reality social environments. Delusion conviction and real-world distress were then reassessed. Results In comparison with exposure, virtual reality cognitive therapy led to large reductions in delusional conviction (reduction 22.0%, P = 0.024, Cohen's d = 1.3) and real-world distress (reduction 19.6%, P = 0.020, Cohen's d = 0.8). Conclusion Cognitive therapy using virtual reality could prove highly effective in treating delusions. PMID:27151071
Cornell, Richard; Bailey, Dan
Virtual Reality (VR) is a new medium which allows total stimulation of one's senses through human/computer interfaces. VR has applications in training simulators, nano-science, medicine, entertainment, electronic technology, and manufacturing. This paper focuses on some current and potential problems of virtual reality and virtual environments…
Shapiro, Michael A.; McDonald, Daniel G.
Shows that communication and social psychology research in the past 100 years have identified 2 different aspects of reality evaluation. Outlines the critical elements to form a theory of media reality effects. Extends that theory to include virtual reality, and shows how virtual reality will be an important tool for investigating these effects.…
Andreano, Joseph; Liang, Kevin; Kong, Lingjun; Hubbard, David; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D
Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy should increase as the experience becomes more immersive. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of immersion are not yet well understood. To address this question, neural activity during exposure to two virtual worlds was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two levels of immersion were used: unimodal (video only) and multimodal (video plus audio). The results indicated increased activity in both auditory and visual sensory cortices during multimodal presentation. Additionally, multimodal presentation elicited increased activity in the hippocampus, a region well known to be involved in learning and memory. The implications of this finding for exposure therapy are discussed.
Paris, Megan M; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C; Bordnick, Patrick S; Day, Susan X; Armsworth, Mary W; Cinciripini, Paul M
Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it remains poorly understood whether contextual cues from the environment contribute to craving increases in addition to specific cues, like cigarettes. This study examined the role of contextual cues in a VR environment to evoke craving. Smokers were exposed to a virtual convenience store devoid of any specific cigarette cues followed by exposure to the same convenience store with specific cigarette cues added. Smokers reported increased craving following exposure to the virtual convenience store without specific cues, and significantly greater craving following the convenience store with cigarette cues added. However, increased craving recorded after the second convenience store may have been due to the pre-exposure to the first convenience store. This study offers evidence that an environmental context where cigarette cues are normally present (but are not), elicits significant craving in the absence of specific cigarette cues. This finding suggests that VR may have stronger ecological validity over traditional cue reactivity exposure methods by exposing smokers to the full range of cigarette-related environmental stimuli, in addition to specific cigarette cues, that smokers typically experience in their daily lives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kyriakou, Marios; Pan, Xueni; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos
This study examines attributes of virtual human behavior that may increase the plausibility of a simulated crowd and affect the user's experience in Virtual Reality. Purpose-developed experiments in both Immersive and semi-Immersive Virtual Reality systems queried the impact of collision and basic interaction between real-users and the virtual crowd and their effect on the apparent realism and ease of navigation within Virtual Reality (VR). Participants' behavior and subjective measurements i...
Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketom, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu
Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5 percent on average compared to AR ( ). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3 percent slower in VR than in AR ( ). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.
Arief, Rifiana; Umniati, Naeli
Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students' needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a) having...
Rifiana Arief; Naeli Umniati
ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning we...
Abdul-Hadi Ghazi Abulrub; Alex Attridge; Mark A Williams
Virtual reality has achieved an adequate level of development for it to be considered in innovative applications such as education, training, and research in higher education. Virtual reality offers both opportunities and challenges for the educational sector. One of the challenges of virtual reality technology is the costs associated which have been unaffordable for educational institutes. However, in recent years, computer hardware and software development has made it more feasible to incor...
Kim, Bo Ryun; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Lee Suk; Park, Ji Young
Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality on the recovery of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Method Twenty-eight patients (11 males and 17 females, mean age 64.2) with cognitive impairment following stroke were recruited for this study. All patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, the virtual reality (VR) group (n=15) or the control group (n=13). The VR group received both virtual reality training and computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, whereas the cont...
Sagardia, Mikel; Hertkorn, Katharina; Hulin, Thomas; Wolff, Robin; Hummel, Johannes; Dodiya, Janki; Gerndt, Andreas
The growth of space debris is becoming a serious problem. There is an urgent need for mitigation measures based on maintenance, repair and de-orbiting technologies. Our video presents a virtual reality framework in which robotic maintenance tasks of satellites can be simulated interactively. The two key components of this framework are a realistic virtual reality simulation and an immersive interaction device. The peculiarity of the virtual reality simulation is the combi...
Ivan Stojšić; Anđelija Ivkov Džigurski; Olja Maričić; Ljubica Ivanović Bibić; Smiljana Đukičin Vučković
Abstract Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oc...
Lisewski, A. M.
We approach the virtual reality phenomenon by studying its relationship to set theory, and we investigate the case where this is done using the wellfoundedness property of sets. Our hypothesis is that non-wellfounded sets (hypersets) give rise to a different quality of virtual reality than do familiar wellfounded sets. We initially provide an alternative approach to virtual reality based on Sommerhoff's idea of first and second order self-awareness; both categories of self-awareness are consi...
Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J
This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.
Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.
North, M M; North, S M; Coble, J R
Behavioral therapy techniques for treating phobias often includes graded exposure of the patient to anxiety-producing stimuli (Systematic Desensitization). However, in utilizing systematic desensitization, research reviews demonstrate that many patients appear to have difficulty in applying imaginative techniques. This chapter describes the Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT), a new therapeutical approach that can be used to overcome some of the difficulties inherent in the traditional treatment of phobias. VRT, like current imaginal and in vivo modalities, can generate stimuli that could be utilized in desensitization therapy. Like systematic desensitization therapy, VRT can provide stimuli for patients who have difficulty in imagining scenes and/or are too phobic to experience real situations. As far as we know, the idea of using virtual reality technology to combat psychological disorders was first conceived within the Human-Computer Interaction Group at Clark Atlanta University in November 1992. Since then, we have successfully conducted the first known pilot experiments in the use of virtual reality technologies in the treatment of specific phobias: fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of being in certain situations (such as a dark barn, an enclosed bridge over a river, and in the presence of an animal [a black cat] in a dark room), and fear of public speaking. The results of these experiments are described.
Mirghani, I; Mushtaq, F; Allsop, M J; Al-Saud, L M; Tickhill, N; Potter, C; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M
Virtual reality simulators are becoming increasingly popular in dental schools across the world. But to what extent do these systems reflect actual dental ability? Addressing this question of construct validity is a fundamental step that is necessary before these systems can be fully integrated into a dental school's curriculum. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the Simodont (a haptic virtual reality dental simulator) to differences in dental training experience. Two hundred and eighty-nine participants, with 1 (n = 92), 3 (n = 79), 4 (n = 57) and 5 (n = 61) years of dental training, performed a series of tasks upon their first exposure to the simulator. We found statistically significant differences between novice (Year 1) and experienced dental trainees (operationalised as 3 or more years of training), but no differences between performance of experienced trainees with varying levels of experience. This work represents a crucial first step in understanding the value of haptic virtual reality simulators in dental education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bricken, Meredith; Byrne, Chris M.
The goal of this study was to take a first step in evaluating the potential of virtual reality (VR) as a learning environment. The context of the study was The Technology Academy, a technology-oriented summer day camp for students ages 5-18, where student activities center around hands-on exploration of new technology (e.g., robotics, MIDI digital…
Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Zamora, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Narasimhan, Bharathwaj; Nikolic, Milena I.; Lopez, Jesus; Gorospe, Jorge; Sanchez, Eduardo; Lastres, Carmen; Mohedano, Ruben
In present commercial Virtual Reality (VR) headsets the resolution perceived is still limited, since the VR pixel density (typically 10-15 pixels/deg) is well below what the human eye can resolve (60 pixels/deg). We present here novel advanced optical design approaches that dramatically increase the perceived resolution of the VR keeping the large FoV required in VR applications. This approach can be applied to a vast number of optical architectures, including some advanced configurations, as multichannel designs. All this is done at the optical design stage, and no eye tracker is needed in the headset.
Huang, M.; Papka, M.; DeFanti, T.; Kettunen, L.
The authors describe the use of the CAVE virtual reality visualization environment as an aid to the design of accelerator magnets. They have modeled an elliptical multipole wiggler magnet being designed for use at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The CAVE environment allows the authors to explore and interact with the 3-D visualization of the magnet. Capabilities include changing the number of periods the magnet displayed, changing the icons used for displaying the magnetic field, and changing the current in the electromagnet and observing the effect on the magnetic field and particle beam trajectory through the field
Jin, Bei; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary
It is difficult to understand verbal descriptions of visual phenomenon if one has no such experience. Virtual Reality offers a unique opportunity to "experience" diminished vision and the problems it causes in daily life. We have developed an application to simulate age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, protanopia, and diabetic retinopathy in a familiar setting. The application also includes the introduction of eye anatomy representing both normal and pathologic states. It is designed for patient education, health care practitioner training, and eye care specialist education.
Full Text Available After a stroke many people have serious problems in motion activity, decline in cognitive activity, as well as a number of psychological problems that may accompany the man for many years. Motivational rehabilitation component plays a decisive role in the process of recovery after suffering a stroke. At present one of the most successful methods of rehabilitation is considered to be a recovery through "observation-imitation”, because this method enhances the plasticity of the brain and, as a result, rehabilitation potential. Modern rehabilitation using virtual reality had demonstrated good results to improve motor and cognitive skills, as well as the psychological condition
Baeza, Guillermo; Cabrera, Esteban; Salve, Ricardo
TECNATOM is a Spanish company focused in providing support to the energy sector. Training, operation engineering and inspection services in nuclear environments are the main business of the company. Emerging applications based on Virtual Reality (VR) are being demanded by the market as a response to the current cost reduction trend and to the new challenges arising in decommissioning of NPP's, human factors analysis and training of personnel in high risk tasks. On this respect, Tecnatom has launched several initiatives to consolidate its internal capabilities in VR and to acquire consulting skills for the Tecnatom market. The results of theses actions will be shown in this paper. (Author)
Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; von Buchwald, Christian
Background: Virtual reality (VR) bronchoscopy simulators have been available for more than a decade, and have been recognized as an important aid in bronchoscopy training. The existing literature has only examined the role of VR simulators in diagnostic bronchoscopy. The aim of this study......, the physicians answered a questionnaire regarding the realism of the simulator. Results: The realism of the anatomy and the appearance of the scope were rated higher than the movement of the scope, feeling of resistance, and performances of bronchoalveolar lavages and biopsies. Overall, the simulator was judged...
This volume addresses virtual reality (VR) -- a tantalizing communication medium whose essence challenges our most deeply held notions of what communication is or can be. The editors have gathered an expert team of engineers, social scientists, and cultural theorists for the first extensive treatment of human communication in this exciting medium. The first part introduces the reader to VR's state-of-the-art as well as future trends. In the next section, leading research scientists discuss how knowledge of communication can be used to build more effective and exciting communication applicati
Green, Joel; Smith, Denise; Smith, Louis Chad; Lawton, Brandon; Lockwood, Alexandra; Jirdeh, Hussein
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), NASA’s next great observatory launching in spring 2019, will routinely showcase astrophysical concepts that will challenge the public's understanding. Emerging technologies such as virtual reality bring the viewer into the data and the concept in previously unimaginable immersive detail. For example, we imagine a spacefarer inside a protoplanetary disk, seeing the accretion process directly. STScI is pioneering some tools related to JWST for showcasing at AAS, and in local events, which I highlight here. If we develop materials properly tailored to this medium, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before.
Ohtani, Hiroaki; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Shoji, Mamoru; Ishiguro, Seiji; Ohno, Nobuaki
We introduce new software for analysis of time-varying simulation data and new approach for contribution of simulation to experiment by virtual reality (VR) technology. In the new software, the objects of time-varying field are visualized in VR space and the particle trajectories in the time-varying electromagnetic field are also traced. In the new approach, both simulation results and experimental device data are simultaneously visualized in VR space. These developments enhance the study of the phenomena in plasma physics and fusion plasmas. (author)
Since the first virtual reality (VR) system was developed by Dr. Ivan Sutherland in the 1960s, various research and development have been conducted to apply VR to many fields. One promising applications is a nuclear-related one. VR is useful for control room design support, operation training, maintenance training, decommissioning planning support, nuclear education, work image sharing, telecollaboration, and even providing an experimental test-bed. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of VR is presented first, and various VR applications to nuclear fields are stated along with their advantages. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR are summarized and future prospects are given. (author)
This paper presents two projects focused to support training on maintenance using new technologies. Both projects aims at specifying. designing, developing, and demonstrating prototypes allowing computer guided maintenance of complex mechanical elements using Virtual Reality (VIRMAN) and Augmented Reality (STARMATE) techniques. VIRMAN project is dedicated to training course development on maintenance using Virtual Reality. It based in the animation of three dimension images for component assembly/de-assembly or equipment movements. STARMATE will rely on Augmented Reality techniques which is a growing area in virtual Reality research. The idea of Augmented Reality is to combine a real scene, viewed by the user, with a virtual scene generated by a computer augmenting the reality with additional information. (Author)
This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...
Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features.
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland
Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Software Documentation]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.
Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland
Ternier, S., & Klemke, R. (2011). ARLearn and StreetLearn software for virtual reality and augmented reality multi user learning games (Version 1.0) [Computer software]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.
Ferrer, Marta (Ferrer García); Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Pla Sanjuanelo, Joana
Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical samp...
Pertaub, D P; Slater, M; Barker, C
Can virtual reality exposure therapy be used to treat people with social phobia? To answer this question it is vital to known if people will respond to virtual humans (avatars) in a virtual social setting in the same way they would to real humans. If someone is extremely anxious with real people, will they also be anxious when faced with simulated people, despite knowing that the avatars are computer generated? In  we described a small pilot study that placed 10 people before a virtual audience. The purpose was to assess the extent to which social anxiety, specifically fear of public speaking, was induced by the virtual audience and the extent of influence of degree of immersion (head mounted display or desktop monitor. The current paper describes a follow up study conducted with 40 subjects and the results clearly show that not only is social anxiety induced by the audience, but the degree of anxiety experienced is directly related to the type of virtual audience feedback the speaker receives. In particular, a hostile negative audience scenario was found to generate strong affect in speakers, regardless of whether or not they normally suffered from fear of public speaking.
Brody, Bill; Chappell, Glenn G.; Hartman, Chris
Interactive voxel graphics in virtual reality poses significant research challenges in terms of interface, file I/O, and real-time algorithms. Voxel graphics is not so new, as it is the focus of a good deal of scientific visualization. Interactive voxel creation and manipulation is a more innovative concept. Scientists are understandably reluctant to manipulate data. They collect or model data. A scientific analogy to interactive graphics is the generation of initial conditions for some model. It is used as a method to test those models. We, however, are in the business of creating new data in the form of graphical imagery. In our endeavor, science is a tool and not an end. Nevertheless, there is a whole class of interactions and associated data generation scenarios that are natural to our way of working and that are also appropriate to scientific inquiry. Annotation by sketching or painting to point to and distinguish interesting and important information is very significant for science as well as art. Annotation in 3D is difficult without a good 3D interface. Interactive graphics in virtual reality is an appropriate approach to this problem.
Diembacher, F. X.
Large screen immersive visualization has gained enormous momentum in the last few years. The oil industry has quickly appreciate the value virtual reality centers bring to the practising engineer and to asset teams. While early concepts emphasized visualization, people soon realized that virtual reality rooms offer more: they are places where people come together, they are places where people want to collaborate. Subsequently these environments were also called Decisionariums, Collaboration Centers, Visionariums, etc. GeoQuest branded these rooms iCenters, a term which encompasses all the potential usages of this environment. is tands for information, internet, interaction, interpretation, impact, etc. iCenters are used for interpretation and analysis of complex models (e.g. 3D seismic interpretation, viewing of simulation models with hundreds of thousands of cells) and for multi-disciplinary working (e.g. planning of advanced wells typically for (deep) offshore environments currently increases by several hundred percent being built in Nigeria-more are being planned. This concepts for building iCenters, examples of how oil companies around the world and in Nigeria use these environments to foster collaboration and reduce costs, and latest developments in the area of remote collaboration (i.e., connected iCenters)
Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A.; Golianu, Brenda
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. PMID:28644422
Gomez-Arguello, B.; Gonzalez, F.; Salve, R.
The application of Virtual Reality for training in radiological environments allows the planning analysis and training in tasks which will be performed later in a real environment, saving doses to the real workers. There are many advantages of using VR in the training field comparing with a traditional training based on entries to the radiological areas and 2D studies: The application of the VR to the nuclear industry will provide in a middle period a more efficient training in radiological environments, giving more fidelity to the real world, enforcing the spatial skills and the active learning and allowing the visualization of the radiation field and the more suitable routes. TECNATOM has been working in VR field through several to test the adequacy of this methodology. Specifically, the SIMU2 project has been developed. This is a Virtual Reality highly flexible based software tool which allows for the simulation of human tasks in radiological environments, providing dosimetric information in all the points of the environment as well as the doses received by the workers during the simulated tasks performance. This application can be used as a support tool in training courses, to train the operators who will perform the real operation. Besides, the system allows the trainer to enter comments and explanations for each selected action or for the complete task. (Author) 8 refs
Won, Andrea Stevenson; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Tataru, Christine; Yoon, Isabel A; Golianu, Brenda
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice.
Pietraszewski, Noah; Dhillon, Ranbir; Green, Melissa
By viewing fluid dynamic isosurfaces in virtual reality (VR), many of the issues associated with the rendering of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen can be addressed. In addition, viewing a variety of unsteady 3D data sets in VR opens up novel opportunities for education and community outreach. In this work, the vortex wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel was visualized using a three-dimensional structural model of Q-criterion isosurfaces rendered in virtual reality using the HTC Vive. Utilizing the Unity cross-platform gaming engine, a program was developed to allow the user to control and change this model's position and orientation in three-dimensional space. In addition to controlling the model's position and orientation, the user can ``scroll'' forward and backward in time to analyze the formation and shedding of vortices in the wake. Finally, the user can toggle between different quantities, while keeping the time step constant, to analyze flow parameter relationships at specific times during flow development. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an award from NYS Department of Economic Development (DED) through the Syracuse Center of Excellence.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is based on virtual reality to assisted pick and place tasks. Virtual reality can be utilized to control remote robot for pick and place element. The operator monitored and controlled the situation information of working site by Human Machine Interface. Therefore, we worked in harsh or dangerous environments that thing can be avoided. The procedure to operate mobile robot in virtual reality describes as follow: An experiment site with really experimental equipment is first established. Then, the experimental equipment and scene modeling are input to virtual reality for establishing a environment similar to the reality. Finally, the remote mobile robot is controlled to operate pick and place tasks through wireless communication by the object operation in virtual reality. The robot consists of a movable robot platform and robotic arm. The virtual reality is constructed by EON software; the Human Machine Interface is established by Visual Basic. The wireless connection is equipped the wireless Bluetooth, which is set the PC and PLC controller. With experimental tests to verify the robot in virtual reality and the wireless remote control, the robot could be operated and controlled to successfully complete pick and place tasks in reality by Human Machine Interface.
Brey, Philip A.E.
This essay addresses ethical aspects of the design and use of virtual reality (VR) systems, focusing on the behavioral options made available in such systems and the manner in which reality is represented or simulated in them. An assessment is made of the morality of immoral behavior in virtual
van der Wal, C.N.; Hermans, A.; Bosse, T.
A Virtual Reality based training can be an interesting method to teach crowd managers and emergency responders how to act in emergency situations under pressure. Compared to watching Two-Dimensional Video, Virtual Reality is assumed to induce stronger emotions and a more real-life experience of the
Discussion of the use of virtual reality in higher education looks at how this emerging computer-based technology can promote learning that engages all seven forms of intelligence proposed in H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Technical and conceptual issues in implementation of virtual reality in education are also examined.…
Chen, Chih Hung; Yang, Jie Chi; Shen, Sarah; Jeng, Ming Chang
In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality principles. A study was conducted to observe the influences of the proposed system in learning.…
Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng
This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…
Kramer, Teresa L; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Savary, Patricia E; Smith, Jeffrey L; Jegley, Susan M
Implementation of evidence-based, innovative treatments is necessary to address posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related mental health problems of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF) military service personnel. The purpose of this study was to characterize mental health clinicians' perceptions of virtual reality as an assessment tool or adjunct to exposure therapy. Focus groups were conducted with 18 prescribing and nonprescribing mental health clinicians within the Veterans Health Administration. Group discussion was digitally recorded, downloaded into Ethnograph software, and coded to arrive at primary, secondary, and tertiary themes. Most frequently mentioned barriers pertained to aspects of virtual reality, followed by veteran characteristics. Organizational barriers were more relevant when implementing virtual reality as a treatment adjunct. Although the study demonstrated that use of virtual reality as a therapy was feasible and acceptable to clinicians, successful implementation of the technology as an assessment and treatment tool will depend on consideration of the facilitators and barriers that were identified.
Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad
With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to
Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael
Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.
Full Text Available The use of virtual elements for developing new service prototyping environments and more realistic simulations has been suggested as a way to optimise the service prototyping process. This work examines the application of virtual reality (VR in prototyping service journeys and it hypothesises that VR can recreate service journeys in a highly immersive, agile, and inexpensive manner, thus allowing users to have a representative service experience and enabling service designers to extract high-quality user feedback. To that end, a new service prototyping method, called VR service walkthrough, is presented and evaluated through an empirical comparative study. A VR service walkthrough is a virtual simulation of a service journey, representing how the service unfolds over space and time. A comparative study between the VR service walkthrough method and an adapted service walkthrough method evaluates the application of both methods using a location-based audio tour guide service as a case study. Two user groups (each with 21 users were used to evaluate both methods based on two factors: the user experience they offered and the subjective meaningfulness and quality of feedback they produced. Results show that the VR service walkthrough method gave a performance similar to that of the service walkthrough method. It was also able to communicate the service concept in an immersive way and foster constructive feedback.
This is a study on the creation of social reality in virtual setting such as chat/discussion/list groups, based on a theoretical framework of social and cultural reality. It was tried to be found how closer one can get to and create the reality in relation with others in virtual settings. It is a survey type study. For this, a virtually communicated group (45 persons) was selected and given a questionnaire in their natural virtual settings. The members were questioned on their socializatio...
Grossmann, Rafael J
The new term improved reality (i-Reality) is suggested to include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). It refers to a real world that includes improved, enhanced and digitally created features that would offer an advantage on a particular occasion (i.e., a medical act). I-Reality may help us bridge the gap between the high demand for medical providers and the low supply of them by improving the interaction between providers and patients.
Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana
Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical sample. The results show that exposure to virtual environments provokes changes in reported craving for food. High-calorie food cues are the ones that elicit the highest increases in craving.
Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT
The author explores the concept of reality-testing as a means of assessing the relationship with reality that prevails in dream and in virtual reality. Based on a model developed by Jean Laplanche, she compares these activities in detail in order to determine their respective independence from the function of reality-testing. By carefully examining the concept of hallucination in the writings of Freud and Daniel Dennett, the author seeks to pinpoint the specific modalities of interaction between perceptions, ideas, wishes and actions that converge in the 'belief' and in the 'sense of reality'. The paper's main thesis consists of the distinction that it draws between immediacy-testing and reality-testing, with the further argument that this distinction not only dissipates the conceptual vagueness that generally surrounds the latter of the two concepts but also that it promotes a more precise analysis of the function of reality in dream and in virtual reality.
In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)
Orlosky, Jason; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Haruo
In recent years, virtual and augmented reality have begun to take advantage of the high speed capabilities of data streaming technologies and wireless networks. However, limitations like bandwidth and latency still prevent us from achieving high fidelity telepresence and collaborative virtual and augmented reality applications. Fortunately, both researchers and engineers are aware of these problems and have set out to design 5G networks to help us to move to the next generation of virtual int...
exposures. The initial, prototype model goal was to see if the subjects were able to use the addresses smallpox and uses chicken pox and system, and to...Barcelona, Spain training for schizophrenia as well as cognitive Autonomous University of State of Mexico therapy for autism. This study developed a system...Toluca, Mexico for measuring schizophrenia patients’ behavioral E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org characteristics in a Virtual
Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper
virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body......Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting......-illusions both in-lab and out-of-lab. The in-lab study was carried out as a traditional experiment with state-of-the-art VR equipment; 31 completed the study in our laboratory. The out-of-lab study was conducted by distributing commodity cardboard VR glasses to participants; 57 completed the study anywhere...
von Spiczak, J.; Samset, E.; DiMaio, S.; Reitmayr, G.; Schmalstieg, D.; Burghart, C.; Kikinis, R.
Applications in the fields of virtual and augmented reality as well as image-guided medical applications make use of a wide variety of hardware devices. Existing frameworks for interconnecting low-level devices and high-level application programs do not exploit the full potential for processing events coming from arbitrary sources and are not easily generalizable. In this paper, we will introduce a new multi-modal event processing methodology using dynamically-typed event attributes for event passing between multiple devices and systems. The existing OpenTracker framework was modified to incorporate a highly flexible and extensible event model, which can store data that is dynamically created and arbitrarily typed at runtime. The main factors impacting the library's throughput were determined and the performance was shown to be sufficient for most typical applications. Several sample applications were developed to take advantage of the new dynamic event model provided by the library, thereby demonstrating its flexibility and expressive power.
White, David; Ciorciari, Joseph; Carbis, Colin; Liley, David
The study investigated hypnosis-related electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence and power spectra changes in high and low hypnotizables (Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale) induced by a virtual reality hypnosis (VRH) induction system. In this study, the EEG from 17 participants (Mean age = 21.35, SD = 1.58) were compared based on their hypnotizability score. The EEG recording associated with a 2-minute, eyes-closed baseline state was compared to the EEG during a hypnosis-related state. This novel induction system was able to produce EEG findings consistent with previous hypnosis literature. Interactions of significance were found with EEG beta coherence. The high susceptibility group (n = 7) showed decreased coherence, while the low susceptibility group (n = 10) demonstrated an increase in coherence between medial frontal and lateral left prefrontal sites. Methodological and efficacy issues are discussed.
Martínez, Luis A.; Villarreal, José L.; Ángeles, Fernando; Bernal, Abel
Astronomical observatories and telescopes are becoming increasingly large and complex systems, demanding to any potential user the acquirement of great amount of information previous to access them. At present, the most common way to overcome that information is through the implementation of larger graphical user interfaces and computer monitors to increase the display area. Tonantzintla Observatory has a 1-m telescope with a remote observing system. As a step forward in the improvement of the telescope software, we have designed a Virtual Reality (VR) environment that works as an extension of the remote system and allows us to operate the telescope. In this work we explore this alternative technology that is being suggested here as a software platform for the operation of the 1-m telescope.
Zhao, Dong; Lucas, Jason
Safety is a critical issue for the construction industry. Literature argues that human error contributes to more than half of occupational incidents and could be directly impacted by effective training programs. This paper reviews the current safety training status in the US construction industry. Results from the review evidence the gap between the status and industry expectation on safety. To narrow this gap, this paper demonstrates the development and utilisation of a training program that is based on virtual reality (VR) simulation. The VR-based safety training program can offer a safe working environment where users can effectively rehearse tasks with electrical hazards and ultimately promote their abilities for electrical hazard cognition and intervention. Its visualisation and simulation can also remove the training barriers caused by electricity's features of invisibility and dangerousness.
Garvey, Gregory P.
This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.
Morie, Jacquelyn F.
Virtual reality has been in the public eye for nearly forty years. Its early promise was vast: worlds we could visit and live in, if we could bend the technology to our desires. Progress was made, but along the way the original directions and challenges of fully immersive VR took a back seat to more ubiquitous technology such as games that provided many of the same functions. What was lost in this transition was the potential for VR to become a stage for encounters that are meaningful, those experiences that tap into what it means to be human. This paper describes examples of such experiences using VR technology and puts forward several avenues of thought concerning how we might reinvigorate these types of VR explorations.
Stowers, John R; Hofbauer, Maximilian; Bastien, Renaud; Griessner, Johannes; Higgins, Peter; Farooqui, Sarfarazhussain; Fischer, Ruth M; Nowikovsky, Karin; Haubensak, Wulf; Couzin, Iain D; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Straw, Andrew D
Standard animal behavior paradigms incompletely mimic nature and thus limit our understanding of behavior and brain function. Virtual reality (VR) can help, but it poses challenges. Typical VR systems require movement restrictions but disrupt sensorimotor experience, causing neuronal and behavioral alterations. We report the development of FreemoVR, a VR system for freely moving animals. We validate immersive VR for mice, flies, and zebrafish. FreemoVR allows instant, disruption-free environmental reconfigurations and interactions between real organisms and computer-controlled agents. Using the FreemoVR platform, we established a height-aversion assay in mice and studied visuomotor effects in Drosophila and zebrafish. Furthermore, by photorealistically mimicking zebrafish we discovered that effective social influence depends on a prospective leader balancing its internally preferred directional choice with social interaction. FreemoVR technology facilitates detailed investigations into neural function and behavior through the precise manipulation of sensorimotor feedback loops in unrestrained animals.
Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M
The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.
Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…
Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…
Wilson, Andrew S; O'Connor, Jake; Taylor, Lewis; Carruthers, David
Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill that medical students often find difficult to become proficient in. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an innovative 3D virtual reality (VR) training application to support learning these skills. The VR ophthalmoscope was developed by a clinical team and technologist using the unity game engine, smartphone and virtual reality headset. It has a series of tasks that include performing systematic eye examinations, identifying common eye pathologies and a knowledge quiz. As part of their clinical training, 15 fourth-year medical students were surveyed for their views on this teaching approach. The Technology Acceptance Model was used to evaluate perceived usefulness and ease of use. Data were also collected on the usability of the app, together with the students' written comments about it. Users agreed that the teaching approach improved their understanding of ophthalmoscopy (n = 14), their ability to identify landmarks in the eye (n = 14) and their ability to recognise abnormalities (n = 15). They found the app easy to use (n = 15), the teaching approach informative (n = 13) and that it would increase students' confidence when performing these tasks in future (n = 15). Performing eye examinations is an important clinical skill DISCUSSION: The evaluation showed that a VR app can successfully simulate the processes involved in performing eye examinations. The app was highly rated for all elements of perceived usefulness, ease of use and usability. Medical students stated that they would like to be taught other medical skills in this way in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Lee Steven O. Zantua
Full Text Available Virtual Reality is fast becoming a breakthrough in education technology and is headed towards a path where learning has become immersive. Virtual reality (VR offers both learners and educators a great opportunity to bridge gaps in the pedagogical sense. With the emergence of the Google Cardboard (GCB platform, a low-cost, virtual reality gadget comes a wide range of opportunities for educators and institutions to bring about an immersive type of learning environment for the 21st-century learner. Using Grade 6 Middle school students, this research explores the learning outcomes and student reactions using the GCB and Google Expeditions application. The study showed no significant difference in pre-test scores of the control and experimental group. There is however, a significant difference in the scores of the experimental group compared to the control group after post-test. Utilizing t-test in comparing the two groups, it was found that the mean of the post-test scores for Group A (experimental was significantly higher than Group B(control. The result of the independent samples t-test was significant, t(18 = 2.33, p = .032, suggesting that the mean of posttest score was significantly different between Groups A and B. This difference in score performance gives light to how VR can be used as a tool that enhances the learning experience. By using VR technology that is low cost and effective, more institutions will be able to help students learn better.
Liu Pengfei; Yang Yanhua; Yang Yongmu; Duan Dongdong; Luo Jie
Based on detailed analysis of the structure and key techniques of a virtual reality system, the applications of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant (NPP) were developed. In order to meet the requirement of simulation in NPP, motion simulation of control rod drive system, walking system inside the containment and virtual main control room were presented. A simulator of NPP was connected to interchange dynamic data between virtual main control room and the simulator. The simulating results show that the technique of virtual reality can be applied well to the simulation inside containment, which is filled with activity material, and the simulation of virtual main control room, where human factors must be considered. It also can be used well to design virtual education and training system of NPP. (authors)
Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Mårvik, Ronald; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina
To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.
Guerriero, Ludovica; Quero, Giuseppe; Diana, Michele; Soler, Luc; Agnus, Vincent; Marescaux, Jacques; Corcione, Francesco
Medical software can build a digital clone of the patient with 3-dimensional reconstruction of Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine images. The virtual clone can be manipulated (rotations, zooms, etc), and the various organs can be selectively displayed or hidden to facilitate a virtual reality preoperative surgical exploration and planning. We present preliminary cases showing the potential interest of virtual reality in colorectal surgery for both cases of diverticular disease and colonic neoplasms. This was a single-center feasibility study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care institution. Two patients underwent a laparoscopic left hemicolectomy for diverticular disease, and 1 patient underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for cancer. The 3-dimensional virtual models were obtained from preoperative CT scans. The virtual model was used to perform preoperative exploration and planning. Intraoperatively, one of the surgeons was manipulating the virtual reality model, using the touch screen of a tablet, which was interactively displayed to the surgical team. The main outcome was evaluation of the precision of virtual reality in colorectal surgery planning and exploration. In 1 patient undergoing laparoscopic left hemicolectomy, an abnormal origin of the left colic artery beginning as an extremely short common trunk from the inferior mesenteric artery was clearly seen in the virtual reality model. This finding was missed by the radiologist on CT scan. The precise identification of this vascular variant granted a safe and adequate surgery. In the remaining cases, the virtual reality model helped to precisely estimate the vascular anatomy, providing key landmarks for a safer dissection. A larger sample size would be necessary to definitively assess the efficacy of virtual reality in colorectal surgery. Virtual reality can provide an enhanced understanding of crucial anatomical details, both preoperatively and intraoperatively, which could
Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A
To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul
There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications. This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Augmanted Reality for android handphone has been a trend among collage students of computer department who join New Media course. To develop this application, the knowladge about visual presentation theory and case study of Augmanted Reality on android phoneneed to be conducted. Learning media through virtual class can facilitate the students’ needs in learning and developing Augmanted Reality. The method of this study in developing virtual class for Augmented Reality learning were: a having preparation to arrange learning unit, b analyzing and developing the content of learning materials, c designing storyboard or scenario of the virtual class, d making website of virtual class, e implementing the website as facility of online learning for Augmanted Reality. The available facilities in virtual class were to check learning units, to choose and download the material in the forms of e-book and presentation slides, to open the relevant website link for material enrichment as well as students’ practice with pre-test and post-test for measuring students’ understanding. By implementing virtual class for Augmanted Reality learning based Android, it is expected to provide alternative learning strategies for students that are interesting and easy to understand. The students are expected to be able to utilize this facility optimally in order to achieve the purposes of learning process and graduates’ competence. Keywords: VirtualClass, Augmented Reality (AR
Full Text Available Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oculus Rift, and subsequently accelerated in the year 2014 by occurrence of Google Cardboard. Nowadays, for the first time in history, immersive virtual reality is available to millions of people. In the mid 2015 Google commenced developing Expeditions Pioneer Program aiming to massively utilise the Google Cardboard platform in education. Expeditions and other VR apps can enhance geography teaching and learning. Realistic experience acquired by utilisation of virtual reality in teaching process significantly overcome possibilities provided by images and illustrations in the textbook. Besides literature review on usage of virtual reality in education this paper presents suggestion of VR mobile apps that can be used together with the Google Cardboard head mounted displays (HMDs in geography classes, thereby emphasising advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles which may occur in introducing the immersive virtual reality in the educational process.
Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael
The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.
Simoons Maarten L
Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes. Conclusion this report shows that dynamic holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited.
Baheux, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Yasuko
Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Liang, Wen Yau; O'Grady, Peter
Computed Tomography (CT) provides a large amount of data but the presentation of the data to a physician can be less than satisfactory. Ideally, the image data should be available to physicians in interactive 3D to allow for improved visualization, planning and diagnosis. A virtual reality representation that not only allows for the manipulation of the image but also allows for the user to, in effect, move inside the image remotely would be ideal. In this paper the research associated with virtual reality is discussed. A formalism is then presented to create, from the CT data, the virtual reality world in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. An implementation is described of this formalism that uses the Internet to allow for users in remote locations to view and manipulate the virtual worlds.
Bioulac, S; de Sevin, E; Sagaspe, P; Claret, A; Philip, P; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Bouvard, M P
Virtual reality is a relatively new technology that enables individuals to immerse themselves in a virtual world. It offers several advantages including a more realistic, lifelike environment that may allow subjects to "forget" they are being assessed, allow a better participation and an increased generalization of learning. Moreover, the virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, and can also be used to evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and to aid rehabilitation of cognitive abilities. The use of virtual reality to treat various psychiatric disorders in adults (phobic anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, addictions…) and its efficacy is supported by numerous studies. Similar research for children and adolescents is lagging behind. This may be particularly beneficial to children who often show great interest and considerable success on computer, console or videogame tasks. This article will expose the main studies that have used virtual reality with children and adolescents suffering from psychiatric disorders. The use of virtual reality to treat anxiety disorders in adults is gaining popularity and its efficacy is supported by various studies. Most of the studies attest to the significant efficacy of the virtual reality exposure therapy (or in virtuo exposure). In children, studies have covered arachnophobia social anxiety and school refusal phobia. Despite the limited number of studies, results are very encouraging for treatment in anxiety disorders. Several studies have reported the clinical use of virtual reality technology for children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy. Researches are found to be focused on communication and on learning and social imitation skills. Virtual reality is also well accepted by subjects with ASD. The virtual environment offers
Crosbie, J H; Lennon, S; Basford, J R; McDonough, S M
To assess the utility of virtual reality (VR) in stroke rehabilitation. The Medline, Proquest, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo databases were electronically searched from inception/1980 to February 2005, using the keywords: Virtual reality, rehabilitation, stroke, physiotherapy/physical therapy and hemiplegia. Articles that met the study's inclusion criteria were required to: (i) be published in an English language peer reviewed journal, (ii) involve the use of VR in a stroke rehabilitation setting; and (iii) report impairment and/or activity oriented outcome measures. Two assessors independently assessed each study's quality using the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) grading system. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria: Five addressed upper limb rehabilitation, three gait and balance, two cognitive interventions, and one both upper and lower limb rehabilitation. Three were judged to be AACPDM Level I/Weak, two Level III/Weak, three Level IV/Weak and three Level V quality of evidence. All articles involved before and after interventions; three randomized controlled trials obtained statistical significance, the remaining eight studies found VR-based therapy to be beneficial. None of the studies reported any significant adverse effects. VR is a potentially exciting and safe tool for stroke rehabilitation but its evidence base is too limited by design and power issues to permit a definitive assessment of its value. Thus, while the findings of this review are generally positive, the level of evidence is still weak to moderate, in terms of research quality. Further study in the form of rigorous controlled studies is warranted.
Wu Huimin; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhao Ziran
The authors first propose a suit of CT data processing system: virtual-reality-based testing of workpiece by Reverse Modeling. For reverse modeling module, the authors propose two solutions: integrating Medical CT Modeling software and using VTK library to develop independently. Then, the authors analyze the required functions and characteristics of CT-based Reverse Modeling module, and the key technologies for developing. For virtual-reality module, the authors study characteristics of CT data and the needs of CT users, and describe the required functions and key techniques as for virtual reality displaying module. The authors still analyze the problems and prospective of development. (authors)
A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Second-Level Treatment Approaches for Treatment-Resistant Adults with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Assessing the Benefits of Virtual Reality Cue Exposure Therapy.
Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Forcano, Laura; Riesco, Nadine; Sánchez, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Dakanalis, Antonios
A question that arises from the literature on therapy is whether second-level treatment is effective for patients with recurrent binge eating who fail first-level treatment. It has been shown that subjects who do not stop binge eating after an initial structured cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) programme benefit from additional CBT (A-CBT) sessions; however, it has been suggested that these resistant patients would benefit even more from cue exposure therapy (CET) targeting features associated with poor response (e.g. urge to binge in response to a cue and anxiety experienced in the presence of binge-related cues). We assessed the effectiveness of virtual reality-CET as a second-level treatment strategy for 64 patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who had been treated with limited results after using a structured CBT programme, in comparison with A-CBT. The significant differences observed between the two groups at post-treatment in dimensional (behavioural and attitudinal features, anxiety, food craving) and categorical (abstinence rates) outcomes highlighted the superiority of virtual reality-CET over A-CBT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Bruck, Susan; Watters, Paul A
Simulated immersive environments displayed on large screens are a valuable therapeutic asset in the treatment of a range of psychological disorders. Permanent environments are expensive to build and maintain, require specialized clinician training and technical support and often have limited accessibility for clients. Ideally, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) could be accessible to the broader community if we could use inexpensive hardware with specifically designed software. This study tested whether watching a handheld non-immersive media device causes nausea and other cybersickness responses. Using a repeated measure design we found that nausea, general discomfort, eyestrain, blurred vision and an increase in salivation significantly increased in response to handheld non-immersive media device exposure.
Claire Su-Yeon Park
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR technology are entering nursing education at a rapid speed (Foronda et al., 2017. VR has been reported in the nursing literature to significantly improve students’ performance (Jenson & Forsyth, 2012; Park, 2016; Foronda et al., 2017 even though the body of evidence in terms of the number and research quality of peer reviewed research papers is not yet substantial enough to identify VR technology’s effectiveness. However, VR is not actually reality. VR may not actually reflect reality. Young people (and even adults may not perceive the different between reality and VR. They may not yet be mature enough to distinguish the difference. However, VR technology are going much further than traditional educational methods by allowing humans to experience a much higher level of immersion through a virtual image. Even the gap between advances in VR technology and its application to education science is widening, causing serious concern. The advance in VR technology is value-neutral. As with all things, whether something is good or bad depends on how humans use it. VR can be useful, for example, when it enables scholars to attend an international conference without traveling to the physical convention center. VR provides the ability to speak, listen, and discuss in real time. Those using VR can choose to view a featured or real-time image of the other participants as if they were actually at the conference. Further, remote participants can feel touch through electronic sensors attached to their body. How amazing! The problem with VR lies in the fact that we are not ready to cope with any possible harmful influences caused by advances in VR technology. But what is the “Dark Shadow of VR,” and why does it cause concern, particularly in pedagogy? Luc Besson’s 2017 film Valerian and the City of a Thousand Plants showed an exceptional VR world, “Big Market,” a shopping-focused VR platform. But such a world is no longer strictly
Full Text Available Spaces generated by new media technologies, no matter how abstract they may be, represent a qualitatively new form of the media environment. Moreover, they are integrated into everyday life in a way that they have become the constituents of social reality. Based on dualistic Cartesian understanding of real and virtual space, virtuality still carries a connotation of 'other' world, which is ontologically and phenomenologically different from 'reality'. However, virtuality as a characteristic of new media technologies should neither be equated with illusion, deception or fiction nor set in opposition to reality, given that it embodies real interactions. Instead, we could say that there are different types or levels of reality and that the virtual exists as reality qualitatively different from that of physical reality. Today, when every place on the planet, as well as social, political, and cultural activities, have their digital manifestations, can we still talk about virtual space as an isolated phenomenon? The ubiquitous use of new media technologies such as smartphones or wearables has profoundly transformed the experience of modern man. It is more and more determined by technologically mediated reality, i.e. augmented reality. In this regard, the key issues that will be addressed in this article are the ways technologically mediated spaces redefine not only the social relationships, but also the notions of identity, embodiment, and the self.
Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.
Riegel, T; Alberti, O; Retsch, R; Shiratori, V; Hellwig, D; Bertalanffy, H
Advances in computer technology have permitted virtual reality images of the ventricular system. To determine the relevance of these images we have compared virtual reality simulations of the ventricular system with endoscopic findings in three patients. The virtual fly-through can be simulated after definition of waypoints. Flight objects of interest can be viewed from all sides. Important drawbacks are that filigree structures may be missed and blood vessels cannot be distinguished clearly. However, virtual endoscopy can presently be used as a planning tool or for training and has future potential for neurosurgery.
Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.
Valeria V. Gribova
Full Text Available A toolset of a medical computer learning simulator for ophthalmology with virtual reality and its implementation are considered in the paper. The simulator is oriented for professional skills training for students of medical universities.
McCandless, R. S.; Burke, E. D.; McGinley, V. T.
Virtual reality (VR) and related technologies will assist scientists with lunar exploration and public engagement. We will present the future exponential impact of VR on lunar activities over the coming decades.
Stelios Papakonstantinou; Vesna Brujic-Okretic; Fotis Liarokapis
In this paper, we propose the use of specific system architecture, based on mobile device, for navigation in urban environments. The aim of this work is to assess how virtual and augmented reality interface paradigms can provide enhanced location based services using real-time techniques in the context of these two different technologies. The virtual reality interface is based on faithful graphical representation of the localities of interest, coupled with sensory information on the location ...
Hamacher, Alaric; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Sung Tae; Pardeshi, Sunil; Lee, Seung Hyun; Eun, Sung-Jong; Whangbo, Taeg Keun
Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications t...
Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.
The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.
Spicer, Mark A; van Velsen, Martin; Caffrey, John P; Apuzzo, Michael L J
This article details preliminary studies undertaken to integrate the most relevant advancements across multiple disciplines in an effort to construct a highly realistic neurosurgical simulator based on a distributed computer architecture. Techniques based on modified computational modeling paradigms incorporating finite element analysis are presented, as are current and projected efforts directed toward the implementation of a novel bidirectional haptic device. Patient-specific data derived from noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging sequences are used to construct a computational model of the surgical region of interest. Magnetic resonance images of the brain may be coregistered with those obtained from magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and diffusion tensor imaging to formulate models of varying anatomic complexity. The majority of the computational burden is encountered in the presimulation reduction of the computational model and allows realization of the required threshold rates for the accurate and realistic representation of real-time visual animations. Intracranial neurosurgical procedures offer an ideal testing site for the development of a totally immersive virtual reality surgical simulator when compared with the simulations required in other surgical subspecialties. The material properties of the brain as well as the typically small volumes of tissue exposed in the surgical field, coupled with techniques and strategies to minimize computational demands, provide unique opportunities for the development of such a simulator. Incorporation of real-time haptic and visual feedback is approached here and likely will be accomplished soon.
Iamsakul, Kiratipath; Pavlovcik, Alexander V; Calderon, Jesus I; Sanderson, Lance M
A cephalosomatic anastomosis (CSA; also called HEAVEN: head anastomosis venture) has been proposed as an option for patients with neurological impairments, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), and terminal medical illnesses, for which medicine is currently powerless. Protocols to prepare a patient for life after CSA do not currently exist. However, methods used in conventional neurorehabilitation can be used as a reference for developing preparatory training. Studies on virtual reality (VR) technologies have documented VR's ability to enhance rehabilitation and improve the quality of recovery in patients with neurological disabilities. VR-augmented rehabilitation resulted in increased motivation towards performing functional training and improved the biopsychosocial state of patients. In addition, VR experiences coupled with haptic feedback promote neuroplasticity, resulting in the recovery of motor functions in neurologically-impaired individuals. To prepare the recipient psychologically for life after CSA, the development of VR experiences paired with haptic feedback is proposed. This proposal aims to innovate techniques in conventional neurorehabilitation to implement preoperative psychological training for the recipient of HEAVEN. Recipient's familiarity to body movements will prevent unexpected psychological reactions from occurring after the HEAVEN procedure.
Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.
To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.
Kasai, Yasusuke; Tanaka, Kazuo; Kimura, Katsumi; Nakakosi, Tetsuhiro
We developed the prototype of the introduction system for nuclear power plant applying 3D-CAD data and the virtual reality (V.R) technologies. For the purpose of the public acceptance (PA), the use of the V.R technologies, such as CG stereographic, will be interesting for the public. Also, it is very important to introduce the components of the plant in detail, which will become easy by using the 3D-CAD data of the nuclear plant. We made a prototype system for introducing the main portion of the nuclear power plant, such as main control room, containment vessel or turbine building, applying CG stereographic by plant 3D data and artificial voice guidance for the explanations. We have exhibited this system in two local festivals at the plant sites. It has been efficient for creating plant scene by using 3D-CAD from the viewpoint of cost, and stereographic has been much attractive to the resident. The detail scenario must be investigated from the viewpoint of PA effect. Also the performance of the graphics workstation should be increased to promote the quality of the CG movie. But we think that this system will have much effective by its novelty and flexibility. (author)
Söderberg, Per; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif; Nordqvist, Per
We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification surgery. The current work aimed at developing a relative performance index that characterizes the performance of an individual trainee. We recorded measurements of 28 response variables during three iterated surgical sessions in 9 experienced cataract surgeons, separately for the sculpting phase and the evacuation phase of phacoemulsification surgery and compared their outcome to that of a reference group of naive trainees. We defined an individual overall performance index, an individual class specific performance index and an individual variable specific performance index. We found that on an average the experienced surgeons performed at a lower level than a reference group of naive trainees but that this was particularly attributed to a few surgeons. When their overall performance index was further analyzed as class specific performance index and variable specific performance index it was found that the low level performance was attributed to a behavior that is acceptable for an experienced surgeon but not for a naive trainee. It was concluded that relative performance indices should use a reference group that corresponds to the measured individual since the definition of optimal surgery may vary among trainee groups depending on their level of experience.
Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul
Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing
Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Tirosh, Emanuel; Fehlings, Darcy
Virtual reality is the use of interactive simulations to present users with opportunities to perform in virtual environments that appear, sound, and less frequently, feel similar to real-world objects and events. Interactive computer play refers to the use of a game where a child interacts and plays with virtual objects in a computer-generated environment. Because of their distinctive attributes that provide ecologically realistic and motivating opportunities for active learning, these technologies have been used in pediatric rehabilitation over the past 15 years. The ability of virtual reality to create opportunities for active repetitive motor/sensory practice adds to their potential for neuroplasticity and learning in individuals with neurologic disorders. The objectives of this article is to provide an overview of how virtual reality and gaming are used clinically, to present the results of several example studies that demonstrate their use in research, and to briefly remark on future developments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available While many towns and cities have historic origins, the modern urban landscape is often unrecognisable from the past. Over the last two thousand years innumerable changes have occurred, from the Roman period to the Industrial Revolution, culminating in wide scale development and redevelopment of towns and cities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Fragments of the past survive as extant buildings, monuments, and areas, and are offered protection through mechanisms such as the National Heritage List for England. However, these buildings are part of a dynamic and changing environment, and their place within their original landscape not always visible. Meanwhile, the advent of mainstream and accessible immersive virtual reality offers opportunities to recreate and explore the past, and to disseminate a deeper understanding of the history and historic context of our heritage assets to a broader audience via new technologies. This paper discusses a project based on Wolverhampton that aims to create immersive and 360° experiences of the historic city that allows the user or viewer to explore how the city might have been in the past from a ‘first person’ perspective. It uses multiple approaches to gather, verify and validate archival data, records, maps and building style information. The project itself is a work-in-progress, with various approaches being explored. It looks at sources of information used to inform the virtual world; software and methodologies used to create the model; different forms of VR output; potential forms of funding for wider dissemination; and problems encountered so far.
Diemer, Julia; Domschke, Katharina; Mühlberger, Andreas; Winter, Bernward; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Notzon, Swantje; Silling, Karen; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter
Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent psychiatric disorders. With regard to pharmacological treatment, antidepressants, the calcium modulator pregabalin and benzodiazepines are recommended according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to acute states of anxiety, so far practically only benzodiazepines provide an immediate anxiolytic effect. However, the risk of tolerance and dependency limits the use of this class of medication. Therefore, there is still a need for alternative pharmacologic strategies. Increasing evidence points towards anxiety-reducing properties of atypical antipsychotics, particularly quetiapine. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the putative acute anxiolytic effects of this compound, choosing the induction of acute anxiety in patients with specific phobia as a model for the evaluation of ad-hoc anxiolytic properties in a proof-of-concept approach. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 58 patients with arachnophobia were treated with a single dose of quetiapine XR or placebo prior to a virtual reality spider challenge procedure. Treatment effects were monitored using rating scales for acute anxiety as well as measurements of heart rate and skin conductance. Overall, quetiapine showed significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo. However, effects were not seen on the primary outcome measure (VAS Anxiety), but were limited to somatic anxiety symptoms. Additionally, a significant reduction of skin conductance was observed. Further exploratory analyses hint towards a mediating role of the (COMT) val158met genotype on treatment response. The present results thus suggest a possible suitability of quetiapine in the acute treatment of anxiety, particularly with regard to somatic symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Purvis, Clare K.; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O.; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C. Barr
Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants’ minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:26469860
Full Text Available Penerapan teknologi augmented reality kian diminati oleh pihak produsen untuk memasarkan produk yang dihasilkan. Teknologi augmented reality mampu meproyeksikan objek dua dimensi ataupun tiga dimensi kedalam lingkungan nyata. Teknologi virtual reality mampu membawa pengguna masuk kedalam lingkungan virtual sehingga pengguna merasa berada dalam lingkungan virtual. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknologi augmented reality yang mampu memproyeksikan objek tiga dimensi rumah sehingga katalog menjadi lebih nyata, dan teknologi virtual reality yang membuat pengguna berinteraksi langsung dengan objek tiga dimensi rumah dan merasa berada di dalam rumah. Aplikasi yang dibangun memanfaatkan sensor accelerometer yang tertanam dalam perangkat mobile android yang memungkinkan pengguna melihat seisi ruangan dengan memiringkan perangkat mobile android kekiri dan kekanan. Jumlah kamera virtual yang digunakan berjumlah lima yang diletakkan di ruang tamu, ruang keluarga, ruang kamar utama, ruang kamar anak, dan ruang dapur. Aplikasi ini berjalan pada platform android dan menggunakan personal komputer sebagai server yang menyimpan data informasi rumah. Dengan adanya aplikasi ini pengguna dapat merasakan suasana berbeda dalam melihat sebuah katalog. . Kata kunci—Augmentd Reality, Virtual Reality, Katalog, Android
Larsen, Christian R; Soerensen, Jette L; Grantcharov, Teodor P
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee......-14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pvirtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices...
Tanaka, Eduardo H.; Paludo, Juliana A.; Cordeiro, Carlúcio S.; Domingues, Leonardo R.; Gadbem, Edgar V.; Euflausino, Adriana
Usually, distribution electricians are called upon to solve technical problems found in electrical substations. In this project, we apply problem-based learning to a training program for electricians, with the help of a virtual reality environment that simulates a real substation. Using this virtual substation, users may safely practice maneuvers…
Evers, M.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Tan, T.; Shi, Y.; Gao, W.
This paper gives an overview of the Jacob project. This project in-volves the construction of a 3D virtual environment where an animated human-like agent called Jacob gives instruction to the user. The project investigates virtual reality techniques and focuses on three issues: the software
Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy
The purpose of this study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity to…
Bartneck, C.; Hu, J.; Salem, B.I.; Cristescu, R.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
We are exploring a new application of virtual and augmented reality for a novel direction in human-computer inteaction named 'cultural computing', which aims to provide a new medium for cultural translation and unconscious metamorphosis. In this application both virtual and robotic agents are
Lewis Brooks, Anthony
and the ‘Hermeneutic Action Research Recursive Reflection’ model have emerged from a body of virtual reality research called SoundScapes. The work targets all ages and all abilities through gesture-control of responsive multimedia within Virtual Interactive Space (VIS). VIS is an interactive information environment...
Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Pereira, Adriana Soares
The virtual reality is being more and more used in the education, enabling the student to find out, to explore and to build his own knowledge. This paper presents an Educational Software for presence or distance education, for subjects of Formal Language, where the student can manipulate virtually the target that must be explored, analyzed and…
Bair, Richard A.
The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…
A non cooperative markov game with several unique characteristics was introduced. Some of these characteristics include: the existence of a single phase multi server queuing model and markovian transition matrix/matrices for each game, introduction of virtual situations (virtual reality) or dummies to improve the chances ...
Chen, Chwen Jen
This article elaborates on how the technical capabilities of virtual reality support the constructivist learning principles. It introduces VRID, a model for instructional design and development that offers explicit guidance on how to produce an educational virtual environment. The define phase of VRID consists of three main tasks: forming a…
Evers, M.J.; Heemskerk, S.; Nijholt, Antinus
This paper gives an overview of the Jacob project. This project involves the construction of a 3D virtual environment where an animated human-like agent called Jacob gives instruction to the user. The project investigates virtual reality techniques and focuses on three issues: the software
van den Berg, Marc Casper; Hartmann, Timo; de Graaf, Robin S.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how design reviews can be supported with pre-meeting virtual reality environments. Previous research has not systematically investigated how virtual environments can be used to communicate the design intent (to clients) and to communicate feedback (to design
Full Text Available Fanny Levy,1 Pierre Leboucher,2 Gilles Rautureau,2 Odile Komano,2 Bruno Millet,1 Roland Jouvent1 1Department of Adults Psychiatry, 2PRISME-Virtual Reality, ICM-A- IHU, UPMC UMR_S 975, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, GH Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France Objective: Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking, we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology.Methods: Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games.Results: Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants’ scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups.Conclusion: Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism. Keywords: fear of falling, virtual reality exposure therapy, serious games, phobia, anxiety disorders
Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.
We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…
Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark
Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent
Paludan, Anders Glud; Elbaek, Jacob; Mortensen, Mathias Helmuth
In virtual reality environments that allow users to walk freely, the area of the virtual environment (VE) is constrained to the size of the tracking area. By using redirection techniques, this problem can be partially circumvented; one of the techniques involves rotating the user more or less...... in the virtual world than in the physical world; this technique is referred to as rotational gain. This paper seeks to further investigate this area, examining the effect of visual density in the VE....
Nigel Foreman; Liliya Korallo
Virtual Reality (virtual environment technology, VET) has been widely available for twenty years. In that time, the benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) have become clear in many areas of application, including assessment and training, education, rehabilitation and psychological research in spatial cognition. The flexibility, reproducibility and adaptability of VEs are especially important, particularly in the training and testing of navigational and way-finding skills. Transfer of tr...
Schirmer, Clemens M; Mocco, J; Elder, J Bradley
Virtual reality (VR) applications promise the safe, efficacious, and valid replication of scenarios encountered in modern neurosurgery, and a number of navigation- or dissection-related and endovascular simulators have been successfully deployed in the last 2 decades. Concurrently, neurosurgical training is changing, and VR simulations are expected to play a part in future training. To give an overview of currently available neurosurgical VR applications in the spectrum of desired applications and the outlook of the requirements to be met by future applications. The available literature was analyzed using structured Medline and PubMed searches. Relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. When quantitative results were available, effect sizes were collated or estimated to check for publication bias. There has been a significant increase in publications concerning the use of VR in neurosurgery in the last 22 years (P < .001). Thirty-eight of 117 publications (32%) identified reported data regarding the use of a simulator by practitioners; 35 of these were reported as positive trials (92%). Twenty-two of 38 studies (58%) reported quantitative data with mostly small positive effect sizes (median, 1.41; interquartile range, 1.08-2). The use of VR simulators in endovascular surgery has the most robust basis, with 65% of studies reporting quantitative outcomes. Current neurosurgical VR applications focus on basic procedural skill acquisition and are valid and efficacious adjuncts to neurosurgical training. In the future, the development of complex procedural simulators, teamwork, and focus on validated measures will lead to robust framework of the use of VR over the entire career of a neurosurgeon.
Sarig-Bahat, Hilla; Weiss, Patrice L; Laufer, Yocheved
Repeated measures of cervical motion in asymptomatic subjects. To introduce a virtual reality (VR)-based assessment of cervical range of motion (ROM); to establish inter and intratester reliability of the VR-based assessment in comparison with conventional assessment in asymptomatic individuals; and to evaluate the effect of a single VR session on cervical ROM. Cervical ROM and clinical issues related to neck pain is frequently studied. A wide variety of methods is available for evaluation of cervical motion. To date, most methods rely on voluntary responses to an assessor's instructions. However, in day-to-day life, head movement is generally an involuntary response to multiple stimuli. Therefore, there is a need for a more functional assessment method, using sensory stimuli to elicit spontaneous neck motion. VR attributes may provide a methodology for achieving this goal. A novel method was developed for cervical motion assessment utilizing an electromagnetic tracking system and a VR game scenario displayed via a head mounted device. Thirty asymptomatic participants were assessed by both conventional and VR-based methods. Inter and intratester repeatability analyses were performed. The effect of a single VR session on ROM was evaluated. Both assessments showed non-biased results between tests and between testers (P > 0.1). Full-cycle repeatability coefficients ranged between 15.0 degrees and 29.2 degrees with smaller values for rotation and for the VR assessment. A single VR session significantly increased ROM, with largest effect found in the rotation direction. Inter and intratester reliability was supported for both the VR-based and the conventional methods. Results suggest better repeatability for the VR method, with rotation being more precise than flexion/extension. A single VR session was found to be effective in increasing cervical motion, possibly due to its motivating effect.
Rizzo, Albert Skip; Koenig, Sebastian Thomas
Since the mid-1990s, a significant scientific literature has evolved regarding the outcomes from the use of what we now refer to as clinical virtual reality (VR). This use of VR simulation technology has produced encouraging results when applied to address cognitive, psychological, motor, and functional impairments across a wide range of clinical health conditions. This article addresses the question, "Is clinical VR ready for primetime?" After a brief description of the various forms of VR technology, we discuss the trajectory of clinical VR over the last 20 years and summarize the basic assets that VR offers for creating clinical applications. The discussion then addresses the question of readiness in terms of the theoretical basis for clinical VR assets, the research to date, the pragmatic factors regarding availability, usability, and costs of clinical VR content/systems, and the ethical issues for the safe use of VR with clinical populations. Our review of the theoretical underpinnings and research findings to date leads to the prediction that clinical VR will have a significant impact on future research and practice. Pragmatic issues that can influence adoption across many areas of psychology also appear favorable, but professional guidelines will be needed to promote its safe and ethical use. Although there is still much research needed to advance the science in this area, we strongly believe that clinical VR applications will become indispensable tools in the toolbox of psychological researchers and practitioners and will only grow in relevance and popularity in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Pfeiffer, Micha; Kenngott, Hannes; Preukschas, Anas; Huber, Matthias; Bettscheider, Lisa; Müller-Stich, Beat; Speidel, Stefanie
The data which is available to surgeons before, during and after surgery is steadily increasing in quantity as well as diversity. When planning a patient's treatment, this large amount of information can be difficult to interpret. To aid in processing the information, new methods need to be found to present multimodal patient data, ideally combining textual, imagery, temporal and 3D data in a holistic and context-aware system. We present an open-source framework which allows handling of patient data in a virtual reality (VR) environment. By using VR technology, the workspace available to the surgeon is maximized and 3D patient data is rendered in stereo, which increases depth perception. The framework organizes the data into workspaces and contains tools which allow users to control, manipulate and enhance the data. Due to the framework's modular design, it can easily be adapted and extended for various clinical applications. The framework was evaluated by clinical personnel (77 participants). The majority of the group stated that a complex surgical situation is easier to comprehend by using the framework, and that it is very well suited for education. Furthermore, the application to various clinical scenarios-including the simulation of excitation propagation in the human atrium-demonstrated the framework's adaptability. As a feasibility study, the framework was used during the planning phase of the surgical removal of a large central carcinoma from a patient's liver. The clinical evaluation showed a large potential and high acceptance for the VR environment in a medical context. The various applications confirmed that the framework is easily extended and can be used in real-time simulation as well as for the manipulation of complex anatomical structures.
Daga, Fábio B; Macagno, Eduardo; Stevenson, Cory; Elhosseiny, Ahmed; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Boer, Erwin R; Schulze, Jürgen; Medeiros, Felipe A
Wayfinding, the process of determining and following a route between an origin and a destination, is an integral part of everyday tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of glaucomatous visual field loss on wayfinding behavior using an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. This cross-sectional study included 31 glaucomatous patients and 20 healthy subjects without evidence of overall cognitive impairment. Wayfinding experiments were modeled after the Morris water maze navigation task and conducted in an immersive VR environment. Two rooms were built varying only in the complexity of the visual scene in order to promote allocentric-based (room A, with multiple visual cues) versus egocentric-based (room B, with single visual cue) spatial representations of the environment. Wayfinding tasks in each room consisted of revisiting previously visible targets that subsequently became invisible. For room A, glaucoma patients spent on average 35.0 seconds to perform the wayfinding task, whereas healthy subjects spent an average of 24.4 seconds (P = 0.001). For room B, no statistically significant difference was seen on average time to complete the task (26.2 seconds versus 23.4 seconds, respectively; P = 0.514). For room A, each 1-dB worse binocular mean sensitivity was associated with 3.4% (P = 0.001) increase in time to complete the task. Glaucoma patients performed significantly worse on allocentric-based wayfinding tasks conducted in a VR environment, suggesting visual field loss may affect the construction of spatial cognitive maps relevant to successful wayfinding. VR environments may represent a useful approach for assessing functional vision endpoints for clinical trials of emerging therapies in ophthalmology.
Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real
Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T.
In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes
Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Bundgård, Ture Slot
This paper discusses the present and future possibilities of representation models of architecture in new media such as virtual reality, seen in the broader context of tradition, perception, and neurology. Through comparative studies of real and virtual scenarios using eye tracking, the paper...... discusses if the constantly evolving toolset for architectural representation has in itself changed the core values of architecture, or if it is rather the level of skilful application of technology that can inflict on architecture and its quality. It is easy to contemplate virtual reality as an extension...... to the visual field of perception. However, this should not necessarily imply an acceptance of the dominance of vision over the other senses, and the much-criticized retinal architecture with its inherent loss of plasticity. Recent neurology studies indicate that 3D representation models in virtual reality...
Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Bundgård, Ture Slot
to the visual field of perception. However, this should not necessarily imply an acceptance of the dominance of vision over the other senses, and the much-criticized retinal architecture with its inherent loss of plasticity. Recent neurology studies indicate that 3D representation models in virtual reality......This paper discusses the present and future possibilities of representation models of architecture in new media such as virtual reality, seen in the broader context of tradition, perception, and neurology. Through comparative studies of real and virtual scenarios using eye tracking, the paper...... are less demanding on the brain’s working memory than 3D models seen on flat two-dimensional screens. This paper suggests that virtual reality representational architectural models can, if used correctly, significantly improve the imaginative role of architectural representation....
Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T. [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka (Japan)] [and others
In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes.
Durgin, Frank H; Li, Zhi
Immersive virtual reality systems employing head-mounted displays offer great promise for the investigation of perception and action, but there are well-documented limitations to most virtual reality systems. In the present article, we suggest strategies for studying perception/action interactions that try to depend on both scale-invariant metrics (such as power function exponents) and careful consideration of the requirements of the interactions under investigation. New data concerning the effect of pincushion distortion on the perception of surface orientation are presented, as well as data documenting the perception of dynamic distortions associated with head movements with uncorrected optics. A review of several successful uses of virtual reality to study the interaction of perception and action emphasizes scale-free analysis strategies that can achieve theoretical goals while minimizing assumptions about the accuracy of virtual simulations.
Izard, Santiago González; Juanes, Juan A; García Peñalvo, Francisco J; Estella, Jesús Mª Gonçalvez; Ledesma, Mª José Sánchez; Ruisoto, Pablo
Until very recently, we considered Virtual Reality as something that was very close, but it was still science fiction. However, today Virtual Reality is being integrated into many different areas of our lives, from videogames to different industrial use cases and, of course, it is starting to be used in medicine. There are two great general classifications for Virtual Reality. Firstly, we find a Virtual Reality in which we visualize a world completely created by computer, three-dimensional and where we can appreciate that the world we are visualizing is not real, at least for the moment as rendered images are improving very fast. Secondly, there is a Virtual Reality that basically consists of a reflection of our reality. This type of Virtual Reality is created using spherical or 360 images and videos, so we lose three-dimensional visualization capacity (until the 3D cameras are more developed), but on the other hand we gain in terms of realism in the images. We could also mention a third classification that merges the previous two, where virtual elements created by computer coexist with 360 images and videos. In this article we will show two systems that we have developed where each of them can be framed within one of the previous classifications, identifying the technologies used for their implementation as well as the advantages of each one. We will also analize how these systems can improve the current methodologies used for medical training. The implications of these developments as tools for teaching, learning and training are discussed.
Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark
The use of virtual reality (VR) in psychological treatment is expected to increase. Cybersickness (CS) is a negative side effect of VR exposure and is associated with treatment dropout. This study aimed to investigate the following: (a) if gender differences in CS can be replicated, (b) if differences in anxiety and CS symptoms between patients and controls can be replicated, and (c) whether the relationship between exposure to VR and CS symptoms is mediated by anxiety. A sample (N = 170) of participants with different levels of psychosis liability was exposed to VR environments. CS and anxiety were assessed with self-report measures before and after the VR experiment. This study replicated gender differences in CS symptoms, most of which were present before exposure to VR. It also replicated findings that a significant correlation between anxiety and CS can be found in healthy individuals, but not in patients. In a VR environment, anxiety partially mediated CS symptoms, specifically nausea and disorientation. A partial explanation for the differences found between patients and controls may lie in a ceiling effect for the symptoms of CS. A second explanation may be the partial overlap between CS symptoms and physiological anxiety responses. CS symptoms reported at baseline cannot be explained by exposure to VR, but are related to anxiety. Caution is required when interpreting studies on both CS and anxiety, until the specificity in measurements has been improved. Since anxiety mediated the CS symptoms, CS is expected to decline during treatment together with the reduction of anxiety.
Tayane Leoncio Caiana
Full Text Available Introduction: Virtual Reality is defined as the interface between the user and the computer simulation of a given environment or activity, providing interaction through multiple sensory channels found in video games or computers, offering different experiences to the individual. It is a growing practice in health professions, including Occupational Therapy. Objective: To analyze how virtual reality has been used in occupational therapy processes through a search in national publications that have used this approach in recent years. Method: An integrative literature review was conducted at CAPES, LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, periodicals of Occupational Therapy (Journal of Occupational Therapy - USP and Occupational Therapy Notebooks - UFSCar, and Google Scholar (book chapters between 2004 and 2014, with the following descriptors: Occupational Therapy, Video Game, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, Computer Assisted Therapy, and User-Computer Interface. Results: Fifteen articles were selected in compliance with the inclusion criteria. It was observed that most works addressed Virtual Reality as an evaluative method (n = 07; 46.6%, intervening in neurological disorders (n = 10; 66.6%, used more frequently by adolescent audience (n = 07; 46.6%. The computer is the most commonly used equipment in the interventions (n = 10; 66.6%. Conclusion: Virtual Reality is an important tool in promoting health, and it is also used in various treatments. Its use has grown among occupational therapists, but it is still an area that needs to be diligently evidenced, so that it can serve as an aid to update techniques.
Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco
The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…
Matsangidou, Maria; Ang, Chee Siang; Sakel, Mohamed
Virtual Reality is a technology that allows users to experience a computer-simulated reality with visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory interactions. In the past decades, there have been considerable interests in using Virtual Reality for clinical purposes, including pain management. This article provides a systematic review of research on Virtual Reality and pain management, with an aim to understand the feasibilities of current Virtual Reality technologies and content design approaches in...
Vartanian, A John; Holcomb, Joi; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary; Tardy, M Eugene; Thomas, J Regan
The 3-dimensionally complex interplay of soft tissue, cartilaginous, and bony elements makes the mastery of nasal anatomy difficult. Conventional methods of learning nasal anatomy exist, but they often involve a steep learning curve. Computerized models and virtual reality applications have been used to facilitate teaching in a number of other complex anatomical regions, such as the human temporal bone and pelvic floor. We present a 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality model of the human nose. Human cadaveric axial cross-sectional (0.33-mm cuts) photographic data of the head and neck were used. With 460 digitized images, individual structures were traced and programmed to create a computerized polygonal model of the nose. Further refinements to this model were made using a number of specialized computer programs. This 3-D computer model of the nose was then programmed to operate as a virtual reality model. Anatomically correct 3-D model of the nose was produced. High-resolution images of the "virtual nose" demonstrate the nasal septum, lower lateral cartilages, middle vault, bony dorsum, and other structural details of the nose. Also, the model can be combined with a separate virtual reality model of the face and its skin cover as well as the skull. The user can manipulate the model in space, examine 3-D anatomical relationships, and fade superficial structures to reveal deeper ones. The virtual nose is a 3-D virtual reality model of the nose that is accurate and easy to use. It can be run on a personal computer or in a specialized virtual reality environment. It can serve as an effective teaching tool. As the first virtual reality model of the nose, it establishes a virtual reality platform from which future applications can be launched.
Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.
Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana
The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.
Full Text Available This essay presents and discusses the developing role of virtual and augmented reality technologies in education. Addressing the challenges in adapting such technologies to focus on improving students’ learning outcomes, the author discusses the inclusion of experiential modes as a vehicle for improving students’ knowledge acquisition. Stakeholders in the educational role of technology include students, faculty members, institutions, and manufacturers. While the benefits of such technologies are still under investigation, the technology landscape offers opportunities to enhance face-to-face and online teaching, including contributions in the understanding of abstract concepts and training in real environments and situations. Barriers to technology use involve limited adoption of augmented and virtual reality technologies, and, more directly, necessary training of teachers in using such technologies within meaningful educational contexts. The author proposes a six-step methodology to aid adoption of these technologies as basic elements within the regular education: training teachers; developing conceptual prototypes; teamwork involving the teacher, a technical programmer, and an educational architect; and producing the experience, which then provides results in the subsequent two phases wherein teachers are trained to apply augmented- and virtual-reality solutions within their teaching methodology using an available subject-specific experience and then finally implementing the use of the experience in a regular subject with students. The essay concludes with discussion of the business opportunities facing virtual reality in face-to-face education as well as augmented and virtual reality in online education.
Ahn, J C; Lee, O
This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0-10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted.
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Full Text Available Background and objective: The subjective visual vertical (SVV is a measure of a subject's perceived verticality, and a sensitive test of vestibular dysfunction. Despite this, and consequent upon technical and logistical limitations, SVV has not entered mainstream clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop a mobile virtual reality based system for SVV test, evaluate the suitability of different controllers and assess the system's usability in practical settings. Materials and methods: In this study, we describe a novel virtual reality based system that has been developed to test SVV using integrated software and hardware, and report normative values across healthy population. Participants wore a mobile virtual reality headset in order to observe a 3D stimulus presented across separate conditions – static, dynamic and an immersive real-world (“boat in the sea” SVV tests. The virtual reality environment was controlled by the tester using a Bluetooth connected controllers. Participants controlled the movement of a vertical arrow using either a gesture control armband or a general-purpose gamepad, to indicate perceived verticality. We wanted to compare 2 different methods for object control in the system, determine normal values and compare them with literature data, to evaluate the developed system with the help of the system usability scale questionnaire and evaluate possible virtually induced dizziness with the help of subjective visual analog scale. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in SVV values during static, dynamic and virtual reality stimulus conditions, obtained using the two different controllers and the results are compared to those previously reported in the literature using alternative methodologies. The SUS scores for the system were high, with a median of 82.5 for the Myo controller and of 95.0 for the Gamepad controller, representing a statistically significant difference between the two
Ros A. Yahaya
Full Text Available An authentic learning environment is learning that involves real world problems that are relevant to the learners and relate to their real life experience. Research indicates that Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools can facilitate in creating authentic learning environment, thus improving student learning, interaction and satisfaction. Previous research has focused on using various forms of ICT such as online learning and web-based learning into the classroom. However, little attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating immersive Virtual Reality (VR technology into the university classroom. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation (VGFC is a simulated Virtual Reality (VR organization being developed for use in teaching and learning at a large technology based university in Australia. This study focuses on authentic learning environment where students learn about decision making in complex business contexts throughout the semester which culminates in immersive VR exposure. The findings report that immersive VR environment helps to increase students’ understanding of decision making concepts.
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is an increasingly hot tech topic. Because VR may be the ultimate virtual project as defined by this column, replacing the real world with a simulated one, it is worthwhile to pause and reflect on its potential and practicality for health sciences libraries.
North, M M; North, S M; Coble, J R
Behavioral therapy techniques for treating phobias often includes graded exposure of the patient to anxiety-producing stimuli (Systematic Desensitization). However, in utilizing systematic desensitization, research reviews demonstrate that many patients appear to have difficulty imaging the prescribed anxiety-evoking scene. They also express strong aversion to experiencing real situations. This chapter describes the Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT), a new therapeutical approach that can be used to overcome some of the difficulties inherent in the traditional treatment of phobias. VRT, like current imaginal and in vivo modalities, can generate stimuli that could be utilized in desensitization therapy. Like systematic desensitization therapy, VRT can provide stimuli for patients who have difficulty in imagining scenes and/or are too phobic to experience real situations. Unlike in vivo systematic desensitization, VRT can be performed within the privacy of a room, thus avoiding public embarrassment and violation of patient confidentiality. VRT can generate stimuli of much greater magnitude than standard in vivo techniques. Since VRT is under patient control, it appears safer than in vivo desensitization and at the same time more realistic than imaginal desensitization. Finally, VRT adds the advantage of greater efficiency and economy in delivering the equivalent of in vivo systematic desensitization within the therapist's office. The chapter also describes how to use virtual reality in the treatment of specific phobias: fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of being in certain situations (such as a dark barn, an enclosed bridge over a river, and in the presence of an animal [a black cat] in a dark room), and fear of public speaking.
Turnbull, Philip R K; Phillips, John R
Virtual Reality (VR) headsets create immersion by displaying images on screens placed very close to the eyes, which are viewed through high powered lenses. Here we investigate whether this viewing arrangement alters the binocular status of the eyes, and whether it is likely to provide a stimulus for myopia development. We compared binocular status after 40-minute trials in indoor and outdoor environments, in both real and virtual worlds. We also measured the change in thickness of the ocular choroid, to assess the likely presence of signals for ocular growth and myopia development. We found that changes in binocular posture at distance and near, gaze stability, amplitude of accommodation and stereopsis were not different after exposure to each of the 4 environments. Thus, we found no evidence that the VR optical arrangement had an adverse effect on the binocular status of the eyes in the short term. Choroidal thickness did not change after either real world trial, but there was a significant thickening (≈10 microns) after each VR trial (p < 0.001). The choroidal thickening which we observed suggest that a VR headset may not be a myopiagenic stimulus, despite the very close viewing distances involved.
Ebbesen, Marius; Ahsan, Sabeel
Recent technological development has led virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMD) to become commercially available to the mass market. Consumers have started to adopt the technology quickly, and forecasts for the VR industry are very promising for the upcoming years. However, little research has been conducted on the effects of exposure to immersive VR video through HMDs. Our aim for this thesis has been to investigate the effects of exposure to VR video and uncover the underlying mec...
Dr. Ubaldo Cuesta Cambra
Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area promotes the integration of new technologies in didactic innovation and it aims to improve skills. It has been requested by students at the Complutense University of Madrid, who have a digital native profile or millennial. This article is a study about implementation of immersive virtual reality in the practical part of the subjects related to business communication. Specifically, it applied in the subject Crisis Communication. The methodology is a survey and three focus groups for professors and students. The conclusions say that the implementation of immersive virtual reality improves the expectations and interest of students. It also improves the skills acquired and the practical part of the subjects of communication improve employment of students of the Degree, which is one of their main causes of dissatisfaction. The full implementation of mobile telephony suggests using virtual reality devices adapted to them rather than “caves” (C.A.V.E. or consoles.
On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis.
Javia, Luv; Sardesai, Maya G
The increasing role of simulation in the medical education of future otolaryngologists has followed suit with other surgical disciplines. Simulators make it possible for the resident to explore and learn in a safe and less stressful environment. The various subspecialties in otolaryngology use physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators. Although physical simulators allow the operator to make direct contact with its components, virtual-reality simulators allow the operator to interact with an environment that is computer generated. This article gives an overview of the various types of physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators used in otolaryngology that have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. METHODS: Experienced...... VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014...... content validity. Metrics were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: We succeeded in developing the first version of a virtual reality VATS lobectomy simulator. A total of 103 thoracic surgeons completed the simulated lobectomy and were distributed as follows: novices n = 32, intermediates n = 45...
Hopper, K D; Iyriboz, A T; Wise, S W; Neuman, J D; Mauger, D T; Kasales, C J
To evaluate computed tomographic virtual reality with volumetric versus surface rendering. Virtual reality images were reconstructed for 27 normal or pathologic colonic, gastric, or bronchial structures in four ways: the transition zone (a) reconstructed separately from the wall by using volume rendering; (b) with attenuation equal to air; (c) with attenuation equal to wall (soft tissue); (d) with attenuation halfway between air and wall. The four reconstructed images were randomized. Four experienced imagers blinded to the reconstruction graded them from best to worst with predetermined criteria. All readers rated images with the transition zone as a separate structure as overwhelmingly superior (P Virtual reality is best with volume rendering, with the transition zone (mucosa) between the wall and air reconstructed as a separate structure.
Ma, Minhua; Jain, Lakhmi C; Anderson, Paul
Serious game is now a multi-billion dollar industry and is still growing steadily in many sectors. As a major subset of serious games, designing and developing Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and serious games or adopting off-the-shelf games to support medical education, rehabilitation, or promote health has become a promising frontier in the healthcare sector since 2004, because games technology is inexpensive, widely available, fun and entertaining for people of all ages, with...
Gaschler, Andre;Springer, Maximilian;Rickert, Markus;Knoll, Alois
Today's industrial robots require expert knowledge and are not profitable for small and medium sized enterprises with their small lot sizes. It is our strong belief that more intuitive robot programming in an augmented reality robot work cell can dramatically simplify re-programming and leverage robotics technology in short production cycles. In this paper, we present a novel augmented reality system for defining virtual obstacles, specifying tool positions, and specifying robot tasks. We eva...
Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Bundgård, Ture Slot
to the visual field of perception. However, this should not necessarily imply an acceptance of the dominance of vision over the other senses, and the much-criticized retinal architecture with its inherent loss of plasticity. Recent neurology studies indicate that 3D representation models in virtual reality...... are less demanding on the brain’s working memory than 3D models seen on flat two-dimensional screens. This paper suggests that virtual reality representational architectural models can, if used correctly, significantly improve the imaginative role of architectural representation....
Sirkkunen, Esa; Väätäjä, Heli; Uskali, Turo; Rezaei, Parisa Pour
This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview on journalism and its opportunities and challenges in virtual reality. First we take a look at what kind of real-life journalistic experiments there have been made in this field so far, then we analyze the research literature on journalistic VR. The paper proceeds to discuss the emergence of virtual reality and immersive journalism explored in the latest reports in the fields of HCI and VR design. In order to analyse VR-journalism...
Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Komano, Odile; Millet, Bruno; Jouvent, Roland
Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking), we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology. Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games. Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants' scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups. Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism.
Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.
Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan
A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.
Hoffman, H; Vu, D
Virtual reality (VR) is gaining recognition for its enormous educational potential. While not yet in the mainstream of academic medical training, many prototype and first-generation VR applications are emerging, with target audiences ranging from first- and second-year medical students to residents in advanced clinical training. Visualization tools that take advantage of VR technologies are being designed to provide engaging and intuitive environments for learning visually and spatially complex topics such as human anatomy, biochemistry, and molecular biology. These applications present dynamic, three-dimensional views of structures and their spatial relationships, enabling users to move beyond "real-world" experiences by interacting with or altering virtual objects in ways that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. VR-based procedural and surgical simulations, often compared with flight simulators in aviation, hold significant promise for revolutionizing medical training. Already a wide range of simulations, representing diverse content areas and utilizing a variety of implementation strategies, are either under development or in their early implementation stages. These new systems promise to make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels, without the risks and ethical concerns typically associated with using animal and human subjects. Medical students could acquire proficiency and gain confidence in the ability to perform a wide variety of techniques long before they need to use them clinically. Surgical residents could rehearse and refine operative procedures, using an unlimited pool of virtual patients manifesting a wide range of anatomic variations, traumatic wounds, and disease states. Those simulated encounters, in combination with existing opportunities to work with real patients, could increase the depth and breadth of learners' exposure to medical problems, ensure uniformity of training experiences, and enhance the
Virtual charter schools have emerged over the last decade as an increasingly popular alternative to traditional public schooling. Unlike their face-to-face counterparts, virtual charter schools educate students through blended or entirely online curricula. They present a host of new policy issues that should be scrutinized in order to ensure that…
Gyldendahl Jensen, Camilla
“Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL) environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each...... other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM), “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based...... on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through...
Mariya P. Leshchenko
The article characterizes nature, sources and types of virtual reality, particularities of their influence on personal development. The role of teacher in identification of virtual reality features and possibilities of their implementation in education is investigated.
Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhang Baoju
Based on the introduction to the concept, characteristics of virtual reality technology, and its current application situation, the application prospect of virtual reality technology to uranium geology is preliminarily discussed in this paper
Conversation analysis can take the form of a qualitative methodology for the exploration of discursive productions, whose main goal is the formulation of hypotheses for reading psychosocial interaction through descriptive models of interlocution. Therefore, in this study, conversations in a shared Virtual Environment have been analyzed in order to understand the specific structure, dynamics, and phenomenology of Virtual Reality effects on the "interactive micro-chains" that constitute the communicative thread of daily experience.
Turnbull, Philip R. K.; Phillips, John R.
Virtual Reality (VR) headsets create immersion by displaying images on screens placed very close to the eyes, which are viewed through high powered lenses. Here we investigate whether this viewing arrangement alters the binocular status of the eyes, and whether it is likely to provide a stimulus for myopia development. We compared binocular status after 40-minute trials in indoor and outdoor environments, in both real and virtual worlds. We also measured the change in thickness of the ocular ...
Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan
A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...
Hülsmann, Felix; Fröhlich, Julia; Mattar, Nikita; Wachsmuth, Ipke
One possibility to make virtual worlds more immersive is to address as many human senses as possible. This paper presents the development of a system for creating wind and warmth simulations in Virtual Reality (VR). Therefore, suitable hardware and an implemented software model are described. Technical evaluations of the hardware and of the software components demonstrate the usability of the system in VR Applications. Furthermore, a user study underlines users’ acceptance and indicates a pos...
Sebok, Angelia; Nystad, Espen
For maintenance work in the nuclear industry, a primary goal is reducing radiation exposure. Workers need to be trained to perform their tasks quickly and efficiently to minimize their time in the radioactive area, thus limiting their exposure. This requires that workers become familiar with the area in which they will work, the radiation distribution, and the tasks they will perform. Virtual Reality technology can provide this training in a safe environment. VR systems are available in a variety of formats, ranging from desktop VR to fully immersive head-mounted displays. One question regarding the use of VR for training is 'Which technology type best supports training?' This report describes an experiment evaluating different VR display technology types in terms of their ability to support different types of learning. The VR systems include two desktop types (monoscopic and stereoscopic view), a large screen display, and a head-mounted display. Procedural, configuration, and assembly training types were evaluated. Learning was assessed in terms of objective task performance and radiation awareness. Retention and transfer of training were evaluated for procedural learning. In addition, subjective questionnaire data were also gathered. Findings were that technology type did not matter for procedural, configuration, or assembly knowledge. Objective performance, by the end of the training session, was equivalent across display technology types in all of these learning conditions. On the other hand, retention and transfer of training appeared to be better supported by stereoscopic displays, particularly the large screen stereoscopic display. Subjects rated perceived performance and simulator sickness highest in the head-mounted display condition. Sense of presence (SOP) was best in the large screen stereoscopic condition for procedural learning, but there were no differences for SOP in assembly learning. This study suggests that sense of presence and performance are
North, Max M; Rives, Jason
The treatment for senior citizens suffering from psychological disorders seems to be different from therapeutic procedures used for other populations. This pilot study is the first known in-depth case study of the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) as a treatment for senior citizens. The fear of flying treatment was chosen for this study. The subject of the study was a 62-year-old married female, whose anxiety and avoidance behavior was interfering with her normal activities. For treatment, she was placed in the cabin of a virtual commercial aircraft environment accompanied by a virtual therapist. After a few sessions in which she spent time in a virtual airport scene, she spent four sessions in which she was flown over a simulated city. While under the virtual reality treatment, the subject experienced a number of physical and emotional anxiety-related symptoms. These symptoms included sweaty palms, loss of balance, weakness in the knees, etc. In this study, the virtual reality treatment caused a significant reduction in the anxiety symptoms in the subject and enhanced her ability to face phobic situations in the real world. Since termination of the treatment, she has taken several flights to professional conferences and reported feeling more comfortable and has fewer symptoms than those experienced prior to the VRT treatment.
Teixeira, Luís; Vilar, Elisângela; Duarte, Emília; Rebelo, Francisco; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
Previous studies suggest significant differences between navigating virtual environments in a life-like walking manner (i.e., using treadmills or walk-in-place techniques) and virtual navigation (i.e., flying while really standing). The latter option, which usually involves hand-centric devices (e.g., joysticks), is the most common in Virtual Reality-based studies, mostly due to low costs, less space and technology demands. However, recently, new interaction devices, originally conceived for videogames have become available offering interesting potentialities for research. This study aimed to explore the potentialities of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board as a navigation interface in a Virtual Environment presented in an immersive Virtual Reality system. Comparing participants' performance while engaged in a simulated emergency egress allows determining the adequacy of such alternative navigation interface on the basis of empirical results. Forty university students participated in this study. Results show that participants were more efficient when performing navigation tasks using the Joystick than with the Balance Board. However there were no significantly differences in the behavioral compliance with exit signs. Therefore, this study suggests that, at least for tasks similar to the studied, the Balance Board have good potentiality to be used as a navigation interface for Virtual Reality systems.
Aseeri, Sahar A.
With the use of an immersive display system such as CAVE system, the user is able to realize a 3D immersive virtual environment realistically. However, interacting with virtual worlds in CAVE systems using traditional input devices to perform easy operations such as manipulation, object selection, and navigation is often difficult. This difficulty could diminish the immersion and sense of presence when it comes to 3D virtual environment tasks. Our research aims to implement and evaluate alternative approaches of interaction with immersive virtual environments on mobile devices for manipulation and object selection tasks. As many researchers have noted, using a mobile device as an interaction device has a number of advantages, including built-in display, built-in control, and touch screen facility. These advantages facilitate simple tasks within immersive virtual environments. This research proposes new methods using mobile devices like Smart-phones to perform di↵erent kinds of interactions both as an input device, (e.g. performing selection and manipulation of objects) and as an output device (e.g. utilizing the screen as an extra view for a virtual camera or information display). Moreover, we developed a prototype system to demonstrate and informally evaluate these methods. The research conclusion suggests using mobile devices as a 3D-controller. This will be a more intuitive approach to interact within the virtual environment.
Camilla Gyldendahl Jensen
Full Text Available “Virtual reality” adds a new dimension to constructivist problem-based learning (PBL environments in the architectural and building construction educations, where a realistic and lifelike presence in a building enables students to assess and discuss how the various solutions interact with each other. Combined with “Building Information Models” (BIM, “Virtual Reality” provides an entirely new opportunity to innovate and optimize the architecture and construction in its early stages, which creates and iterative learning process. There are several studies where virtual simulation tools based on predefined tutorials are tested for their ability to facilitate collaborative processes. This study addresses the problem from a new angle by the virtual universe created through the students' own iterative design of a building. The “Virtual reality” system's narrative tale arises spontaneously through the dialogue. The result of this study shows that “Virtual Reality”, as a tool, creates some changes in the dialogue conditions which affect the learning process. The use of “Virtual Reality” requires a very precise framing about the system's ability to facilitate a collaborative learning process. The analysis identifies several clear opportunities about incorporating gamification mechanisms known from e.g. video games software.
This thesis analyses the development of virtual reality industry. The theoretical part of this paper is dedicated to the evolution of virtual reality industry throughout the years, it identifies main reasons why virtual reality did not become viral in the past and provides a correlation between the prices for VR headsets and level of technology adoption. Also, it describes which stage of industry life cycle virtual reality is and compares it with the technology adoption process. In this part ...
Full Text Available Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.
Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M.; George, Roy
Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current peda...
Roy, Elby; Bakr, Mahmoud M; George, Roy
Virtual reality simulators are becoming an essential part of modern education. The benefits of Virtual reality in dentistry is constantly being assessed as a method or an adjunct to improve fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination in pre-clinical settings and overcome the monetary and intellectual challenges involved with such training. This article, while providing an overview of the virtual reality dental simulators, also looks at the link between virtual reality simulation and current pedagogical knowledge.
Pallavicini, Federica; Argenton, Luca; Toniazzi, Nicola; Aceti, Luciana; Mantovani, Fabrizia
Stress Management Training programs are increasingly being adopted in the military field for resilience empowerment and primary stress prevention. In the last several years, advanced technologies (virtual reality in particular) have been integrated in order to develop more innovative and effective stress training programs for military personnel, including soldiers, pilots, and other aircrew professionals. This systematic review describes experimental studies that have been conducted in recent years to test the effectiveness of virtual reality-based Stress Management Training programs developed for military personnel. This promising state-of-the-art technology has the potential to be a successful new approach in empowering soldiers and increasing their resilience to stress. To provide an overview from 2001 to 2016 of the application of virtual reality for Stress Management Training programs developed for the military, a computer-based search for relevant publications was performed in several databases. Databases used in the search were PsycINFO, Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), PubMed, and Medline. The search string was: ("Virtual Reality") AND ("Military") AND ["Stress Training" OR ("Stress Management")]. There were 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The main observation to be drawn from this review is that virtual reality can provide interactive Stress Management Training to decrease levels of perceived stress and negative affect in military personnel. This technology appears to be a promising tool for assessing individuals' resilience to stress and for identifying the impact that stress can have on physiological reactivity and performance.Pallavicini F, Argenton L, Toniazzi N, Aceti L, Mantovani F. Virtual realtiy applications for stress management training in the military. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1021-1030.
Phillips, James A.
Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.
Discovery of radioactivity in 1869 by Henry Becquerel and artificial radioactivity by Irene Curie in 1934 led to the development of nuclear field and nuclear materials in 20th century. They are widely used for man-kind across the globe in electricity production, carbon dating, treatment and diagnosis of diseases etc. While deriving benefits and utilizing nuclear resources for the benefit of man-kind, it is inevitable that exposure to radiation can not be avoided. Radiation exists all around us either natural or man-made which can not be totally eliminated or avoided. Radiation exposures from natural background contribute 2.4 to 3.6 mSv in a year. Radiation exposures incurred by a member of public due to nuclear industries constitute less than one hundredth of annual dose due to natural background. Hence it is important to understand the risk posed by radiation and comparison of radiation risk with various risks arising due to other sources. Studies have indicated that risks due to environmental pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, heart diseases are far higher in magnitude compared to radiation risks from man made sources. This paper brings about the details and awareness regarding radiation exposures, radiation risk, various risks associated with other industries and benefits of radiation exposures. (author)
Lau, Kung Wong
Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…