Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Yong Oock
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Full Text Available Recently, virtual reality (VR and augmented reality (AR have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...
provide correct nipple areolar complex position and shape. PLASTIC SURGERY. T Jay, K Segwapa. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, Pretoria South-Africa. Corresponding author: T Jay (email@example.com). Background: In surgery for gynaecomastia, excision ...
Plastic), University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197,. Nairobi, Kenya ... of the surgical anatomy of the breast has guided this development. While Paulus Aegina (sixth ..... weight loss, in severe gynaecomastia or gigantomastia) and intraoperatively ...
exposure of 30 cm is a challenging task for a plastic surgeon. Different procedures have been carried out in an attempt to cover similar wounds. Bone drilling, to allow granulation, and thereafter performing a skin graft, is one, but this frequently leads to failure of the extensive wound as the shaft granulates very slowly.2 The ...
Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Gerstle, Theodore L; Rabie, Amr N; Song, Yong-Ak; Melik, Rohat; Han, Jongyoon; Lin, Samuel J
Nanotechnology has made inroads over time within surgery and medicine. Translational medical devices and therapies based on nanotechnology are being developed and put into practice. In plastic surgery, it is anticipated that this new technology may be instrumental in the future. Microelectromechanical systems are one form of nanotechnology that offers the ability to develop miniaturized implants for use in the treatment of numerous clinical conditions. The authors summarize their published preliminary findings regarding a microelectromechanical systems-based electrochemical stimulation method through modulation of ions around the nerve that is potentially implantable and clinically efficacious, and expand upon current and potential usages of nanotechnology in plastic surgery. Sciatic nerves (n = 100) of 50 American bullfrogs were placed on a microfabricated planar gold electrode array and stimulated electrically. Using Ca(2+)-selective membranes, ion concentrations were modulated around the nerve environment in situ. In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify all available data pertaining to the use of nanotechnology in medicine. A 40 percent reduction of the electrical threshold value was observed using the Ca(2+) ion-selective membrane. The uses of nanotechnology specifically applicable to plastic surgery are detailed. Nanotechnology may likely lead to advancements in the art and science of plastic surgery. Using microelectromechanical systems nanotechnology, the authors have demonstrated a novel means of modulating the activation of nerve impulses. These findings have potentially significant implications for the design of special nano-enhanced materials that can be used to promote healing, control infection, restore function, and aid nerve regeneration and rehabilitation.
The Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery has its objectives in publishing original articles about developments in all areas related to plastic and reconstructive surgery as well as to trauma surgery. It also serves as a means of providing a forum for correspondence, information and discussion. It also accepts review articles that ...
de Blacam, Catherine; Kilmartin, Darren; Mc Dermott, Clodagh; Kelly, Jack
Public perception of Plastic Surgery is strongly influenced by the media and may not reflect the broad scope of work within the speciality. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the general public's perception of plastic surgical practice and to report the perceived importance of Plastic Surgery relative to other specialities working within a large tertiary referral centre. 899 members of the public who attended our Emergency Department completed a questionnaire where they matched eight surgical specialities with 30 operative procedures and ranked the importance of 30 different hospital specialities using a Likert scale. The majority of respondents correctly identified plastic surgeons as performing each of the cosmetic procedures listed (abdominoplasty 63.7%; breast augmentation 59.1%; facelift 61.35%; liposuction 59.7%). Plastic Surgery was identified as the primary speciality involved in breast reconstruction (49.3%) and burns surgery (43.0%). There was poor understanding of the role of plastic surgeons in hand surgery, with only 4.7% of respondents attributing tendon repair to plastic surgeons. Plastic Surgery ranked lowest of 30 specialities in terms of importance in providing care for patients within the hospital. Plastic Surgery is often misunderstood within the wider community and misconceptions reflect the influence of the media in highlighting certain aspects of the speciality. It behoves our professional organisations to highlight the importance of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery within major tertiary referral centres. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.
The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,
Aug 3, 2013 ... In an era of increasing sub-specialty training in other areas of surgery (especially ... The study motivates for increased exposure to plastic surgery during undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. S Afr J Surg 2013 .... specialty, when the reality is quite different, particularly in the state sector..
Nicolai, J-P A; Banic, A; Molea, G; Mazzola, R; Poëll, J G
The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-256.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training, examination, quality assurance and relations with the European Commission and Parliament all are aspects covered by the organisations to be discussed.
as if it was exclusively concerned with cosmetic matters. Programs could be created that show the important role that plastic surgeons play in helping patients who have suffered from burns or severe road traffic accidents or other injuries or diseases that can severely affect people's lives. Such programs would address ...
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Gastman, Brian R; Futrell, J William; Manders, Ernest K
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a phenomenon that is integral to development and cellular homeostasis. In the last decade, many of the essential molecules and pathways that control this phenomenon have been elucidated. Because apoptosis is involved in almost all physiologic and pathologic processes, the understanding of its regulation has significant clinical ramifications. This article reviews the basic understanding of programmed cell death in terms of the effector molecules and pathways. Areas of interest to plastic surgeons are reviewed as they pertain to apoptosis. These areas include allotransplantation, craniofacial and limb development, flap survival, wound healing, stem cell science, and physiologic aging. These topics have not yet been studied extensively in the context of cell death. In this review article, other related and more comprehensively studied scientific areas are used to extrapolate their relevance to apoptosis. Apoptosis is an increasingly better understood process. With the knowledge of how programmed cell death is controlled, combined with the improved ability to effectively perform genetic manipulation and to design specific chemical approaches, apoptosis is gaining clinical relevance. In the next few years, practical clinical breakthroughs will help the medical community to understand the phenomenon of apoptosis and how it relates to the needs of patients.
Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior
The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.
Rankin, M; Borah, G L
Surgery is a stressful event, with the potential for profound disturbance to the patient's psychological and physiologic homeostasis. Cosmetic surgery is a particularly intense psychological experience because, in addition to the usual concerns about surgical side effects, cosmetic patients bring their hopes and expectations for improved self-image, putting them at risk for the added anxiety of disappointment. High levels of anxiety coupled with the perception of vulnerability or threat to self can cause significant psychological reactions complicating care for the plastic surgical patient. This paper outlines the diagnostic features of the common types of anxiety disorders seen in plastic surgical patients, and it offers treatment strategies for the practitioner, delineating when referral to a mental health expert is advised. Specific clinical case studies of panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder are presented to illustrate the variety of abnormal anxiety responses that may be encountered in the perioperative setting. Interventions for the anxious patient are part science and part art. Careful questioning and psychosocial assessment can identify those patients who are at greater risk for psychological problems after surgery. However, some patients may mask or keep secret their concerns, which can be manifested with resulting anger and hostility. Plastic surgeons must use appropriate indicators of psychological anxiety and measure a specific patient's reactions to surgery to make the diagnosis of abnormal anxiety. Close follow-up by the plastic surgical team is an essential part of the anxiety disorder patient's psychological treatment, but it is imperative that these problematic patients be referred promptly to a qualified mental health professional to limit their adverse experience and promote their well-being. Patients who are less anxious during the perioperative period report less emotional distress and fewer defensive
Soumya Sankar Nath
Full Text Available Anaesthesia related complications in plastic surgeries are fortunately rare, but potentially catastrophic. Maintaining patient safety in the operating room is a major concern of anaesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitals and surgical facilities. Circumventing preventable complications is essential and pressure to avoid these complications in cosmetic surgery is increasing. Key aspects of patient safety in the operating room are outlined, including patient positioning, airway management and issues related to some specific conditions, essential for minimizing post-operative morbidity. Risks associated with extremes of age in the plastic surgery population, may be minimised by a better understanding of the physiologic changes as well as the pre-operative and post-operative considerations in caring for this special group of patients. An understanding of the anaesthesiologist′s concerns during paediatric plastic surgical procedures can facilitate the coordination of efforts between the multiple services involved in the care of these children. Finally, the reader will have a better understanding of the perioperative care of unique populations including the morbidly obese and the elderly. Attention to detail in these aspects of patient safety can help avoid unnecessary complication and significantly improve the patients′ experience and surgical outcome.
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob
PURPOSE: To test the validity of the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool in a virtual reality vitreoretinal training programme. METHODS: In collaboration with an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon, a virtual vitreoretinal training programme was composed on the eyesi surgical simulator......, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: 20 medical students, ten residents of ophthalmology and five trained vitreoretinal surgeons. The programme contained six training modules: navigation level 2 (Nav2), forceps training level 5 (ForT5), bimanual...... training level 3 (BimT3), laser coagulation level 3 (LasC3), posterior hyaloid level 3 (PostH3) and internal limiting membrane peeling level 3 (ILMP3). The scores in each module were assessed from two to five different factors (tissue treatment, efficiency, target achievement, instrument handling...
... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...
Stokbro, K.; Aagaard, E.; Torkov, P.
Numerous publications regarding virtual surgical planning protocols have been published, most reporting only one or two case reports to emphasize the hands-on planning. None have systematically reviewed the data published from clinical trials. This systematic review analyzes the precision...... and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) virtual surgical planning of orthognathic procedures compared with the actual surgical outcome following orthognathic surgery reported in clinical trials. A systematic search of the current literature was conducted to identify clinical trials with a sample size of more...... than five patients, comparing the virtual surgical plan with the actual surgical outcome. Search terms revealed a total of 428 titles, out of which only seven articles were included, with a combined sample size of 149 patients. Data were presented in three different ways: intra-class correlation...
Englert, H; Joyner, E; McGill, N; Chambers, P; Horner, D; Hunt, C; Makaroff, J; O'Connor, H; Russell, N; March, L
Allegations that exposure to endogenous silicone, especially related to breast implants, might be causally related to connective tissue disease originated from case studies. More recent comparative studies have implied no such increased risk. The aims of the present study were to compare the prevalence and/or incidence of autoimmune and connective tissue disorders in a population-based cohort of female Sydney residents stratified by augmentation mammoplasty status. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, the health status of female Sydney residents who had augmentation mammoplasty for cosmetic reasons between 1979 and 1983 was compared with that of female Sydney residents who had non-silicone-associated plastic surgery over the same period. Both groups were matched for age (+/- 5 years), year of plastic surgery (+/- 2 years), plastic surgeon, anaesthetist and mode of anaesthesia. Outcome measures comprised rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, sicca symptoms polymyositis/ dermatomyositis, connective tissue disease overlap, digital vasospasm, abnormal nailfold capillaroscopy, elevated antinuclear antibody titre, carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, livedo reticularis, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, axillary lymphadenopathy, fibromyalgia and breast carcinoma. There was no difference in the occurrence of connective tissue diseases or connective tissue disease-related parameters, thyroid disorders, fibromyalgia or multiple sclerosis between cohorts. However, axillary adenopathy and low titre positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) occurred with a significantly greater frequency in the exposed cohort (odds ratio (OR) = 3.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.10-5.84 and OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.03-1.62, respectively). Axillary adenopathy correlated with capsular contracture (relative risk (RR) = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.22-3.51) and also the self-reported development of digital vasospasm (RR = 3
Author Guidelines. Instruction to authors The Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery is the official Journal of the Nigerian Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons and also of the Nigerian Burn Society. Its object is to publish original articles about developments in all areas related to plastic and ...
Mioton, Lauren M; Buck, Donald W; Rambachan, Aksharananda; Ver Halen, Jon; Dumanian, Gregory A; Kim, John Y S
Hospital readmissions have become a topic of focus for quality care measures and cost-reduction efforts. However, no comparative multi-institutional data on plastic surgery outpatient readmission rates currently exist. The authors endeavored to investigate hospital readmission rates and predictors of readmission following outpatient plastic surgery. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for all outpatient procedures. Unplanned readmission rates were calculated for all 10 tracked surgical specialties (i.e., general, thoracic, vascular, cardiac, orthopedics, otolaryngology, plastics, gynecology, urology, and neurosurgery). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for plastic surgery. A total of 7005 outpatient plastic surgery procedures were isolated. Outpatient plastic surgery had a low associated readmission rate (1.94 percent) compared with other specialties. Seventy-five patients were readmitted with a complication. Multivariate regression analysis revealed obesity (body mass index ≥ 30), wound infection within 30 days of the index surgery, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status as significant predictors for unplanned readmission. Unplanned readmission after outpatient plastic surgery is infrequent and compares favorably to rates of readmission among other specialties. Obesity, wound infection within 30 days of the index operation, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status are independent predictors of readmission. As procedures continue to transition into outpatient settings and the drive to improve patient care persists, these findings will serve to optimize outpatient surgery use.
Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin
Thoughts and attitudes of plastic surgeons about having cosmetic surgery on themselves remain obscure for the most part and pose an attractive subject to study. A survey was distributed to a random sample of 2635 American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons to determine plastic surgeons' interest in both minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and cosmetic surgical procedures, selection of facility type, selection of surgeon, and their satisfaction level. There were 276 responses. Sixty-two percent of the plastic surgeons had undergone at least one type of minimally invasive cosmetic procedure. Female plastic surgeons had significantly more minimally invasive cosmetic procedures compared with male plastic surgeons (84.9 versus 57 percent; p cosmetic surgery. The most common cosmetic surgical procedure was liposuction of the trunk and/or extremity (18.6 percent). Male plastic surgeons were more likely to have a procedure than men in the general population, and female plastic surgeons were less likely to have breast augmentation than the general population. The percentage of operations conducted by a plastic surgeon was 88.2 percent. The percentage performed by a nationally known surgeon was 45.3 percent; 75.9 percent of plastic surgeons selected a surgeon who was certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The satisfaction rate was 90 percent. The survey provides insight on the stance of American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons on the subject. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey designed for this purpose.
Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo
Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior.
Richard M Kwasnicki
Full Text Available BackgroundInnovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years.MethodsPatents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010 were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored.ResultsBetween 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued.ConclusionsThe application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.
The present thesis was designed to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative aspects of plastic surgery research by means of a bibliometric citation analysis of plastic surgical presentations and publications. Citations to such published work provides an indication of the impact and the relevance of
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
Ovadia, Steven A; Gishen, Kriya; Desai, Urmen; Garcia, Alejandro M; Thaller, Seth R
Entrepreneurial skills are important for physicians, especially plastic surgeons. Nevertheless, these skills are not typically emphasized during residency training. Evaluate the extent of business training at plastic surgery residency programs as well as means of enhancing business training. A 6-question online survey was sent to plastic surgery program directors for distribution to plastic surgery residents. Responses from residents at the PGY2 level and above were included for analysis. Tables were prepared to present survey results. Hundred and sixty-six residents including 147 PGY2 and above residents responded to our survey. Only 43.5% reported inclusion of business training in their plastic surgery residency. A majority of residents reported they do not expect on graduation to be prepared for the business aspects of plastic surgery. Additionally, a majority of residents feel establishment of a formal lecture series on the business of plastic surgery would be beneficial. Results from our survey indicate limited training at plastic surgery programs in necessary business skills. Plastic surgery residency programs should consider incorporating or enhancing elements of business training in their curriculum. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
McNichols, Colton H L; Diaconu, Silviu; Alfadil, Sara; Woodall, Jhade; Grant, Michael; Lifchez, Scott; Nam, Arthur; Rasko, Yvonne
Over the past decade, plastic surgery programs have continued to evolve with the addition of 1 year of training, increase in the minimum number of required aesthetic cases, and the gradual replacement of independent positions with integrated ones. To evaluate the impact of these changes on aesthetic training, a survey was sent to residents and program directors. A 37 question survey was sent to plastic surgery residents at all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved plastic surgery training programs in the United States. A 13 question survey was sent to the program directors at the same institutions. Both surveys were analyzed to determine the duration of training and comfort level with cosmetic procedures. Eighty-three residents (10%) and 11 program directors (11%) completed the survey. Ninety-four percentage of residents had a dedicated cosmetic surgery rotation (an increase from 68% in 2015) in addition to a resident cosmetic clinic. Twenty percentage of senior residents felt they would need an aesthetic surgery fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery compared with 31% in 2015. Integrated chief residents were more comfortable performing cosmetic surgery cases compared with independent chief residents. Senior residents continue to have poor confidence with facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures. There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents.
Correia, N; Binet, A; Caliot, J; Poli Merol, M-L; Bodin, F; François-Fiquet, C
Balneology can be part of the plastic surgery care sector. The objectives of this study were firstly to the state of knowledge about the hydrotherapy and specify the place reserved for hydrotherapy by surgeons as an adjunct in plastic and reconstructive surgery (adult and child). Multicentric national study by poll (Google Drive®) focused at plastic and/or pediatric surgeons. The following information was analyzed: frequency, timing of prescription, indications, the surgeon's feelings towards hydrotherapy and the differences between adult's and children's prescriptions. Fifty-four teams were contacted: 22 responses were received (15 "adult" plastic surgeons, 9 "pediatric" plastic surgeons, 6 pediatric surgeons, with 12 out of 22 working with burnt patients). Eighteen out of 22 prescribed hydrotherapy. Twenty out of 22 thought that hydrotherapy had a role as adjuvant therapy in plastic surgery. The indications were: burns (11/20), skin-graft hypertrophy (10/20), inflammatory and pruritic scar and cutaneous trophic disorders (9/20), psychological (3/20), retractions (2/20), weight loss and smoking (1/20). The timing of the prescription was: 6 months and 1 year (8/20) after surgery/trauma. Twenty out of 22 found a beneficial effect: physical (19/20): reduction of inflammatory signs, pruritus and pain, scar maturation, skin thinning improvement; psychological (14/20): positive for patient/family. Five out of 17 made the difference between child/adult, 10/17 made no difference but only treated adults or children. The respondents in the study are probably more sensitive to the effects of hydrotherapy that non-respondents. It is difficult to assess the real impact of hydrotherapy in plastic surgery because distinguishing spontaneous favorable evolution of a scar from one only due to the hydrotherapy or multidisciplinary management is difficult. However, hydrotherapy seems to have its role among multidisciplinary management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All
星, 栄一; Hoshi, Eiichi
The paper presents some issues of interest regarding recent advances in areas such as tissue expansion, liposuction, fat injection, endoscopic surgery, keloid, cultured epidermal grafts, artificial skin, wound dressings, and silicone mammary prosthesis.
Kippenhan, T; Hirche, C; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A
Survival rates even in advanced tumour stage have been improved for some tumour entities due to progress in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, painful, exulcerated or bleeding wounds can impair quality of life for palliative patients. Increasing evidence in palliative treatment has raised options for plastic-reconstructive surgery to be applied for treatment of local wounds which can improve quality of life for the remaining lifetime for the palliative patients in our institutions. In this review the role of plastic surgery in the palliative treatment concept is highlighted as well as conservative and operative treatment options are discussed. With regard to the limited evidence, an analysis of the currently available literature was performed and data reviewed. These data were added to a case series of patients of our hospital. The analysis of the literature revealed only few data which all indicate an improvement of quality of life due to reconstructive procedures in the palliative situation. There are some studies dealing with plastic surgical operations in advanced tumour diseases. Plastic surgery procedures become relevant after failure of conservative treatment wound care. The most frequent entities are soft tissue sarcomas, squamous cell carcinomas and breast cancer. Safe and simple flaps should be preferred, but free flaps and tendon transfer are optional procedures, and resection of the thoracic wall can be justified in palliative indications with sufficient soft tissue coverage. The indications for major limb amputation should be restricted to selective cases because quality of life is highly reduced. Radiation is possible even after tissue transfer in some cases, and radiation-induced dermatitis with ulcerations can be treated additionally. Opportunities and limitations in plastic and reconstructive surgery should be continuously presented in tumour boards, to clarify these important procedures for palliative patients to all
It also serves as a means of providing a forum for correspondence, information and discussion. It also accepts review articles that may be related to plastic and reconstructive surgery, burns and trauma management, epidemiology or prevention. It is a peer review journal and published biannually- March and September.
Spear, Marcia; Hagan, Kevin
Plastic surgery and photography are inseparable and with present-day technology, it is much easier and more affordable than ever before to incorporate high-quality and standardized images into clinical practice. Perfecting digital photography can have a learning curve that is many times hindered by old habits from the days of slide photography, macro lenses, and specialized flashes, which made it more difficult and complex to incorporate into a busy plastic surgery practice. With the current digital revolution, many of these barriers have been or can be eliminated and anyone can become a proficient photographer. The purpose of this article, first in a series, is to introduce the plastic surgical nurse to the history of photography and applications and the benefits of digital photography.
Borah, G; Rankin, M; Wey, P
Surgery is a high-stakes stressor with possible consequences that include death, pain, disfigurement, economic losses, and alterations in social roles. Often, the most disturbing complications to surgeons and patients are psychological rather than physical. Ineffective management of psychological complications of surgery can have profound consequences, resulting in delayed recuperative times, delayed return to work, poor patient compliance, dissatisfaction with the surgical outcome, hostility toward surgeons, and anxiety. The purpose of this study was to investigate in a large randomized group of plastic surgery practices the relative incidence of negative psychological outcomes and to compare these with the incidence of adverse physical outcomes to gain a greater appreciation of the relative magnitude of each type of perioperative complication. The study design was a descriptive, correlational survey that assessed psychological complications reported by plastic surgeons. The Plastic Surgery Questionnaire was sent to 702 randomly selected board-certified plastic surgeons. The sample consisted of 281 board-certified plastic surgeons (40 percent response rate). The study instrument was found to be highly reliable, with inter-item Cronbach's alpha r = 0.85. The demographics were representative of the specialty as a whole. It was found in general that psychological complications were much more prevalent than physical problems such as hematoma or infection. Anxiety reactions were commonly encountered by 95.4 percent of surgeons; disappointment (96.8 percent), depression (95.0 percent), nonspecific physical complaints (92.2 percent), and sleep disorders (88.5 percent) were the next most commonly reported complications. Most surgeons (75.8 percent) reported that screening for depression was important, but only 18.8 percent identified screening for post-traumatic stress disorder as important, even though 86 percent had diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder in their
Sorice, Sarah C; Li, Alexander Y; Gilstrap, Jarom; Canales, Francisco L; Furnas, Heather J
Many plastic surgeons use social media as a marketing tool to attract and retain patients, but information about how patients use social media and their preferred types of plastic surgery posts have been lacking. To investigate patients' preferred social media networks and the type of posts they wished to see, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a single aesthetic practice of two plastic surgeons by surveying 100 consecutive patients. The age of the patients averaged 44.4 years (range, 17 to 78 years). Facebook had the greatest patient use and engagement, with YouTube second in use, and Instagram second in number of engaged users. Over half used Pinterest, but with little daily engagement. Only one-fourth used Snapchat, but the percentage of users who were highly engaged was second only to Facebook. The least popular network was Twitter, with the fewest patient users and least engagement. Social media played a minor role compared with the practice's Web site in both influencing patients to choose the practice and providing information on the day of the appointment. Patients most wanted to see posts on a plastic surgeon's social media platform related to practice information, before-and-after photographs, and contests. Articles about plastic surgery held the least interest. Among five types of Web site content, patients expressed most interest in before-and-after photographs. This study is the first to articulate the plastic surgery patient perspective regarding social media. The findings aim to help plastic surgeons maximize their influence on their target audience.
Denis Souto Valente
Full Text Available Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions.
Kolbenschlag, J; Goertz, O; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Lehnhardt, M; Hirsch, T
Wound healing is a complex proces, which is influenced by multiple factors. Bacterial contamination and infection are frequent and severe complications. The treatment of such infected wounds is a major challenge to the plastic surgeon. The topical application of wound antiseptics is widely used as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of these wounds. This review provides an overview about their clinical application, their cytotoxic and antibacterial properties as well as interactions with commonly used wound dressings. This article reviews current literature dealing with local antiseptics, antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and compatibility with wound dressings. Topical antiseptics are used on a daily basis in order to reduce bacterial wound contamination. However, few data exist concerning their antimicrobial activity, especially in relation to their cytotoxicity. Furthermore, their compatibility with wound dressings is barely investigated. Recent studies show significant toxic effects on cells and an incompatibility with certain wound dressings for some of these antiseptics. Antiseptics are broadly used in healthcare to reduce, inactivate or eliminate bacterial pathogens. Recent studies show that many daily used antiseptics possess relevant cytotoxic properties as well as cross reactions with wound dressings. Additional studies are therefore needed to further investigate and characterize the properties of wound antiseptics in order to identify the optimal therapeutic agents for the treatment of infected wounds. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Denadai, Rafael; Muraro, Carlos Alberto Salomão; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
To assess residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists in Brazil. Brazilian residents were asked to choose 1 or 2 specialists that they perceived to be an expert for 14 craniofacial surgery-related scenarios. Both an overall analysis (all 14 scenarios) and subanalysis (each scenario separately) were performed. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeons alone," "plastic surgeons combined with other specialists," or "without plastic surgeons." Overall, plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P surgery-related scenarios and also demonstrated that "plastic surgeons alone" and "without plastic surgeons" were selected more (all P surgery residents and male residents chose more (all P plastic surgeons as experts than their peers. Residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists are limited in Brazil.
Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
The perception of medical specialists by the public has a significant effect on health-care decisions, research funding allocation, and implantation of educational measures. The purpose of this survey was to assess the public's perception of the field of plastic surgery practice. General public members (n = 1290) completed a survey where they matched nine specialties with 28 plastic surgery-related scenarios. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeon alone," "plastic surgeon combined with other specialists," or "no plastic surgeon." Sociodemographic data and previous plastic surgery contact were also collected. "Plastic surgeon alone" was identified as an expert by more than 70 % of respondents in four (40 %) aesthetic-related scenarios and in one (5.5 %) general/reconstructive-related scenario. "Plastic surgeon alone" was significantly (all p plastic surgeons in facial fracture surgery, facial paralysis management, chest wall surgery, hand surgery-related scenarios, and tumor surgery-related scenarios. Age, health-care professional, education level, and prior plastic surgery contact were significant (all p plastic surgeon" as a response pattern, according to bivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The public has a poor understanding of the broad field of plastic surgery practice. Therefore, improved public education about the scope of plastic surgery is needed.
Jain, Umang; Salgado, Christopher; Mioton, Lauren; Rambachan, Aksharananda
Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015), hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; Pplastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations. PMID:24665418
Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz
Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.
Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates
The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.
Full Text Available Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020, previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015, hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; P<0.001, bleeding disorders (OR, 1.70; CI, 1.01-2.87; P=0.046, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class 3 or 4 (OR, 1.57; CI, 1.15-2.15; P=0.004, and obesity (body mass index ≥30 (OR, 1.43; CI, 1.09-1.88, P=0.011 to be significant predictors of readmission. Conclusions Inpatient plastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations.
Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Mosegaard, Jesper; Kislinskiy, Stefan
￼ Teaching, diagnosing, and planning of therapy in patients with complex structural cardiovascular heart disease require profound understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) nature of cardiovascular structures in these patients. To obtain such understanding, modern imaging modalities provide high...... et al., Cardiol Young 13:451–460, 2003). In combination with the availability of virtual models of congenital heart disease (CHD), techniques for computer- based simulation of cardiac interventions have enabled early clinical exploration of the emerging concept of virtual surgery (Sorensen et al...
Antunes, Alberto Azoubel
Find out the main journals used in Urology and Plastic Surgery. Was consulted the WebQualis database and selected the "consult" after the "rating" and finally by "journal title." Also was crossed the following keywords: urology, urologic, urological, prostate, prostatic, plastic, reconstructive, aesthetic. The journals classified in the field of Capes Medicine III were selected, and registered their respective strata. To confirm the 2014 impact factor, was consulted the http://www.impactfactorsearch.com/ database; simply typing the journal title its impact factor appears automatically. Was found 23 journals in Urology and 12 in Plastic Surgery. The average impact factor of urological journals was 2,256 and in Plastic Surgery 1,060. Among the urological journals, seven (30.4%) were in the A WebQualis rating and among Plastic Surgery only one (8.3%) was found in this stratum. There are quantitative and qualitative differences between journals in Urology and Plastic Surgery. These data can help to develop appropriate assessment methods for each specialty, considering the different features of the presented papers. Procurar destacar os principais periódicos utilizados na urologia e na cirurgia plástica. Foi consultada a base de dados WebQualis. Selecionou-se a opção "consultar", depois a opção "classificação" e por fim por "título do periódico". Cruzaram-se também os seguintes descritores: urology, urologic, urological, prostate, prostatic, plastic, reconstructive, aesthetic. Os periódicos classificados na área da Medicina III da Capes foram selecionados, e seus respectivos estratos registrados. Para confirmação do fator de impacto de 2014, consultou-se a base de dados http://www.impactfactorsearch.com/, onde a digitação do nome do periódico revela automaticamente seu impacto. Foram encontrados 23 periódicos urológicos e 12 na cirurgia plástica. O fator de impacto médio dos urológicos foi de 2.256 e o da cirurgia plástica de 1.060. Entre os peri
Sucupira, Eduardo; Matta, Renato; Zuker, Patrícia; Matta, Jorge; Arbeláez, Juan Pablo; Uebel, Carlos O
About one in ten patients experiences iatrogenic events, and more than half of these occur in the perioperative environment. The objective of this study was to develop a complete and functional checklist for aesthetic plastic surgery and test it in patients who would undergo elective plastic surgeries. Patient data were collected from a general hospital and the particular clinic between October 2013 and October 2015, through history, physical examination, diagnosis, laboratory tests, pre-, during, and postoperatively, and complications. An expanded safety checklist was developed and optimized for aesthetic plastic surgery based on the model presented by the WHO in 2009 with reference to the information related to the prevention of more frequent complications in this specialty. The tool was applied to 486 patients, of whom 430 (88 %) were women and 56 (12 %) were men. The most frequently performed procedure was liposuction with 30 % of cases, and the most widely used type of anesthesia (39 %) was local anesthesia + sedation. The greater adherence of professionals to the checklist was the group of residents (98 %). The observed complications were seromas (7 %), other complications unrelated to the wound (3 %), and hematoma (0.2 %) in only one patient who underwent facelift. The use of the checklist in addition to allowing data collection and the identification of potential risks promoted favorable changes in the attitudes of some professionals and generated interest in patient safety and teamwork. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Parks, Joe; Kath, Melissa; Gabrick, Kyle; Ver Halen, Jon Peter
Although nanotechnology is a relatively young field, there are already countless biomedical applications. Plastic and reconstructive surgery has significantly benefited from nanoscale refinements of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Plastic surgery is an incredibly diverse specialty, encompassing craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, cancer/trauma/congenital reconstruction, burn care, and aesthetic surgery. In particular, wound care, topical skin care, implant and prosthetic design, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery have all been influenced by advances in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will continue to witness growth and expansion of its biomedical applications, especially those in plastic surgery.
Liu, X J; Li, Q Q; Zhang, Z; Li, T T; Xie, Z; Zhang, Y
Computer-assisted surgical simulation is being used increasingly in orthognathic surgery. However, occlusal definition is still undertaken using model surgery with subsequent digitization via surface scanning or cone beam computed tomography. A software tool has been developed and a workflow set up in order to achieve a virtual occlusal definition. The results of a validation study carried out on 60 models of normal occlusion are presented. Inter- and intra-user correlation tests were used to investigate the reproducibility of the manual setting point procedure. The errors between the virtually set positions (test) and the digitized manually set positions (gold standard) were compared. The consistency in virtual set positions performed by three individual users was investigated by one way analysis of variance test. Inter- and intra-observer correlation coefficients for manual setting points were all greater than 0.95. Overall, the median error between the test and the gold standard positions was 1.06mm. Errors did not differ among teeth (F=0.371, P>0.05). The errors were not significantly different from 1mm (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the errors made by the three independent users (P>0.05). In conclusion, this workflow for virtual occlusal definition was found to be reliable and accurate. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The National Health Service (NHS) provides treatment free at the point of delivery to patients. Elective medical procedures in England are funded by 149 independent Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), which are each responsible for patients within a defined geographical area. There is wide variation of availability for many treatments, leading to a "postcode lottery" for healthcare provision in England. The aims were to review funding policies for cosmetic procedures, to evaluate the criteria used to decide eligibility against national guidelines, and to evaluate the extent of any postcode lottery for cosmetic surgery on the National Health Service. This study is the first comprehensive review of funding policies for cosmetic surgery in England. All PCTs in England were asked for their funding policies for cosmetic procedures including breast reduction & augmentation, removal of implants, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, facelift, blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, pinnaplasty, body lifting, surgery for gynaecomastia and tattoo removal. Details of policies were received from 124/149 PCTs (83%). Guidelines varied widely; some refuse all procedures, whilst others allow a full range. Different and sometimes contradictory rules governing symptoms, body mass indices, breast sizes, weights, heights, and other criteria are used to assess patients for funding. Nationally produced guidelines were only followed by nine PCTs. A "postcode lottery" exists in the UK for plastic surgery procedures, despite national guidelines. Some of the more interesting findings are highlighted.
Agarwal, Jayant P; Mendenhall, Shaun D; Hopkins, Paul N
Plastic surgeons are often not perceived as hand surgery specialists. Better educating medical students about the plastic surgeon's role in hand surgery may improve the understanding of the field for future referring physicians. The purposes of this study were to assess medical students' understanding of hand surgery specialists and to analyze the impact of prior plastic, orthopedic, and general surgery clinical exposure on this understanding. An online survey including 8 hand-related clinical scenarios was administered to students at a large academic medical center. After indicating training level and prior clinical exposure to plastic surgery or other surgical subspecialties, students selected one or more appropriate surgical subspecialists for management of surgical hand conditions. A response rate of 56.4% was achieved. Prior clinical exposure to plastic, orthopedic, and general surgery was reported by 29%, 43%, and 90% of fourth year students, respectively. Students generally chose at least 1 acceptable specialty for management of hand conditions with improvement over the course of their training (P = 0.008). Overall, students perceived orthopedic surgeons as hand specialists more so than plastic and general surgeons. Clinical exposure to plastic surgery increased the selection of this specialty for nearly all scenarios (22%-46%, P = 0.025). Exposure to orthopedic and general surgery was associated with a decrease in selection of plastic surgery for treatment of carpal tunnel and hand burns, respectively. Medical students have a poor understanding of the plastic surgeon's role in hand surgery. If plastic surgeons want to continue to be recognized as hand surgeons, they should better educate medical students about their role in hand surgery. This can be achieved by providing a basic overview of plastic surgery to all medical students with emphasis placed on hand and peripheral nerve surgery.
Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine Junior, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
The purpose of this survey was to assess the influence of aesthetic surgery "reality television" shows viewing on the public's perception of the scope of plastic surgery practice. Perceptions of the scope of plastic surgery (33 scenarios), aesthetic surgery "reality television" viewing patterns ("high," "moderate," or "low" familiarity, similarity, confidence, and influence viewers), sociodemographic data, and previous plastic surgery interaction were collected from 2148 members of the public. Response patterns were created and bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to assess the possible determinants of overall public choice of plastic surgeons as experts in the plastic surgery-related scenarios. Both "plastic surgeons" and "plastic surgeons alone" were the main response patterns (all p Plastic surgeons" and "plastic surgeons alone" were significantly (all p plastic surgery interaction) and negative ("high-familiarity" viewers, "high-influence" viewers, "high-confidence" viewers, and "high-similarity" viewers) significant (all p plastic surgeons in the bivariate and multivariate analyses. Aesthetic surgery "reality television" viewing negatively influences the public perception of the broad scope of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Verma, D; Wills, D; Verma, M
To develop computer simulation of steps in vitreoretinal surgery using virtual reality technology. A workstation with three-dimensional position tracking stylus was attached to a Pentium II desktop PC with a graphic accelerator. Computer algorithms were developed using Open GL and Microsoft Visual C++ languages to control the interaction and update the visual feedback tracking the instruments. Soft tissue computer modelling was carried out to mimic the removal of a vitreous opacity. Lens touch with the instruments was also detected. Mathematical modelling to allow for lens distortion was taken into account. A virtual reality computer model has been developed that can simulate initial steps of vitreoretinal surgery. Soft tissue modelling of the vitreous opacity and its removal by the vitrector was successfully simulated. The movements of the active and passive instruments in the dummy eye corresponded to the movements on the computer screen. On evaluation of the system, there was a minimal but discernable time lag between the stylus movement and the visual feedback. There was no tactile feedback when the lens touch was simulated. No further complex vitreoretinal surgery simulation was possible at this stage.
A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev
Full Text Available Objective: to assess the nature and frequency of complications due to different types of delayed reconstructive and plastic surgery (DRPS after radical mastectomy (RME.Subjects and methods. The investigators analyzed the results of treating 31 patients after RME in 2001 to 2014. DRPS was performed 4 months to 15.5 years (more frequently 1 to 3 years following RME. To choose an optimal reconstructive method, it should be kept in mind the following factors: breast size and ptosis, the patients’ somatic status, the presence of scars in the donor area, and radiotherapy to the chest. The breast was repaired using a TRAM flap in 22 patients. Eight cases underwent two-step reconstruction, by setting a tissue expander at Step 1 and replacing it by a silicone implant at Step 2. In one patient, a Becker expander/implant was used as a plastic component for delayed breast reconstructionin order to make a bed with a latissimus dorsi fragment.Results. Complications were observed in 8 (25.8 % patients. The largest number of complications occurred in 6 cases after breast reconstruction using a TRAM flap. There were complications, such as inferior epigastric arterial thrombosis; marginal necroses of a displaced TRAM flap; hematoma in the postoperative wound region; implant bed infection; and wound edge diastasis in the donor area. In virtually all complicated cases, the patients received multimodality (75 % and combined (12.5 % treatments before DRPS.Conclusion. Beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy increase the risk of complications after both reconstructive plastic surgery with implants and the use of autologous tissues. Two-step reconstruction applying implants provided a good cosmetic effect and the least rate of complications.
Oct 16, 2015 ... Background: Knowledge, perception, and acceptance of plastic surgery among any population are influenced by channel of presentation. A good understanding of the public awareness will define the way plastic surgery services will be provided. Aim: To assess the knowledge, awareness of availability, ...
K.J. Simis (Kuni)
textabstractPlastic surgery is a young specialism. It has an ancient history, but made important progress only in the twentieth century. Many opinions exist about plastic surgery, ranging from being mere luxury to people ever hungry for beauty, to being the essential profession able to restore
Background: Knowledge, perception, and acceptance of plastic surgery among any population are influenced by channel of presentation. A good understanding of the public awareness will define the way plastic surgery services will be provided. Aim: To assess the knowledge, awareness of availability, and acceptance of ...
Rakhorst, Hinne A; Badran, Hassan; Clarke, Howard M; Cooter, Rodney; Evans, Gregory R D; Kirschbaum, Julio Daniel; Koh, Kyung Suk; Lazier, Carol; Murphy, Robert X; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Piccolo, Nelson Sarto; Perks, Graeme
This article describes the formation of the International Confederation of Plastic Surgery Societies (ICOPLAST) as a novel, transparent, dynamic, and proactive confederation of national plastic surgery societies. ICOPLAST aspires to provide a voice for the entire international community of plastic surgeons. ICOPLAST has been designed to benefit the patient, plastic surgery as a profession, and each individual plastic surgeon. Its principal objective is to enhance international communication, education, and advocacy processes to ultimately improve patient outcomes for plastic surgery patients globally. The new ICOPLAST's focus is to add true value for patients. ICOPLAST's evolution, philosophy, governance, and bylaws are explained and all societies worldwide are encouraged and cordially invited to join. An open and warm invitation is provided. Additional information is found at www.ICOPLAST.org.
Wang, Yirong; Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.
Background: Plastic surgery has a well-known history of innovative procedures and products. However, with the rise in competition, such as aesthetic procedures being performed by other medical specialties, there is a need for continued innovation in plastic surgery to create novel treatments to advance this specialty. Although many articles introduce innovative technologies and procedures, there is a paucity of publications to highlight the application of principles of innovation in plastic surgery. Methods: We review the literature regarding business strategies for innovation. Results: We evaluate concepts of innovation, process of innovation (idea generation, idea evaluation, idea conversion, idea diffusion and adoption), ethical issues, and the application to plastic surgery. Conclusions: Adopting a business model of innovation is helpful to promote a new paradigm of progress to propel plastic surgery to new avenues of creativity. PMID:23897344
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Operative experience in aesthetic surgery is an important issue affecting plastic surgery residents. This study addresses the variability of aesthetic surgery experience during plastic surgery residency. National operative case logs of chief residents in independent/combined and integrated plastic surgery residency programs were analyzed (2011-2015). Fold differences between the bottom and top 10th percentiles of residents were calculated for each aesthetic procedure category and training model. The number of residents not achieving case minimums was also calculated. Case logs of 818 plastic surgery residents were analyzed. There was marked variability in craniofacial (range, 6.0-15.0), breast (range, 2.4-5.9), trunk/extremity (range, 3.0-16.0), and miscellaneous (range, 2.7-22.0) procedure categories. In 2015, the bottom 10th percentile of integrated and independent/combined residents did not achieve case minimums for botulinum toxin and dermal fillers. Case minimums were achieved for the other aesthetic procedure categories for all graduating years. Significant variability persists for many aesthetic procedure categories during plastic surgery residency training. Greater efforts may be needed to improve the aesthetic surgery experience of plastic surgery residents.
Chivers, Quinton J; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank; Warren, Richard J; Arkoubi, Amr Y; Mahabir, Raman C; Murray, Kenneth A; Islur, Avinash
With the demand for cosmetic surgery continuing to rise, it is necessary to reevaluate the current state of cosmetic surgery training during plastic surgery residency. An evaluation of cosmetic surgery training in US plastic surgery residency programs in 2006 identified several areas for improvement, resulting in changes to both the duration and content of training. The authors assess the current state of cosmetic surgery training in Canadian plastic surgery residency programs. A paper survey of all graduating Canadian plastic surgery residents eligible to complete the 2009 Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada fellowship examinations was performed (N = 29). The survey was conducted primarily at the Canadian Plastic Surgery Review Course in February 2009, with surveys collected from absent residents by e-mail within 1 month after the course. The survey covered 2 broad areas: (1) specifics regarding resident cosmetic surgery training and (2) confidence and satisfaction associated with this experience. Of the 29 residents surveyed, 28 responded (96%). The majority of Canadian plastic surgery residency programs (75%) have a designated cosmetic surgery rotation, but 90% of respondents felt it has become increasingly difficult to gain exposure to cosmetic procedures as most are performed at private surgery centers. Elective rotations at cosmetic surgery practices and resident cosmetic clinics were considered the most beneficial for cosmetic surgery education. Residents considered cosmetic surgery procedures of the face (such as rhinoplasty and facelift) more challenging, but they had more confidence with breast and body contouring procedures. Canadian plastic surgery residency programs need to ensure that residents continue to receive comprehensive exposure to both surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic procedures to ensure our specialty's continued leadership in this evolving and highly competitive field. A multidimensional approach utilizing a variety of
Sinno, Sammy; Barr, Jason; Wilson, Stelios; Smith, Benjamin D; Tanna, Neil; Saadeh, Pierre B
The general public may not fully appreciate the role that plastic surgeons play in patient care. The authors sought to identify public perceptions of plastic surgery in a major US urban setting. A short, anonymous, survey was distributed to the public in all of the major boroughs of New York City. Respondents were asked to choose the surgeon they believed were experts in 12 specific clinical issues representative of required competencies by both the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee and the American Board of Plastic Surgery. A total of 1000 surveys were collected. Respondent demographics were similar by sex (53% women) and age (6% agesplastic surgeons as experts in the following procedures included rhinoplasty (61%), mandible fracture (12%), blepharoplasty (71%), cleft lip and palate surgery (46%), thumb replantation (32%), hand/finger fracture (18%), rhytidectomy (85%), breast reconstruction (87%), breast augmentation (96%), open leg wound (15%), open wound on the face (40%), and Botox (47%). Plastic surgeons were the most commonly selected experts in only 8 of these 12 domains (67%). These included rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, rhytidectomy, Botox injections, breast augmentation, breast reconstruction, cleft lip and palate surgery, and treatment of open wound of the face. Unfortunately, many conditions at the core of plastic surgery remain outside the realm of plastic surgery in the opinion of the surveyed public.
Hatamleh, Muhanad; Turner, Catherine; Bhamrah, Gurprit; Mack, Gavin; Osher, Jonas
Conventional model surgery planning for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery can be laborious, time-consuming and may contain potential errors; hence three-dimensional (3D) virtual orthognathic planning has been proven to be an efficient, reliable, and cost-effective alternative. In this report, the 3D planning is described for a patient presenting with a Class III incisor relationship on a Skeletal III base with pan facial asymmetry complicated by reverse overjet and anterior open bite. A combined scan data of direct cone beam computer tomography and indirect dental scan were used in the planning. Additionally, a new method of establishing optimum intercuspation by scanning dental casts in final occlusion and positioning it to the composite-scans model was shown. Furthermore, conventional model surgery planning was carried out following in-house protocol. Intermediate and final intermaxillary splints were produced following the conventional method and 3D printing. Three-dimensional planning showed great accuracy and treatment outcome and reduced laboratory time in comparison with the conventional method. Establishing the final dental occlusion on casts and integrating it in final 3D planning enabled us to achieve the best possible intercuspation.
Song, Elaine Horibe; Shirazian, Afshin; Binns, Brian; Fleming, Yuedi; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Rohrich, Rod J; Azari, Kodi
Rising health care costs and increasingly demanding patients are only some of the challenges faced by academic plastic surgery services in their pursuit of excellence in education, research, and patient care. Benchmarking, when correctly applied, is a powerful tool that can help services learn from each other's experiences. This study aimed at creating the first benchmarking report summarizing performance indicators and management practices of some of the most complete academic plastic surgery units in the United States. Results provide an opportunity for plastic surgery leaders to benchmark against their own units, identify eventual gaps, and improve their performance as needed.
Tanna, Neil; Boyd, J Brian; Kawamoto, Henry K; Miller, Timothy A; Da Lio, Andrew L; Azhar, Hamdan; Bradley, James P
Practitioners in other surgical specialties have increasingly advanced their volume of reconstructive procedures traditionally served by plastic surgeons. Because there has not been a previous specialty training comparison, the average operative reconstructive volume of graduating plastic surgery residents was formally compared with that of other specialties. The authors review the case log statistical reports of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. For each specialty, this annual report highlights the average number of cases performed for all graduating residents. The national case log reports were reviewed for orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, and plastic surgery. Six procedures were compared for residents graduating in the 2006 to 2010 academic years and are reviewed. A two-sample Welch-Satterthwaite t test for independent samples with heterogeneous variance was conducted to compare the average number of procedures performed per graduating resident. Graduates of plastic surgery residencies compared with graduates of other specialties performed more cleft lip and palate repairs, hand amputation, hand fracture, and nasal fracture procedures. This difference showed statistical significance for all years examined (2006 to 2010). For repair of mandible fractures, plastic surgery trainees had significantly more cases for 2006 to 2009 but not 2010. The quantitative operative experience of graduating plastic surgery residents for selected reconstructive cases is above that of the average graduating trainee outside of plastic surgery. Given the exposure and strength of plastic surgery training, plastic surgeons should remain at the forefront of reconstructive surgery.
Verheyden, Charles N; Levin, L Scott
Leadership can be defined as not only the position of a leader, but the ability to function as one. This brief review of leadership is focused on what is involved in leading a plastic surgery unit in an institution. Characteristics of a good leader, identified by those who are being led, are discussed. In addition to that, the character of the individual leading is also reviewed, because it is such a critical ingredient in a person's capacity to lead others. Leadership characteristics can be learned and opportunities for growth in this area are discussed. The result of good leadership of a plastic surgery unit will indubitably result in the enhancement of the plastic surgery unit in an institution and plastic surgery as a specialty.
Albert, Mark G; Rothkopf, Douglas M
...; however, its importance in the OR has not been demonstrated. Objective To propose a method of decreasing cost through judicious selection of instruments and supplies, and initiation of recycling in plastic and hand surgery...
Albert, Mark G; Rothkopf, Douglas M
...; however, its importance in the OR has not been demonstrated. To propose a method of decreasing cost through judicious selection of instruments and supplies, and initiation of recycling in plastic and hand surgery...
Drolet, Brian C; Tandon, Vickram J; Sargent, Rachel; Loor, Kamaris; Schmidt, Scott T; Liu, Paul Y
In academic institutions, residents make substantial contributions to clinical productivity. However, billing cannot be generated unless there is direct attending physician supervision of these services. The purpose of this study was to quantify clinical services provided by residents at a large academic medical center. The authors performed a review of all consultations to the plastic surgery service between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Documentation was reviewed and hypothetical billing for services was generated using American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology and evaluation and management codes. A total of 2367 consultations were reviewed during the 1-year study period. Residents provided services under indirect supervision for the majority of consultations [n = 1940 (81.9 percent)]. If these services had been billed, evaluation and management would have resulted in 6970 physician work relative value units. More than half of the encounters (52.0 percent) involved at least one procedure, resulting in an additional 3316 work relative value units from 1339 Current Procedural Terminology codes. Using a conservative estimate (2014 Medicare reimbursement rates), charges from these services would total $368,496. The plastic surgery consultation service is a potential source of uncaptured revenue for training programs using indirect supervision of residents. Greater than 10,000 work relative value units could have been generated from resident clinical services, which is considerably more than the national average productivity of a full-time, academic plastic surgeon. Capturing a portion of this revenue stream could improve the fiscal balance of training programs and improve the cost-effective use of resident productivity.
Neaman, Keith C; Hill, Brian C; Ebner, Ben; Ford, Ronald D
One of the goals of plastic surgery residency programs is to provide effective training in aesthetic surgery. Recently, programs have adopted the idea of chief clinics to provide senior residents with the opportunity to perform cosmetic surgery with an increased level of autonomy. The goal of this article is to characterize chief clinics currently in place and their usefulness in providing effective training in plastic surgery under the precepts set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A survey was created focusing on six broad categories: respondent identifier, clinic structure, clinic monetary earnings, patient demographics, procedures, and educational utility. Surveys were distributed to all plastic surgery residency programs targeting current and recently graduated chief residents, and program directors. A total of 123 surveys were returned. Eighty of the 88 plastic surgery residency programs (91 percent) were represented. Of the programs responding, 71.3 percent (57 programs) had a chief resident clinic. Thirty-two of the respondents (43.8 percent) reported that 100 percent of the procedures performed were cosmetic in nature. Programs differed widely on their frequency of occurrence and support staff available. A majority of respondents felt these clinics enhanced resident understanding of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. A majority of plastic surgery training programs use the chief clinic model to enhance resident education. These clinics vary in makeup and case distribution but serve as an effective way of teaching autonomy, surgical maturity, and the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies.
Lopez, Joseph; Calotta, Nicholas; Doshi, Ankur; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; May, James W; Tufaro, Anthony P
The purpose of this study is to determine and characterize the scientific and nonscientific factors that influence the rate of article citation in the field of plastic surgery. Cross-sectional study. We reviewed all entries in Annals of Plastic Surgery and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007; and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. All scientific articles were analyzed and several article characteristics were extracted. The number of citations at 5 years was collected as the outcome variable. A multivariable analysis was performed to determine which variables were associated with higher citations rates. A total of 2456 articles were identified of which only 908 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies were publications in the fields of reconstructive (26.3%) or pediatric/craniofacial (17.6%) surgery. The median number of citations 5 years from publication was 8. In the multivariable analysis, factors associated with higher citations rates were subspecialty field (p = 0.0003), disclosed conflict of interest (p = 0.04), number of authors (p = 0.04), and journal (p = 0.02). We have found that higher level of evidence (or other study methodology factors) is not associated with higher citation rates. Instead, conflict of interest, subspecialty topic, journal, and number of authors are strong predictors of high citation rates in plastic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Victor Zhang; Tuggle, Charles Thompson; Au, Alexander Francis
The use of "Big Data" in plastic surgery outcomes research has increased dramatically in the last 5 years. This article addresses some of the benefits and limitations of such research. This is a narrative review of large database studies in plastic surgery. There are several benefits to database research as compared with traditional forms of research, such as randomized controlled studies and cohort studies. These include the ease in patient recruitment, reduction in selection bias, and increased generalizability. As such, the types of outcomes research that are particularly suited for database studies include determination of geographic variations in practice, volume outcome analysis, evaluation of how sociodemographic factors affect access to health care, and trend analyses over time. The limitations of database research include data which are limited only to what was captured in the database, high power which can cause clinically insignificant differences to achieve statistical significance, and fishing which can lead to increased type I errors. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project is an important general surgery database that may be useful for plastic surgeons because it is validated and has a large number of patients after over a decade of collecting data. The Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is a newer database specific to plastic surgery. Databases are a powerful tool for plastic surgery outcomes research. It is critically important to understand their benefits and limitations when designing research projects or interpreting studies whose data have been drawn from them. For plastic surgeons, National Surgical Quality Improvement Project has a greater number of publications, but Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is the most applicable database for plastic surgery research.
Krieger, Lloyd M
Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.
Alexander Lunger, MD
Full Text Available Summary:. The Swiss Plastic Surgery Association (https://plasticsurgery.ch/en/ decided to produce a corporate video to illustrate the concept of "plastic surgery of confidence" to the public. We show the diversity of specializations and the vast range of tasks that surgeons passionately handle day in and day out. We wanted to convey 2 main messages: first, that plastic surgery is more than just cosmetic surgery, and second, that plastic surgery in Switzerland is synonymous with quality and confidence. We selected 17 topics that we felt had good filmic potential and would best explain to the public what plastic surgery is about. This included the selection of appropriate patients, experts, and locations from all over the country. We thought it crucial to show the initial preoperative situation, as only in this case would the achievement of reconstruction be evident and comprehensive to the layman audience. The actual production was filmed in 5 different locations and took 5 days of shooting. We recorded 17 surgeons, 9 patients, and about 30 voluntary background actors. From 23 hours of footage, we created a 7 minute, 22 second corporate video, recorded in 3 of the Swiss national languages. The video was presented to the public online in June 2016, on the same day as the National Open Day of Plastic Surgery in Switzerland. The video is available online. We evaluated the impact of the video using a questionnaire for lay people and observed that it could substantially improve the perception of our specialty, especially regarding the reconstructive aspect. We feel that a freely available corporate video is a very useful means to promote plastic surgery and help patients better understand what it is all about.
Sanan, Akshay; Quinn, Candace; Spiegel, Jeffrey H
Plastic surgeons are competing for their share of a growing but still limited market, thus making advertising an important component in a successful plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate the variables, characteristics, and presentation features that make print advertisements most effectively pique the interest of individuals selecting a plastic surgeon. An online survey was administered to 404 individuals with active interest in plastic surgery from 10 major metropolitan areas. Participants were presented with 5 different advertisements from plastic surgeons throughout the country and were asked a series of both closed- and open-ended questions to assess verity, quality, and marketability of each advertisement. Reponses to open-ended questions were analyzed using the Wordle program (www.wordle.net). The most frequent themes identified for all 5 ads were "Being beautiful is possible" (41%), "I could be beautiful" (24%), "Some people need surgery to be beautiful" (16%), and "Being beautiful is important" (14%). Advertisement 1-featuring 3 women and no pre- or posttreatment photography, no physician photography, and a listing of the 3 physicians' credentials but not a list of the services provided-received the highest overall preference rating. Factors including emotions felt while reading, unique qualities of the advertisement, list of procedures performed, use of models versus actual patients, and pictures of the plastic surgeons were found to contribute to the respondents' overall perception of advertisements used to market a plastic surgery practice.
Chu, Michael W; Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Momeni, Arash
Patient education is essential in enhancing the physician-patient therapeutic alliance, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The American Medical Association and National Institute of Health recommend that information be written at a 6th-grade reading level, but online resources often exceed patient literacy. The purpose of this study is to assess readability of online material for facial plastics procedures presented on academic plastic surgery and otolaryngology websites.An Internet search was performed of all academic institutions that had both plastic surgery and otolaryngology training programs who offered patient information on facial plastic surgery procedures. National society websites for both plastic surgery and otolaryngology were also analyzed. All procedural information was compiled and readability analyses were performed. A 2-tailed Z-test was used to compare scores, and statistical significance was set at P material. The overall average readability for all information was at a 10th-grade reading level. The national plastic surgery website had a significantly higher word count and number of syllables per word compared to the national otolaryngology website (P materials are a potential hindrance to patient education, satisfaction, and decision making. Healthcare institutions should consider writing new materials with simpler language that would be accessible to patients.
Barker, Jenny C; Rendon, Juan; Janis, Jeffrey E
Mentorship is a universal concept that has a significant impact on nearly every surgical career. Although frequently editorialized, true data investigating the value of mentorship are lacking in the plastic surgery literature. This study evaluates mentorship in plastic surgery from the medical student perspective. An electronic survey was sent to recently matched postgraduate year-1 integrated track residents in 2014, with a response rate of 76 percent. Seventy-seven percent of students reported a mentoring relationship. Details of the mentoring relationship were defined. Over 80 percent of students reported a mentor's influence in their decision to pursue plastic surgery, and nearly 40 percent of students expressed interest in practicing the same subspecialty as their mentor. Benefits of the relationship were also described. Mentees value guidance around career preparation and advice and prioritized "a genuine interest in their career and personal development" above all other mentor qualities (p ≤ 1.6 × 10). Mentees prefer frequent, one-on-one interactions over less frequent interaction or group activities. Students did not prefer "assigned" relationships (91 percent), but did prefer "facilitated exposure." Major barriers to mentorship included mentor time constraints and lack of exposure to plastic surgery. Indeed, significant differences in the presence of a mentoring relationship correlated with involvement of the plastic surgery department in the medical school curriculum. This study defines successes and highlights areas for improvement of mentorship of plastic surgery medical students. Successful mentorship may contribute to the future of plastic surgery, and a commitment toward this endeavor is needed at the local, departmental, and national leadership levels.
McInnes, Colin W; Courtemanche, Douglas J; Verchere, Cynthia G; Bush, Kevin L; Arneja, Jugpal S
Some argue that the specialty of plastic surgery is facing a changing identity. Challenged by factors such as increasing competition in the cosmetic marketplace and decreasing reimbursement for reconstructive procedures, many American plastic surgeons have increasingly adopted cosmetic-focused practices. The present study investigated the currently unknown practice profiles of Canadian plastic surgeons to determine the reconstructive-cosmetic mix, as well as factors that influence practice type to determine whether a similar pattern exists in Canada. An anonymous online survey regarding practice profiles was distributed to all 352 Canadian plastic surgeons with e-mail accounts registered with the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons and/or the Canadian Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. The survey response rate was 34% (120 responses), of which 75% of respondents currently had a reconstructive practice and 25% had a cosmetic practice. Reconstructive surgeons had more educational debt following their training, spent more time on emergency call, academics and teaching and, when deciding which type of practice to establish, were more influenced by academic opportunities and less influenced by financial and nonfinancial metrics. Similarities between the groups included hours worked per week and academic achievements. The field of reconstructive plastic surgery appears to be thriving in Canada. While a transition from reconstructive to cosmetic practice is common, compared with their American colleagues, a greater proportion of Canadian plastic surgeons maintain reconstructive practices. Differences between reconstructive and cosmetic plastic surgeons are discussed.
Momeni, Arash; Goerke, Sebastian M; Bannasch, Holger; Arkudas, Andreas; Stark, G Björn
The importance of providing high-quality exposure and training in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery during residency has come to the forefront of plastic surgery education. Adequate training in aesthetic surgery, however, has traditionally been challenging. The authors were interested in how these challenges were met abroad. A 17-item online survey was developed to assess the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in Germany. The survey had 3 distinct sections: demographic information, current state of aesthetic surgery training, and residents' opinions about the perceived quality of aesthetic surgery training. Only responses of senior residents were included in the final analysis. A total of 112 residents responded (30% response rate), of which 88 were senior plastic surgery residents. Ninety percent (n = 79) reported that a resident aesthetic surgery clinic was not part of their training experience. Eighty-eight percent (n = 77) reported that they did not have a dedicated aesthetic surgery rotation during their residency training. According to 69.3% (n = 61), no didactic training in aesthetic surgery was provided. Fifty-six percent (n = 49) of senior plastic surgery residents had performed only a maximum of 10 aesthetic surgery procedures at the time of the survey. Although only 43.2% of senior residents claimed to be interested in a predominantly aesthetic surgery practice, 90.9% (n = 80) felt that they require further training in aesthetic surgery (ie, fellowship). Deficiencies exist with respect to aesthetic surgery training among senior plastic surgery residents in Germany. Structural improvements in residency training with formal exposure and teaching in aesthetic surgery are warranted. The German Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons is actively addressing deficiencies identified with the goal of improving the quality of training.
Full Text Available Surgery planning assisted by computer represents one important example of the collaboration between surgeons and engineers. Virtual planning allows surgeons to pre-do the surgery by working over a virtual 3D model of the patient obtained through a computer tomography. Through surgical navigation, surgeons are helped while working with deep structures and can check if they are following accurately the surgical plan. These assistive tools are crucial in the field of facial reconstructive surgery. This paper describes two cases, one related to orbital fractures and another one related to oncological patients, showing the advantages that these tools provide, specifically when used for craniomaxillofacial surgery.
Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein
A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.
Susruta, Tagliacozzi and Dieffenbach are considered to be the first plastic surgeons. Many French surgeons deserve to figure in the "Golden Book" of the specialty. From Pierre Franco to Paul Tessier, many famous or sometimes unknown surgeons introduced important innovations. In the XVIth century, Pierre Franco realized the first autoplasty of the face as well as the first suture of a cleft lift. This was modified by Mirault, three centuries later. Delpech created at Montpellier a real "school" dedicated to plastic surgery where there was an attempt to oppose a French technique to the success of surgeons from Berlin. Roux was the first (or the second according to Von Graefe) to succeed a cleft palate closure. The first Z plasty was performed by Denonvilliers and Morestin devoted many works to plastic surgery insisting on scar discretion. After World War II, the main cosmetic procedures were described and performed by French surgeons: Bourguet, Passot, Dartigues… Suzanne Noel was the first female plastic surgeon and the first to perform outpatient operations. After the creation of the French Society of Plastic surgery, Paul Tessier conceived the craniofacial surgery. An important step in cosmetic surgery was liposuction described by Y.G. Illouz. More recently, French teams performed the first allotransplantation of the face and of the upper limbs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
von Dercks, N; Fakler, J; Langer, S; Josten, C
Since May 2012 plastic surgery for trauma patients at the University Hospital Leipzig is provided by an autonomous department. This study analyzed the effect of plastic surgery on the changes in diagnosis-related groups (DRG) at a clinic for trauma surgery. Within the first 2 years 37 patients (29 male and 8 female of which 38 were inpatient cases) were admitted to the clinic for trauma surgery and additionally received plastic surgery treatment. The appropriate DRG assignment as well as associated codes and revenues were recorded and compared with and without plastic surgery. A total of 261 operations were performed on these patients of which 71 were performed by the department of plastic surgery. The mean revenue was 22,156.44 EUR±20,578.22 EUR with a mean cost weighting of 7.2±6.7. Excluding plastic surgery treatment the mean revenue was 19,378.44 EUR±20,688.40 EUR and the mean cost weighting was 6.3±6.7. Thus, additional proceeds by the plastic surgery treatment were 2778.00 EUR±3857.01 EUR per case. The mean increase of the cost weighting was 0.9±1.3. A change of the DRG grouping occurred in 20 out of 38 cases treated. The mean length of stay (LoS) was 40.2±26.6 days. In the first year this was 17.9±22.4 days more than the mean national LoS of the appropriate DRG and 10.9±19.3 days in the second year. This means an average cost reduction of 4774.59 EUR per case. The implementation of a department for plastic surgery increased the revenues. Additional profits should be achieved by process enhancement and not by prolonged LoS.
Cobbett, J. R.
The plastic surgeon is not a miracle worker, as so many of his patients believe. Nevertheless, he can do much to minimize the functional and cosmetic effect of many congenital deformities. If a moral can be drawn from this article it must be that the plastic surgeon should be given an early opportunity to see and assess the patients described here, if only to ease the anxiety in the minds of their parents by appropriate reassurance and discussion. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4853507
Kozak, Igor; Banerjee, Pat; Luo, Jia; Luciano, Cristian
Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real patients for practicing vitreoretinal surgery using different pathologic scenarios.
Chopra, Karan; Swanson, Edward W; Susarla, Srinivas; Chang, Sarah; Stevens, W Grant; Singh, Devinder P
Objective measures of research productivity depend on how frequently a publication is cited. Metrics such as the Hirsch index (h-index; total number of publications h that have at least h citations) allow for an objective measurement of the scientific impact of an author's publications. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the h-index among aesthetic plastic surgery fellowship directors to that of fellowship directors in craniofacial surgery and microsurgery. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all fellowship directors in aesthetic surgery, craniofacial surgery, and microsurgery in the United States and Canada. The gathered data were categorized as bibliometric (h-index, i10-index, total number of publications, total number of citations, maximum citations for a single work, and number of self-citations) and demographic (gender, training background). Descriptive statistics were computed. The sample was composed of 30 aesthetic surgeons (93% male), 33 craniofacial surgeons (97% male), and 32 microsurgeons (94% male). The mean h-index was 13.7 for aesthetics, 16.9 for craniofacial, and 12.4 for microsurgery. There were no significant differences for any of the bibliometric measures between the three subspecialties, despite the fact that academic rank and years in practice were significantly different. As measured by the h-index, there is a high level of academic productivity among fellowship directors, regardless of subspecialty area. Unlike other plastic surgery subspecialties however, the h-index of aesthetic plastic surgeons is not correlated to academic rank, revealing a discrepancy between perceptions of aesthetic plastic surgery and its actual academic impact. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Crockett, Richard J; Pruzinsky, Thomas; Persing, John A
The aim of this study was to survey first-time patients seeking cosmetic surgery and examine what role "reality TV" played in their perception of the risks and benefits of surgery and their overall decision-making process. Information on demographics, television viewing patterns, and patients' self-assessed plastic surgery knowledge was collected from 42 patients. They were asked how similar they believed the shows were to real life and what degree of influence the shows had on their decision to pursue cosmetic surgery. Patients were then divided into groups by program viewing intensity. Fifty-seven percent of patients were "high-intensity" viewers of plastic surgery reality television shows. When compared with low-intensity viewers, high-intensity viewers believed themselves to be more knowledgeable about plastic surgery (p reality television plays a significant role in cosmetic surgery patient perceptions and decision making. Patients who regularly watched one or more reality television show reported a greater influence from television and media to pursue cosmetic surgery, felt more knowledgeable about cosmetic surgery in general, and felt that plastic surgery reality television was more similar to real life than did low-intensity viewers.
Janis, Jeffrey E; Barker, Jenny C
The reproducible benefits of mentoring to mentees have been studied extensively. However, insights from the mentor perspective are less well described. This study evaluates mentorship of plastic surgery medical students from the attending surgeon's perspective. A comparison is made with a previous publication evaluating mentorship from the medical student's perspective. An electronic survey was sent to 1025 active members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS) and the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS), with a combined response rate of 23 percent. For individual organizations, the response rate was 40 percent for ACAPS and 24 percent for AAPS. Eighty-three percent of attending surgeons reported participation in medical student mentoring. Mentor demographics and preferences were defined. The majority of mentors are men, older than 50 years, with a clinically focused, academic practice. Although scheduled, one-on-one meetings were the most preferred form of interaction, mentors generally favored group activities. Mentors also preferred to meet less frequently and in less personalized formats than mentees. Mentors perceived enhanced job satisfaction and a sense of "giving back" as most important. The most common barriers included mentor time constraints and lack of exposure to medical students. The presence of plastic surgery involvement in the medical school curriculum correlated directly with the formation of mentoring relationships. By comparing the perspectives on mentoring between attending surgeons and medical students, discrepancies and similarities were identified. These findings can be used to increase efficacy and strengthen mentoring efforts for medical students in plastic surgery.
Fodor, L.; Ciuce, C.; Fodor, M.; Shrank, C.; Lapid, O.; Kon, M.; Ramon, Y.; Ullmann, Y.
A varying period of training followed by examinations is the usual way to become a specialist in one of the many fields of Medicine. Plastic Surgery is one of the surgical fields that require good technical and cognitive skills. The best way to train and evaluate a candidate is hard to judge. The
Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115
Objective. To ascertain junior doctors' awareness of the scope of public-sector plastic surgery practice. Method. A 12-part questionnaire asked the respondents to name, from a list, the specialty they felt was best equipped to manage patients with specific conditions. Results. The data demonstrate that perception of the scope ...
Vardanian, Andrew J; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Im, Daniel D; Lee, James C; Jarrahy, Reza
Social media platforms have revolutionized the way human beings communicate, yet there is little evidence describing how the plastic surgery community has adopted social media. In this article, the authors evaluate current trends in social media use by practicing plastic surgeons. An anonymous survey on the use of social media was distributed to members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Prevalent patterns of social media implementation were elucidated. One-half of respondents were regular social media users. Reasons for using social media included the beliefs that incorporation of social media into medical practice is inevitable (56.7 percent), that they are an effective marketing tool (52.1 percent), and that they provide a forum for patient education (49 percent). Surgeons with a primarily aesthetic surgery practice were more likely to use social media. Most respondents (64.6 percent) stated that social media had no effect on their practice, whereas 33.8 percent reported a positive impact and 1.5 percent reported a negative impact. This study depicts current patterns of social media use by plastic surgeons, including motivations driving its implementation and impressions on its impact. Many feel that social media are an effective marketing tool that generates increased exposure and referrals. A small number of surgeons have experienced negative repercussions from social media involvement. Our study reveals the presence of a void. There is a definite interest among those surveyed in developing best practice standards and oversight to ensure ethical use of social media platforms throughout the plastic surgery community. Continuing discussion regarding these matters should be ongoing as our experience with social media in plastic surgery evolves.
Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos
Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin Yong Kim
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study is to analyze the current attitudes toward professionalism,the core values, and the type of professionalism among plastic surgeons in Korea to establish acode of ethics regarding the role of professionalism for plastic and reconstructive surgeons.Methods From March 9, to July 1, 2012, face-to-face and mail surveys were conductedtargeting the 325 participants (256 specialists and 69 residents who are registered membersof the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. The proportion of each responsegiven to an item was obtained through statistical processing through frequency analysis. TheMann–Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in the responses between theresident group and the specialist group.Results The survey results on the perception of professionalism in plastic surgery showed thata high proportion (90.5% of the respondents viewed the future of plastic surgeons as bright.Through evaluation of the importance of the value items,”professional dominance” (4.58 pts,”autonomy” (4.45 pts, ”lifestyle” (4.34 pts, and ”commercialism” (4.31 pts were assessed ascritical values. ”Altruism” (3.84 pts, “interpersonal competence” (3.79 pts, and ”social justice”(3.61 pts were viewed as lesser values. This difference showed the characteristics of anentrepreneurial outlook.Conclusions Plastic surgeons should pursue excellence, humanism, accountability, andaltruism in order to overcome the crisis of professionalism in plastic surgery. In order todevelop the necessary competencies of professionals, vocational education should be arrangedby the Korean Society of Plastic Surgeons, and an appropriate code of ethics should beestablished.
Jin Yong Kim
Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study is to analyze the current attitudes toward professionalism, the core values, and the type of professionalism among plastic surgeons in Korea to establish a code of ethics regarding the role of professionalism for plastic and reconstructive surgeons.MethodsFrom March 9, to July 1, 2012, face-to-face and mail surveys were conducted targeting the 325 participants (256 specialists and 69 residents who are registered members of the Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. The proportion of each response given to an item was obtained through statistical processing through frequency analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences in the responses between the resident group and the specialist group.ResultsThe survey results on the perception of professionalism in plastic surgery showed that a high proportion (90.5% of the respondents viewed the future of plastic surgeons as bright. Through evaluation of the importance of the value items,"professional dominance" (4.58 pts, "autonomy" (4.45 pts, "lifestyle" (4.34 pts, and "commercialism" (4.31 pts were assessed as critical values. "Altruism" (3.84 pts, "interpersonal competence" (3.79 pts, and "social justice" (3.61 pts were viewed as lesser values. This difference showed the characteristics of an entrepreneurial outlook.ConclusionsPlastic surgeons should pursue excellence, humanism, accountability, and altruism in order to overcome the crisis of professionalism in plastic surgery. In order to develop the necessary competencies of professionals, vocational education should be arranged by the Korean Society of Plastic Surgeons, and an appropriate code of ethics should be established.
Damert, H G; Altmann, S; Stübs, P; Infanger, M; Meyer, F
There is overlap between general, abdominal and vascular surgery on one hand and plastic surgery on the other hand, e.g., in hernia surgery, in particular, recurrent hernia, reconstruction of the abdominal wall or defect closure after abdominal or vascular surgery. Bariatric operations involve both special fields too. Plastic surgeons sometimes use skin and muscle compartments of the abdominal wall for reconstruction at other regions of the body. This article aims to i) give an overview about functional, anatomic and clinical aspects as well as the potential of surgical interventions in plastic surgery. General/abdominal/vascular surgeons can benefit from this in their surgical planning and competent execution of their own surgical interventions with limited morbidity/lethality and an optimal, in particular, functional as well as aesthetic outcome, ii) support the interdisciplinary work of general/abdominal/vascular and plastic surgery, and iii) provide a better understanding of plastic surgery and its profile of surgical interventions and options. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Verheyden, Charles N; McGrath, Mary H; Simpson, Peggy; Havens, Lisa
It is presumed that plastic surgery residents experience various social problems, just as do their peers in other specialty training programs and in the general public. These issues can occasionally disrupt the resident's personal training experience and sometimes the program as a whole. A survey was performed to assess the magnitude of the problem, and the issues revealed were assessed to assist the program director and the resident in reaching successful completion of the residency. A survey was designed by the executive committee and staff of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons and sent to all plastic surgery training programs in the United States. A response rate of 66 percent was achieved. The programs reported on the social issues occurring in their residents over the preceding 5 years. The results were presented at a business meeting of the Council. Thirty-seven percent of programs reported that at least one resident had left their program during the study period. Twenty percent reported that a resident had been asked to leave the program. The frequency of social problems resulting in disruption of the training program was tabulated in the following areas: divorce; pregnancy/parturition; financial, legal, or family issues; drug or alcohol abuse; illness/injury; and interpersonal conflicts. Plastic surgery residents experience social problems that can affect the timely completion of their training. Attention to these issues requires patience, creativity, sensitivity, and a commitment to the residents' ultimate success, and adherence to institutional, legal, and accreditation body mandates.
Gerstle, Theodore L; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Kim, Peter S; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J
Three-dimensional printing represents an evolving technology still in its infancy. Currently, individuals and small business entities have the ability to manufacture physical objects from digital renderings, computer-aided design, and open source files. Design modifications and improvements in extrusion methods have made this technology much more affordable. This article explores the potential uses of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery. A review was performed detailing the known uses of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The potential applications of three-dimensional printing in plastic surgery are discussed. Various applications for three-dimensional printing technology have emerged in medicine, including printing organs, printing body parts, bio-printing, and computer-aided tissue engineering. In plastic surgery, these tools offer various prospective applications for surgical planning, resident education, and the development of custom prosthetics. Numerous applications exist in medicine, including the printing of devices, implants, tissue replacements, and even whole organs. Plastic surgeons may likely find this technology indispensable in surgical planning, education, and prosthetic device design and development in the near future.
Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer A; Mancinelli, Corrie A; Nimbarte, Ashish D
To increase awareness of cervical musculoskeletal disorders (cMSD) in ophthalmic plastic surgeons (OPS) and review strategies for management and prevention. There are objective data that show OPS spend the majority of their time operating in awkward, prolonged, static, asymmetric postures. These postures increase cervical load and cMSD. Loupes and headlamps further increase this cervical loading by 40%. Risk for cMSD is not limited to the operating room. Muscular demands in the anterior deltoid and cervical trapezius are increased in slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Furthermore, the majority of the office visit is spent keyboarding into the electronic medical record which is associated with cMSD. Habitual postural faults result from these cumulative exposures. These must be addressed to prevent further insult and debilitating injury. Successful management requires education in neutral posture, therapeutic exercise, environmental adjustments in the workplace and home, and supported neutral sleep posture. The risks of cMSD in OPS are well established, and nearly 10% of cervical injury will end a career. Neck pain must not be ignored, and experienced professional help is critical. A long-term approach that incorporates exercise, manual therapy, and education is essential for management and prevention.
Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Micai, Alessandro; Boriani, Filippo
Eumorphic Plastic Surgery aims at improving the severe psychosocial pain caused by a deformity. Dysmorphopathology is an increasingly relevant problem facing the plastic surgeon. The aim of this study is to describe the perioperative questionnaires created by the senior author and to present a cohort of plastic surgery patients suffering from dysmorphopathies. These patients were prospectively followed and evaluated with the proposed questionnaires through their surgical pathway to explore the degree of satisfaction or disappointment compared to expectations. All candidates for plastic surgery procedures between April 2011 and June 2013 were included in the study. Preoperatively, all patients completed the Patient Expectation Questionnaire (E-pgm). Twelve months postoperatively, they completed the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (S-pgm). The E-pgm and S-pgm were compared to evaluate the consistency between the patient's preoperative expectations and postoperative evaluations. A total of 158 patients were included in the study. Out of them, 79 % experienced an improvement or no variation between preoperative expectations and postoperative satisfaction. With regard to the motivation for undergoing surgery, 91 % showed that the surgical procedure met the motivation. An overall positive perioperative change in life was experienced by 93 % of patients. The E-pgm questionnaire proved to be a valid and reliable tool for the selection of suitable candidates for surgery and for identification of dysmorphophobic patients. Enhancing the doctor-patient relationship and communication can reduce ambiguity and avoid troublesome misunderstandings, litigation and other legal implications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Goodman, Michael P
This review studies rationale and outcome of vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery. Discuss procedures designed to alter genital appearance and function; investigate sexual, philosophical, and ethical issues; examine outcomes. (i) Medline search of the existing literature utilizing terms labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, hymenoplasty (HP), vaginoplasty (VP), perineoplasty (PP), female genital surgery, sexual satisfaction/body image, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy; (ii) references from bibliographies of papers found through the literature search and in the author's reading of available literature. (i) Demographics and psychosexual dynamics of women requesting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery; (ii) overall and sexual satisfaction of subjects undergoing these procedures. The majority of studies regarding patient satisfaction and sexual function after vaginal aesthetic and functional plastic procedures report beneficial results, with overall patient satisfaction in the 90-95% range, sexual satisfaction over 80-85%. These data are supported by outcome data from nonelective vaginal support procedures. Complications appear minor and acceptable to patients. There are little data available regarding outcomes and satisfaction of HP, or function during the rigors of subsequent vaginal childbirth, although the literature contains no case reports of labiaplasty disruption during parturition. Women requesting labiaplasty and reduction of their clitoral hoods do so for both cosmetic and functional (chafing, interference with coitus, interference with athletic activities, etc.) reasons, while patients requesting VP and/or PP do so in order to increase friction and sexual satisfaction, occasionally for aesthetic reasons. Patients appear generally happy with outcomes. The majority of patients undergoing genital plastic surgery report overall satisfaction and subjective enhancement of sexual function and body image, but the literature is retrospective. Female genital plastic
Alsarraf, Ramsey; Alsarraf, Nicole W; Larrabee, Wayne F; Johnson, Calvin M
To evaluate the relationship between cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedure price and demand, and to test the hypothesis that these procedures function as luxury goods in the marketplace, with an upward-sloping demand curve. Data were derived from a survey that was sent to every (N = 1727) active fellow, member, or associate of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, assessing the costs and frequency of 4 common cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures (face-lift, brow-lift, blepharoplasty, and rhinoplasty) for 1999 and 1989. An economic analysis was performed to assess the relationship of price and demand for these procedures. A significant association was found between increasing surgeons' fees and total charges for cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures and increasing demand for these procedures, as measured by their annual frequency (Pprice with increased demand holds for each of the 4 procedures studied, across all US regions, and for both periods surveyed. Cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures do appear to function as luxury goods in the marketplace, with an upward-sloping demand curve. This stands in contrast to other, traditional, goods for which demand typically declines as price increases. It appears that economic methods can be used to evaluate cosmetic procedure trends; however, these methods must be founded on the appropriate economic theory.
Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.
Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652
Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Persson, Jan E. U.; Wolswijk, Richard G. H.; Ihse, Ingmar; Schijven, Marlies P.; Verheijen, René H. M.
With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of
Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin
In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.
Wagenblast, Lene; Laessoe, Line; Printzlau, Andreas
, since some of the patients will experience problems due to excess skin. Foreign studies estimate that ∼30% of all bariatric surgery patients will at some point seek plastic surgical correction of excess skin. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the GB patients themselves consider...... plastic surgery for removal of excess skin, and their reasons and motivations for this. The investigation was performed as an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 150 patients at the 1-year standard consultation for GB patients at a private hospital. The questionnaire contained information about......, and the investigation showed that 89.9% of the patients had a wish for plastic surgery for several different reasons. This patient demand showed to have no correlation to age, gender, smoking habits, or earlier comorbidity....
Eichhorn, Mitchell George; Karadsheh, Murad Jehad; Krebiehl, Johanna Ruth; Ford, Dawn Marie; Ford, Ronald D
Patients can experience significant pain during routine procedures in the plastic surgery clinic. Methods for clinical pain reduction are often impractical, time-consuming, or ineffective. Vibration is a safe, inexpensive, and highly applicable modality for pain reduction that can be readily utilized for a wide variety of procedures. This study evaluated the use of vibration as a viable pain-reduction strategy in the clinical plastic surgery setting. Patients requiring at least 2 consecutive procedures that are considered painful were enrolled in the study. These included injections, staple removal, and suture removal. In the same patient, one half of the procedures were performed without vibration and the other half with vibration. After completing the procedures, the patients rated their pain with vibration and without vibration. The patient and the researcher also described the experience with a short questionnaire. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Patients reported significantly less pain on the Numeric Rating Scale pain scale when vibration was used compared with the control group (p vibration and 1.93 with vibration, and vibration with injections resulted in the greatest improvement. Eighty-six percent of the patients claimed that vibration significantly reduced their pain. Vibration is an effective method of pain reduction. It significantly reduces the pain experienced by patients during minor office procedures. Given its practicality and ease of use, it is a welcome tool in the plastic surgery clinic.
Papel, I D; Jiannetto, D F
Rapidly progressing computer technology, ever-increasing expectations of patients, and a confusing medicolegal environment requires a clarification of the role of computer imaging/applications. Advances in computer technology and its applications are reviewed. A brief historical discussion is included for perspective. Improvements in both hardware and software with the advent of digital imaging have allowed great increases in speed and accuracy in patient imaging. This facilitates doctor-patient communication and possibly realistic patient expectations. Patients seeking cosmetic surgery now often expect preoperative imaging. Although society in general has become more litigious, a literature search up to 1998 reveals no lawsuits directly involving computer imaging. It appears that conservative utilization of computer imaging by the facial plastic surgeon may actually reduce liability and promote communication. Recent advances have significantly enhanced the value of computer imaging in the practice of facial plastic surgery. These technological advances in computer imaging appear to contribute a useful technique for the practice of facial plastic surgery. Inclusion of computer imaging should be given serious consideration as an adjunct to clinical practice.
N00014-93-C-0279 Fmi Repd - A Vitual Reality -Based Simulation Of Abdominal Surgery Pa A-1 9 June 21,1994 Appendix A - Literature Search Chares J...Leaf Systems, Inc. e ARPA Contract number N00014-93-C-0279 Fmal Report -A Vitual Reality -Base Simuilation Of Abdominal Surgery Page A-22 June 21, 1994...415) 591-7881 In! IhNiI 1 SHORT TITLE: A Virtual Reality -Based Simulation of Abdominal Surgery REPORTING PERIOD: October 31, 1993-June 30, 1994 The
Wong, Wendy W; Gupta, Subhas C
"Social media" describes interactive communication through Web-based technologies. It has become an everyday part of modern life, yet there is a lack of research regarding its impact on plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate and compare the prevalence of classic marketing methods and social media in plastic surgery. The Web sites of aesthetic surgeons from seven US cities were compared and evaluated for the existence of Facebook, Twitter, or MySpace links and promotions. To find the sites, the authors conducted a Google search for the phrase "plastic surgery" with the name of each city to be studied: Beverly Hills, California; Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; Miami, Florida; New York City, New York; and San Francisco, California. The trends of social networking memberships were also studied in each of these cities. In comparison to aesthetic surgeons practicing in other cities, those in Miami, Florida, favored social media the most, with 50% promoting a Facebook page and 46% promoting Twitter. Fifty-six percent of New York City aesthetic surgeons promoted their featured articles in magazines and newspapers, whereas 54% of Beverly Hills aesthetic surgeons promoted their television appearances. An increase in the number of new Facebook memberships among cosmetic providers in the seven cities began in October 2008 and reached a peak in October, November, and December 2009, with subsequent stabilization. The increase in the number of new Twitter memberships began in July 2008 and remained at a steady rate of approximately 15 new memberships every three months. Social media may seem like a new and unique communication tool, but it is important to preserve professionalism and apply traditional Web site-building ethics and principles to these sites. We can expect continued growth in plastic surgeons' utilization of these networks to enhance their practices and possibly to launch direct marketing campaigns.
Sifakis, Eftychios; Hellrung, Jeffrey; Teran, Joseph; Oliker, Aaron; Cutting, Court
One of the most fundamental challenges in plastic surgery is the alteration of the geometry and topology of the skin. The specific decisions made by the surgeon concerning the size and shape of the tissue to be removed and the subsequent closure of the resulting wound may have a dramatic affect on the quality of life for the patient after the procedure is completed. The plastic surgeon must look at the defect created as an organic puzzle, designing the optimal pattern to close the hole aesthetically and efficiently. In the past, such skills were the distillation of years of hands-on practice on live patients, while relevant reference material was limited to two-dimensional illustrations. Practicing this procedure on a personal computer  has been largely impractical to date, but recent technological advances may come to challenge this limitation. We present a comprehensive real-time virtual surgical environment, based on finite element modeling and simulation of tissue cutting and manipulation. Our system demonstrates the fundamental building blocks of plastic surgery procedures on a localized tissue flap, and provides a proof of concept for larger simulation systems usable in the authoring of complex procedures on elaborate subject geometry.
Mishra, Brijesh; Koirala, Robin; Tripathi, Nalini; Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Adhikary, Buddhinath; Shah, Surendra
B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author's experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluated the limitations and their possible solutions to overcome the barriers to establish effective plastic surgical centers in developing countries. Results. Plastic surgery services were started as a unit in general surgery by single plastic surgeon and one general surgery resident on rotation. Total 848 patients were treated for different plastic-surgery-related conditions, which included 307 acute burn patients 541 general plastic surgery patients. Trauma constituted the major bulk 22%, followed by tumors 20%, while aesthetic surgery operations were only 10.1%. Conclusions. In developing countries, aesthetic procedures constitute very small part of plastic surgery interventions and plastic surgery units are primarily required for reconstructive needs for optimum management of patients.
Glombitza, G; Evers, H; Hassfeld, S; Engelmann, U; Meinzer, H P
This paper presents telemedicine as an extension of a teleradiology framework through tools for virtual surgery. To classify the described methods and applications, the research field of virtual reality (VR) is broadly reviewed. Differences with respect to technical equipment, methodological requirements and areas of application are pointed out. Desktop VR, augmented reality, and virtual reality are differentiated and discussed in some typical contexts of diagnostic support, surgical planning, therapeutic procedures, simulation and training. Visualization techniques are compared as a prerequisite for virtual reality and assigned to distinct levels of immersion. The advantage of a hybrid visualization kernel is emphasized with respect to the desktop VR applications that are subsequently shown. Moreover, software design aspects are considered by outlining functional openness in the architecture of the host system. Here, a teleradiology workstation was extended by dedicated tools for surgical planning through a plug-in mechanism. Examples of recent areas of application are introduced such as liver tumor resection planning, diagnostic support in heart surgery, and craniofacial surgery planning. In the future, surgical planning systems will become more important. They will benefit from improvements in image acquisition and communication, new image processing approaches, and techniques for data presentation. This will facilitate preoperative planning and intraoperative applications.
Kordahi, Anthony M; Hoppe, Ian C; Lee, Edward S
Reduction mammoplasty is an often-performed procedure by plastic surgeons and increasingly by general surgeons. The question has been posed in both general surgical literature and plastic surgical literature as to whether this procedure should remain the domain of surgical specialists. Some general surgeons are trained in breast reductions, whereas all plastic surgeons receive training in this procedure. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project provides a unique opportunity to compare the 2 surgical specialties in an unbiased manner in terms of preoperative comorbidities and 30-day postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried for the years 2005-2012. Patients were identified as having undergone a reduction mammoplasty by Current Procedural Terminology codes. RESULTS were refined to include only females with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 611.1 (hypertrophy of breasts). Information was collected regarding age, surgical specialty performing procedure, body mass index, and other preoperative variables. The outcomes utilized were presence of superficial surgical site infection, presence of deep surgical site infection, presence of wound dehiscence, postoperative respiratory compromise, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, perioperative transfusion, operative time, reintubation, reoperation, and length of hospital stay. During this time period, there were 6239 reduction mammaplasties performed within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database: 339 by general surgery and 5900 by plastic surgery. No statistical differences were detected between the 2 groups with regard to superficial wound infections, deep wound infections, organ space infections, or wound dehiscence. There were no significant differences noted between within groups with regard to systemic postoperative complications. Patients undergoing a procedure by general surgery were more likely
Michael P Chae
Full Text Available Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing has been embraced by early adopters to produce medical imaging-guided 3D printed biomodels that facilitate various aspects of clinical practice. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. With increasing accessibility, investigators are now able to convert standard imaging data into Computer Aided Design (CAD files using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography (SLA, multijet modeling (MJM, selective laser sintering (SLS, binder jet technique (BJT, and fused deposition modeling (FDM. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without out-sourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. In this review the existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice, spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative aesthetics, are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, patient and surgical trainee education, and the development of intraoperative guidance tools and patient-specific prosthetics in everyday surgical practice.
Chang, Michael T; Schwam, Zachary G; Schutt, Christopher A; Kamen, Emily M; Paskhover, Boris
Bibliometric analysis is a common method to determine the most influential articles in medical specialties, as it is an objective measure of peer recognition of scientific work. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in facial plastic surgery, to determine the most cited papers in the field. Bibliometric analysis was performed using the Science Citation Index from the Institute for Scientific Information, accessed through the Web of Science™. Filter terms relevant to the field of facial plastic surgery were used to identify the 50 most cited journal articles between 1900 and 2016. The median number of citations was 150 (range 116-1091). The articles spanned a wide range of topics in the field, with the most common topics being free flap reconstruction (n = 10), nasal surgery (n = 9), and rhytidectomy (n = 6). The majority of these articles (n = 29) presented findings supported by level IV or V evidence. This analysis provides an overview of the most cited articles in facial plastic surgery, many of which introduced some of the most fundamental principles and techniques in the field. These landmark articles represent important educational points that should be reviewed by all clinicians and trainees in this field. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.
Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing
Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J
Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Benson, Royal H; Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D; Jason, Robert A; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Stern, Bernard H; Stanton, Ryan A; Kolb, Susan E; Gonzalez, Federico
Female Genital Plastic Surgery, a relatively new entry in the field of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, has promised sexual enhancement and functional and cosmetic improvement for women. Are the vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures of Labiaplasty, Vaginoplasty/Perineoplasty ("Vaginal Rejuvenation") and Clitoral Hood Reduction effective, and do they deliver on that promise? For what reason do women seek these procedures? What complications are evident, and what effects are noted regarding sexual function for women and their partners? Who should be performing these procedures, what training should they have, and what are the ethical considerations? This study was designed to produce objective, utilizable outcome data regarding FGPS. 1) Reasons for considering surgery from both patient's and physician's perspective; 2) Pre-operative sexual functioning per procedure; 3) Overall patient satisfaction per procedure; 4) Effect of procedure on patient's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 5) Patient's perception of effect on her partner's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 6) Complications. This cross-sectional study, including 258 women and encompassing 341 separate procedures, comes from a group of twelve gynecologists, gynecologic urologists and plastic surgeons from ten centers in eight states nationwide. 104 labiaplasties, 24 clitoral hood reductions, 49 combined labiaplasty/clitoral hood reductions, 47 vaginoplasties and/or perineoplasties, and 34 combined labiaplasty and/or reduction of the clitoral hood plus vaginoplasty/perineoplasty procedures were studied retrospectively, analyzing both patient's and physician's perception of surgical rationale, pre-operative sexual function and several outcome criteria. Combining the three groups, 91.6% of patients were satisfied with the results of their surgery after a 6-42 month follow-up. Significant subjective enhancement in sexual functioning for both women and their sexual partners was noted (p = 0.0078), especially in patients
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Hani Sinno, MD, MEng
Full Text Available Summary: Outcome studies help provide the evidence-based science rationalizing treatment end results that factor the experience of patients and the impact on society. They improve the recognition of the shortcoming in clinical practice and provide the foundation for the development of gold standard care. With such evidence, health care practitioners can develop evidence-based justification for treatments and offer patients with superior informed consent for their treatment options. Furthermore, health care and insurance agencies can recognize improved cost-benefit options in the purpose of disease prevention and alleviation of its impact on the patient and society. Health care outcomes are ultimately measured by the treatment of disease, the reduction of symptoms, the normalization of laboratory results and physical measures, saving a life, and patient satisfaction. In this review, we outline the tools available to measure outcomes in plastic surgery and subsequently allow the objective measurements of plastic surgical conditions. Six major outcome categories are discussed: (1 functional measures; (2 preference-based measures and utility outcome scores; (3 patient satisfaction; (4 health outcomes and time; (5 other tools: patient-reported outcome measurement information system, BREAST-Q, and Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons; and (6 cost-effectiveness analysis. We use breast hypertrophy requiring breast reduction as an example throughout this review as a representative plastic surgical condition with multiple treatments available.
Full Text Available Objective: to discuss the participation of Plastic Surgery in the reconstruction of the chest wall, highlighting relevant aspects of interdisciplinaryness. Methods: we analyzed charts from 20 patients who underwent extensive resection of the thoracic integument, between 2000 and 2014, recording the indication of resection, the extent and depth of the raw areas, types of reconstructions performed and complications. Results: among the 20 patients, averaging 55 years old, five were males and 15 females. They resections were: one squamous cell carcinoma, two basal cell carcinomas, five chondrosarcomas and 12 breast tumors. The extent of the bloody areas ranged from 4x9 cm to 25x40 cm. In 12 patients the resection included the muscular plane. In the remaining eight, the tumor removal achieved a total wall thickness. For reconstruction we used: one muscular flap associated with skin grafting, nine flaps and ten regional fasciocutaneous flaps. Two patients undergoing reconstruction with fasciocutaneous flaps had partially suffering of the flap, solved with employment of a myocutaneous flap. The other patients displayed no complications with the techniques used, requiring only one surgery. Conclusion: the proper assessment of local tissues and flaps available for reconstruction, in addition to the successful integration of Plastic Surgery with the specialties involved in the treatment, enable extensive resections of the chest wall and reconstructions that provide patient recovery.
Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh
Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient-physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved.
Nevola Teixeira, Luiz Felipe; Sandrin, Fabio
Breast cancer is the disease which causes the greatest concern among women worldwide, with an estimated 1,152,161 new cases each year. The improvement of surgical techniques, neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment enhance the survival time and recovery of these patients. As surgery is the first choice for the treatment of breast neoplasms reconstructive surgery has become an important procedure helping to reconstruct the mutilation after radical or conservative breast surgery. The objective of this article is to review the scientific literature and examine the available data regarding the role of physiotherapy in patients who undergo plastic reconstruction after oncological breast surgery, including suggestions on how physiotherapy could be applied in that population. Our review was obtained by searching the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, USA) and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences) databases. Terms applied concerned physiotherapy and breast reconstructive surgery. The time of limit for our search was from 1995 until the present date. Fourteen articles were included in our review that matched our search criteria. Physiotherapy is a field that still needs evidence based on daily routine and studies in the oncological physiotherapy field. Evaluation should be standardized and rehabilitation techniques used are empirical and should be researched in patients who undergo plastic reconstruction after breast surgery. The lack of post-surgery exercise protocols makes it difficult to analyse the patient's evolution and makes it a challenge to investigate the true role of physiotherapy in this population.
Ji, Chenyang; Li, Ruiting; Liang, Weiqiang; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Jinming
To help surgical trainees reach a deep understanding of plastic operations, we developed and evaluated an economical and convenient model using plasticine for plastic surgical training. From Sep of 2012 to Dec of 2014, we invited 57 medical interns to participate in a program designed for the qualitative evaluation of this model. In this program, 57 interns were asked to simulate certain surgical operations under guidance of the experienced staff of our department using the plasticine model. The value of the plasticine model was evaluated through questionnaire surveys. Their acceptance of the plasticine model, as well as the benefits and the flaws, was evaluated by the questionnaire survey. All the participants completed the training session as well as the questionnaire, all of whom felt that the plasticine model had increased their familiarity with the surgical procedure they were assigned. By remodeling plasticine, the trainees understood either the brief surgical procedures or some confusing operative details in plastic surgery. In the questionnaire surveys, the trainees showed considerable consensus with the training program. The flaws of this method were also listed. The flaws generally reflected that "it is difficult to model into a vivid image" and "it is not suitable for all the operation". Overall, the plasticine model is accepted by the participants in this survey. This model is economical and versatile, and could be used as a complementary training tool for novices in simulated operation training of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Agarwal, Jayant P; Mendenhall, Shaun D; Moran, Linh A; Hopkins, Paul N
The scope of plastic surgery is not well understood by people outside the field. Better educating medical students about plastic surgery may improve understanding of the field, establish appropriate referral patterns early on, and assist with career decision-making. The purpose of this study was to assess medical student understanding of plastic surgery and to analyze the impact of prior plastic surgery clinical exposure on this understanding. An online survey consisting of 24 clinical scenarios was administered to medical students of the University of Utah. After indicating their level of training and whether they had prior clinical exposure to plastic surgery or other surgical subspecialties, students selected one or more appropriate surgical subspecialties to manage each scenario. Of 408 students, 230 (56.4%) responded to the survey. Prior clinical exposure to plastic surgery was reported by 15.8% to 29.4% of students (first to fourth year). Overall, 92% of students chose at least one acceptable surgical specialty for referral. Plastic surgery was selected by only 54% of students for all conditions, and this did not improve throughout medical school. Senior students (third and fourth years) with prior plastic surgery exposure chose plastic surgery more often than those without prior exposure (71% vs. 51%, P Plastic surgery was chosen most frequently for rhinoplasty and breast reconstruction and less frequently for hand/peripheral nerve surgery and wound surgery. Improved medical student education about the scope of plastic surgery is needed, especially in the areas of hand/peripheral nerve surgery and general reconstructive surgery.
Pulijala, Y; Ma, M; Pears, M; Peebles, D; Ayoub, A
Virtual reality (VR) surgery using Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices is a multi-sensory, holistic surgical training experience. A multimedia combination including 360° videos, three-dimensional interaction, and stereoscopic videos in VR has been developed to enable trainees to experience a realistic surgery environment. The innovation allows trainees to interact with the individual components of the maxillofacial anatomy and apply surgical instruments while watching close-up stereoscopic three-dimensional videos of the surgery. In this study, a novel training tool for Le Fort I osteotomy based on immersive virtual reality (iVR) was developed and validated. Seven consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeons evaluated the application for face and content validity. Using a structured assessment process, the surgeons commented on the content of the developed training tool, its realism and usability, and the applicability of VR surgery for orthognathic surgical training. The results confirmed the clinical applicability of VR for delivering training in orthognathic surgery. Modifications were suggested to improve the user experience and interactions with the surgical instruments. This training tool is ready for testing with surgical trainees. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May, Deborah C.; Turnbull, Nancy
One hundred plastic surgeons responded to a survey on opinions toward facial plastic surgery for individuals with Down's syndrome. Twenty-four of the surgeons had performed the surgery. Surgeons indicated appropriate circumstances for the surgery, consent requirements, degree of understanding expected of the patient, and degree of discomfort…
Scott, Jillian K.; Gao, Lani; Lee, Tara M.; Waldrop, Jimmy L.; Sargent, Larry A.; Kennedy, J. Woody; Rehm, Jason P.; Brzezienski, Mark A.
Background: Resident clinics are thought to catalyze educational milestone achievement through opportunities for progressively autonomous surgical care, but studies are lacking for general plastic surgery resident clinics (PSRCs). We demonstrate the achievement of increased surgical autonomy and continuity of care in a PSRC. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients seen in a PSRC from October 1, 2010, to October 1, 2015, was conducted. Our PSRC is supervised by faculty plastic surgery attendings, though primarily run by chief residents in an accredited independent plastic surgery training program. Surgical autonomy was scored on a 5-point scale based on dictated operative reports. Graduated chief residents were additionally surveyed by anonymous online survey. Results: Thousand one hundred forty-four patients were seen in 3,390 clinic visits. Six hundred fifty-three operations were performed by 23 total residents, including 10 graduating chiefs. Senior resident autonomy averaged 3.5/5 (SD = 1.5), 3.6/5 (SD = 1.5), to 3.8/5 (SD = 1.3) in postgraduate years 6, 7, and 8, respectively. A linear mixed model analysis demonstrated that training level had a significant impact on operative autonomy when comparing postgraduate years 6 and 8 (P = 0.026). Graduated residents’ survey responses (N = 10; 100% response rate) regarded PSRC as valuable for surgical experience (4.1/5), operative autonomy (4.4/5), medical knowledge development (4.7/5), and the practice of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies (4.3/5). Preoperative or postoperative continuity of care was maintained in 93.5% of cases. Conclusion: The achievement of progressive surgical autonomy may be demonstrated within a PSRC model. PMID:28607848
Kozak, Igor; Banerjee, Pat; Luo, Jia; Luciano, Cristian
Igor Kozak,1 Pat Banerjee,2 Jia Luo,2 Cristian Luciano21King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Vitreoretinal Division, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Operative practice using surgical simulators has become a part of training in many surgical specialties, including ophthalmology. We introduce a virtual reality retina surgery simulator capable of integrating optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans from real p...
Silvestre, Jason; Wu, Liza C; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M
An increasing number of women are entering the medical profession, but plastic surgery remains a male-dominated profession, especially within academia. As academic aspirations and advancement depend largely on research productivity, the authors assessed the number of articles authored by women published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Original articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery published during the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2014 were analyzed. First and senior authors with an M.D. degree and U.S. institutional affiliation were categorized by gender. Authorship trends were compared with those from other specialties. Findings were placed in the context of gender trends among plastic surgery residents in the United States. The percentage of female authors in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery increased from 2.4 percent in 1970 to 13.3 percent in 2014. Over the same time period, the percentage of female plastic surgery residents increased from 2.6 percent to 32.5 percent. By 2014, there were more female first authors (19.1 percent) than senior authors (7.7 percent) (p plastic surgery had fewer female authors than other medical specialties including pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, general surgery, internal medicine, and radiation oncology (p plastic surgery is encouraging but lags behind advances in other specialties. Understanding reasons for these trends may help improve gender equity in academic plastic surgery.
Rodrigues, Maria A; Tedesco, Ana C B; Nahas, Fabio X; Ferreira, Lydia M
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between impact factor and the level of evidence of articles in plastic surgery journals. The four plastic surgery journals with the top impact factors in 2011 were selected. Articles were selected using the PubMed database between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The journal evidence index was calculated by dividing the number of randomized clinical trials by the total number of articles published in the specific journal, multiplied by 100. This index was correlated to the impact factor of the journal and compared with the average of the other journals. Two investigators independently evaluated each journal, followed by a consensus and assessment of the interexaminer concordance. The kappa test was used to evaluate the concordance between the two investigators and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate which journal presented the highest number of randomized clinical trials. The journal evidence index values were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1.70; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 0.40; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 0.56; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 0.35. The impact factors of these journals in 2011 were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 3.382; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 1.494; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 1.407; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 1.318. After consensus, the quantity of adequate studies was low and similar between these journals; only the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery showed a higher journal evidence index. The journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery exhibited the highest journal evidence index and had the highest impact factor. The number of adequate articles was low in all of the assessed journals.
Henk W. R. Schreuder
Full Text Available Objective. With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery. Methods. A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants (n=42 were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises. Results. Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were “time to complete” and “economy of motion” (P<0.001. The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.
Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present, through a real case, a practical way, based on Multicriteria Decision Aiding, to support decision making in Plastic Surgery. The case studied was a Caucasian woman of 36 years of age with mammarian hypertrophia with ptosis and abdominal lipodystrophy, making it necessary to select the most adequate techniques for the best aesthetic result. For this purpose, the multicriteria methods Even Swaps and PrOACT were used. Three plastic surgeons working in the city of Rio de Janeiro with equivalent professional experience were consulted as decision agents. In order to define the objectives to be achieved, the criteria relevant to the making of the decision and the alternatives which could be used were identified. Throughout this identification and in the later analysis the surgeons participated in the application of the methods, which contributed towards facilitating their acceptance of the multicriteria analysis in their decision making. It was confirmed, in this case study, that the use of Multicriteria Decision Aiding tends to make the medical decision more wide ranging and, above all, transparent. The plastic surgeons themselves validated the analysis, considering it fully consistent with their professional experience.
Leem, So Yeon
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery.
Schneider, Lisa F; Barr, Jason; Saadeh, Pierre B
The integrated model of plastic surgery education, shortly to become the standard for all 6-year programs, has set minimal but no maximal exposure to plastic surgery. The authors hypothesized that the first 3 years of integrated training will show variability among residency programs. Rotation schedules for all 42 integrated programs were analyzed for plastic surgery versus 18 nonplastic surgery rotations for postgraduate years 1, 2, and 3 as well as cumulatively for the first 3 years. Rotations "strongly suggested" by the Residency Review Committee on Plastic Surgery and American Board of Plastic Surgery were also examined. Postgraduate years 1 through 3 spent a wide range of 3 to 19 months (SD ± 4.9 months) on plastic surgery (mean, 9.1 months). General surgery also varied dramatically, with 8 to 21 months (SD ± 4.0 months) of exposure (mean, 16.3 months). Surgical subspecialty rotations ranged substantially from 1 to 6 months (SD ± 1.0 months). Plastic surgery exposure was greater in programs based within plastic surgery departments than within divisions (13.8 versus 8.3 months, p surgery rotations, while seven (16.7 percent) had time dedicated for research. There was also wide variability in the inclusion of 18 nonplastic surgery rotations as well as specific "strongly suggested" rotations. The plastic surgery experience in the first 3 years of residency training varies by a greater than 6-fold difference among integrated programs. This was also found in the 2.5-fold and 6-fold differences in general surgery and subspecialty surgery experiences. Since standardized residency training is an expectation by both accrediting bodies and the public, this variability may warrant closer attention.
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Runz, A; Simon, E; Brix, M; Sorin, T; Brengard-Bresler, T; Pineau, V; Guyon, G; Claudot, F
Photography in plastic surgery is omnipresent. Through its various uses, it may present both ethical and forensic risks. The objective of this study is to analyze the use of medical photography by the plastic surgeon, the perception of this use by the patient, and consequence of such use. A questionnaire about the use of medical photography was assessed to 629 plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was given to patients, about their perception of the use of photography by their surgeon. One hundred and seventy-six surgeon's questionnaires and 93 patient's questionnaires were analyzed. For 97.7% of the responding surgeons, the proportion of patients refusing to be photographed was less then 1/20. The objective of the photography was especially medicolegal for 62.5% of the surgeons, especially for following the patient progress (87.5%), partially for the formation (72.1%), partially for scientific publications (57.8%) and not at all for the personal publicity (73.1%). Surgeons often share his photographs with others surgeons (71.1%), sometimes with others medical personnel (48.8%). The security and the access to photographs were determined to be correct for 67.6% of the surgeons and perfect for 23.3%. In total, 17.2% of the surgeons obtained a written consent, 41.4% obtained an oral consent, and 38.5% did not request patient consent. It was found that 48.3% of the surgeons and 40.2% of the patients think that the right to the photographic images belong to the patient. Medical photographs expose the plastic surgeon to medico-legal risks. He must know and follow the law in order to prevent eventual legal proceedings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Silvestre, Jason; Taglienti, Anthony J; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam (PSITE) is a multiple-choice examination taken by plastic surgery trainees to provide an assessment of plastic surgery knowledge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cosmetic questions and determine overlap with national procedural data. Digital syllabi of six consecutive PSITE administrations (2008-2013) were analyzed for cosmetic surgery topics. Questions were classified by taxonomy, focus, anatomy, and procedure. Answer references were tabulated by source. Relationships between tested material and national procedural volume were assessed via Pearson correlation. 301 questions addressed cosmetic topics (26% of all questions) and 20 required image interpretations (7%). Question-stem taxonomy favored decision-making (40%) and recall (37%) skills over interpretation (23%, P body (18%), nose (13%), and eye (10%). The most common surgeries were breast augmentation (12%), rhinoplasty (11%), blepharoplasty (10%), and body contouring (6%). Minimally invasive procedures were lasers (5%), neuromodulators (4%), and fillers (3%). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (58%), Clinics in Plastic Surgery (7%), and Aesthetic Surgery Journal (6%) were the most cited journals, with a median 5-year publication lag. There was poor correlation between PSITE content and procedural volume data (r(2) = 0.138, P = .539). Plastic surgeons receive routine evaluation of cosmetic surgery knowledge. These data may help optimize clinical and didactic experiences for training in cosmetic surgery. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Tolsdorff, Boris; Pommert, Andreas; Höhne, Karl Heinz; Petersik, Andreas; Pflesser, Bernhard; Tiede, Ulf; Leuwer, Rudolf
Virtual surgical training systems are of growing value. Current prototypes for endonasal sinus surgery simulation are very expensive or lack running stability. No reliable system is available to a notable number of users yet. The purpose of this work was to develop a dependable simulator running on standard PC hardware including a detailed anatomic model, realistic tools and handling, stereoscopic view, and force feedback. Descriptive. A three-dimensional voxel model was created based on a high-resolution computed tomography study of a human skull, from which the bony structures were segmented. The mucosa and organs at risk were added manually. The model may be manipulated with virtual surgical tools controlled with a low-cost haptic device, which is also used to adjust microscopic or endoscopic views. Visualization, haptic rendering, and tissue removal are represented with subvoxel resolution. The handling of the model is convincing. The haptic device provides a realistic feeling regarding the interaction between tool tip and anatomy. Three-dimensional orientation and the look and feel of virtual surgical interventions get close to reality. The newly developed system is a stable, fully operational simulator for sinus surgery based on standard PC hardware. Besides the limitations of a low-cost haptic device, the presented system is highly realistic regarding anatomy, visualization, manipulation, and the appearance of the tools. It is mainly intended for gaining surgical anatomy knowledge and for training navigation in a complex anatomical environment. Learning effects, including motor skills, have yet to be quantified.
Fraser, S J; Al Youha, S; Rasmussen, P J; Williams, J G
Plastic surgery as a discipline is poorly understood by many, including primary care physicians, nurses, medical students, and the public. These misconceptions affect the specialty in a number of ways, including referral patterns and recruitment of medical students into residency programs. The reason for these commonly held misconceptions has not yet been addressed in the plastic surgery literature. As such, we assessed medical students' knowledge and perceptions of plastic surgery as a discipline and explored factors influencing these opinions. To assess medical students' knowledge and perceptions of plastic surgery, we conducted an online survey. A total of 231 medical students responded. Interviews were then conducted with 2 focus groups, in which we explored the survey results and reasons behind these misconceptions. As with previous studies, medical students showed a gap in knowledge with respect to plastic surgery. Although they were generally aware that plastic surgeons perform cosmetic procedures and treat burns, they were largely unaware that plastic surgeons perform hand and craniofacial surgeries. Focus groups revealed that television plays a large role in shaping their ideas of plastic surgery. Medical students have a skewed perception of the discipline of plastic surgery, and this is largely influenced by television. Interventions aimed at educating medical students on the matter are recommended, including a greater presence in the preclerkship medical school curriculum.
Full Text Available The WHO surgical checklist was introduced to most UK surgical units following the WHO “Safe Surgery Saves Lives” initiative. The aim of this audit was to review patient's safety in the delivery of surgical care and to evaluate the practical application of the new WHO surgical checklist. We conducted a retrospective audit of patients who received operative treatment under general anaesthesia at our Plastic Surgery Department, involving a total number of 90 patients. The WHO form was compared to its former equivalents. Complications or incidents occurring during or after surgery were recorded. Using the department's previous surgical checklist, “Time out” was only performed in only 30% of cases. One patient arrived at theatre reception without a completed consent form, and two clinical incidents were reported without patients suffering harm. Following introduction of current WHO surgical checklist, “Time out” was recorded in 80% of cases. In all cases, the new WHO surgical checklist was used and no incidents were reported. The WHO surgical checklist provides a structured frame work that standardizes the delivery of care across hospitals and specialized units; however, it will take some time and practice for teams to learn to use the checklist effectively and reliably.
Silvestre, Jason; Basta, Marten N; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
To facilitate the training of plastic surgery residents, we analyzed a knowledge-based curriculum for plastic and reconstructive surgery of the lower extremity. The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam (PSITE) is a commonly used tool to assess medical knowledge in plastic surgery. We reviewed the lower extremity content on 6 consecutive score keys (2008-2013). Questions were classified by taxonomy, anatomy, and subject. Answer references were quantified by source and relative year of publication. Totally, 107 questions related to the lower extremity (9.1% of all questions) and 14 questions had an associated image (13.1%). Questions required decision making (49%) over interpretation (36%) and direct recall (15%) skills (p training during plastic surgery residency. Study efforts focused on the most common topics and references will enhance trainee preparation for lower extremity PSITE questions. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shay, Paul; Taub, Peter J; Silver, Lester
Plastic surgery has a long-standing history of being deeply interconnected with global health. This paper reviews the current state of global health as it relates to plastic surgery and makes forecasts for the future. This study reviews the most current literature on global plastic surgery, as well as offers insights based on our 2 senior authors' experiences. For our literature search, the MEDLINE database was queried using relevant keywords through both PubMed and OVID user interfaces. Early exposure to global plastic surgery often leads to a lifelong involvement. Formal integration of global surgery into residencies is becoming more common. Models of care for global plastic surgery range from small to large groups, spanning the full spectrum of reconstructive plastic surgery. The best of these groups have longitudinal relationships with their operative sites to allow for continuous care. Logistics and funding are crucial for successful care. Technological advances will make long-distance care more facile in the future. Global plastic surgery is rewarding to both patient and physician. Plastic surgery has been and will continue to be committed to providing high-quality global health care. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Pan, Jun J; Chang, Jian; Yang, Xiaosong; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Jian J; Qureshi, Tahseen; Howell, Robert; Hickish, Tamas
Virtual-reality (VR) based simulation techniques offer an efficient and low cost alternative to conventional surgery training. This article describes a VR training and assessment system in laparoscopic rectum surgery. To give a realistic visual performance of interaction between membrane tissue and surgery tools, a generalized cylinder based collision detection and a multi-layer mass-spring model are presented. A dynamic assessment model is also designed for hierarchy training evaluation. With this simulator, trainees can operate on the virtual rectum with both visual and haptic sensation feedback simultaneously. The system also offers surgeons instructions in real time when improper manipulation happens. The simulator has been tested and evaluated by ten subjects. This prototype system has been verified by colorectal surgeons through a pilot study. They believe the visual performance and the tactile feedback are realistic. It exhibits the potential to effectively improve the surgical skills of trainee surgeons and significantly shorten their learning curve. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Liang, Fan; Rudnicki, Pamela A; Prince, Noah H; Lipsitz, Stuart; May, James W; Guo, Lifei
article provides a framework for plastic surgery resident selection and a guide for applicants to ascertain which qualities are highly regarded by programs. Although these attributes are highly desirable, future studies could identify if they are predictive of successful and productive plastic surgery residencies and careers. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cramer, John D; Dilger, Amanda E; Schneider, Alex; Smith, Stephanie Shintani; Samant, Sandeep; Patel, Urjeet A
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is the number 1 cause of preventable death in surgical patients. Current guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians provide VTE prevention recommendations that are specific to individual surgical subspecialties; however, no guidelines exist for otolaryngology. To examine the rate of VTE for various otolaryngology procedures compared with an established average-risk field (general surgery) and low-risk field (plastic surgery). This cohort study compared the rate of VTE after different otolaryngology procedures with those of general and plastic surgery in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2013. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis of clinical characteristics, cancer status, and Caprini score to compare different risk stratification of patients. Data analysis was performed from May 1, 2016, to April 1, 2017. Surgery. Thirty-day rate of VTE. A total of 1 295 291 patients, including 31 896 otolaryngology patients (mean [SD] age, 53.9 [16.7] years; 14 260 [44.7%] male; 21 603 [67.7%] white), 27 280 plastic surgery patients (mean [SD] age, 50.5 [13.9] years; 4835 [17.7%] male; 17 983 [65.9%] white), and 1 236 115 general surgery patients (mean [SD] age, 54.9 [17.2] years; 484 985 [39.2%] male; 867 913 [70.2%] white) were compared. The overall 30-day rate of VTE was 0.5% for otolaryngology compared with 0.7% for plastic surgery and 1.2% for general surgery. We identified a high-risk group for VTE in otolaryngology (n = 3625) that included free or regional tissue transfer, laryngectomy, composite resection, skull base surgery, and incision and drainage. High-risk otolaryngology patients experienced similar rates of VTE as general surgery patients across all Caprini risk levels. Low-risk otolaryngology patients (n = 28 271) experienced
Spilson, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Walters, Madonna
Cosmetic surgeons have increasingly come under fire for using advertisements that may be deceptive or intended for the solicitation of vulnerable consumers. However, aesthetic surgery is a growing business that relies heavily on advertising to survive. To prevent the use of deceptive advertisements, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has developed a code of ethics for its physician members. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of cosmetic surgery advertisements considered objectionable by the lay public. These advertisements were published in the Yellow Pages of the 10 largest U.S. cities. Because all of the advertisements in this study contained the American Society of Plastic Surgeons logo, we also determined whether its members are upholding the ethical code of advertising. We asked a convenience sample of 50 participants to rate 104 advertisements using four yes/no questions derived from the code of ethics and one overall yes/no question regarding whether the advertisement was objectionable. We obtained the mean percentage of "yes" responses for each advertisement, from the total sample, for each question. We found that the study participants felt that 25 percent of the advertisements used images of persons or facsimiles that falsely and deceptively created unjustified expectations of favorable results. The participants responded that 22 percent of the advertisements appealed primarily to the layperson's fears, anxieties, or emotional vulnerabilities. In addition, 18 percent of the advertisements were considered to be objectionable. Discretion is currently left up to physicians as to the ethical nature of their advertisements. Although the majority of American Society of Plastic Surgeons members uphold the ethical code of advertising, there are still a substantial number of published advertisements that the average consumer considers to be in violation of this code.
Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R
BACKGROUND: Applications to surgical residency programs have declined over the past decade. Even highly competitive programs, such as plastic surgery, have begun to witness these effects. Studies have shown that early surgical exposure has a positive influence on career selection. OBJECTIVE: To review plastic surgery application trends across Canada, and to further investigate medical student exposure to plastic surgery. METHODS: To examine plastic surgery application trends, national data from the Canadian Resident Matching Service database were analyzed, comparing 2002 to 2007 with 2008 to 2013. To evaluate plastic surgery exposure, a survey of all undergraduate medical students at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario) during the 2012/2013 academic year was conducted. RESULTS: Comparing 2002 to 2007 and 2008 to 2013, the average number of national plastic surgery training positions nearly doubled, while first-choice applicants decreased by 15.3%. The majority of Canadian academic institutions experienced a decrease in first-choice applicants; 84.7% of survey respondents indicated they had no exposure to plastic surgery during their medical education. Furthermore, 89.7% believed their education had not provided a basic understanding of issues commonly managed by plastic surgeons. The majority of students indicated they receive significantly less plastic surgery teaching than all other surgical subspecialties. More than 44% of students not considering plastic surgery as a career indicated they may be more likely to with increased exposure. CONCLUSION: If there is a desire to grow the specialty through future generations, recruiting tactics to foster greater interest in plastic surgery must be altered. The present study suggests increased and earlier exposure for medical students is a potential solution. PMID:25821773
Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is a growing research these days. Many companies perform this analysis on public opinions to get a general idea about any product or service. This paper presents a novel approach to get views or comments of Twitter users about plastic surgery treatments. The proposed approach uses machine-learning technique embedded with the naïve Bayesian classifier to assign polarities (i.e. positive, negative or neutral to the tweets, collected from ?Twitter micro-blogging website?. The accuracy of the obtained results has been validated using precision, recall and F-score measures. It has been observed from 25000 tweets dataset that people tend to have positive as well as substantial negative opinions regarding particular treatments. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach
Erdmann, Detlev; Pradka, Sarah P; Similie, Ernest; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Moyer, Kurtis E; Shelburne, John D; Tyler, Douglas S; Levin, Scott L
Many plastic surgery procedures span the divide between aesthetic ("cosmetic") and reconstructive surgery. However, definitions and guidelines may be inconsistent, which may decrease patients' access to legitimate procedures. The article aims to assist Veterans' Health Administration-affiliated plastic surgeons in continuing to provide optimal care to the Nation's Veterans and family members, and should be regarded as an open discussion.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery... PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 878 continues to read as follows...
Exceptional Parent, 1983
The article discusses the role of plastic surgery for persons with Down Syndrome, as considered in a recent conference. The functions of team plastic surgery, importance of intensive speech therapy, and the question of ultimate therapeutic value are among questions considered. (CL)
Lopez, Joseph; Musavi, Leila; Quan, Amy; Calotta, Nicholas; Juan, Ilona; Park, Angela; Tufaro, Anthony P; May, James W; Dorafshar, Amir H
The purpose of this study was to identify types and trends in industry sponsorship of plastic surgery research since the establishment of conflict-of-interest reporting policies in plastic surgery. The authors analyzed the frequency and types of self-reported conflicts of interest in the plastic surgery literature since the adoption of reporting policies in 2007. All original articles that met the authors' inclusion criteria and were published in the following three journals from 2008 to 2013 were included: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine what study-specific variables were associated with conflict-of-interest disclosures. A total of 3722 articles were analyzed. The incidence of conflicts of interest increased from 14 percent in 2008 to 24 percent in 2009. However, thereafter, the incidence of conflicts of interest decreased steadily from 21 percent in 2010 to 9 percent in 2013. Furthermore, the authors' analysis revealed that from 2008 to 2013, industry decreased direct research support but steadily increased the rate of consultantships (p plastic surgery subspecialty (p plastic surgery declined overall. Although the absolute number of consultantships did not change, the rate of consultantships rather than direct research support increased over this period.
Shih, Kevin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Qin, Charles; Kim, John Y
Age has been shown to be an independent predictor of complications in general surgery patients. In contrast, the effect of age on outcomes after plastic surgery has yet to be confirmed or refuted. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate a possible association between age and postoperative outcomes after plastic surgery. The 2005-2012 NSQIP database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing plastic surgery. Patients ≥60 years with procedures under the category of plastic surgery in NSQIP were selected for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day overall complication rates. Multivariate regression models were constructed to control for potential perioperative confounders. Of the 2,320,920 patients captured in the NSQIP database, 36,819 patients underwent plastic surgery and met inclusion criteria. The incidence of unadjusted overall complications increased with age with an overall complication rate of 9.0% in patients plastic surgery. Medical complications and mortality were more likely in extremes of age (>80 years). Age alone should not be included as a decisional factor in patients plastic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery... follows: PART 878--GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 878...
Rhinophymas are characterized by slowly progressive enlargement of the nasal skin that will not resolve spontaneously. The usual indication for treatment has plastic cosmetic and functional reasons, above all in advanced cases with an obstruction of the nasal respiration or reduction of the visual field. Treatment of rhinophyma consists of surgical removal of the hyperplastic alterations. It should always be carried out by an experienced rhinosurgeon, because of possible complications and injury to the more deeply situated nasal structures. Different surgical procedures have been described, such as excision with primary suture or extirpation with plastic covering of the defect by free transplants, subcutaneous rhinophyma resection, as well as decortication with peeling off the proliferations, dermal abrasion, or dermal shaving. In addition, there are various abrasion procedures with abrasive cylinders, burrs, or wire brushes. The methods of exfoliation and abrasive polishing can be effectively combined. Care should be taken to preserve follicular epidermal islets from the more deeply situated layers of the skin. The follicular epithelium left behind is the point of departure for re-epithelization of the wound surface. If decortication is too deep, injuries to the perichondrium or the nasal cartilage may arise, leading to cosmetically unattractive scar formations and necessitate plastic surgery. The author's own method, which involves a combined procedure with peeling or dermal abrasion, remodeling with abrasive cylinders, as well as preoperative injection into the nasal tumor masses and a subsequent covering of the wound area with fibrin glue, is shown with reference to several examples of more than 60 cases. The cosmetic and long-term results are excellent.
Tremolada, Carlo; Palmieri, Giancarlo; Ricordi, Camillo
The technologies for adipose tissue harvesting, processing, and transplantation have substantially evolved in the past two decades. Clinically driven advancements have paralleled a significant improvement in the understanding of cellular, molecular, and immunobiological events surrounding cell and tissue transplantation. These new mechanistic insights could be of assistance to better understand the mechanisms underlying some of the observed clinical improvements. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgical applications, adipose tissue has become central to an increasing number of translational efforts involving adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells. The growing interest in this area of research has resulted in the exploration of many novel research and clinical applications that utilize adipose tissue grafting and/or progenitor/stem cell- derived cell products obtained from this tissue source. Progenitor, endothelial, and mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue could therefore not only be central to plastic and reconstructive surgery applications, but also become the focus of an array of therapeutic solutions for many disease conditions, such as those affecting bone, cartilage, muscle, liver, kidney, cardiac, neural, and the pancreas, expanding the possible indications and translational potential of tissue, cell-based, and regenerative medicine strategies.
Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the
Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of the patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery is of great importance in regards of both surgery and anesthesia considerations. Malignant Hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic clinical syndrome which mostly arises from volatile anesthesia with halothane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Clinical manifestations of MH are acidosis and rhabdomyolysis which occur following uncontrolled increases in skeletal muscle metabolism and rapidly increasing body temperature (by as much as 1°C/5 min (1. Primary cases of MH were reported to be of a 70% mortality rate; however, thanks to the emergence of diagnostic tools such as end-expired carbon dioxide and the administration of dantrolene, this rate has decreased to less than 5%. MH might occur even in those with no previous or familial history. Even a safe history of the previous surgery under the administration of MH triggering agents cannot guarantee a next safe surgery. A noteworthy point in the preoperative evaluation is the probable association of MH with certain musculoskeletal disorders including Duchenne, Becker, and myotonic muscular dystrophies, strabismus, osteogenesis imperfecta, ptosis, myelomeningocele, kyphoscoliosis, King-Denborough syndrome, periodic paralysis, hernias, marfanoid syndrome, and central core disease (1. These diseases are frequently encountered by dental and facial plastic surgeons and having the knowledge of the probable association between MH and these conditions could aware the dental and facial plastic surgeons and the anesthesiologists to be more vigilant. Although MH workup leads to the definite diagnosis, no convincing intraoperative diagnostic tool has been introduced so far. Masseter spasm is a condition which might follow administration of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents due to the slow tonic fibers of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscles (2-4. The severer forms of masseter spasm would
E. De la Poza
Full Text Available Plastic surgery practice grows continuously among the women in Western countries due to their body image dissatisfaction, aging anxiety, and an ideal body image propagated by the media. The consumption growth is so important that plastic surgery is becoming a normal practice among women, like any other cosmetic product, with the risk of suffering psychopathology disorders in the sense that plastic surgery could be employed as an instrument to recover personal self-esteem or even happiness. Plastic surgery practice depends on economic, demographic, and social contagion factors. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast female plastic surgery consumption in Spain is fully constructed. Overconsumer subpopulation is predicted and simulated. Robustness of the model versus uncertain parameters is studied throughout a sensitivity analysis.
Nayar, Harry S; Salyapongse, A Neil; Mount, Delora L; Bentz, Michael L
The current state of global surgery training in U.S. plastic surgery residency programs remains largely undefined. An electronic survey was distributed to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-certified plastic surgery residency programs. Programs with global health curricula were queried regarding classification, collaboration details, regions visited, conditions/procedures encountered, costs, accreditation, and personal sentiment. Residencies without global health curricula were asked to select barriers. Sixty-four of 81 residency programs returned questionnaires (response rate, 79 percent). Twenty-six programs (41 percent) reported including a formal global health curriculum; 38 did not (59 percent). When asked to classify this curriculum, most selected clinical care experience [n = 24 (92 percent)], followed by educational experience [n = 19 (73 percent)]. Personal reference was the most common means of establishing the international collaboration [n = 19 (73 percent)]. The most commonly encountered conditions were cleft lip-cleft palate [n = 26 (100 percent)], thermal injury [n = 17 (65 percent)], and posttraumatic reconstruction [n = 15 (57 percent)]. Dominant funding sources were primarily nonprofit organizations [n = 14 (53 percent)]. Although the majority of programs had not applied for residency review committee accreditation [n = 23 (88 percent)], many considered applying [n = 16 (62 percent)]. Overall, 96 percent of programs (n = 25) supported global health training in residency, choosing exposure to different health systems [n = 22 (88 percent)] and surgical education [n = 17 (68 percent)] as reasons. Programs not offering a global health experience most commonly reported lack of residency review committee/plastic surgery operative log recognition of cases performed abroad [n = 27 (71 percent)], funding for trip expenses [n = 25 (66 percent)], and salary support [n = 24 (63 percent)] as barriers. Residencies incorporating global health
Aïm, Florence; Lonjon, Guillaume; Hannouche, Didier; Nizard, Rémy
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) training in orthopaedic surgery. A comprehensive systematic review was performed of articles of VR training in orthopaedic surgery published up to November 2014 from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. We included 10 relevant trials of 91 identified articles, which all reported on training in arthroscopic surgery (shoulder, n = 5; knee, n = 4; undefined, n = 1). A total of 303 participants were involved. Assessment after training was made on a simulator in 9 of the 10 studies, and in one study it took place in the operating room (OR) on a real patient. A total of 32 different outcomes were extracted; 29 of them were about skills assessment. None involved a patient-related outcome. One study focused on anatomic learning, and the other evaluated technical task performance before and after training on a VR simulator. Five studies established construct validity. Three studies reported a statistically significant improvement in technical skills after training on a VR simulator. VR training leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. Before its widespread use, additional trials are needed to clarify the transfer of VR training to the OR. Systematic review of Level I through Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Darren M; Aston, Sherrell J; Cutting, Court B; Oliker, Aaron; Weinzweig, Jeffrey
Aesthetic surgery deals in large part with the manipulation of soft-tissue structures that are not amenable to visualization by standard technologies. As a result, accurate three-dimensional depictions of relevant surgical anatomy have yet to be developed. This study presents a method for the creation of detailed virtual reality models of anatomy relevant to aesthetic surgery. Two-dimensional histologic sections of a cadaver from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project were imported into Alias's Maya, a computer modeling and animation software package. These two-dimensional data were then "stacked" as a series of vertical planes. Relevant anatomy was outlined in cross-section on each two-dimensional section, and the resulting outlines were used to generate three-dimensional representations of the structures in Maya. A detailed and accurate three-dimensional model of the soft tissues germane to aesthetic surgery was created. This model is optimized for use in surgical animation and can be modified for use in surgical simulators currently being developed. A model of facial anatomy viewable from any angle in three-dimensional space was developed. The model has applications in medical education and, with future work, could play a role in surgical planning. This study emphasizes the role of three-dimensionalization of the soft tissues of the face in the evolution of aesthetic surgery.
Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M
Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.
Schiavazzi, Daniele; Marsden, Alison
Hemodynamic results from numerical simulations of physiology in patients are invariably presented as deterministic quantities without assessment of associated confidence. Recent advances in cardiovascular simulation and Uncertainty Analysis can be leveraged to challenge this paradigm and to quantify the variability of output quantities of interest, of paramount importance to complement clinical decision making. Physiological variability and errors are responsible for the uncertainty typically associated with measurements in the clinic; starting from a characterization of these quantities in probability, we present applications in the context of estimating the distributions of lumped parameters in 0D models of single-ventricle circulation. We also present results in virtual Fontan palliation surgery, where the variability of both local and systemic hemodynamic indicators is inferred from the uncertainty in pre-operative clinical measurements. Efficient numerical algorithms are required to mitigate the computational cost of propagating the uncertainty through multiscale coupled 0D-3D models of pulsatile flow at the cavopulmonary connection. This work constitutes a first step towards systematic application of robust numerical simulations to virtual surgery predictions.
Russomano, Thais; Cardoso, Ricardo B; Fernandes, Jefferson; Cardoso, Paulizan G; Alves, Jarcedy M; Pianta, Christina D; Souza, Hamilton P; Lopes, Maria Helena I
The rapid evolution of telecommunication technology has enabled advances to be made in low cost video-conferencing through the improvement of high speed computer communication networks and the enhancement of Internet security protocols. As a result of this progress, eHealth education programs are becoming a reality in universities, providing the opportunity for students to have greater interaction at live surgery classes by means of virtual participation. Undergraduate students can be introduced to new concepts of medical care, remote second opinion and to telecommunication systems, whilst virtually experiencing surgical procedures and lectures. The better access this provides to the operating theater environment, the patient and the surgeon can improve the learning process for students. An analogical system was used for this experimental pilot project due to the benefits of it being low cost with a comparatively easy setup. The tele-surgery lectures were also transmitted to other universities by means of a Pentium 4 computer using open source software and connected to a portable image acquisition device located in the São Lucas University Hospital. Telemedicine technology has proven to be an important instrument for the improvement of medical education and health care. This study allowed health professionals, professors and students to have greater interaction during surgical procedures, thus enabling a greater opportunity for knowledge exchange.
Lowenstein, Lior; Salonia, Andrea; Shechter, Arik; Porst, Hartmut; Burri, Andrea; Reisman, Yacov
The demand for female genital plastic surgery (FGPS) has increased over the last few decades. Yet, to date, there are no objective explicit measurements to define "abnormal" appearance of genital organs. Using the results of this study, we aimed to produce a statement of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) on FGPS practice. To evaluate the prevalence of demand for FGPS and to explore the attitudes of sexual medicine specialists toward indications for FGPS. Attendees of the 2012 Annual Congress of the ESSM in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were asked to participate in a survey during the congress. A 25-item self-report, closed-question questionnaire subdivided into three sections: sociodemographic data, professional background, and personal attitudes toward FGPS. Overall, a total of 360 physicians (mean age 48 years; range 23-72) from different medical disciplines completed the survey. There were diverse responses among participants regarding the definition of abnormal labial appearance and the techniques for labial reduction they perform. Overall, 65% responded that FGPS is frequently or occasionally demanded by the patients they treat. Likewise, most physicians (63%) reported that they never perform FGPS. Conversely, only 14% reported that they either frequently or occasionally perform FGPS. Almost one-third of participants believe that FGPS (labial surgery) improves sexual function. Fifty-two percent of participants answered that they believe that self image is the main reason for women to ask for labial surgery. Self-image was regarded as the main factor in the demand for FGPS. Many practitioners in the field of sexual medicine recommend that women be referred for consultation with a psychiatrist or psychologist before undergoing FGPS. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Qi, Di; Panneerselvam, Karthikeyan; Ahn, Woojin; Arikatla, Venkata; Enquobahrie, Andinet; De, Suvranu
Suturing with intracorporeal knot-tying is one of the five tasks of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS), which is a pre-requisite for board certification in general surgery. This task involves placing a short suture through two marks in a penrose drain and then tying a double-throw knot followed by two single-throw knots using two needle graspers operated by both hands. A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©) is being developed to represent the virtual versions of the FLS tasks, including automated, real time performance measurement and feedback. In this paper, we present the development of a VBLaST suturing simulator (VBLaST-SS©). Developing such a simulator involves solving multiple challenges associated with fast collision detection, response and force feedback. In this paper, we present a novel projection-intersection based knot detection method, which can identify the validity of different types of knots at haptic update rates. A simple and robust edge-edge based collision detection algorithm is introduced to support interactive knot tying and needle insertion operations. A bimanual hardware interface integrates actual surgical instruments with haptic devices enabling not only interactive rendering of force feedback but also realistic sensation of needle grasping, which realizes an immersive surgical suturing environment. Experiments on performing the FLS intracorporeal suturing task show that the simulator is able to run on a standard personal computer at interactive rates. VBLaST-SS© is a computer-based interactive virtual simulation system for FLS intracorporeal knot-tying suturing task that can provide real-time objective assessment for the user's performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Mahmood, Eitezaz; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F
Recent data suggest patients are seeking aesthetic surgery to improve their appearance on Instagram and other social media. Despite the rising influence of Instagram in plastic surgery, few academic publications address Instagram, let alone evaluate its utilization in plastic surgery. We set out to answer the following three questions: 1) what plastic surgery-related content is being posted to Instagram; 2) who is posting this content; and 3) what specific hashtags are they using? Our study queried 21 Instagram plastic surgery-related hashtags. Content analysis was used to qualitatively evaluate each of the nine "top" posts associated with each hashtag (189 posts). Duplicate posts and those not relevant to plastic surgery were excluded. A total of 1,789,270 posts utilized the 21 hashtags sampled in this study. Of the top 189 posts for these 21 queried hashtags, 163 posts met inclusion criteria. Plastic surgeons eligible for membership in American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) accounted for only 17.8% of top posts, whereas noneligible physicians accounted for 26.4%. All nonplastic surgery trained physicians marketed themselves as "cosmetic surgeons." Nine top posts (5.5%) were by nonphysicians, including dentists, spas with no associated physician, and a hair salon. The majority of these posts were self-promotional (67.1%) as opposed to educational (32.9%). Board-certified plastic surgeons were significantly more likely to post educational content to Instagram as compared to nonplastic surgeons (62.1% vs 38.1%, P = 0.02). ASAPS eligible board-certified plastic surgeons are underrepresented amongst physicians posting top plastic surgery-related content to Instagram.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting was... of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee would be...
Westra, I; Niessen, F B
The Dutch government, hospitals, and health insurance companies have agreed on concentrating all specialist care in a few expert centers. This should lead to lower healthcare costs, but might also cause less accessible healthcare for patients living at a considerable distance from expert centers. A way to overcome less accessible healthcare, while maintaining reduced costs of medical care, is by using telemedicine between physician and patient. In a randomized controlled trial, follow-up consultation between the patient and physician via a secured real-time video connection 6 weeks after plastic surgery of the face was compared to traditional in-person consultation after the same time interval. After the consultation, patients received an invite to fill in an online survey, which consisted of questionnaires assessing patient satisfaction (PSQ-18, TSQ) and communication experiences (PEQ), as well as questions about the time spent on different aspects of the consultations. Thirty-one patients participated. Overall satisfaction was equal for both groups, but a significant difference in the dimensions 'general satisfaction' (online consultation group more satisfied) and 'accessibility and convenience' (online consultation group less satisfied) was found. Patients reported significantly lower satisfaction in patient-physician communication in online consultation than in traditional in-person consultations. Patients were satisfied with the online consultation, and were willing to use the system again. Patients in the online consultation group experienced significantly less waiting time, and spent less time in total for the appointment. Overall patients are equally satisfied with traditional consultation or real-time video consultation in plastic surgery. Online consultation is found to be a time-saving alternative to traditional consultation. However, online consultation is perceived by some patients as a negative influence on communication with the physician. Dedicated
Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert
Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571
Kravetz, Shlomo; And Others
This study compared perceptions of parents of 19 children with Down's syndrome (DS) who had undergone plastic facial surgery with perceptions of parents of DS children who had not received surgery. The comparison found little evidence of positive impact of the surgery on parents' perceptions of their children's physical, personal, and social…
Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E
Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.
Full Text Available Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.
Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E
Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students. PMID:27013852
Full Text Available This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.
This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.
Sears, Erika Davis; Larson, Bradley P.; Chung, Kevin C.
Background The aim of this study was to conduct a national survey of hand surgery fellowship program directors to determine differences of opinions of essential components of hand surgery training among program directors from plastic and orthopedic surgery programs. Methods We performed a web-based survey of 74 program directors from all ACGME accredited hand surgery fellowship programs to determine components that are essential for hand surgery training. The survey included assessment of 9 general areas of practice, 97 knowledge topics, and 172 procedures. 27 scales of related survey items were created to determine differences between specialty groups based on clinical themes. Results We had an 84% response rate, including 49 orthopedic and 12 plastic surgery program directors. There were significant differences in mean responses between the specialty groups in 11 of 27 scales. Only one scale, forearm fractures, contained items with a significantly stronger preference for essential rating among orthopedic surgeons. The other 10 scales contained items with a significantly higher preference for essential rating among plastic surgeons, most of which related to soft tissue injury and reconstruction. The burn scale had the greatest discrepancy in opinion of essential ratings between the groups, followed by pedicled and free tissue transfer, and amputation and fingertip injuries. Conclusions Despite being united under the subspecialty of hand surgery, program directors tend to emphasize clinical areas that are stressed in their respective primary disciplines. These differences promote the advantage of programs providing exposure to both plastic and orthopedic surgery trained hand surgeons. PMID:23446569
Satava, Richard M.
The new technologic revolution in medicine is based upon information technologies, and telemanipulation, telepresence and virtual reality are essential components. Telepresence surgery returns the look and feel of `open surgery' to the surgeon and promises enhancement of physical capabilities above normal human performance. Virtual reality provides basic medical education, simulation of surgical procedures, medical forces and disaster medicine practice, and virtual prototyping of medical equipment.
Iorio, Matthew L; Verma, Kapil; Ashktorab, Samaneh; Davison, Steven P
The goal of this review was to identify the safety and medical care issues that surround the management of patients who had previously undergone medical care through tourism medicine. Medical tourism in plastic surgery occurs via three main referral patterns: macrotourism, in which a patient receives treatments abroad; microtourism, in which a patient undergoes a procedure by a distant plastic surgeon but requires postoperative and/or long-term management by a local plastic surgeon; and specialty tourism, in which a patient receives plastic surgery from a non-plastic surgeon. The ethical practice guidelines of the American Medical Association, International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and American Board of Plastic Surgeons were reviewed with respect to patient care and the practice of medical tourism. Safe and responsible care should start prior to surgery, with communication and postoperative planning between the treating physician and the accepting physician. Complications can arise at any time; however, it is the duty and ethical responsibility of plastic surgeons to prevent unnecessary complications following tourism medicine by adequately counseling patients, defining perioperative treatment protocols, and reporting complications to regional and specialty-specific governing bodies. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report ® . The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p < 0.001). The self-cited rate of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 2015 was higher than that of top journals from other surgical specialties. The IFs of Microsurgery and Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery increased greatly in recent years, but they were inflated by high self-cited and self-citing rates. The self-citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.
Spiers, Harry V M; Zargaran, Alexander; Murtaza, Aasim Nisar; Thomas, Amal; Turki, Mohammed Adil A; Ali, Farida
Plastic surgery is underrepresented in medical school curricula. The St George׳s Surgical Society hosted a 1-day undergraduate course in plastic surgery. Our aim was to introduce students to plastic surgery and teach basic plastic surgical skills. The skills day consisted of lectures from consultants and a core trainee followed by registrar-taught workshops in suturing, tendon repair, and local flap design. Precourse and postcourse questionnaires assessed perceptions of plastic surgery, confidence in performing basic plastic surgical skills, and usefulness of course components. Many perceptions of plastic surgery saw statistically significant changes. The belief that plastic surgery covers a wide range of specialties increased by 36% (p = 0.01). A -32% change (p = 0.00) was seen in the perception of plastic surgery only being pursued as a career for financial gain. Delegates reported greater confidence in all components of basic plastic surgical skills. The most useful activity was reported as performing surgical skills on real tissue. A 1-day course can significantly increase positive perceptions of plastic surgery, dispel preconceived false stereotypes, while improving student confidence in performing basic plastic surgery skills. It is important that university surgical societies provide opportunities for student education, to aid informed decisions about future careers. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mosso-Vázquez, José Luis; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K.
Abstract Surgical anxiety creates psychological and physiological stress, causes complications in surgical procedures, and prolongs recovery. Relaxation of patients in postoperative intensive care units can moderate patient vital signs and reduce discomfort. This experiment explores the use of virtual reality (VR) cybertherapy to reduce postoperative distress in patients that have recently undergone cardiac surgery. Sixty-seven patients were monitored at IMSS La Raza National Medical Center within 24 hours of cardiac surgery. Patients navigated through a 30 minute VR simulation designed for pain management. Results were analyzed through comparison of pre- and postoperative vital signs and Likert scale survey data. A connection was found in several physiological factors with subjective responses from the Likert scale survey. Heavy positive correlation existed between breathing rate and Likert ratings, and a moderate correlation was found between mean arterial pressure and Likert ratings and heart rate and Likert ratings, all of which indicated lower pain and stress within patients. Further study of these factors resulted in the categorization of patients based upon their vital signs and subjective response, providing a context for the effectiveness of the therapy to specific groups of patients. PMID:24892200
Mosso-Vázquez, José Luis; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D
Surgical anxiety creates psychological and physiological stress, causes complications in surgical procedures, and prolongs recovery. Relaxation of patients in postoperative intensive care units can moderate patient vital signs and reduce discomfort. This experiment explores the use of virtual reality (VR) cybertherapy to reduce postoperative distress in patients that have recently undergone cardiac surgery. Sixty-seven patients were monitored at IMSS La Raza National Medical Center within 24 hours of cardiac surgery. Patients navigated through a 30 minute VR simulation designed for pain management. Results were analyzed through comparison of pre- and postoperative vital signs and Likert scale survey data. A connection was found in several physiological factors with subjective responses from the Likert scale survey. Heavy positive correlation existed between breathing rate and Likert ratings, and a moderate correlation was found between mean arterial pressure and Likert ratings and heart rate and Likert ratings, all of which indicated lower pain and stress within patients. Further study of these factors resulted in the categorization of patients based upon their vital signs and subjective response, providing a context for the effectiveness of the therapy to specific groups of patients.
Smouha, E E; Chen, D; Li, B; Liang, Z
Computer-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) provides accurate spatial representation of the complex surgical anatomy of congenitally atretic ears, and is superior to conventional CT for surgical planning. The surgical repair of congenital aural atresia is challenging. Conventional CT, routinely used for surgical planning, is limited in its ability to represent spatial relationships between important structures. Because of the lack of density differences between bony structures in the ear, 3D CT has thus far been useful for representing surface contour but not internal anatomy. A two-level segmentation scheme was developed to distinguish structures in the temporal bone. 3D CT reconstructions of congenital ears were produced with a high-resolution helical scanner. An interactive tool was used to mark the ossicles and facial nerve. The segmentation scheme was used to color-enhance the ossicles and otic capsule, and render the surrounding bone translucent. "Virtual surgery" was then performed by subtracting a cylindrical volume of bone lateral to the atresia plate. The enhanced 3D CT reconstructions were correlated with intraoperative video recordings. In four congenital ears, computer-enhanced 3D CT was highly predictive of the actual anatomy. Surgery was avoided in two anatomically unfavorable cases. Computer-enhanced 3D CT is a major advance over conventional CT for demonstrating the complex spatial relationships in congenitally atretic ears.
Silvestre, Jason; Abbatematteo, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin; Serletti, Joseph M
Recent studies have demonstrated low levels of National Institutes of Health funding for surgical research. The authors compared the funding in plastic surgery with the funding for other surgical specialties. A query of National Institutes of Health grants awarded to departments of surgical specialties was performed using the National Institutes of Health RePORTER database (2008 to 2016). Trends in funding were compared by specialty and adjusted for the number of active physicians in each specialty. Plastic surgery residency program characteristics were correlated with funding procurement. Eight hundred eighty-nine faculty at 94 plastic surgery residency programs were queried. Forty-eight investigators (5.4 percent) at 23 programs (24.4 percent) had National Institutes of Health funding. From 2008 to 2016, a total of $84,142,138 was awarded through 81 grants. Funding supported translational (44.6 percent), clinical (26.4 percent), basic science (27.2 percent), and educational (1.7 percent) research. In 2016, plastic surgery received the least amount of National Institutes of Health funding per active physician ($1,530) relative to orthopedic surgery ($3124), obstetrics and gynecology ($3885), urology ($5943), otolaryngology ($9999), general surgery ($11,649), ophthalmology ($11,933), and neurologic surgery ($20,874). Plastic surgery residency program characteristics associated with National Institutes of Health funding were high ranking and had more than 10 clinical faculty (p Plastic surgery receives the least National Institutes of Health funding among the surgical specialties. Departments and divisions of plastic surgery should support investigators applying for research grants to increase future National Institutes of Health funding.
Cormac W. Joyce, MB BCh
Conclusions: This study has identified the most influential articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature over the past 68 years and highlighted many important scientific breakthroughs and landmarks that have occurred during this time.
This study has highlighted the gap between a medical student's perception and reality of the scope of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. It has emphasised the need for greater exposure and education in this surgical subspeciality if future medical practitioners are to better match the requirements of their patients to the skills of the specialist. If plastic surgeons wish to continue to be recognised as specialists in hand, craniofacial and reconstructive surgery, this gap between perception and reality needs to be addressed.
Momeni, Arash; Becker, Axel; Bannasch, Holger; Antes, Gerd; Blümle, Anette; Stark, G Björn
Financial and other competing interests have recently received increasing attention. In particular clinical research in plastic surgery attracts for-profit organizations, thus, explaining the increasing number of financial sponsorships. However, research articles often lack sufficient description of study design as well as disclosure of the source of funding. Furthermore, debate exists whether industry funding influences research findings and is leading to pro-industry results. A hand search was conducted identifying all randomized controlled (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) in 4 plastic surgery journals (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery) between 1990 and 2005. Subsequently, the influence of financial support on study outcome was analyzed. A total of 10,476 original articles were analyzed, resulting in the identification of 346 clinical trials which meet the Cochrane criteria for RCTs and CCTs. One hundred eighty-three trials and 163 studies were found to be RCTs and CCTs, respectively. Hereof, only 70 trials (20.2%) reported on grant support. Of these, 42 trials (60%) were supported by the industry. Depending on the topic addressed marked differences were detected regarding grant support. Studies with a focus on reconstructive plastic surgery were supported by the industry and by public institutions in almost equal shares (18 trials vs. 15 trials), whereas aesthetic surgical topics were predominantly funded by the industry (13 trials vs. 6 trials). Industry-funded trials reported more often statistically significant differences between treatment arms (28 trials vs. 16 trials). Authors' conclusions were found to be positively associated with financial competing interests. However, trial funding is rarely declared in the plastic surgery literature. Thus, the quality of reporting needs to be improved to be able to investigate these relationships in greater detail
This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasin...
Conclusions: Robot-assisted plastic and reconstructive surgery provides clinical outcomes comparable to conventional techniques. Advantages include reported improved cosmesis, functional outcomes and greater surgeon comfort. Disadvantages included longer operating and set-up times, a learning curve, breaking of microneedles, high monetary costs and authors consistently recommended improved end-effectors. All authors were optimistic about the use of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Full Text Available The plastic surgeon rarely encounters patients expressing factitious disorders. Through their incredible imagination, these patients conjure numerous lesions for themselves and willingly accept to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures and risky therapies. We report four cases of Munchausen′s syndrome in the field of plastic surgery and follow with a discussion of as to when should the alarm bells start ringing for the unsuspecting plastic surgeon, to assist him in dealing with these too often-ignored disorders.
Introduction: The environment for the practice of Plastic Surgery in Nigeria has become increasingly challenging. This has motivated the thoughts that have been put together in this lecture which was delivered in honour of the first indigenous plastic surgeon in Nigeria. Method and Results: Several issues that bother on ...
de Runz, Antoine; Boccara, David; Chaouat, Marc; Locatelli, Katia; Bertheuil, Nicolas; Claudot, Frédérique; Bekara, Farid; Mimoun, Maurice
The use of a patient's image in plastic surgery is common today. Thus, plastic surgeons should master the use of the image and be aware of the implications of the patients' perception of themselves. The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon in which a person tends to rate things more positively merely because (s)he is familiar with them. Faces are asymmetric, so faces in photos are different from those observed in mirrors. The main objective of this study was to assess whether patients within a plastic surgery population, particularly those undergoing facial aesthetic surgery, preferred standard photographs or mirror-reversed photographs of themselves. A prospective study was conducted in a plastic surgery department, which included women who were admitted to the hospital the day before their procedures. The patients were separated into the following two groups: Group 1 was composed of patients who were undergoing facial aesthetic surgeries, and Group 2 consisted of other patients who presented to the plastic surgery department for surgery. The patients were required to rate their appreciation of their own faces and to choose between standard and mirror-reversed photos of themselves. A total of 214 patients participated. The median age was 47.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36.4-60.6), and the median face appreciation was 5 (IQR: 5-7). The preference for the mirror-reversed photograph was significantly different from chance (p Plastic surgery patients have a significant preference for mirror-reversed photographs of themselves over standard photographs. This preference is even more pronounced among patients who are undergoing facial aesthetic surgery. III. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Court-Brown, Charles M; Honeyman, Calum S; Clement, Nick D; Hamilton, Stuart A; McQueen, Margaret M
A study was undertaken to determine the requirement for primary plastic surgery in the treatment of open fractures. We reviewed 3297 consecutive open fractures in a 22-year period in a defined population. Analysis showed that 12.6% of patients required primary plastic surgery with 5.6% being treated with split skin grafting and 7.2% with a flap. Only 3.5% of open upper limb fractures required primary plastic surgery compared to 27.9% of open lower limb fractures. The fractures that required most primary plastic surgery were those of the femoral diaphysis and all fractures between the proximal tibia and the midfoot. The incidence of open fractures that require primary plastic surgery was 28/10(6)/year. The incidence in open upper and lower limb fractures was 5.3/10(6)/year and 22.7/10(6)/year respectively. Using these figures it is possible to estimate the numbers of open fractures that will require primary plastic surgery each year in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Joseph; Lopez, Sandra; Means, Jessica; Mohan, Raja; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; Tufaro, Anthony P; May, James W; Dorafshar, Amir
Despite a growing interest in examining the effects of industry funding on research in plastic surgery, no study to date has comprehensively examined the effects of financial conflicts of interest on publication outcomes. The authors investigated the association between financial conflicts of interest and reported study findings in plastic surgery research. The authors reviewed all entries in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012. All clinical and basic science articles were analyzed. The following article characteristics were extracted: self-reported financial conflicts of interest, sample size, level of evidence, study design, and prospectiveness. The findings reported in each abstract were blindly graded as not applicable, negative, or positive. Of the 1650 abstracts that resulted from the authors' initial search, 568 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of the included articles covered breast (20.8 percent), experimental (19.7 percent), and general reconstruction (31.69 percent). Financial conflicts of interest were disclosed in only 17.6 percent of the articles. Of the total studies that met inclusion criteria, 66.2 percent were reviewed as having positive outcomes, and 33.8 percent were reviewed as having negative or not applicable results. Studies that disclosed a financial conflict of interest were 7.12 times more likely (p plastic surgery studies with a positive conclusion compared with investigators with no conflicts of interest.
The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting was...: In the Federal Register of August 16, 2010, FDA announced that a meeting of the General and Plastic...
A. Kh. Ismagilov
Full Text Available The choice of plastic surgical techniques for cancer is influenced by two factors: resection volume/baseline breast volume ratio and tumor site.Based on these factors, the authors propose a two-level classification and an algorithm for performing the most optimal plastic operation onthe breast for its cancer.
Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Wang, Aline Yen Ling; Tiong, Vincent Tze Yang; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Meiling; Lim, Philip; Kao, Huang-Kai
The use of live and cadaveric animal models in surgical training is well established as a means of teaching and improving surgical skill in a controlled setting. We aim to review, evaluate, and summarize the models published in the literature that are applicable to Plastic Surgery training. A PubMed search for keywords relating to animal models in Plastic Surgery and the associated procedures was conducted. Animal models that had cross over between specialties such as microsurgery with Neurosurgery and pinnaplasty with ear, nose, and throat surgery were included as they were deemed to be relevant to our training curriculum. A level of evidence and recommendation assessment was then given to each surgical model. Our review found animal models applicable to plastic surgery training in four major categories namely-microsurgery training, flap raising, facial surgery, and hand surgery. Twenty-four separate articles described various methods of practicing microsurgical techniques on different types of animals. Fourteen different articles each described various methods of conducting flap-based procedures which consisted of either local or perforator flap dissection. Eight articles described different models for practicing hand surgery techniques. Finally, eight articles described animal models that were used for head and neck procedures. A comprehensive summary of animal models related to plastic surgery training has been compiled. Cadaveric animal models provide a readily available introduction to many procedures and ought to be used instead of live models when feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Xuwu; Liu, Fei
It is one of the hot research problems nowadays to find a quick and accurate method of acquiring the facial plastic surgery area to provide sufficient but irredundant autologous or in vitro skin source for covering extensive wound, trauma, and burnt area. At present, the acquisition of facial plastic surgery area mainly includes model laser scanning, point cloud data acquisition, pretreatment of point cloud data, three-dimensional model reconstruction, and computation of area. By using this method, the area can be computed accurately, but it is hard to control the random error, and it requires a comparatively longer computation period. In this article, a facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution is proposed. This method applies symmetric treatment to the point cloud based on the pretreatment of point cloud data, through which the comparison diagram color difference map of point cloud error before and after symmetry is obtained. The slicing mathematical model of facial plastic area is got through color difference map diagram. By solving the point cloud data in this area directly, the facial plastic area is acquired. The point cloud data are directly operated in this method, which can accurately and efficiently complete the surgery area computation. The result of the comparative analysis shows the method is effective in facial plastic surgery area.
Carstensen, Lena; Rose, Michael; Bentzon, Niels
surgeons and 22 plastic surgeons; the response rate was 67%. All breast surgery units had an established cooperation with plastic surgeons. Most breast surgeons used unilateral displacement techniques; plastic surgeons also included breast reduction techniques and replacement with local flaps. Almost all......INTRODUCTION: More than 4,000 Danish women are diagnosed with operable breast cancer annually, and 70% receive breast conserving surgery. Without the use of oncoplastic surgery (OPS), 20-30% will get an unsatisfactory cosmetic result. The aim of this study was to illustrate the level...... of implementation of OPS in Denmark. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent to breast and plastic surgeons performing breast cancer treatment. The questionnaire included demographics, education, experience with operative procedures and opinions on OPS. RESULTS: The questionnaire was sent to 50 breast...
Simien, Christopher; Holt, Kathleen D; Richter, Thomas H; Whalen, Thomas V; Coburn, Michael; Havlik, Robert J; Miller, Rebecca S
Resident duty hour restrictions were implemented in 2002-2003. This study examines changes in resident surgical experience since these restrictions were put into place. Operative log data for 3 specialties were examined: general surgery, urology, and plastic surgery. The academic year immediately preceding the duty hour restrictions, 2002-2003, was used as a baseline for comparison to subsequent academic years. Operative log data for graduating residents through 2007-2008 were the primary focus of the analysis. Examination of associated variables that may moderate the relationship between fewer duty hours and surgical volume was also included. Plastic surgery showed no changes in operative volume following duty hour restrictions. Operative volume increased in urology programs. General surgery showed a decrease in volume in some operative categories but an increase in others. Specifically the procedures in vascular, plastic, and thoracic areas showed a consistent decrease. There was no increase in the percentage of programs' graduates falling below minimum requirements. Procedures in pancreas, endocrine, and laparoscopic areas demonstrated an increase in volume. Graduates in larger surgical programs performed fewer procedures than graduates in smaller programs; this was not the case for urology or plastic surgery programs. The reduction of duty hours has not resulted in an across the board decrease in operative volume. Factors other than duty hour reforms may be responsible for some of the observed findings.
Wheeler, Chad K; Said, Hakim; Prucz, Roni; Rodrich, Rod J; Mathes, David W
Social media is a common term for web-based applications that offer a way to disseminate information to a targeted audience in real time. In the current market, many businesses are utilizing it to communicate with clients. Although the field of plastic surgery is constantly changing in response to innovative technologies introduced into the specialty, the utilization of social media in plastic surgery practices is currently unclear. The authors evaluate the current attitudes and practices of aesthetic surgeons to emerging social media technology and compare these to attitudes about more traditional modes of communication. A 19-question web-based survey was disseminated by e-mail to all board-certified or board-eligible American plastic surgeons (n = 4817). Respondents were asked to answer questions on three topics: (1) their use of social media in their personal and professional lives, (2) their various forms of practice marketing, and (3) their demographic information. There were 1000 responses (20.8%). Results showed that 28.2% of respondents used social media in their practice, while 46.7% used it in their personal life. Most plastic surgeons managed their social media themselves or through a staff member. The majority of respondents who used social media in their practice claimed that their efforts were directed toward patient referrals. The typical plastic surgery practice that used social media was a solo practice in a large city with a focus on cosmetic surgery. Local competition of plastic surgeons did not correlate with social media use. Most plastic surgeons (88%) advertised, but the form of marketing varied. The most common forms included websites, print, and search engine optimization, but other modalities, such as television, radio, and billboards, were still utilized. Social media represents a new avenue that many plastic surgeons are utilizing, although with trepidation. As social media becomes commonplace in society, its role in plastic surgery
Galanis, Charles; Sanchez, Ivan S; Roostaeian, Jason; Crisera, Christopher
Understanding patient interest in cosmetic surgery is an important tool in delineating the current market for aesthetic surgeons. Similarly, defining those factors that most influence surgeon selection is vital for optimizing marketing strategies. The authors evaluate a general population sample's interest in cosmetic surgery and investigate which factors patients value when selecting their surgeon. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 96 individuals in waiting rooms in nonsurgical clinics. Respondents were questioned on their ability to differentiate between a "plastic" surgeon and a "cosmetic" surgeon, their interest in having plastic surgery, and factors affecting surgeon and practice selection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to define any significant correlative relationships. Respondents consisted of 15 men and 81 women. Median age was 34.5 (range, 18-67) years. Overall, 20% were currently considering plastic surgery and 78% stated they would consider it in the future. The most common area of interest was a procedure for the face. The most important factors in selecting a surgeon were surgeon reputation and board certification. The least important were quality of advertising and surgeon age. The most cited factor preventing individuals from pursuing plastic surgery was fear of a poor result. Most (60%) patients would choose a private surgicenter-based practice. The level of importance for each studied attribute can help plastic surgeons understand the market for cosmetic surgery as well as what patients look for when selecting their surgeon. This study helps to define those attributes in a sample population.
Chude-Olisah, Chollette C.; Sulong, Ghazali; Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Hashim, Siti Z. M.
Plastic surgery procedures on the face introduce skin texture variations between images of the same person (intra-subject), thereby making the task of face recognition more difficult than in normal scenario. Usually, in contemporary face recognition systems, the original gray-level face image is used as input to the Gabor descriptor, which translates to encoding some texture properties of the face image. The texture-encoding process significantly degrades the performance of such systems in the case of plastic surgery due to the presence of surgically induced intra-subject variations. Based on the proposition that the shape of significant facial components such as eyes, nose, eyebrow, and mouth remains unchanged after plastic surgery, this paper employs an edge-based Gabor feature representation approach for the recognition of surgically altered face images. We use the edge information, which is dependent on the shapes of the significant facial components, to address the plastic surgery-induced texture variation problems. To ensure that the significant facial components represent useful edge information with little or no false edges, a simple illumination normalization technique is proposed for preprocessing. Gabor wavelet is applied to the edge image to accentuate on the uniqueness of the significant facial components for discriminating among different subjects. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the Georgia Tech (GT) and the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) databases with illumination and expression problems, and the plastic surgery database with texture changes. Results show that the proposed edge-based Gabor feature representation approach is robust against plastic surgery-induced face variations amidst expression and illumination problems and outperforms the existing plastic surgery face recognition methods reported in the literature.
Panagiotis Milothridis; Leonidas Pavlidis; Anna-Bettina Haidich; Efharis Panagopoulou
Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social n...
Dana K Petersen
Full Text Available Although nanotechnology is a relatively young field, there are countless biomedical applications in use or under investigation. Many specialties have benefitted from nanoscale refinements of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Plastic and reconstructive surgery is an incredibly diverse specialty, encompassing craniofacial and hand surgery; trauma, oncologic and congenital reconstruction; burn care, and aesthetic surgery. Advances in nanotechnology have significantly impacted wound management, topical skin care, implant and prosthetic design, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. Currently, plastic surgeons are researching the utility of nanoscale tools for bone regeneration, bone prosthetics, and drug delivery. Nanotechnology will continue to build upon preceding discoveries, and its biomedical applications in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery will expand significantly.
Khare, Nishant; Puri, Vinita
Plastic surgery in India is in an era of transition. The speciality faces many challenges as it grows. The present study attempts to identify these challenges and the prevalent mood among the teachers and the trainees. The study was conducted from September 2011 to June 2012. In an E-mail based survey a questionnaire was mailed to professionals actively involved in teaching and training of residents in plastic surgery in many institutes running MCh courses in plastic surgery (Group I) [Appendix 1]. Another questionnaire was mailed to residents undergoing training in plastic surgery and those who had completed their training within past 2 years (Group II) [Appendix 2]. Chi-square test was applied to test for statistical significance. 29 Group I and 33 Group II subjects responded to the questionnaire. While 72.4% teachers believed that the current system is producing plastic surgeons with enough skill level, only 9.1% of the respondents in Group II thought the same (Chi-square = 28.1; df = 2; P plastic surgery training (Chi-square = 9.4; df = 2; P = 0.009). Adequate exposure was thought to be available in general plastic surgery (Group I: 92% Group II: 81%), maxillofacial surgery (Group I: 72% Group II: 68%) and hand surgery (Group I: 84% Group II: 69%). Both groups agreed that exposure is lacking in craniofacial surgery, aesthetic surgery and microvascular surgery. Aesthetic surgery (38.7%) and microvascular surgery (32.6%) were the most frequent response when the Group II respondents were enquired about the subspeciality they would like to focus on in their practice. Inter-departmental exchange of students for limited period of time was favoured by 86.2% of Group I respondents and 93.9% Group II respondents (Chi-square = 1.3; df = 2; P = 0.49). The current training programme is differently perceived by teachers and the trainees. We recommend that constant deliberations at national and regional forums should take place regarding our education and training programmes.
Kockro, R A; Hwang, P Y
OBJECTIVE: We have developed an interactive virtual model of the temporal bone for the training and teaching of cranial base surgery. METHODS: The virtual model was based on the tomographic data of the Visible Human Project. The male Visible Human's computed tomographic data were volumetrically reconstructed as virtual bone tissue, and the individual photographic slices provided the basis for segmentation of the middle and inner ear structures, cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem. These st...
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi; Højgaard-Olsen, Klavs; Subhi, Yousif; Saleh, George M; Park, Yoon Soo; la Cour, Morten; Konge, Lars
To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Multicenter masked clinical trial. Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Novices (non-independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR-32% and 38%, respectively-after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. DESIGN: Multicenter masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen catarac...
Li, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yangmei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Rui; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Songsong
Computer-aided jaw surgery has been extensively studied recently. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical feasibility of performing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery without intermediate splint using virtual surgical planning and rapid prototyping technology. Twelve consecutive patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were included. The presented treatment plan here mainly consists of 6 procedures: (1) data acquisition from computed tomography (CT) of the skull and laser scanning of the dentition; (2) reconstruction and fusion of a virtual skull model with accurate dentition; (3) virtual surgery simulation including osteotomy and movement and repositioning of bony segments; (4) final surgical splint fabrication (no intermediate splint) using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technology; (5) transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room; and (6) comparison of the actual surgical outcome to the virtual surgical plan. All procedures of the treatment were successfully performed on all 12 patients. In quantification of differences between simulated and actual postoperative outcome, we found that the mean linear difference was less than 1.8 mm, and the mean angular difference was less than 2.5 degrees in all evaluated patients. Results from this study suggested that it was feasible to perform bimaxillary orthognathic surgery without intermediate splint. Virtual surgical planning and the guiding splints facilitated the diagnosis, treatment planning, accurate osteotomy, and bony segments repositioning in orthognathic surgery.
Reusche, Ryan; Buchanan, Patrick J; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Vercler, Christian J
The growth and acceptance of smartphones among clinicians has been remarkable over the last decade. Over 87% of doctors use a smartphone or tablet capable of running third-party software known as applications (apps). In the field of plastic surgery, apps have been designed for personal practice development, education, clinical tools and guidelines, and entertainment. This study reviews the literature on apps related to plastic surgery and determines the number and types of apps available. A systematic review of the literature was performed to find articles written about plastic surgery applications. Queries were run in the Apple iPhone iOS App store and Google Play using the term "plastic surgery." Apps were reviewed for ratings, downloads, and cost. In addition, apps were categorized based on purpose. Categories include practice development, media/literature, clinical tool and guideline apps, or recreation. The literature search yielded 8 articles for review, 2 articles focused on categorizing apps and 6 articles focused on describing useful apps. Searching Apple's iTunes (iOS) store identified 273 and Google Play identified 250 apps related to plastic surgery; since 2013, a 62%, and 580% increase, respectively. The iOS store included practice development (46%), recreation (26%), media/literature (14%), and clinical tool and guideline (11%). Google Play store included recreation apps (44%), practice development (24%), clinical tools and guidelines (11%), and media and literature (9%). Apps related to the field of plastic surgery are increasing in prevalence. The content of these apps are variable, and the majority are intended for marketing and development of private practices. Apps linking to literature, texts, study materials, and clinical tools and guidelines are developed for both practicing plastic surgeons and surgical trainees. Finding "useful" apps takes time because searches are often complicated by a variety of apps.
Bennett, Katelyn G; Ingraham, John M; Schneider, Lisa F; Saadeh, Pierre B; Vercler, Christian J
The ethical practice of medicine has always been of utmost importance, and plastic surgery is no exception. The literature is devoid of information on the teaching of ethics and professionalism in plastic surgery. In light of this, a survey was sent to ascertain the status of ethics training in plastic surgery residencies. A 21-question survey was sent from the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons meeting to 180 plastic surgery program directors and coordinators via email. Survey questions inquired about practice environment, number of residents, presence of a formal ethics training program, among others. Binary regression was used to determine if any relationships existed between categorical variables, and Poisson linear regression was used to assess relationships between continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at a P value of 0.05. A total of 104 members responded to the survey (58% response rate). Sixty-three percent were program directors, and most (89%) practiced in academic settings. Sixty-two percent in academics reported having a formal training program, and 60% in private practice reported having one. Only 40% of programs with fewer than 10 residents had ethics training, whereas 78% of programs with more than 20 residents did. The odds of having a training program were slightly higher (odds ratio, 1.1) with more residents (P = 0.17). Despite the lack of information in the literature, formal ethics and professionalism training does exist in many plastic surgery residencies, although barriers to implementation do exist. Plastic surgery leadership should be involved in the development of standardized curricula to help overcome these barriers.
Zhang, Wen-Jun; Ding, Wei; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Yin-Fan; Zhang, Jian-Lin
In recent years, significant growth has been observed in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, the national productivity to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery remains unknown. We therefore intended to reveal national contributions in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Articles published in the 6 highly cited journals in plastic and reconstructive surgery in 2005-2009 were retrieved from the Medline and Web of Science. The number of total articles, the per capita numbers, 5-year impact factors (5y-IF), and citations were tabulated to assess the contribution of different countries. A total number of 5745 articles were published in the 6 journals from 2005 to 2009 worldwide. North America, West Europe, and East Asia were the most productive regions. High-income countries published 79.72% of the total articles. United States (USA) published most of the articles during 2005 to 2009 (2015/5745, 35.07%), followed by United Kingdom, Turkey, Japan, and China. Besides, USA also had the highest total 5y-IF (5010.76), the highest mean 5y-IF (2.49), and the highest total citations (11,788). When normalized to population size, Sweden had the highest number of articles per million persons (12.26), followed by Switzerland (8.02) and Netherlands (7.77). USA is the most productive country in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. When normalized to population size, some European countries might be more productive.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the conversion rate of Plastic Surgery meeting abstract presentations to full manuscript publications and examine factors associated with this conversion. Methods: we assessed the abstracts presented at the 47th and 48th Brazilian Congresses of Plastic Surgery by cross-referencing with multiple databases. We analyzed the Abstracts' characteristics associated with full manuscript publications. Results: of the 200 abstracts presented, 50 abstracts were subsequently published in full, giving the conference a conversion rate of 25%. The mean time to publish was 15.00±13.75 months. In total, there were 4.93±1.63 authors per abstract and 67.8±163 subjects per abstract; 43.5% of the abstracts were of retrospective studies; 69% comprised the plastic surgery topics head and neck, and chest and trunk, and 88.5% had no statistical analysis. Overall, 80% of the manuscripts were published in plastic surgery journals, 76% had no impact factor and 52% had no citations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed the presence of statistical analysis to be the most significant (p<0.05 predictive factor of conversion of abstracts into full manuscripts. Conclusion: the conversion rate found from this bibliometric research appeared a bit lower than the conversion trend of international plastic surgery meetings, and statistical analysis was a determinant of conversion success.
Wigley, Catrin H
Dr Jerome Pierce Webster is best remembered as the 'founder of plastic surgery education in the United States' on the basis of developing his nation's first plastic surgery residency programme, his role in the founding of the American Board of Plastic Surgery, and, more generally, his influence in professionalising this subspecialty. He also deserves to be remembered for his extensive missionary work in China, his publications as a successful bibliographer, and as an accomplished historian. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sara Obeid, MD, MPH
Conclusions:. Plastic surgery educators are committed to diversity and inclusion. Improvements can be made by incorporating PCs more frequently in activities related to the topic along with focused training on improving diversity on an institutional rather than individual level. Our study suggests body type/weight is the most common type of discrimination witnessed by the entire cohort and that diversity and inclusion remains a sensitive topic.
Schubert, C D; Leitsch, S; Haertnagl, F; Haas, E M; Giunta, R E
Despite its recognition as an independent specialty, at German university hospitals the field of plastic surgery is still underrepresented in terms of independent departments with a dedicated research focus. The aim of this study was to analyse the publication performance within the German academic plastic surgery environment and to compare independent departments and dependent, subordinate organisational structures regarding their publication performance. Organisational structures and number of attending doctors in German university hospitals were examined via a website analysis. A pubmed analysis was applied to assess the publication performance (number of publications, cumulative impact factor, impact factor/publication, number of publications/MD, number of publications/unit) between 2009 and 2013. In a journal analysis the distribution of the cumulative impact factor and number of publications in different journals as well as the development of the impact factor in the top journals were analysed. Out of all 35 university hospitals there exist 12 independent departments for plastic surgery and 8 subordinate organisational structures. In 15 university hospitals there were no designated plastic surgery units. The number of attending doctors differed considerably between independent departments (3.6 attending doctors/unit) and subordinate organisational structures (1.1 attending doctors/unit). The majority of publications (89.0%) and of the cumulative impact factor (91.2%) as well as most of the publications/MD (54 publications/year) and publications/unit (61 publications/year) were created within the independent departments. Only in departments top publications with an impact factor > 5 were published. In general a negative trend regarding the number of publications (- 13.4%) and cumulative impact factor (- 28.9%) was observed. 58.4% of all publications were distributed over the top 10 journals. Within the latter the majority of articles were published in
Wilson, Mark R; McGrath, John S; Vine, Samuel J; Brewer, James; Defriend, David; Masters, Richard S W
It is recognised that one of the major difficulties in performing laparoscopic surgery is the translation of two-dimensional video image information to a three-dimensional working area. However, research has tended to ignore the gaze and eye-hand coordination strategies employed by laparoscopic surgeons as they attempt to overcome these perceptual constraints. This study sought to examine if measures related to tool movements, gaze strategy, and eye-hand coordination (the quiet eye) differentiate between experienced and novice operators performing a two-handed manoeuvres task on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator (LAP Mentor™). Twenty-five right-handed surgeons were categorised as being either experienced (having led more than 60 laparoscopic procedures) or novice (having performed fewer than 10 procedures) operators. The 10 experienced and 15 novice surgeons completed the "two-hand manoeuvres" task from the LAP Mentor basic skills learning environment while wearing a gaze registration system. Performance, movement, gaze, and eye-hand coordination parameters were recorded and compared between groups. The experienced surgeons completed the task significantly more quickly than the novices, used significantly fewer movements, and displayed shorter tool paths. Gaze analyses revealed that experienced surgeons spent significantly more time fixating the target locations than novices, who split their time between focusing on the targets and tracking the tools. A more detailed analysis of a difficult subcomponent of the task revealed that experienced operators used a significantly longer aiming fixation (the quiet eye period) to guide precision grasping movements and hence needed fewer grasp attempts. The findings of the study provide further support for the utility of examining strategic gaze behaviour and eye-hand coordination measures to help further our understanding of how experienced surgeons attempt to overcome the perceptual difficulties inherent in
Chandawarkar, Akash A; Gould, Daniel J; Stevens, W Grant
Ethical guidelines for appropriate use of social media are beginning to be delineated. As social media becomes ingrained in plastic surgery culture, education of residents on appropriate use of social media is increasingly important. Recently, plastic surgery residency programs have begun to utilize social media. This study characterizes the trends and content of plastic surgery residency-associated Instagram accounts. Active individual residency program Instagram accounts were identified for integrated plastic surgery programs. Metrics for each account were retrieved on September 16, 2017, including date of first post, number of posts, and followers. Individual posts were analyzed for content of post. Fourteen of 67 (21%) integrated plastic surgery programs were found to have active Instagram accounts. There has been an exponential growth of programs adopting Instagram since August 2015. A total of 806 posts were created. Thirty-two (3.97%) posts had intraoperative photos and only one (0.12%) showed a patient image. There were 4466 followers of plastic surgery residency programs. A linear correlation was found between number of posts and number of followers, while there was no correlation of number of followers and time since account start. Instagram use by plastic surgery integrated programs continues to grow exponentially, and programs are appropriately using the platform. Active use of the resident social media results in increased influence. Resident use of social media has many benefits. We propose social media guidelines for plastic surgery trainees and advocate for continued appropriate use and auto-regulation by plastic surgery trainees.
Hashmi, Asra; Khan, Faraz A; Herman, Floyd; Narasimhan, Nathan; Khan, Shaher; Kubiak, Carrie; Gursel, Eti; Edelman, David A
Plastic surgery training is undergoing major changes however there is paucity of data detailing the current state of training as perceived by plastic surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine the quality of training as perceived by the current trainee pool and their future plans. A 25-item anonymous survey with three discrete sections (demographics, quality of training, and post-graduate career plans) was developed and distributed to plastic surgery residents during the academic year 2013. With the confidence interval of 95% and margin of error of 10%, our target response rate was 87 responders. We received a total of 114 respondents with all levels of Post Graduate Year in training represented. Upon comparison of residents with debt of 250,000, those with higher debt were significantly less interested in fellowship training (p value 0.05) and were more likely to pursue private practice (p value plastic surgery least offered as a separate rotation were microsurgery (45%) followed by aesthetic surgery (33%). 53.7% of the residents felt that they were least trained in aesthetic surgery followed by burn surgery 45.4%. Of note 56.4% intended to seek additional training after residency. Moreover residents with an average of 6.4 months of experience in an individual subspecialty were more likely to feel comfortable with that specialty. This survey highlights the areas and subspecialties that deserve attention as perceived by the current trainee pool.
Deutsch, Judith E; Westcott McCoy, Sarah
Use of virtual reality (VR) and serious games (SGs) interventions within rehabilitation as motivating tools for task specific training for individuals with neurological conditions are fast-developing. Within this perspective paper we use the framework of the IV STEP conference to summarize the literature on VR and SG for children and adults by three topics: Prevention; Outcomes: Body-Function-Structure, Activity and Participation; and Plasticity. Overall the literature in this area offers support for use of VR and SGs to improve body functions and to some extent activity domain outcomes. Critical analysis of clients' goals and selective evaluation of VR and SGs are necessary to appropriately take advantage of these tools within intervention. Further research on prevention, participation, and plasticity is warranted. We offer suggestions for bridging the gap between research and practice integrating VR and SGs into physical therapist education and practice.
Molecular biology has become an essential component in many fields of modern medical research, including plastic surgery. Research into the molecular mechanisms underlying many disease processes offer increased understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and provide exciting therapeutic possibilities. Yet for many clinicians, the presentation of much research into molecular biological processes is couched in confusing terminology and based on scientific techniques, the basis of which are frequently difficult for the clinician to understand. The purpose of this review is to present an introduction to some of the molecular biological techniques currently in use, namely the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and explore its applications to different aspects of plastic surgery. This review explores the role PCR now plays in all aspects of modern plastic surgery practise, with particular emphasis on normal and abnormal wound healing, the diagnosis of craniofacial anomalies, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer including melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and burns.
Schäfer, Robert D; David, Dagmar M
Influenced by rapidly changing ideals of beauty, more and more people are turning to aesthetic surgery to meet current standards of beauty. In this situation physicians have to balance the patient's wishes by correctly interpreting his psychological condition and gaining his informed consent. In some situations, an operation can and must be denied. To improve transparency and quality the Medical Association North-Rhine (Arztekammer Nordrhein) established a public register of "aesthetic surgery" ("Plastisch-Operative Medizin"). Patients searching qualified aesthetic surgery can choose from a list of suitable specialists. Initial experience seems to confirm acceptance of this concept.
Vanhille, Derek L; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Asan, Onur; Borojeni, Azadeh A T; Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Kimbell, Julia S; Pawar, Sachin S; Rhee, John S
Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common problem that affects patient quality of life. Surgical success for NAO correction is variable. Virtual surgery planning via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the success rates of NAO surgery. To elicit surgeon feedback of a virtual surgery planning tool for NAO and to determine if this tool affects surgeon decision making. For this cross-sectional study, 60-minute face-to-face interviews with board-certified otolaryngologists were conducted at a single academic otolaryngology department from September 16, 2016, through October 7, 2016. Virtual surgery methods were introduced, and surgeons were able to interact with the virtual surgery planning tool interface. Surgeons were provided with a patient case of NAO, and open feedback of the platform was obtained, with emphasis on surgical decision making. Likert scale responses and qualitative feedback were collected for the virtual surgery planning tool and its influence on surgeon decision making. Our 9 study participants were all male, board-certified otolaryngologists with a mean (range) 15 (4-28) number of years in practice and a mean (range) number of nasal surgeries per month at 2.2 (0.0-6.0). When examined on a scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (completely), surgeon mean (SD) score was 3.4 (0.5) for how realistic the virtual models were compared with actual surgery. On the same scale, when asked how much the virtual surgery planning tool changed surgeon decision making, mean (SD) score was 2.6 (1.6). On a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), surgeon scores for perceived usefulness of the technology and attitude toward using it were 5.1 (1.1) and 5.7 (0.9), respectively. Our study shows positive surgeon experience with a virtual surgery planning tool for NAO based on CFD simulations. Surgeons felt that future applications and areas of study of the virtual surgery planning tool include its potential role for patient counseling
Presentation and Intervention Time for Plastic Surgical Patients Presenting at the Trauma Unit, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I I Onah, M O Orji. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpsur.v2i2.40394 ...
Ariyan, Stephan; Martin, Janet; Lal, Avtar; Cheng, Davy; Borah, Gregory L; Chung, Kevin C; Conly, John; Havlik, Robert; Lee, W P Andrew; McGrath, Mary H; Pribaz, Julian; Young, V Leroy
There is a growing concern for microbial resistance as a result of overuse of antibiotics. Although guidelines have focused on the use of antibiotics for surgery in general, few have addressed plastic surgery specifically. The objective of this expert consensus conference was to evaluate the evidence for efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in plastic surgical procedures. THE AUTHORS: searched for existing high-quality systematic reviews for antibiotic prophylaxis in the literature from the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. All synonyms for antibiotics were combined with terms for relevant plastic surgery procedures. The searches were not limited by language, and included all study designs. In addition, supplemental hand searches were performed of bibliographies of relevant articles, and extensive "related articles." Meta-analyses were performed and reviewed by experts selected by the American Association of Plastic Surgeons to reach consensus recommendations. Database searches identified 4300 articles, from which 2042 full-text articles were identified for eligibility. De novo meta-analyses were performed for each plastic surgical category. In total, 67 studies met the inclusion criteria, including nine for breast surgery, 17 for head and neck surgery, 10 for orthognathic surgery, seven for rhinoplasty/septoplasty, 19 for hand surgery, five for skin surgery, and two for abdominoplasty. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for clean breast surgery and for contaminated surgery of the hand or the head and neck. It is not recommended to reduce infection in clean surgical cases of the hand, skin, head and neck, or abdominoplasty.
Loewenstein, Scott N; Duquette, Stephen; Valsangkar, Nakul; Avula, Umakanth; Lad, Neha; Socas, Juan; Flores, Roberto L; Sood, Rajiv; Koniaris, Leonidas G
There is an increased push for plastic surgery units in the United States to become independent departments administered autonomously rather than as divisions of a multispecialty surgery department. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are any quantifiable differences in the academic performance of departments versus divisions. Using a list of the plastic surgery units affiliated with The American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS), unit websites were queried for departmental status and to obtain a list of affiliated faculty. Academic productivity was then quantified using the SCOPUS database. National Institute of Health (NIH) funding was determined through the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools database. Plastic surgery departments were comparable to divisions in academic productivity, evidenced by a similar number of publications per faculty (38.9 versus 38.7; p=0.94), number of citations per faculty (692 versus 761; p=0.64), H-indices (9.9 versus 9.9; p=0.99), and NIH grants (3.25 versus 2.84; p=0.80), including RO1 grants (1.33 versus 0.84; p=0.53). There was a trend for departments to have a more equitable male to female ratio (2.8 versus 4.1; p=0.06), and departments trained a greater number of integrated plastic surgery residents (9.0 versus 5.28; p=0.03). This study demonstrates that the academic performance of independent plastic surgery departments is generally similar to divisions, but with nuanced distinctions.
Lopez, Joseph; Juan, Ilona; Wu, Adela; Samaha, Georges; Cho, Brian; Luck, J D; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; May, James W; Tufaro, Anthony P; Dorafshar, Amir H
Recently, several studies have demonstrated that articles that disclose conflicts of interests (COI) are associated with publication of positive results. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the different types of COI as they relate to the general topic of COI in plastic surgery. Specifically, we aimed to examine whether different types of COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. We reviewed all original articles in Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, and Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. All scientific articles were analyzed, and several article characteristics were extracted. Disclosed COI were categorized into the following categories: consultant/employee, royalties/stock options, and research support. The findings reported in each article abstract were blindly graded as reporting a positive, negative, neutral, or not applicable result. A multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether an association existed between certain types of COI and publication of positive conclusions. A total of 3124 articles were identified of which 1185 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Financial COI were reported in 153 studies (12.9%). The most common type of COI was "research support" (7.3%), whereas the least common was "royalties/stock options" (1.2%). Rates of different types of COI varied significantly by plastic surgery subspecialty field (P plastic surgery research. Our results provide evidence that certain types of financial COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. This analysis suggests that certain investigators may be more biased, consciously or unconsciously, by the type of financial benefit offered by industry.
Mateus Canniatti Ponchio; Carla Giglioli Martins; Cecilia Bandeira De Melo Vieira; Daniela Menezes
... cultural characteristics. In such context, the objectives of this paper are to comprehend the influence of materialism, self esteem, and of control variables on the decision to undertake an aesthetic surgery procedure...
Mateus Canniatti Ponchio; Carla Giglioli Martins; Cecilia Bandeira De Melo Vieira; Daniela Menezes
The present study analyses the consumption of aesthetic surgeries among females from the cities of Sao Paulo and Recife, two large Brazilian cities that possess different economic, demographic and...
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Ahn, Woojin; Dorozhkin, Denis; Schwaitzberg, Steven; Jones, Daniel B; De, Suvranu
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures are rapidly being developed in diverse surgical fields. We are developing a Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTEST™) built on a modularized platform that facilitates rapid development of virtual reality (VR) NOTES simulators. Both the hardware interface and software components consist of independent reusable and customizable modules. The developed modules are integrated to build a VR-NOTES simulator for training in the hybrid transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy. The simulator was demonstrated and evaluated by expert NOTES surgeons at the 2015 Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR) summit.
Silvestre, Jason; Bilici, Nadir; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam is written by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Examinees reasonably infer that tested material reflects the Society's vision for the core curriculum in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of evidence on which credited answers to the examination questions are based. Two recent Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exams (2014 and 2015) were analyzed. Questions were categorized using a taxonomy model. Recommended journal article references for Level III (decision-making) questions were assigned a level of evidence. Exam sections were analyzed for differences in question taxonomy distribution and level of evidence. To look for studies with higher levels of evidence, a PubMed search was conducted for a random sample of 10 questions from each section. One hundred three Level I (25.8 percent), 138 Level II (34.5 percent), and 159 Level III (39.8 percent) questions were analyzed (p Exam questions test clinical management, but most are supported with a low level of evidence. Although that is consistent with low level of evidence of plastic surgery literature, educators should recognize the potential for biases of question writers.
Avashia, Yash J; Thaller, Seth R
Regarded as "America's first plastic surgeon," Dr John Peter Mettauer's professional life displays 3 fundamental keystones of plastic surgery: education, innovation, and practice. To fully appreciate the history of our plastic surgery, one must look beyond a purely factual recount of noteworthy actions performed decades ago. Fundamental principles that governed achievements of our predecessors remain applicable even today. Dr Mettauer thrived as a medical student under the influence of distinguished professors in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Later, he continued to propagate their basic tenets when he established his medical institute in 1837. Throughout his life, Dr Mettauer combined ingenuity with scientific inquiry to devise numerous unprecedented surgical techniques and instruments. He was a prolific writer and exquisitely documented his work in medical journals for the benefit of both contemporary and future surgeons. One of Dr Mettauer's momentous achievements in plastic surgery that displays his remarkable capabilities was his contributions to management of both simple and complicated cases of cleft palate. He was the first to describe relaxing lateral incisions for treating complete cleft palates and, incidentally, was the first to successfully treat this in America. He invariably replicated similar success in establishing techniques for treating a wide range of anatomic deformities. Cumulatively, Dr Mettauer's lifelong commitment and diligence have truly laid a foundation for the eventual progress and success in the field of plastic surgery.
Ravin, Adam G; Gottlieb, Neil B; Wang, Howard T; Meade, Ricardo A; Humphrey, J Stewart; Schwarz, Karl W; Levin, L Scott; Tyler, Douglas S; Erdmann, Detlev
Teaching hospitals within the Veterans Affairs Health System perform the majority of complex and high-risk surgical procedures in the veteran patient population. Residency positions in the Veterans Affairs Medical System are usually part of a rotational educational system within a university-based residency, and plastic surgeons in training are a major work force and health care provider. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current effect of the Veterans Affairs Medical System on plastic surgery residency training. A 6-year (January of 1998 to December of 2003) review was performed of procedures completed at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Section of Plastic Surgery. Procedures were divided into the following categories: extremities and trunk; breast and cosmetic; head and neck, including excision of skin lesions; hand surgery; craniomaxillofacial surgery; and other. Only procedures performed in the main operating room were reviewed and analyzed. In addition, a detailed review was performed of major head and neck reconstructions with free tissue transfer. A total of 1655 operative procedures were performed in 1290 patients. The ratio of men to women was 6:1 (1112 men and 178 women). Patients ranged in age from 26 to 97 years (average age, 62.7 years). Procedures in the extremities and trunk (n = 193, 11.7 percent), breast and cosmetic (n = 228, 13.8 percent), hand surgery (n = 155, 9.4 percent), and other (n = 275, 16.6 percent) categories were comparably distributed. Although the head and neck category accounted for the highest number of procedures (n = 766, 46.3 percent), the majority of these procedures were simple excisions of skin tumors (n = 612). There were significantly fewer major craniomaxillofacial cases (n = 38, 2.3 percent). Data from the retrospective analysis reveal that a broad spectrum of plastic surgical procedures is performed within the Veterans Affairs Health System, serving as a tremendous resource for resident training
Marck, K W; Martin, D
The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mühlstädt, S; Anheuser, P; Mohammed, N; Bach, A D
The adult buried penis afflicts the patient with shame and is also potentially associated with considerable urogenital complications. Due to obesity, chronic urogenital lymphedema or subsequent inflammatory urogenital conditions, such as a lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, the clinical appearance of the adult buried penis is extremely variable. Epidemiological data are non-existent. Therapeutically, a combination of various plastic surgery procedures is often necessary for the best esthetic and functional results. The therapeutic strategy is highly individual and the therapy itself is interdisciplinary. This article provides an overview of the plastic surgery reconstruction of the adult buried penis.
Nayar, Harry S; Caplan, Arthur L; Eaves, Felmont F; Rubin, J Peter
The emerging field of stem cell-based aesthetics has raised ethical concerns related to advertising campaigns and standards for safety and efficacy. The authors sought to characterize the attitudes of plastic surgeons regarding the ethics of stem cell-based aesthetics. A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to 4592 members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statements addressed ethical concerns about informed consent, conflicts of interest, advertising, regulation, and stem cell tourism. An agreement score (AS) from 0 to 100 was calculated for each statement. Majority agreement was designated as ≥60 and majority disagreement as ≤40. A total of 770 questionnaires were received (16.7%). The majority of respondents indicated that knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of stem cell procedures is insufficient to obtain valid informed consent (AS, 29) and that direct-to-consumer advertising for these technologies is inappropriate and unethical (AS, 23). Most respondents reported that patients should be actively warned against traveling abroad to receive aesthetic cell therapies (AS, 86) and that registries and evaluations of these clinics should be made publicly available (AS, 71). Even more respondents noted that financial conflicts of interest should be disclosed to patients (AS, 96) and that professional societies should participate in establishing regulatory standards (AS, 93). The plastic surgeons surveyed in this study support a well-regulated, evidence-based approach to aesthetic procedures involving stem cells. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.
Cosmetic Surgery, photography, and image manipulation have been intertwined since the inception of the medical field. The before and after surgery photo is central to the way surgeons communicate their goals to patients, who are overwhelmingly women, and to the public at large as a marketing tool. With computers and digital image manipulation programs, a third type of image has emerged—the simulated post-op photo. In this simulation, a photo is taken before a plastic surgery. The patient d...
Shi, Yunyong; Lin, Li; Zhou, Chaozheng; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Le; Chai, Gang
Mandible plastic surgery plays an important role in conventional plastic surgery. However, its success depends on the experience of the surgeons. In order to improve the effectiveness of the surgery and release the burden of surgeons, a mandible plastic surgery assisting robot, based on an augmented reality technique, was developed. Augmented reality assists surgeons to realize positioning. Fuzzy control theory was used for the control of the motor. During the process of bone drilling, both the drill bit position and the force were measured by a force sensor which was used to estimate the position of the drilling procedure. An animal experiment was performed to verify the effectiveness of the robotic system. The position error was 1.07 ± 0.27 mm and the angle error was 5.59 ± 3.15°. The results show that the system provides a sufficient accuracy with which a precise drilling procedure can be performed. In addition, under the supervision's feedback of the sensor, an adequate safety level can be achieved for the robotic system. The system realizes accurate positioning and automatic drilling to solve the problems encountered in the drilling procedure, providing a method for future plastic surgery.
After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery. They used to renove famous actresse's and actors' face and nose and those of hundreds of patients. They participate to French societies of plastic surgery meetings and publications. Their enthusiastic dare largely participated to the current success of cosmetic surgery in France.
Eberlin, Kyle R; Perdikis, Galen; Damitz, Lynn; Krochmal, Dan J; Kalliainen, Loree K; Bonawitz, Steven C
With the advancement of technology, electronic communication has become an important mode of communication within plastic and reconstructive surgery. This can take the form of e-mail, text messaging, video conferencing, and social media, among others. There are currently no defined American Society of Plastic Surgeons guidelines for appropriate professional use of these technologies. A search was performed on PubMed and the Cochrane database; terms included "telemedicine," "text messaging," "HIPAA," "metadata," "video conferencing," "photo sharing," "social media," "Facebook," "Twitter," and "Instagram." Initial screening of all identified articles was performed; the level of evidence, limitations, and recommendations were evaluated and articles were reviewed. A total of 654 articles were identified in the level I screening process; after more comprehensive review, 41 articles fit inclusion criteria: social networking, 12; telemedicine, 11; text messaging, 10; metadata, four; video conferencing, three; and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, one. General themes were identified from these articles and guidelines proposed. Electronic communication can provide an efficient method of information exchange for professional purposes within plastic surgery but should be used thoughtfully and with all professional, legal, and ethical considerations.
Larsen, Christian R; Soerensen, Jette L; Grantcharov, Teodor P
-14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pincreased in a clinically relevant manner using proficiency based virtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee...
Nayar, Harry S; Bentz, Michael L; Baus, Gustavo Herdocia; Palacios, Jorge; Dibbell, David G; Noon, John; Poore, Samuel O; King, Timothy W; Mount, Delora L
Although vertical health care delivery models certainly will remain a vital component in the provision of surgery in low-and-middle-income countries, it is clear now that the sustainability of global surgery will depend on more than just surgeons operating. Instead, what is needed is a comprehensive approach, that is, a horizontal integration that develops sustainable human resources, physical infrastructure, administrative oversight, and financing mechanisms in the developing world. We propose that such a strategy for development would necessarily involve an active role by academic institutions of high-income countries.
Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S
Objective: Expert witness testimony is crucial for juror decision making. The goals of this study were to examine the trends in malpractice litigation in plastic surgery and to examine the characteristics of expert witnesses in litigation. Methods: The Westlaw legal database was queried for jury verdict and settlement reports related to plastic surgery cases from 2009 to 2015. Cases were examined for expert witness testimony, procedure performed, alleged injury, cause of action, verdict, and indemnity payments. Results: Ninety-three relevant cases were examined. Mean plaintiff award was $1,036,469, whereas mean settlement was $633,960. The most commonly litigated procedures involved breast surgery (34.4%), liposuction (18.3%), and body contouring (14.0%). Cases involving body contouring (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.10) were more likely to result in favor of the defendant, whereas cases involving breast surgery (RR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.57) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). Cases in which there was claimed pain (RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48) or emotional distress (RR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). The party of a lawsuit was more likely to win the case if its expert witness was a plastic surgeon (P < .05). Conclusion: Plastic surgery litigation tends to favor defendants. Most litigation involves breast surgery, liposuction, and body contouring. The type of procedure and alleged claim affect case success. Parties with a plastic surgeon as an expert witness tend to be more successful in litigation.
Kling, Russell E; Nayar, Harry S; Harhay, Michael O; Emelife, Patrick O; Manders, Ernest K; Ahuja, Naveen K; Losee, Joseph E
The general public and physicians often equate plastic surgery with cosmetic surgery. The authors investigate whether this perception is present in U.S. medical students. A national survey of first- and second-year allopathic medical students was conducted. Students were asked to determine whether 46 specific procedures are performed by plastic surgeons: 12 aesthetic and 34 reconstructive procedures, which were further separated into three subgroups (general reconstruction and breast, craniofacial, and hand and lower extremity). Of the questionnaires sent out, 2434 from 44 medical schools were returned completed (23 percent response rate); 90.7 percent of aesthetic, 66.0 percent of general reconstruction and breast, 51.0 percent of craniofacial, and 33.4 percent of hand and lower extremity procedures were correctly identified. There was no relationship with self-reported interest in plastic surgery (1 = not at all interested to 10 = extremely interested) and the number of correctly identified aesthetic procedures. However, there was a nonlinear relationship with correctly identified reconstructive procedures; compared to those with an interest level of 1 to 5, those who chose 10 scored on average 6.5 points higher (14.2 versus 20.7) (p surgery was associated with more correctly identified procedures across all sections but neither year (first versus second) nor region (Northeast, South, Central, West) with any section. U.S. medical students are unaware of the true scope of plastic surgery. Early exposure to basic aspects of plastic surgery could serve as a means of increasing interest and knowledge in the field and help educate future generations of referring physicians.
Weng, Weidong; Zhang, Feng; Lineaweaver, William C; Gao, Weiyang; Yan, Hede
Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by abrupt restoration of circulation after prolonged ischemia has still been an unsolved problem in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The concept of postconditioning (post-con), which has been well described in cardiovascular surgery, has been recently introduced in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As an "after-injury strategy," post-con may be a promising approach to reduce I/R injury and improve flap survival after ischemia. Methods A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases of PubMed and web of science to identify all the studies regarding the application of the post-con technique in plastic and reconstructive surgery between 1950 and 2015. Inclusion criteria were English articles with clear reporting the post-con techniques and detailed outcomes. Results In total, 476 articles were identified and 18 studies reporting post-con in plastic and reconstructive surgery met the inclusion criteria in this review, including 11 studies of mechanical post-con, 3 studies of pharmacological post-con, 1 study of both mechanical and pharmacological post-con, and 3 studies of remote post-con. All these studies reported protective effects of any kind of post-con techniques in I/R injuries and could improve flap survivals. Conclusion In general, the strategy of post-con may effectively reduce I/R injury and improve the survival of flaps after ischemia in animal studies, yet no consensus regarding the exact technical details (intervention timing, cycles, intermittent duration, etc.) has been reached. Further studies aiming to explore its mechanisms as well as specific methodology are required before clinical application in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic Surgery...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic Surgery...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic Surgery...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical... the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical...
In this paper, I take up the theme of the volume by analyzing the dynamic and sometimes conflicting relationship between ‘health’ and ‘beauty’ in the practice of cosmetic surgery. Approaching Brazil as a case study, I show how cosmetic and medical rationales are merged within a broader field of
Lifchez, Scott D; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Hultman, C Scott
There is no consensus among plastic surgeons regarding what constitutes the scope of hand surgery practice. Due to this lack, there is a wide variability in what hand surgery procedures plastic surgery resident will see and participate in during the course of training. We assessed what faculty members of plastic surgery training programs felt were contained within the scope of practice of hand surgery. A survey was sent to all members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons. Respondents reported size of department, faculty fellowship training, hand surgery call coverage, and amount of elective hand surgery within their training program. They also identified what procedures were within the scope of hand surgery. Ninety-three responses were received. Thirty-five respondents were certified or eligible for the surgery of the hand examination. Twenty-five respondents had 0 or 1 surgery-of-the-hand surgeon among their faculty. Thirty-nine departments/divisions performed 10 or fewer elective hand surgeries per week. Seventy-eight percent of groups taking hand call reported that all faculty members took hand call regardless of whether they had hand fellowship training. Although nearly all cover hand and wrist infections, only 49% provide care for distal radius fractures. In many residency programs, hand surgery exposure is in the setting of trauma and emergencies. The inclusion of complex elective hand surgeries within a plastic surgery practice and residency program allows residents to see the full spectrum of hand surgery. This allows them to make an informed decision regarding whether to seek subspecialty training and continue the participation of plastic surgeons in the full spectrum of hand surgery.
Z. A. Radjabova
Full Text Available Issues of tissue defects replacement after radical surgery for tumors of the head and neck do not lose their relevance. The article presents the results of plastics and replacement of the perforating combined defects of the floor of the mouth, portion of the upper and lower lips, the angle of the mouth, cheeks, neck lateral parts with simultaneous reduction of the configuration and function of the operated organs. Depending on the depth and nature of the existing tissue defect various methods of plastics were applied using arterialized flaps on the vascular pedicle in a free and non-free version. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were achieved in patients allowing to improve life quality and to adapt socially.
Zhang, Jianlin; Ding, Wei; Chen, Aimin; Jiang, Hua
: On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 on Richter scale struck Sichuan Province of China and destroyed Wenchuan County. Two days later, a field hospital from the Second Military Medical University (Shanghai, China) arrived at Anxian County near the epicenter as a reinforcement hospital before rehabilitation of the local medical facilities. Surgical services in the field hospital were supplied by general, orthopedic, plastic, anesthetic, obstetrical surgeons, and two physicians. The plastic surgeons were responsible for assessment of all soft tissue injuries at the hospital and patient needs for plastic surgery services in a crisis intervention field hospital. : Information was gathered regarding soft tissue injuries throughout the activities of the hospital. In addition, patient charts, operation reports, and entry and evacuation logs were reviewed for all patients who were admitted and treated in the field hospital. : Of 1,013 patients who were treated in the field hospital in Wenchuan; 102 (10.07%) sought aid for soft tissue injuries, all of which were earthquake related. Twenty-one percent of the operations performed in the hospital were concerned with the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and 15% of the hospital beds were reserved for plastic surgery patients. : Plastic surgery services at a field hospital play a prominent and irreplaceable role in rescuing casualties in formidable conditions especially in a serious earthquake situation.
Qureshi, Ali A; Parikh, Rajiv P; Myckatyn, Terence M; Tenenbaum, Marissa M
Comprehensive aesthetic surgery education is an integral part of plastic surgery residency training. Recently, the ACGME increased minimum requirements for aesthetic procedures in residency. To expand aesthetic education and prepare residents for independent practice, our institution has supported a resident cosmetic clinic for over 25 years. To evaluate the safety of procedures performed through a resident clinic by comparing outcomes to benchmarked national aesthetic surgery outcomes and to provide a model for resident clinics in academic plastic surgery institutions. We identified a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent procedures through our resident cosmetic clinic between 2010 and 2015. Major complications, as defined by CosmetAssure database, were recorded and compared to published aesthetic surgery complication rates from the CosmetAssure database for outcomes benchmarking. Fisher's exact test was used to compare sample proportions. Two hundred and seventy-one new patients were evaluated and 112 patients (41.3%) booked surgery for 175 different aesthetic procedures. There were 55 breast, 19 head and neck, and 101 trunk or extremity aesthetic procedures performed. The median number of preoperative and postoperative visits was 2 and 4 respectively with a mean follow-up time of 35 weeks. There were 3 major complications (2 hematomas and 1 infection requiring IV antibiotics) with an overall complication rate of 1.7% compared to 2.0% for patients in the CosmetAssure database (P = .45). Surgical outcomes for procedures performed through a resident cosmetic clinic are comparable to national outcomes for aesthetic surgery procedures, suggesting this experience can enhance comprehensive aesthetic surgery education without compromising patient safety or quality of care. 4 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li, R B; Li, M X; Guo, G H; Zhang, H Y
Three-dimensional bioprinting is one of the latest and fastest growing technologies in the medical field. It has been implemented to print part of the transplantable tissues and organs, such as skin, ear, and bone. This paper introduces the application status, challenges, and application prospect of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field.
Steven Nicholas Graves, MA
Conclusions: The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera enables high-quality, cost-effective video recording of plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. When set to a narrow field of view and automatic white balance, the camera is able to sufficiently compensate for the contrasting light environment of the operating room and capture high-resolution, detailed video.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery... Improper function of suction apparatus (e.g., reflux of waste exudate to wound, incorrect delivery of... wound selection, improper wound management, improper placement of dressing) Table 1--Risks to Health and...
K.H. Tan (King Hoen)
textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development
Shah, Atulkumar K.
The social impact of entire cadre of medical graduates admitted through donation and management seats is yet to arrive. What has arrived are the burdens of complying with various acts and facing legal challengesduring medical practice. This article deals with some recent legal requirements for catering to plastic and cosmetic surgery patients.
This qualitative study examined comments of 250 parents of children with Down syndrome concerning facial plastic surgery as a means of improving the physical functioning, appearance, and social acceptance of these children. Most respondents viewed improvement of negative societal attitudes toward individuals with Down syndrome and futhering their…
Skillman, Joanna; Hardwicke, Joseph; Whisker, Lisa; England, David
Lipomodelling is increasingly popular in breast surgery. The aims of this study were to elucidate the prevalence and practice of lipomodelling by surgeons in the UK and explore their attitudes and reservations to the technique. A study specific questionnaire was circulated to Breast and Plastic Surgeons with an interest in breast reconstruction. 228 surgeons responded. Lipomodelling in breast surgery was performed by 48/70 (69%) plastic surgeons and 17/158 (11%) breast surgeons (p < 0.0001). Most attitudes were positive with over 60% surgeons agreeing that the benefits of lipomodelling outweighed the risks. Critics cited the lack of prospective, long term follow up data (16%) in addition to oncological (4%), radiological (8%) and efficacy (4%) concerns. Lipomodelling is performed by the majority of plastic surgeons who responded. Despite oncological, radiological and efficacy concerns, the majority of surgeons feel that the benefits of lipomodelling in the breast outweigh the risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanna, Neil; Levine, Steven M; Broer, P Niclas; Reavey, Patrick L; Weichman, Katie E; Roostaeian, Jason; Andrews, Brian T; Lerman, Oren Z; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P
There is no more important decision an academic Plastic Surgery Department or Division can make than naming a chair or chief. Externally recruited leadership brings fresh perspectives and connections. Critics, however, argue that they lack the in-depth knowledge of the institution's culture and history that may be needed to succeed. The ability and skill of an internal candidate is already known and can increase the odds of that person's success in the leadership position. Finally, external recruitment can be a more costly process. Ultimately, the decision is really a litmus test for a Plastic Surgery program. The authors aim to evaluate factors influencing ascent in Plastic Surgery leadership, including training history, internal promotion, and external recruiting. All Plastic Surgery residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were noted (n = 71). Academic departmental chairs or divisional chiefs of these residency programs were identified at the time of study design (October 1, 2011). For each chair or chief, gender, training history, and faculty appointment immediately prior to the current leadership position was recorded. There were 71 academic chairs or chiefs of Plastic Surgery residency programs at the time of data collection. The majority (62%) had done fellowship training following Plastic Surgery residency. Fellowships included hand (43%), craniofacial (29%), microsurgery (18%), and other types (10%). The majority (73%) of leaders were internal hires (P < 0.01), having faculty appointments at their institutions prior to promotion. However, only a fraction (22%) of these internal hires had done Plastic Surgery residency or fellowship training at that institution (P < 0.01). External recruits consisted of 27% of all 71 academic hires (P < 0.01). Many factors influence the decision to recruit leadership from internally or to hire an external candidate. These include the time to fill the position, program culture
Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F
Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.
Roy, Melissa; Hunter, Paul; Perry, Julie A; Cross, Karen M
Plastic surgeons routinely see patients with complex or chronic wounds of all etiology. In a previous study, we found that up to 1 in 4 of these patients is at risk for malnutrition, which may be influencing their ability to heal. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a universal screening protocol that would be fast and accurate and allow for effective intervention and optimization of nutrition before plastic surgery. To accomplish these goals, we adopted a 2-part screening algorithm using the Canadian Nutritional Screening Tool (CNST) to triage patients in our outpatient clinics and then further screened those identified as being at risk using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool and blood work. We screened 111 patients with diagnoses related to breast cancer (n = 10; 9.01%), elective surgery (n = 38; 34.23%), emergency surgery (n = 8; 7.21%), fractures (n = 15; 13.51%), and wounds (n = 40; 36.04%). Of the screened subjects, 15.32% (n = 17) were found to be at nutritional risk using the CNST, and 13 were confirmed to be moderately or severely malnourished using the SGA. Importantly, there were no positive correlations between nutritional status and smoking, diabetes, body mass index, or age, indicating that a universal screening protocol is needed to effectively screen a diverse plastic surgery population for malnutrition. Screening patients with both the CNST and the SGA is an effective way to identify patients before surgery to improve outcomes.
Laparoscopic surgery is one of the most important surgical innovations of the 20th century. Despite the well-known benefits for the patient, such as reduced pain, reduced hospital stay and quicker return to normal physical activities, there are also some drawbacks. Performing laparoscopic surgery
Lazzati, Andrea; Katsahian, Sandrine; Maladry, David; Gerard, Emma; Gaucher, Sonia
Bariatric patients are often candidates for plastic surgery. However, the rate of postbariatric procedures is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of plastic surgery, and factors related to surgery, in bariatric patients. University hospital, France. This was a cohort study based on administrative data. All adult patients who received bariatric surgery in France between 2007 and 2013 were included to estimate the rate of plastic surgery and related predictive factors. Data are reported according to the reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected data guidelines for observational studies on administrative data. Among the 183,514 patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the study period, 23,120 plastic surgeries were performed on 17,695 patients, including abdominoplasty (62%), dermolipectomy of the upper or lower limbs (25%), and reconstruction of the breast (14%). The rates of plastic surgery were 13%, 18%, and 21% at 3, 5, and 7 years post-bariatric surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients who had a biliopancreatic diversion or a gastric bypass had a hazard ratio of 2.67 and 2.67 for subsequent plastic surgery, respectively, compared with patients who had adjustable gastric banding. Women had a 2-fold probability of surgery compared with men (hazard ratio 2.02). Important variability in the rate of surgery was found among different hospitals; rates ranged from 6.1% to 41.3% at 5 years. This study showed that 21% of bariatric patients undergo plastic surgery. Large variability exists among hospitals, suggesting that several unmeasured factors may limit access to contouring surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Yajima, Naoki; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Yukihiko
The purpose of this paper is to report on the authors' advanced presurgical interactive virtual simulation technique using a 3D computer graphics model for microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The authors performed interactive virtual simulation prior to surgery in 26 patients with trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. The 3D computer graphics models for interactive virtual simulation were composed of the brainstem, cerebellum, cranial nerves, vessels, and skull individually created by the image analysis, including segmentation, surface rendering, and data fusion for data collected by 3-T MRI and 64-row multidetector CT systems. Interactive virtual simulation was performed by employing novel computer-aided design software with manipulation of a haptic device to imitate the surgical procedures of bone drilling and retraction of the cerebellum. The findings were compared with intraoperative findings. In all patients, interactive virtual simulation provided detailed and realistic surgical perspectives, of sufficient quality, representing the lateral suboccipital route. The causes of trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm determined by observing 3D computer graphics models were concordant with those identified intraoperatively in 25 (96%) of 26 patients, which was a significantly higher rate than the 73% concordance rate (concordance in 19 of 26 patients) obtained by review of 2D images only (p computer graphics model provided a realistic environment for performing virtual simulations prior to MVD surgery and enabled us to ascertain complex microsurgical anatomy.
Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A
To introduce the concept and use of an occlusal-based "orthognathic positioning system" (OPS) to be used during orthognathic surgery. The OPS consists of intraoperative occlusal-based devices that transfer virtual surgical planning to the operating field for repositioning of the osteotomized dentoskeletal segments. The system uses detachable guides connected to an occlusal splint. An initial drilling guide is used to establish stable references or landmarks. These are drilled on the bone that will not be repositioned adjacent to the osteotomy line. After mobilization of the skeletal segment, a final positioning guide, referenced to the drilled landmarks, is used to transfer the skeletal segment according to the virtual surgical planning. The OPS is digitally designed using 3-dimensional computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and manufactured with stereolithographic techniques. Virtual surgical planning has improved the preoperative assessment and, in conjunction with the OPS, the execution of orthognathic surgery. The OPS has the possibility to eliminate the inaccuracies commonly associated with traditional orthognathic surgery planning and to simplify the execution by eliminating surgical steps such as intraoperative measuring, determining the condylar position, the use of bulky intermediate splints, and the use of intermaxillary wire fixation. The OPS attempts precise translation of the virtual plan to the operating field, bridging the gap between virtual and actual surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milothridis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Panagopoulou, Efharis
A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients' characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure.
Full Text Available Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. Conclusions: The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients' characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure.
Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Lee, Jason; Li, Baichun; Pan, Junjun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; De, Suvranu
The first virtual-reality-based simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is developed called the Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTESTTM). VTESTTM aims to simulate hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure using a rigid scope inserted through the vaginal port. The hardware interface is designed for accurate motion tracking of the scope and laparoscopic instruments to reproduce the unique hand-eye coordination. The haptic-enabled multimodal interactive simulation includes exposing the Calot's triangle and detaching the gall bladder while performing electrosurgery. The developed VTESTTM was demonstrated and validated at NOSCAR 2013.
Simmons, Brian J; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Askari, Morad; Birnbach, David J; Shekhter, Ilya; Thaller, Seth R
Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have proven to be a powerful tool. They possess more than a 30-year track record in assessing the competency of medical students, residents, and fellows. Objective structured clinical examinations have been used successfully in a variety of medical specialties, including surgery. They have recently found their way into the subspecialty of plastic surgery. This article uses a systematic review of the available literature on OSCEs and their recent use in plastic surgery. It incorporates survey results assessing program directors' views on the use of OSCEs. Approximately 40% of programs surveyed use OSCEs to assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. We found that 40% use OSCEs to evaluate specific plastic surgery milestones. Objective structured clinical examinations are usually performed annually. They cost anywhere between $100 and more than $1000 per resident. Four milestones giving residents the most difficulties on OSCEs were congenital anomalies, noncancer breast surgery, breast reconstruction, and practice-based learning and improvement. It was determined that challenges with milestones were due to lack of adequate general knowledge and surgical ward patient care, as well as deficits in professionalism and system-based problems. Programs were able to remediate weakness found by OSCEs using a variety of methods. Objective structured clinical examinations offer a unique tool to objectively assess the proficiency of residents in key areas of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. In addition, they can be used to assess the specific milestones that plastic surgery residents must meet. This allows programs to identify and improve identified areas of weakness.
van Dongen, K. W.; van der Wal, W. A.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.
INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed to train basic endoscopic surgical skills outside of the operating room. An important issue is how to create optimal conditions for integration of these types of simulators into the surgical training curriculum. The willingness of
Alaker, Medhat; Wynn, Greg R; Arulampalam, Tan
Laparoscopic surgery requires a different and sometimes more complex skill set than does open surgery. Shortened working hours, less training times, and patient safety issues necessitates that these skills need to be acquired outside the operating room. Virtual reality simulation in laparoscopic surgery is a growing field, and many studies have been published to determine its effectiveness. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate virtual reality simulation in laparoscopic abdominal surgery in comparison to other simulation models and to no training. A systematic literature search was carried out until January 2014 in full adherence to PRISMA guidelines. All randomised controlled studies comparing virtual reality training to other models of training or to no training were included. Only studies utilizing objective and validated assessment tools were included. Thirty one randomised controlled trials that compare virtual reality training to other models of training or to no training were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that virtual reality simulation is significantly more effective than video trainers, and at least as good as box trainers. The use of Proficiency-based VR training, under supervision with prompt instructions and feedback, and the use of haptic feedback, has proven to be the most effective way of delivering the virtual reality training. The incorporation of virtual reality training into surgical training curricula is now necessary. A unified platform of training needs to be established. Further studies to assess the impact on patient outcomes and on hospital costs are necessary. (PROSPERO Registration number: CRD42014010030). Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gould, Daniel J; Leland, Hyuma A; Ho, Adelyn L; Patel, Ketan M
Social media has increasingly changed the landscape of medicine and surgery and is rapidly expanding its influence in most peoples' lives. The average person spends nearly 2 hours per day using social media, consuming information about everything from family updates to entertainment news to presidential elections. The concentration of consumers on social media platforms has resulted in direct medicine and medical products marketing to consumers. Similarly, social media is increasingly becoming a platform for interaction between physicians and potential patients. Some physicians have taken this opportunity to better educate patients, while allowing patients to learn more about their surgeons online. These tools can increase internet traffic online to bonafide internet sites, as well as bolster marketing for many hospitals, hospital systems, and individual doctors. It can also serve to increase knowledge about procedures and conditions through direct outreach to patients. Social media is a powerful tool which needs to be utilized wisely to avoid pitfalls.
Waltzman, Joshua T; Tadisina, Kashyap K; Zins, James E
Over the past decade there has been a dramatic rise in the use of technology. Evaluating our use of technology is crucial to advancing the next generation of plastic surgeons. The goals of this study were to assess the current use of technology by residents, help Program Directors allocate financial resources, and predict the future of technology and education. A 17-question online survey was emailed to American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery resident/fellow members (n = 447). The survey evaluated current use of technology, preferred use of educational resources, and directions for the future. Ample space was allocated for free response questions. The response rate was 40%. The average age of respondents was 32 years old (standard deviation 3.7). The majority (86.5%) of residents own iPhones, and 90% of residents own tablets. There was a heavy daily reliance on smartphone technology. Sixty percent of residents used physical textbooks on a weekly basis. The Plastic Surgery Education Network was used on a weekly basis by 42% of residents. In contrast, 78% of residents were not aware of, or had never used, the readily available digital aesthetic resource (RADAR) Resource iPad application. In order to remain at the forefront of education, we as a specialty need to adapt with technology. Program Directors should support integrating technology with electronic access to educational materials. There exists an opportunity in resident education to increase awareness and utilization of the RADAR Resource. The future of plastic surgery education will be reliant on platforms like the iPhone and iPad to conveniently provide large volumes of information with only a finger touch. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Arneja, Js; McInnes, Cw; Carr, Nj; Lennox, P; Hill, M; Petersen, R; Woodward, K; Skarlicki, D
Effective leadership is imperative in a changing health care landscape driven by increasing expectations in a setting of rising fiscal pressures. Because evidence suggests that leadership abilities are not simply innate but, rather, effective leadership can be learned, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to evaluate the training and challenges of their leaders because there may be opportunities for further growth and support. To investigate the practice profiles, education/training, responsibilities and challenges of leaders within academic plastic surgery. Following research ethics board approval, an anonymous online survey was sent to division heads and program directors from all university-affiliated plastic surgery divisions in Canada. Survey themes included demographics, education/training, job responsibilities and challenges. A response rate of 74% was achieved. The majority of respondents were male (94%), promoted to their current position at a mean age of 48 years, did not have a leadership-focused degree (88%), directly manage 30 people (14 staff, 16 faculty) and were not provided with a job description (65%). Respondents worked an average of 65 h per week, of which 18% was devoted to their leadership role, 59% clinically and the remainder on teaching and research. A discrepancy existed between time spent on their leadership role (18%) and related compensation (10%). Time management (47%) and managing conflict (24%) were described as the greatest leadership challenges by respondents. Several gaps were identified among leaders in plastic surgery including predominance of male sex, limitations in formal leadership training and requisite skill set, as well as compensation and human resources management (emotional intelligence). Leadership and managerial skills are key core competencies, not only for trainees, but certainly for those in a position of leadership. The present study provides evidence that academic departments, universities and medical centres may
Luce, Edward A; Jackman, Carye A
Recent articles in the scientific literature have expressed concerns about financial conflicts of interest in the profession of medicine in general and the specialty of plastic surgery in particular. Disclosure of financial ties to industry has been regarded as an address of a possible bias. The policies of medical journals places responsibility on authors for self-reporting of financial conflicts of interest, yet underreporting of conflicts of interest has occurred. The investigative hypothesis was that authors in the plastic surgery literature, in particular, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, underreported financial conflicts of interest. A review of articles published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from July of 2015 through April of 2016 for author disclosures was accomplished. The disclosure statements were compared to the information available in the Open Payments database for 2015. The lack of disclosure on the part of an author, when present, was individually examined for relevance of the corporate conflicts of interest to the subject matter of the involved article. A total of 302 articles authored by 1262 individuals were reviewed. One hundred thirty-nine (45.5 percent) had neither a disclosed nor an actual conflict of interest. In 61 articles (20.2 percent), one or more authors disclosed; 105 articles (34.8 percent) did not provide disclosure of a financial conflict of interest. In assessment of relevance, 10 undisclosed conflicts of interest (9.5 percent) were determined relevant, and one-third of that total were non-plastic surgeons. Nondisclosure of financial conflicts of interest is common, but only a small minority pose a potential for harm from bias.
Arneja, JS; McInnes, CW; Carr, NJ; Lennox, P; Hill, M; Petersen, R; Woodward, K; Skarlicki, D
BACKGROUND: Effective leadership is imperative in a changing health care landscape driven by increasing expectations in a setting of rising fiscal pressures. Because evidence suggests that leadership abilities are not simply innate but, rather, effective leadership can be learned, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to evaluate the training and challenges of their leaders because there may be opportunities for further growth and support. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the practice profiles, education/training, responsibilities and challenges of leaders within academic plastic surgery. METHODS: Following research ethics board approval, an anonymous online survey was sent to division heads and program directors from all university-affiliated plastic surgery divisions in Canada. Survey themes included demographics, education/training, job responsibilities and challenges. RESULTS: A response rate of 74% was achieved. The majority of respondents were male (94%), promoted to their current position at a mean age of 48 years, did not have a leadership-focused degree (88%), directly manage 30 people (14 staff, 16 faculty) and were not provided with a job description (65%). Respondents worked an average of 65 h per week, of which 18% was devoted to their leadership role, 59% clinically and the remainder on teaching and research. A discrepancy existed between time spent on their leadership role (18%) and related compensation (10%). Time management (47%) and managing conflict (24%) were described as the greatest leadership challenges by respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps were identified among leaders in plastic surgery including predominance of male sex, limitations in formal leadership training and requisite skill set, as well as compensation and human resources management (emotional intelligence). Leadership and managerial skills are key core competencies, not only for trainees, but certainly for those in a position of leadership. The present study provides evidence that
Saad, Ahmad N; Parina, Ralitza; Chang, David; Gosman, Amanda A
The ability to study population-level outcomes of outpatient cosmetic procedures has been limited by a lack of longitudinal data. This study aimed to describe the rates of adverse events in patients who underwent an isolated cosmetic surgery procedure compared with those who had a combination of two procedures. Retrospective longitudinal analysis was performed of the 2005 to 2010 California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Ambulatory Surgery Database. Patients were included if they had undergone an abdominoplasty or any other procedure that was identified as frequently performed concurrently with abdominoplasty. Patients' subsequent in-patient admissions and emergency department visits were identified. Outcomes analyzed were the 30-day and 1-year venous thromboembolism rates, 30-day hospital admission rate, 30-day emergency department visit rate, and 30-day mortality rate. A total of 477,741 patients were analyzed, of whom 16,893 had undergone two concurrent procedures. The 12-month venous thromboembolism rate was 0.57 percent for patients undergoing abdominoplasty, 0.20 percent for liposuction, 0.12 percent for breast procedures, 0.32 percent for hernia repair, 0.28 percent for face procedures, and 0.28 percent for thigh lift/brachioplasty. Greater than additive 30-day and 1-year venous thromboembolism rates were observed among patients who underwent an abdominoplasty and liposuction (0.68 percent and 0.81 percent, respectively) and those who underwent an abdominoplasty and hernia repair (0.93 percent). Some combinations of elective outpatient procedures conferred an additive, and sometimes more than additive, venous thromboembolism risk. This is an important consideration when informing patients of potential postoperative complications and for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.
Vaughan, R.; Thomas, S.
Objective The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff). The questions were about plastic surgery: (1) source of information and basic understanding; (2) undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3) factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group). The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2) and level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Results Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n = 171/332, 52%) (McGill n = 72/132, 54%). Birmingham students (14%) considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p plastic surgery. Conclusions Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in collaboration with national educational bodies worldwide. PMID:28630768
Full Text Available Structure-based virtual screening for selecting potential drug candidates is usually challenged by how numerous false positives in a molecule library are excluded when receptor plasticity is considered. In this study, based on the binding energy landscape theory, a hypothesis that a true inhibitor can bind to different conformations of the binding site favorably was put forth, and related strategies to defeat this challenge were devised; reducing false positives when receptor plasticity is considered. The receptor in the study is the influenza A nucleoprotein, whose oligomerization is a requirement for RNA binding. The structural flexibility of influenza A nucleoprotein was explored by molecular dynamics simulations. The resultant distinctive structures and the crystal structure were used as receptor models in docking exercises in which two binding sites, the tail-loop binding pocket and the RNA binding site, were targeted with the Otava PrimScreen1 diversity-molecule library using the GOLD software. The intersection ligands that were listed in the top-ranked molecules from all receptor models were selected. Such selection strategy successfully distinguished high-affinity and low-affinity control molecules added to the molecule library. This work provides an applicable approach for reducing false positives and selecting true ligands from molecule libraries.
Pannucci, Christopher J.; Bailey, Steven H.; Dreszer, George; Fisher, Christine; Zumsteg, Justin W.; Jaber, Reda M.; Hamill, Jennifer B.; Hume, Keith M.; Rubin, J. Peter; Neligan, Peter C.; Kallianen, Loree K.; Hoxworth, Ronald E.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Wilkins, Edwin G.
Background The VTEPS Network is a consortium of five tertiary referral centers established to examine venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery patients. We report our mid-term analyses of the study’s control group to 1) evaluate the incidence of VTE in patients who receive no chemoprophylaxis and 2) validate the Caprini Risk Assessment Model (RAM) in plastic surgery patients. Study Design Medical record review was performed at VTEPS centers for all eligible plastic surgery patients between March 2006 and June 2009. Inclusion criteria were Caprini score ≥ 3, surgery under general anesthesia, and post-operative hospital admission. Patients who received chemoprophylaxis were excluded. Dependent variables included symptomatic DVT or PE within the first 60 post-operative days and time to DVT or PE. Results We identified 1126 historic control patients. The overall VTE incidence was 1.69%. Approximately one in nine (11.3%) patients with Caprini score >8 had a VTE event. Patients with Caprini score >8 were significantly more likely to develop VTE when compared to patients with Caprini score of 3–4 (OR 20.9, p8, VTE risk was not limited to the immediate post-operative period. Conclusions The Caprini RAM effectively risk-stratifies plastic and reconstructive surgery patients for VTE risk. Among patients with Caprini score >8, 11.3% have a post-operative VTE when chemoprophylaxis is not provided. In higher risk patients, there was no evidence that VTE risk is limited to the immediate post-operative period. PMID:21093314
Joseph, Andrew W; Ishii, Lisa; Joseph, Shannon S; Smith, Jane I; Su, Peiyi; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick; Boahene, Kofi; Papel, Ira; Kontis, Theda; Douglas, Raymond; Nelson, Christine C; Ishii, Masaru
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relative contraindication for facial plastic surgery, but formal screening is not common in practice. The prevalence of BDD in patients seeking facial plastic surgery is not well documented. To establish the prevalence of BDD across facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practice settings, and estimate the ability of surgeons to screen for BDD. This multicenter prospective study recruited a cohort of 597 patients who presented to academic and private facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practices from March 2015 to February 2016. All patients were screened for BDD using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ). After each clinical encounter, surgeons independently evaluated the likelihood that a participating patient had BDD. Validated instruments were used to assess satisfaction with facial appearance including the FACE-Q, Blepharoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (BOE), Facelift Outcomes Evaluation (FOE), Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE), and Skin Rejuvenation Outcomes Evaluation (SROE). Across participating practices (9 surgeons, 3 sites), a total of 597 patients were screened for BDD: 342 patients from site 1 (mean [SD] age, 44.2 [16.5] years); 158 patients, site 2 (mean [SD] age, 46.0 [16.2] years), site 3, 97 patients (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [15.5] years). Overall, 58 patients [9.7%] screened positive for BDD by the BDDQ instrument, while only 16 of 402 patients [4.0%] were clinically suspected of BDD by surgeons. A higher percentage of patients presenting for cosmetic surgery (37 of 283 patients [13.1%]) compared with those presenting for reconstructive surgery (21 of 314 patients [6.7%]) screened positive on the BDDQ (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.20-3.68; P = .01). Surgeons were only able to correctly identify 2 of 43 patients (4.7%) who screened positive for BDD on the BDDQ, and the positive likelihood ratio was only 1.19 (95% CI, 0.28-5.07). Patients screening positive for BDD by the BDDQ had lower
Rahmani, G; Joyce, C W; Jones, D M; Kelly, J L; Hussey, A J; Regan, P J
The Republic of Ireland has always had an influence on medicine and has produced many renowned doctors who have helped shape its history. Furthermore, many clinical articles that have originated from Ireland have changed clinical practice throughout the world. The Irish have also had an impact on the plastic surgery literature yet it has never specifically been analyzed before. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze all papers that have originated from the plastic surgery units in the Republic of Ireland in the medical literature over the past 21 years. Twenty-four well-known plastic surgery, hand surgery and burns journals were selected for this study. By utilizing Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, we analyzed each of our chosen 24 journals looking for Irish publications. Each paper was examined for article type, authorship, year of publication, institution of origin and level of evidence. Papers from the Republic of Ireland were published in 20 of the 24 journals over the past 21 years. A total of 245 articles from Ireland were published in the plastic surgery, hand surgery and burns literature over the 21-year period. Of these, 111 were original articles and 73 were case reports. The institution that published the most papers over the past 21 years was University Hospital Galway (66 publications) followed by Cork University Hospital with 54 papers. The journal with the most Irish articles was the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery with 56 papers. 2014 was the year with the most publications (28 papers). Authorship numbers also increased over time as the average number of authors in 1994 was 3.5, whereas it was 5.54 in 2014. The number of publications per year continues to increase along with authorship numbers. This mirrors the trend in other specialties. Publications are now no longer required for selection on to a higher surgical training scheme. There is now a fear that the
Swennen, G.R.; Mollemans, W.; Schutyser, F.A.C.
PURPOSE: The aim of this report was to present an integrated 3-dimensional (3D) virtual approach toward cone-beam computed tomography-based treatment planning of orthognathic surgery in the clinical routine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have described the different stages of the workflow process for
Berguer, R; Loeb, R G; Smith, W D
There is a growing consensus that human factors issues for anesthesiologists, surgeons, and other operating room personnel require serious attention. We have established a program of collaboration between the University of California Davis Medical Center Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery and the California State University Sacramento Biomedical Engineering Program to address ergonomic problems in anesthesiology and surgery using a Virtual Instrumentation Laboratory. A 17-workstation Virtual Instrument Laboratory using LabVIEW software on Power Macintosh platforms permits rapid prototyping of medical monitor displays as well as rapid development of data acquisition and processing circuits for physiologic data collection. The Virtual Instrument Lab has been used for three Master's thesis projects and a BME course titled Human Factors in the Design of Medical and Assistive Technology. Course projects have included: 1) The design of novel physiologic data displays for potential use in anesthesia workstations, and 2) The measurement of surface electromyographic signals and heart rate variability to investigate the physical and mental workload of performing laparoscopic surgery. The Virtual Instrument Lab allows BME students to investigate relatively complex human factors issues in anesthesiology and surgery in a short time span.
Liu, Yong-gang; Zuo, Li-xin; Pei, Guo-xian; Dai, Ke; Sang, Jing-wei
To explore the establishment of Schatzker classification digital model of tibial plateau fractures and its application in virtual surgery. Proximal tibial of one healthy male volunteer was examined with 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT). The data were processed by software Mimics 10.01 and a model of proximal tibia was reconstructed. According to the Schatzker classification criteria of tibial plateau fractures, each type of fracture model was simulated.Screen-captures of fracture model were saved from different directions.Each type of fracture model was exported as video mode.Fracture model was imported into FreeForm modeling system.With a force feedback device, a surgeon could conduct virtual fracture operation simulation.Utilizing the GHOST of FreeForm modeling system, the software of virtual cutting, fracture reduction and fixation was developed.With a force feedback device PHANTOM, a surgeon could manipulate virtual surgical instruments and fracture classification model and simulate surgical actions such as assembly of surgical instruments, drilling, implantation of screw, reduction of fracture, bone grafting and fracture fixation, etc. The digital fracture model was intuitive, three-dimensional and realistic and it had excellent visual effect.Fracture could be observed and charted from optional direction and angle.Fracture model could rotate 360 ° in the corresponding video mode. The virtual surgical environment had a strong sense of reality, immersion and telepresence as well as good interaction and force feedback function in the FreeForm modeling system. The user could make the corresponding decisions about surgical method and choice of internal fixation according to the specific type of tibial plateau fracture as well as repeated operational practice in virtual surgery system. The digital fracture model of Schatzker classification is intuitive, three-dimensional, realistic and dynamic. The virtual surgery systems of Schatzker classifications make
Zhao, Muxin; Qiang, Jinghong; Li, Yangqun; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Ning; Wang, Weixin; Xu, Lisi; Feng, Jun
To explore the plastic surgical treatment and the way to reduce hemorrhage for scalp and facial plexiform neurofibromas. Between July 2004 and July 2013, 20 patients with scalp and facial plexiform neurofibromas (17 cases of neurofibromatosis type I and 3 cases of plexiform neurofibroma) were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 males and 11 females with an average age of 37 years (range, 18-56 years). The disease duration ranged from 8 to 56 years (mean, 19 years). The scalp was involved in 6 cases, the face in 7 cases, and both the scalp and face in 7 cases. The extent of involvement ranged from 4 cm x 3 cm to 15 cm x 13 cm. Obvious pigmentation was seen in 2 cases. Endovascular embolization was performed before surgical intervention in 4 cases. Preliminary sutures around the lesion were carried out in 18 cases having an involved range over 5 cmx5 cm. One-stage excision was performed in 17 cases, and two-stage excision in 3 cases. Wound repair and facial orthopedic treatment were performed after tumor excision. The intraoperative blood loss was 100-500 mL (mean, 300 mL) for patients undergoing single operation. For 3 patients undergoing two-stage excision, the blood loss of the first operation was 500, 600, and 800 mL respectively, and the blood loss of the second operation was all 50 mL. Autologous blood transfusion of 200, 400, and 400 mL was performed in 3 cases respectively. The preliminary sutures were removed at 3-7 days (mean, 5 days) after operation. All the incisions healed primarily without secondary hemorrhage and hematoma, and the flap and skin graft survived totally. Fifteen patients were followed up 1 year to 7 years (mean, 2.5 years). All patients showed significant improvement in appearance. No significant progression, expanding, and sagging were observed. Endovascular embolization and preliminary sutures around the lesion can be used to reduce hemorrhage in resection of plexiform neurofibroma in the scalp and
Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen
for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. METHODS: Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim(®)) and introduced to the steps of the procedure...... % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). CONCLUSION: This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices......BACKGROUND: The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence...
Adkinson, Joshua M; Casale, Mia T; Kim, John Y S; Khavanin, Nima; Gutowski, Karol A; Gosain, Arun K
Plastic surgery research using large databases has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. With the magnitude and breadth of information available in these databases, researchers are able to more easily answer a wide variety of research questions. This study sought to provide a comprehensive comparative analysis of the relevant databases for plastic surgery research. Database information, data collection methods, acquisition details, and variable availability were collected for 19 large databases. Examples of potential future research utility were ascribed to each database based on this comprehensive analysis. With a greater understanding of the content, strengths, and limitations of these databases, researchers will be better equipped to select the most appropriate database to answer a specific research question.
Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, undergraduate medical education has undergone a transition from a speciality-based to a more competence-based training system. Consequently, whilst medical knowledge is rapidly expanding, time for teaching of the surgical specialties is decreasing. Thus......, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel.......00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus...
Full Text Available The goal of modern dentistry and plastic surgery is to restore the patient to normal function, health and aesthetics, regardless of the disease or injury to the stomatognathic and cutaneous system respectively. In recent years tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have yielded many novel tissue replacements and implementation strategies. Scientific advances in biomaterials, stem cell isolation, growth and differentiation factors and biomimetic environments have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in the laboratory. Repairing of bone and skin is likely to become of clinical interest when three dimensional tissue reconstructive procedures and the appropriate supporting biomimetic materials are correctly assembled. In the present review, we provide an overview of the most promising biopolymers that may find clinical application in dento-maxillo-facial and plastic surgery.
Wagner, Ida Janelle; Hultman, Charles Scott
To elucidate the components of professionalism specific to plastic surgery, we surveyed surgeons, anesthesiologists, and fourth-year medical students at a public university. We sought to define the central components of professionalism in plastic surgery, to determine the difference in perception of professionalism by plastic surgeons (PSs), compared to other practitioners (OPs), and to improve education in professionalism by obtaining data on attitudes of professionalism among practitioners. Using SurveyMonkey, we distributed a questionnaire to members of the Departments of Surgery and Anesthesia and fourth-year medical students. The responses of PSs (n = 22) were compared to non-plastic surgeons (OPs, n = 294). Of the 594 participants, 316 completed the survey (response rate, 53%). Participants consisted of 211 (66.8%) medical students, 60 (19%) residents, 5 (1.6%) fellows, 28 (8.9%) attending physicians, 6 (1.9%) nonphysician providers, and 6 (1.9%) administrators. Both PS and OP listed "the development and conformance to a body of ethics" the most important component of professionalism. Most participants thought that professionalism could be taught, and assessed. Plastic surgeons listed "not enough mentors" (63.2%) as the main obstacle to teaching professionalism, whereas OP listed "not a priority in medical school curriculum" (48.2%). Both PS and OP cited substance abuse, fraud, and sexual misconduct as egregious displays of unprofessional behavior. Opinions differed between the groups, regarding aspects of professionalism pertaining to plastic surgery. When asked about "charity raffles" for cosmetic surgery, 72.2% of PS ranked this as a 4 or 5 (with 5 representing the most unprofessional behavior), compared to only 46.7% of OP who assigned this a 4 or 5. For the scenario of a PS deceiving patients, by showing them another surgeon's before and after photographs, 84.2% of PS assigned this a 4 or 5, whereas 71.0% of OP ranked this a 4 or 5. Both groups cited
Panse, Nikhil; Panse, Smita; Kulkarni, Priya; Dhongde, Rajendra; Sahasrabudhe, Parag
Purpose. The aim of this study is to understand the level of awareness and knowledge of plastic surgery in healthcare professionals in a tertiary health care facility in Pune, India. This study also aims to highlight the perception of the medical professionals about plastic surgery and what they think a plastic surgeon does. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was done at B.J Medical College and Sassoon Hospital, Pune in 2011. Feedback evaluation forms from hundred resident doctors and faculty were evaluated and analyzed. Results. There is not much awareness about plastic surgery as a specialty amongst health care providers. Plastic surgery is mostly perceived as cosmetic surgery, and the other spectrum of the patients we cater to goes largely unnoticed. Of all the clinical conditions given to the participants, there was not a single clinical condition where the respondents favored unanimously for plastic surgeons. Conclusion. Plastic surgery as a specialty is poorly understood by our medical colleagues, and the onus of creating and improving the awareness and perception of our specialty lies on us. Herculean unified efforts at individual as well as global level will help us achieve this goal. PMID:22685647
Houschyar, K S; Philipps, H M; Duscher, D; Rein, S; Weissenberg, K; Nietzschmann, I; Maan, Z N; Pyles, M N; Siemers, F
Background The body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is considered to be a sub-form of somatoform disorders. BDD can express itself in a delirious experience, an excessive evaluation and employment of the external appearance, in particular the face. Preliminary results suggest that individuals with BDD do not benefit from plastic surgery, so that aesthetic surgery often results in aggravation of their symptoms. Thus, the identification of signs for a BDD is crucial, whether a patient should be operated plastically-aesthetically. This overview explains the often difficult diagnostics of the BDD by summarizing the current literature on its screening. Study design Systematic overview Methods An electronic search was conducted in the German and English-language literature in order to identify all screening instruments for the BDD. The specific development and validation processes are assessed whether the screening instruments have a positive predictive value for the BDD. Results Six different screening instruments were identified for the BDD. Only two of these were evaluated in a cosmetic setting: the "Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire Dermatology Version" (BDDQ-DV) and the "Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire" (DCQ). The influence on the subjective results after a plastic-aesthetic procedure was measured only for the DCQ. Conclusion The limited availability of validated screening instruments for BDD in plastic surgery is markedly in contrast to the supposedly high prevalence of the disease of 2.4 %. Among the currently used screening tools, the BDDQ-DV and the DCQ appear to be most suitable. Further research efforts are needed to establish better screening methods for the BDD in the plastic surgical patient population and to examine the effects of BDD on treatment results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R
Over the past decade, applications to surgical residency programs have witnessed a decline, with many of today’s medical students opting instead for specialties that would allow greater work-life balance. Although generational gaps, modifications to undergraduate curricula and increased enrollment to primary care training may have played a role in this decline, the authors of this study investigated whether limited exposure to plastic surgery during training may have also impacted application...
Conyard, Christopher; Schaefer, Nathan; Williams, Daniel; Beem, Henry; McDougall, James
The field of plastic and reconstructive surgery is a unique and poorly understood surgical subspeciality. There is a misunderstanding about the scope of the speciality amongst both the public and professionals. Medical schools provide a unique opportunity to educate future medical practitioners on the role of surgical subspecialities. Medical students at the Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, were invited to participate in a 30-question electronic survey to analyse their underst...
Denadai, Rafael; Pinho, André Silveira; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
to assess the conversion rate of Plastic Surgery meeting abstract presentations to full manuscript publications and examine factors associated with this conversion. we assessed the abstracts presented at the 47th and 48th Brazilian Congresses of Plastic Surgery by cross-referencing with multiple databases. We analyzed the Abstracts' characteristics associated with full manuscript publications. of the 200 abstracts presented, 50 abstracts were subsequently published in full, giving the conference a conversion rate of 25%. The mean time to publish was 15.00±13.75 months. In total, there were 4.93±1.63 authors per abstract and 67.8±163 subjects per abstract; 43.5% of the abstracts were of retrospective studies; 69% comprised the plastic surgery topics head and neck, and chest and trunk, and 88.5% had no statistical analysis. Overall, 80% of the manuscripts were published in plastic surgery journals, 76% had no impact factor and 52% had no citations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed the presence of statistical analysis to be the most significant (previstas de Cirurgia Plástica, 76% não exibiam fator de impacto e 52% não possuíam citações. As análises bivariada e multivariada revelaram que a presença de análise estatística foi o fator preditivo significativo (p<0,05) para a conversão de resumos em manuscritos completos. a taxa de conversão deste estudo bibliométrico foi inferior à tendência de conversão descrita em congressos internacionais de Cirurgia Plástica, e a presença de análise estatística foi um determinante para o sucesso de conversão.
Full Text Available Facial recognition system is fundamental a computer application for the automatic identification of a person through a digitized image or a video source. The major cause for the overall poor performance is related to the transformations in appearance of the user based on the aspects akin to ageing, beard growth, sun-tan etc. In order to overcome the above drawback, Self-update process has been developed in which, the system learns the biometric attributes of the user every time the user interacts with the system and the information gets updated automatically. The procedures of Plastic surgery yield a skilled and endurable means of enhancing the facial appearance by means of correcting the anomalies in the feature and then treating the facial skin with the aim of getting a youthful look. When plastic surgery is performed on an individual, the features of the face undergo reconstruction either locally or globally. But, the changes which are introduced new by plastic surgery remain hard to get modeled by the available face recognition systems and they deteriorate the performances of the face recognition algorithm. Hence the Facial plastic surgery produces changes in the facial features to larger extent and thereby creates a significant challenge to the face recognition system. This work introduces a fresh Multimodal Biometric approach making use of novel approaches to boost the rate of recognition and security. The proposed method consists of various processes like Face segmentation using Active Appearance Model (AAM, Face Normalization using Kernel Density Estimate/ Point Distribution Model (KDE-PDM, Feature extraction using Local Gabor XOR Patterns (LGXP and Classification using Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Efficient techniques have been used in each phase of the FRAS in order to obtain improved results.
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan
BACKGROUND: Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS).OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction.METHODS: Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty...
Jubbal, Kevin T; Zavlin, Dmitry; Buchanan, Edward P; Hollier, Larry H
Unplanned reoperation (UR) is an outcome measure with multiple advantages that can be used as a standardized tool to assess an institution's quality and safety of medical care. This study aimed to identify parameters associated with an increased likelihood of UR following plastic surgery in patients less than 18 years of age by using a large validated national multicenter database. We performed a retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Pediatric database between 2012 and 2014 to identify pediatric patients undergoing primary plastic surgery procedures. Two cohorts were compared: patients who experienced UR and those who did not. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify independent risk factors associated with UR. A total of 18,106 patients were identified in this analysis, with an overall UR rate of 0.8% (n = 137) within 30 days after surgery. Patients were on average 5.59 ± 5.27 years of age with 9522 boys (52.6%) and 8584 girls (47.4%). The procedures most commonly associated with UR were excision of skin and subcutaneous tissue for hidradenitis (UR = 10.3%), forehead, and/or supraorbital rim reconstruction with grafts (allograft or prosthetic material, UR = 6.1%), use of multiplane external fixators (UR = 5.6%), mastectomy for gynecomastia (UR = 4.4%), and forehead and/or supraorbital rim reconstruction with autograft (3.3%). The average number of relative value units per case was 10.01 ± 7.91. Independent risk factors for UR include inpatient procedure (p plastic surgery. These results may aid in the informed consent process, improve patient risk assessment, counseling, and surgical planning. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Chih-Hsien; Su, Mu-Chun; Yeh, Shih-Ching
Virtual reality simulation training may improve knowledge of anatomy and surgical skills. We evaluated a 3-dimensional, haptic, virtual reality temporal bone simulator for dissection training. The subjects were 7 otolaryngology residents (3 training sessions each) and 7 medical students (1 training session each). The virtual reality temporal bone simulation station included a computer with software that was linked to a force-feedback hand stylus, and the system recorded performance and collisions with vital anatomic structures. Subjects performed virtual reality dissections and completed questionnaires after the training sessions. Residents and students had favorable responses to most questions of the technology acceptance model (TAM) questionnaire. The average TAM scores were above neutral for residents and medical students in all domains, and the average TAM score for residents was significantly higher for the usefulness domain and lower for the playful domain than students. The average satisfaction questionnaire for residents showed that residents had greater overall satisfaction with cadaver temporal bone dissection training than training with the virtual reality simulator or plastic temporal bone. For medical students, the average comprehension score was significantly increased from before to after training for all anatomic structures. Medical students had significantly more collisions with the dura than residents. The residents had similar mean performance scores after the first and third training sessions for all dissection procedures. The virtual reality temporal bone simulator provided satisfactory training for otolaryngology residents and medical students. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Sterodimas, Aris; Boriani, Filippo; Bogetti, Paolo; Radwanski, Henrique N; Bruschi, Stefano; Pitanguy, Ivo
The importance of residents' training in aesthetic surgery and the need for acquiring confidence in performing cosmetic procedures is an established knowledge. A survey was done in two different training systems to evaluate the experience of junior plastic surgeons in performing four common aesthetic surgery procedures at the end of their residency. The first system guarantees a theoretical background and a certain number of aesthetic procedures to be performed by the trainee, in contrast to the second system where mainly theoretical knowledge in cosmetic surgery is warranted to residents. The residents' comfort in performing specific operations was quite varied between the two systems. The comparison showed that junior plastic surgeons reached a higher degree of self-confidence in aesthetic practice in system A when compared to system B. The similarities and differences between the two systems are analysed and discussed. The possibility of reforming residency programmes by following the structure and the philosophy of system A is proposed. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanevsky, Jonathan; Corban, Jason; Gaster, Richard; Kanevsky, Ari; Lin, Samuel; Gilardino, Mirko
Medical decision-making is increasingly based on quantifiable data. From the moment patients come into contact with the health care system, their entire medical history is recorded electronically. Whether a patient is in the operating room or on the hospital ward, technological advancement has facilitated the expedient and reliable measurement of clinically relevant health metrics, all in an effort to guide care and ensure the best possible clinical outcomes. However, as the volume and complexity of biomedical data grow, it becomes challenging to effectively process "big data" using conventional techniques. Physicians and scientists must be prepared to look beyond classic methods of data processing to extract clinically relevant information. The purpose of this article is to introduce the modern plastic surgeon to machine learning and computational interpretation of large data sets. What is machine learning? Machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence, can address clinically relevant problems in several domains of plastic surgery, including burn surgery; microsurgery; and craniofacial, peripheral nerve, and aesthetic surgery. This article provides a brief introduction to current research and suggests future projects that will allow plastic surgeons to explore this new frontier of surgical science.
Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Bosc, Romain; Meningaud, Jean Paul
The aim of this comprehensive review is assess the relevant indications of LLLT in plastic surgery. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a safe adjunct treatment for a myriad indications such as pain, musculoskeletal disorders, or oral mucositis in cancer patients. A systematic literature review was performed using the automated computerized PubMed search, with the key words low-level laser therapy and plastic surgery. In vivo and in vitro comparative studies conducted in humans or animals were included. A total of 113 articles were retrieved for screening, and 40 articles were analyzed for data extraction: 28 on animals and 12 on humans. Thirteen studies on animals showed that LLLT had efficacy in the improvement of flap survival. LLLT on a single spot over the pedicle area of the flap or near the base of the flap seemed to be superior to multi-irradiation. Also, LLLT seemed to improve chronic burn scars in humans, and acute wound healing in animals. On the contrary, LLLT cannot be considered as a valid therapeutic option for venous ulcers. The published studies on alopecia did not show that LLLT had efficacy for this indication, and on skin aging only two studies are reported showing that LLLT globally improved aging of skin. No side effects have been reported. More comparative studies are needed to validate and widen the medical indications of LLLT in plastic surgery.
John, Hannah Eliza; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Whitaker, Iain S.
Background Infrared thermography (IRT) has become an increasingly utilized adjunct to more expensive and/or invasive investigations in a range of surgical fields, no more so than in plastic surgery. The combination of functional assessment, flow characteristics and anatomical localization has led to increasing applications of this technology. This article aims to perform a systematic review of the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery. Methods A systematic literature search using the keywords ‘IRT’ and ‘dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT)’ has been accomplished. A total of 147 papers were extracted from various medical databases, of which 34 articles were subjected to a full read by two independent reviewers, to ensure the papers satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies focusing on the use of IRT in breast cancer diagnosis were excluded. Results A systematic review of 29 publications demonstrated the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery today. They include preoperative planning of perforators for free flaps, post operative monitoring of free flaps, use of IRT as an adjunct in burns depth analysis, in assessment of response to treatment in hemangioma and as a diagnostic test for cutaneous melanoma and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Conclusions Modern infrared imaging technology with improved standardization protocols is now a credible, useful non-invasive tool in clinical practice. PMID:27047781
Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan
More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob
To test the validity of the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool in a virtual reality vitreoretinal training programme. In collaboration with an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon, a virtual vitreoretinal training programme was composed on the eyesi surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: 20 medical students, ten residents of ophthalmology and five trained vitreoretinal surgeons. The programme contained six training modules: navigation level 2 (Nav2), forceps training level 5 (ForT5), bimanual training level 3 (BimT3), laser coagulation level 3 (LasC3), posterior hyaloid level 3 (PostH3) and internal limiting membrane peeling level 3 (ILMP3). The scores in each module were assessed from two to five different factors (tissue treatment, efficiency, target achievement, instrument handling and microscope handling), and it was possible to achieve 100 points in each module. At the final training session, the highest overall median score was found for the vitreoretinal surgeons (vitreoretinal surgeons: 434 points, residents: 394.5 points, medical students: 272.5 points, p training programme with validity for the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool for overall score and for four of six vitreoretinal modules. These findings could potentially make the programme a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goodman, Michael P; Bachmann, Gloria; Johnson, Crista; Fourcroy, Jean L; Goldstein, Andrew; Goldstein, Gail; Sklar, Susan
Elective vulvar plastic surgery was the topic of a heated discussion on the list-serve of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Medicine. At the suggestion of a board member, it was determined that this discussion might of interest to journal readers in the form of a published controversy. Six people with expertise and/or strong opinions in the area of vulvar health, several of whom had been involved in the earlier online discussion, were invited to submit evidence-based opinions on the topic. To provide food for thought, discussion, and possible further research in a poorly discussed area of sexual medicine. Goodman believes that patients should make their own decisions. Bachmann further states that, while that is a woman's right, she should be counseled first, because variations in looks of the vulvar region are normal. Johnson furthers this thought, discussing the requirement for counseling before performing reinfibulation surgery on victims of female genital cutting. Fourcroy emphasizes the need to base surgical procedures on safety and efficacy in the long term, and not merely opportunity at the moment. Goldstein and Goldstein state that, based on the four principles of ethical practice of medicine, vulvar plastic surgery is not always ethical, but not always unethical. Sklar pursues this thought further, pointing out specific examples in regard to the principles of ethics. Vulvar plastic surgery may be warranted only after counseling if it is still the patient's preference, provided that it is conducted in a safe manner and not solely for the purpose of performing surgery.
Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Mostafa, Gamal; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir
The number of surgical applicants to "independent" plastic surgery programs has drastically decreased. However, the competitiveness of recent applicants relative to previous years has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of recent "independent" applicants and to obtain their preferences regarding the match. A 25-question survey was distributed to 97 applicants of the 2012 "independent" match. The survey consisted of questions regarding demographics, academic qualifications, interview results, match results, program characteristic preferences, interview preferences, and future career plans. A total of 62 applicants responded; 71% male, 82% US medical graduates, 94% general surgery residents, and 76% in university programs. Three-quarters had ≥2 publications and 29% in plastic surgery journals. Applicants most commonly attended 11 to 13 interviews, and 31% got their top choice. Mean rank list position matched was 2.7. Out of 10 program selection criteria, overall training quality and geographic location were most important to applicants. Difficulty of on-call responsibilities and research opportunities were least important. Applicants interested in university-based practice had a significantly higher interest in research (p = 0.003). Most prefer one-on-one interviews with 5 sessions being ideal. Two-thirds would prefer regional coordination of interviews. Half were undecided about fellowship, and most were undecided about subspecialty of greatest interest. University-affiliated (39%) and university-based (33%) were the most commonly envisioned future practices. The profile of "independent" plastic surgery applicants has not changed much in recent years. When selecting a program, applicants are looking for the best overall operative training above all else with little regard for difficulty of on-call responsibilities or ability to do research. Applicants are still very moldable in their preference of future career plans
Wani, Shabeer Ahmad; Rabah, Sari M; Alfadil, Sara; Dewanjee, Nancy; Najmi, Yahya
The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of smartphone and its WhatsApp application as a communication method amongst the staff of plastic and reconstructive surgery section at tertiary care health facility...
Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wainwright, Thomas W; Middleton, Robert G
This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 hip replacements pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture training simulators. Additionally 9 knee arthroscopy simulators and 8 other orthopaedic simulators were included for comparison. The findings are that for orthopaedic surgery simulators in general, there is increasing use of patient-specific virtual models which reduce the learning curve. Modelling is also being used for patient-specific implant design and manufacture. Simulators are being increasingly validated for assessment as well as training. There are very few training simulators available for hip replacement, yet more advanced virtual reality is being used for other procedures such as hip trauma and drilling. Training simulators for hip replacement and orthopaedic surgery in general lag behind other surgical procedures for which virtual reality has become more common. Further developments are required to bring hip replacement training simulation up to date with other procedures. This suggests there is a gap in the market for a new high fidelity hip replacement and resurfacing training simulator. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Christopher; Lough, Denver; Lim, Alan; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kumar, Anand R
Military pediatric plastic surgery humanitarian missions in the Western Hemisphere have been initiated and developed since the early 1990 s using the Medical Readiness Education and Training Exercise (MEDRETE) concept. Despite its initial training mission status, the MEDRETE has developed into the most common and advanced low level medical mission platform currently in use. The objective of this study is to report cleft- and craniofacial-related patient outcomes after initiation and evolution of a standardized treatment protocol highlighting lessons learned which apply to civilian plastic surgery missions. A review of the MEDRETE database for pediatric plastic surgery/cleft and craniofacial missions to the Dominican Republic from 2005 to 2009 was performed. A multidisciplinary team including a craniofacial surgeon evaluated all patients with a cleft/craniofacial and/or pediatric plastic condition. A standardized mission time line included predeployment site survey and predeployment checklist, operational brief, and postdeployment after action report. Deployment data collection, remote patient follow-up, and coordination with larger land/amphibious military operations was used to increase patient follow-up data. Data collected included sex, age, diagnosis, date and type of procedure, surgical outcomes including speech scores, surgical morbidity, and mortality. Five hundred ninety-four patients with cleft/craniofacial abnormalities were screened by a multidisciplinary team including craniofacial surgeons over 4 years. Two hundred twenty-three patients underwent 330 surgical procedures (cleft lip, 53; cleft palate, 73; revision cleft lip/nose, 73; rhinoplasty, 15; speech surgery, 24; orthognathic/distraction, 21; general pediatric plastic surgery, 58; fistula repair, 12). Average follow-up was 30 months (range, 1-60). The complication rate was 6% (n = 13) (palate fistula, lip revision, dental/alveolar loss, revision speech surgery rate). The average pre
Farid, M.; Vaughan, R; S. Thomas
Objective The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (Unit...
Webster, Joan; Alghamdi, Abdullah
Surgical site infection has been estimated to occur in about 15% of clean surgery and 30% of contaminated surgery cases. Using plastic adhesive drapes to protect the wound from organisms that may be present on the surrounding skin during surgery is one strategy used to prevent surgical site infection. Results from non-randomised studies have produced conflicting results about the efficacy of this approach. A systematic review was required to guide clinical practice. To assess the effect of adhesive drapes used during surgery on surgical site infection, cost, mortality and morbidity. For this fourth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 4th March 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (2012 to 3rd March 2015); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, 2012 to 3rd March 2015); Ovid EMBASE (2012 to 3rd March 2015); and EBSCO CINAHL (2012 to 4th March 2015). Randomised controlled trials comparing any plastic adhesive drape with no plastic adhesive drape, used alone or in combination with woven (material) drapes or disposable (paper) drapes, in patients undergoing any type of surgery. Ring drapes were excluded. Two review authors independently selected and assessed studies for trial quality and both independently extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We identified no new studies for this fourth update. The review includes five studies involving 3082 participants comparing plastic adhesive drapes with no drapes and two studies involving 1113 participants comparing iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes with no drapes. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the adhesive drape group developed a surgical site infection when compared with no drapes (risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.48, P = 0.03). Iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes had no effect on the surgical site infection rate
Carla Fernanda Voese
Full Text Available Objective: to identify reasons which lead healthy subjects to search, for the first time, surgical methods for corporal modifications. Methods: it is a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews which were recorded. The interviews were made with eight women and resulted into four analytic categories. Results: the reasons which took healthy subjects to face surgical risks are regarding the improvement of the satisfaction with their own corporal image aiming at reaching a higher social insertion. It was observed that dissatisfaction concerning physical appearance was generated by inherited characteristics or by marks left after pregnancy. Financial cost, fear and family support, can make the decision to undergo the surgery difficult. Conclusion: the plastic surgery can promote the regain of self-esteem in the subject who makes the surgery.
Iorio, Matthew L; Stolle, Ellen; Brown, Benjamin J; Christian, Cathalene Blake; Baker, Stephen B
Resident cosmetic surgery clinics, or "chief clinics," are arguably the most effective way to provide cosmetic surgery training. Approximately 70 % of plastic surgery training programs utilize a "chief resident clinic" to augment their cosmetic surgery experience, even though a quantitative outcome scale is lacking to guide education. We report the use of the FACE-Q, a novel patient outcome tool, to evaluate patients' satisfaction with nonsurgical facial rejuvenation performed by residents. The FACE-Q "Satisfaction with Facial Appearance Overall Scale" was administered to patients prior to and 1 week after undergoing nonsurgical facial rejuvenation performed by plastic surgery residents. All patients received nonsurgical facial rejuvenation with botulinum toxin A and hyaluronic acid as part of resident facial aesthetics training. Eleven patients completed the pre- and postinjection FACE-Q survey. Average overall facial appearance satisfaction scores of 47.6 pre- and 51.1 postinjection were found (p < 0.037), with a total possible score of 68. Ten patients (91 %) reported feeling satisfied or very satisfied with the overall appearance of their face following injection. Despite resident inexperience and patient awareness that novices were performing the procedures, our experience supports use of the FACE-Q to optimize and endorse resident cosmetic surgery clinics. The learning curve for facial cosmetic procedures can be adversely affected by limited time available or exposure to improvement variables when initially performing the procedure. It is imperative to any technique that direct, and preferably quantitative, feedback is given so that an immediate modification can be generated and successive patient outcomes improved. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Kim, Peter S; Malin, Edward; Kirkham, John C; Helliwell, Lydia A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Tobias, Adam M; Upton, Joseph; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J
On April 15, 2013, at approximately 2:49 p.m. EDT, two improvised explosive devices detonated near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. Patients were transported from the scene to several trauma centers, including the authors' institution. Plastic surgical assessment of patients began in the Emergency Department and then rapidly expanded as the scope of the incident became clear. Daily interdisciplinary meetings involving the acute care surgery, orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, and nursing services were convened in order to coordinate operating room schedules and treatment plans. An interdisciplinary weekly clinic continued until all patient goals had been reached. Twenty-four patients were treated at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center within the first 24 hours of the Boston Marathon bombing. Seven were triaged directly to the operating room from the Emergency Department. The Division of Plastic Surgery was directly involved with the care of 11 patients, all of whom were treated surgically within 24 hours of the bombing. Patients were aged 23 to 50 years old. All 11 patients sustained lower extremity injuries with gross contamination. Four patients also sustained significant upper extremity trauma. Injuries included extremity amputations and fractures, soft-tissue loss, impaction of nails and other debris, burns, ocular injury, and ruptured tympanic membranes. Twenty-four patients received acute care at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center following the Boston Marathon bombing. Institution of dedicated interdisciplinary daily rounds, protected operating room block time, and joint follow-up clinic allowed for efficient early diagnosis and treatment of patients' injuries.
Farid, M; Vaughan, R; Thomas, S
The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff). The questions were about plastic surgery: (1) source of information and basic understanding; (2) undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3) factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group). The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2) and level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n = 171/332, 52%) (McGill n = 72/132, 54%). Birmingham students (14%) considered the word "plastic" synonymous with "cosmetic" more than McGill students (4%, p students (39%, p students and control group chose the media (70%, p students (67%) more than Birmingham (49%, p students (61%, p student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in collaboration with national educational bodies worldwide.
may provide a potential alternative for coverage of complex wounds, which might include an open fracture, without the need for complex tissue transfer interventions. Key words: reconstruction of lower limbs, dermal regeneration template, complex acute wounds, leg trauma, traumatic wounds. S Afr J Surg 2016;54(4).
... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... dermatology. (a) Identification. (1) A carbon dioxide laser for use in general surgery and in dermatology is a...) An argon laser for use in dermatology is a laser device intended to destroy or coagulate tissue by...
Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a full virtual reality vitreoretinal training program at the Eyesi Surgical simulator. Design and methods: A virtual vitreoretinal training program was composed on the Eyesi Surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic...... developed a training program in virtual vitreoretinal surgery with construct validity for four out of six modules and for overall score. This makes the program a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons....... GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: Group 1: Twenty medical students Group 2: Ten ophthalmology residents Group 3: Five vitreoretinal surgeons The program consisted of six training modules (Figure 1): Navigation level 2 (Nav2) Forceps Training level 5 (ForT5) Bimanual...
Sheckter, Clifford C; Kane, Justin T; Minneti, Michael; Garner, Warren; Sullivan, Maura; Talving, Peep; Sherman, Randy; Urata, Mark; Carey, Joseph N
As interest in surgical simulation grows, plastic surgical educators are pressed to provide realistic surgical experience outside of the operating suite. Simulation models of plastic surgery procedures have been developed, but they are incomparable to the dissection of fresh tissue. We evolved a fresh tissue dissection (FTD) and simulation program with emphasis on surgical technique and simulation of clinical surgery. We hypothesized that resident confidence could be improved by adding FTD to our resident curriculum. Over a 5-year period, FTD was incorporated into the curriculum. Participants included clinical medical students, postgraduate year 1 to 7 residents, and attending surgeons. Participants performed dissections and procedures with structured emphasis on anatomical detail, surgical technique, and rehearsal of operative sequence. Resident confidence was evaluated using retrospective pretest and posttest analysis with a 5-point scale, ranging from 1 (least confident) to 5 (most confident). Confidence was evaluated according to postgraduate year level, anatomical region, and procedure. A total of 103 dissection days occurred, and a total of 192 dissections were reported, representing 73 different procedures. Overall, resident predissection confidence was 1.90±1.02 and postdissection confidence was 4.20±0.94 (pSurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.
Chao, Albert H; Khansa, Ibrahim; Kaiser, Christopher; Bell, Julian; Miller, Michael J
In an academic center, plastic surgery provides multiple important and distinct services. Limited data exist on how each service affects a department clinically and financially. All new patient consultations and surgical cases between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Conversion rates from consultation to surgery and relative value units were calculated. Professional and facility revenues, costs, and net income were ascertained. These measures were compared between different subspecialties. A total of 12,020 new patient consultations and 5741 surgical cases were reviewed. Total growth in consultations was greatest for breast reconstruction (396.8 percent), followed by aesthetic (83.8 percent), oncology (12.9 percent), general (-16.9 percent), and burn/trauma (-75.0 percent). The conversion rate from consultation to surgery was highest in breast reconstruction (57.0 ± 3.1 percent) and oncology (56.9 ± 6.6 percent), followed by burn/trauma (47.0 ± 6.8 percent), general (46.1 ± 3.5 percent), and aesthetic (37.0 ± 4.8 percent). Total growth in professional net income was greatest for breast reconstruction (1241.4 percent), followed by oncology (378.4 percent), general (159.7 percent), aesthetic (130.5 percent), and burn/trauma (-20.9 percent). Total growth in facility net income was greatest for breast reconstruction (7619.5 percent), followed by oncology (2648.0 percent), aesthetic (432.3 percent), general (283.3 percent), and burn/trauma (108.7 percent). Breast reconstruction exhibited the greatest growth in consultations, and oncologic consultations demonstrated the highest consultation-to-surgery conversion rate. The higher consultation volume and conversion rate associated with breast reconstruction resulted in greater financial gains for both the department and the hospital. These findings may be of utility in the development of academic plastic surgery programs.
Vuori, Elisa; Vanni, Simo; Henriksson, Linda; Tervo, Timo M T; Holopainen, Juha M
To prospectively study the effect of refractive surgery in the primary visual cortex of adult anisometropic and isometropic myopic patients. Two anisometropic and two isometropic myopic patients were examined with multifocal functional magnetic resonance imaging technique (mffMRI) before refractive surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively. Two controls without refractive surgery were also examined with mffMRI in the beginning and in the end of the study. Anisometropic patients had only their more myopic eye operated to correct the anisometropia. The myopic isometropic patients had their both eyes operated. Operated anisometropic eyes showed 65% reduced amount of active voxels in foveal data at 12 months postoperatively compared with the preoperative situation. In unoperated anisometropic eyes, the corresponding value was 86% and in myopic patients and controls 31% and 1%, respectively. To confirm this finding, the number of activated voxels representing the innermost ring of the stimulus was also calculated, and an exactly similar phenomenon was encountered in the anisometropic patients. Both anisometropic patients improved the best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity in the operated eye after refractive surgery. Our results suggest that plastic changes may take place in the primary visual cortex of anisometropic adult patients after refractive surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in
Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Morelli, Luca; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred
No single large published randomized controlled trial (RCT) has confirmed the efficacy of virtual simulators in the acquisition of skills to the standard required for safe clinical robotic surgery. This remains the main obstacle for the adoption of these virtual simulators in surgical residency curricula. To evaluate the level of evidence in published studies on the efficacy of training on virtual simulators for robotic surgery. In April 2015 a literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the Clinical Trials Database (US) and the Meta Register of Controlled Trials. All publications were scrutinized for relevance to the review and for assessment of the levels of evidence provided using the classification developed by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The publications included in the review consisted of one RCT and 28 cohort studies on validity, and seven RCTs and two cohort studies on skills transfer from virtual simulators to robot-assisted surgery. Simulators were rated good for realism (face validity) and for usefulness as a training tool (content validity). However, the studies included used various simulation training methodologies, limiting the assessment of construct validity. The review confirms the absence of any consensus on which tasks and metrics are the most effective for the da Vinci Skills Simulator and dV-Trainer, the most widely investigated systems. Although there is consensus for the RoSS simulator, this is based on only two studies on construct validity involving four exercises. One study on initial evaluation of an augmented reality module for partial nephrectomy using the dV-Trainer reported high correlation (r=0.8) between in vivo porcine nephrectomy and a virtual renorrhaphy task according to the overall Global Evaluation Assessment of Robotic Surgery (GEARS) score. In one RCT on skills transfer, the experimental group outperformed the control group, with a significant difference in overall
de Blacam, Catherine; Tierney, Sean; Shelley, Odhran
Surgical training requires exposure to clinical decision-making and operative experience in a supervised environment. It is recognised that learning ability is compromised when fatigued. The European Working Time Directive requires a decrease in working hours, but compliance reduces trainees' clinical exposure, which has profound implications for plastic surgery training. The aim of this study was to evaluate plastic surgery registrars' experience of an EWTD-compliant rota, and to examine its impact on patient care, education, and logbook activity. An electronic survey was distributed to plastic surgery registrars in a university teaching hospital. Registrars were asked to rate 31 items on a five-point Likert scale, including statements on patient care, clinical and operative duties, training, and quality-of-life. Interquartile deviations explored consensus among responses. Operative caseload was objectively evaluated using eLogbook data to compare activity at equal time points before and after implementation of the EWTD rota. Highest levels of consensus among respondents were found in positive statements addressing alertness and preparation for theatre, as well as time to read and study for exams. Registrars agreed that EWTD compliance improved their quality-of-life. However, it was felt that continuity of patient care was compromised by work hours restriction. Registrars were concerned about their operative experience. eLogbook data confirmed a fall-off in mean caseload of 31.8% compared to activity prior to EWTD rota implementation. While EWTD compliant rotas promote trainee quality-of-life and satisfaction with training, attention needs to be paid to optimising operative opportunities.
Steven Nicholas Graves, MA; Deana Saleh Shenaq, MD; Alexander J. Langerman, MD; David H. Song, MD, MBA, FACS
Background: Significant improvements can be made in recoding surgical procedures, particularly in capturing high-quality video recordings from the surgeons’ point of view. This study examined the utility of the GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera for high-definition, point-of-view recordings of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Methods: The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera was head-mounted on the surgeon and oriented to the surgeon’s perspective using the GoPro App. The camera was used ...
Dedhia, Raj; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Tollefson, Travis T; Ishii, Lisa E
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pu, Lee; Lineaweaver, William
We reviewed the contributor demographics of recent volumes of Annals of Plastic Surgery to quantify the contributions of authors from countries where the primary language is not English. For 2 volumes of Annals (63 and 65), such authors contributed 57% of the total articles published. Within the new section format of volume 66, authors from non-English language countries accounted for 60% of all original articles with substantial and often dominant representation in all sections. This survey shows that Annals publishes articles from an international population of contributors with effective inclusion of authors from countries with primary languages other than English.
Jong Woo Choi; Namkug Kim
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...
Kamali, Parisa; Dean, David; Skoracki, Roman; Koolen, Pieter G L; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Lin, Samuel J
Since the advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing in the 1980s, it is now possible to produce physical objects from digital files and create 3D objects by adding one layer at a time following a predetermined pattern. Due to the continued development of inexpensive and easy- to- use 3D printers and bioprinting, this technique has gained more momentum over time, especially in the field of medicine. This paper reviews the current and possible future application of 3D printing technology within the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Sclafani, Anthony P
Platelet concentrates enjoyed some clinical popularity in facial plastic surgery several years ago. However, interest waned due to expense, amount of blood required, equipment, space, and staff needed, and lack of clinically significant benefit. A novel, simple method of preparing an autologous platelet derivative (Selphyl; Aesthetic Factors, Princeton, NJ) allows rapid and inexpensive generation of a platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) that can be used to enhance healing after facial procedures as well as to rejuvenate the face without tissue manipulation. PRFM provides autologous, natural, but concentrated platelet growth factor release and stimulation of surrounding tissue. This article describes its use for cosmetic facial applications. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.
Eric Swanson, MD
Conclusions: The natural history of thromboembolism in plastic surgery outpatients differs from orthopedic patients. The risk of a deep venous thrombosis in a patient treated with Spontaneous breathing, Avoid gas, Face up, Extremities mobile anesthesia is approximately 0.5%. Thromboses are unlikely to develop intraoperatively. In the single affected patient, the thrombosis was located distally, in a location that is less prone to embolism and highly susceptible to anticoagulation. Ultrasound screening is an effective and highly feasible method to identify affected patients for treatment.
Sproedt, J; von Campe, A; Bonaccio, M; Grünert, J G
Self-mutilation in the context of factitious disorder can lead to prolonged and complicated treatment in every medical field. Because of a prevalence of 1-5% in hospitalised patients, it is important to be aware of this disorder to protect patients from self- and foreign-induced harm. Often the patient history gives important hints. The different manifestations of this disorder, the specific doctor-patient relationship, several techniques of confrontation and current treatment are presented. Clinical cases from the fields of hand and plastic surgery are presented. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
Jong Woo Choi
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.
Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880
Wang, Ruiheng; Yang, Dongyun; Li, Shirong
Three-dimensional digital models, animations, and simulations have been used in the plastic surgical field for surgical education and training and patient education. In penile lengthening surgery, proper patient selection and well-designed surgical interventions are necessary; however, no such surgical or patient education tool exists. Using magnetic resonance images as references, a preliminary three-dimensional digital model of the penis with its adjacent structures was constructed using Amira 5. This preliminary model was imported into Maya 2009, a computer modeling and animation software program, for processing to correct many defects. The refined model was used to create digital animation of penile lengthening surgery, including ordered steps of the procedure, using Maya 2009 and Adobe After Effects CS4. A three-dimensional digital animation was created to illustrate penile lengthening surgery. All major surgical steps were demonstrated, including exposure, transversal incision of the fundiform ligament, partial division and release of the suspensory ligament. Three-dimensional digital models and animations of penile lengthening surgery may serve as resources for patient education to facilitate patient selection and resident education outside the operating room. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan
Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Ballantyne, Garth H; Moll, Fred
The United States Department of Defense developed the telepresence surgery concept to meet battlefield demands. The da Vinci telerobotic surgery system evolved from these efforts. In this article, the authors describe the components of the da Vinci system and explain how the surgeon sits at a computer console, views a three-dimensional virtual operative field, and performs the operation by controlling robotic arms that hold the stereoscopic video telescope and surgical instruments that simulate hand motions with seven degrees of freedom. The three-dimensional imaging and handlike motions of the system facilitate advanced minimally invasive thoracic, cardiac, and abdominal procedures. da Vinci has recently released a second generation of telerobots with four arms and will continue to meet the evolving challenges of surgery.
Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery has been the intervention of choice in many cases of cardiovascular diseases. Susceptibility to postoperative complications, cardiac rehabilitation is indicated. Therapeutic resources, such as virtual reality has been helping the rehabilitational process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of virtual reality in the functional rehabilitation of patients in the postoperative period. METHODS: Patients were randomized into two groups, Virtual Reality (VRG, n = 30 and Control (CG, n = 30. The response to treatment was assessed through the functional independence measure (FIM, by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP. Evaluations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: On the first day after surgery, patients in both groups showed decreased functional performance. However, the VRG showed lower reduction (45.712.3 when compared to CG (35.0612.09, P0.05. In evaluating the NHP field, we observed a significant decrease in pain score at third assessment (P<0.05. These patients also had a higher energy level in the first evaluation (P<0.05. There were no differences with statistical significance for emotional reactions, physical ability, and social interaction. The length of stay was significantly shorter in patients of VRG (9.410.5 days vs. 12.2 1 0.9 days, P<0.05, which also had a higher 6MWD (319.9119.3 meters vs. 263.5115.4 meters, P<0.02. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive treatment with virtual reality demonstrated benefits, with better functional performance in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Voormolen, Eduard H J; Diederen, Sander; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Viergever, Max A; Regli, Luca; Robe, Pierre A; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem
Novel audiovisual feedback methods were developed to improve image guidance during skull base surgery by providing audiovisual warnings when the drill tip enters a protective perimeter set at a distance around anatomic structures ("distance control") and visualizing bone drilling ("virtual drilling"). To benchmark the drill damage risk reduction provided by distance control, to quantify the accuracy of virtual drilling, and to investigate whether the proposed feedback methods are clinically feasible. In a simulated surgical scenario using human cadavers, 12 unexperienced users (medical students) drilled 12 mastoidectomies. Users were divided into a control group using standard image guidance and 3 groups using distance control with protective perimeters of 1, 2, or 3 mm. Damage to critical structures (sigmoid sinus, semicircular canals, facial nerve) was assessed. Neurosurgeons performed another 6 mastoidectomy/trans-labyrinthine and retro-labyrinthine approaches. Virtual errors as compared with real postoperative drill cavities were calculated. In a clinical setting, 3 patients received lateral skull base surgery with the proposed feedback methods. Users drilling with distance control protective perimeters of 3 mm did not damage structures, whereas the groups using smaller protective perimeters and the control group injured structures. Virtual drilling maximum cavity underestimations and overestimations were 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. Feedback methods functioned properly in the clinical setting. Distance control reduced the risks of drill damage proportional to the protective perimeter distance. Errors in virtual drilling reflect spatial errors of the image guidance system. These feedback methods are clinically feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Solomon O Nwhator
Full Text Available Solomon O NwhatorDepartment of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaAbstract: Advancements in restorative dentistry have resulted in people keeping their teeth for longer, and an increase in gingival recession as the gums recede due to age, periodontal disease, thin gingiva, or other factors. The demand for periodontal plastic surgery appears to be increasing. Several methods have been used in the treatment of denuded roots. Of these, the free gingival autograft, the coronally displaced flap, guided tissue regeneration, and, lately, the connective tissue graft appear to be the main methods employed. There are as yet no reports of periodontal plastic surgery performed in Nigeria. We report two cases of Miller’s Class 2 gingival recession treated by free gingival autografts in the specialist periodontal clinic of a South-Western teaching hospital in Nigeria. The challenges of awareness, a dearth of expertise, cost of materials, consequent cost of treatment, and how these affect the accessing of treatment are highlighted. The methods used in getting over these hurdles to provide treatment are also discussed.Keywords: gingival recession, free gingival autograft, Nigeria
Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Dedhia, Raj; Cervenka, Brian; Tollefson, Travis T
To review the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, with a focus on current uses in surgical training, surgical planning, clinical outcomes, and biomedical research. To evaluate the limitations and future implications of 3D printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Studies reviewed demonstrated 3D printing applications in surgical planning including accurate anatomic biomodels, surgical cutting guides in reconstruction, and patient-specific implants fabrication. 3D printing technology also offers access to well tolerated, reproducible, and high-fidelity/patient-specific models for surgical training. Emerging research in 3D biomaterial printing have led to the development of biocompatible scaffolds with potential for tissue regeneration in reconstruction cases involving significant tissue absence or loss. Major limitations of utilizing 3D printing technology include time and cost, which may be offset by decreased operating times and collaboration between departments to diffuse in-house printing costs SUMMARY: The current state of the literature shows promising results, but has not yet been validated by large studies or randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, further research and advancements in 3D printing technology should be supported as there is potential to improve resident training, patient care, and surgical outcomes.
Davidson, C C; Orr, D J
This study was undertaken to investigate our impression that migrant foreign-national workers were more at risk of sustaining work place injuries requiring referral to our Plastic Surgery service than their indigenous Irish counterparts. Data were collected prospectively from August 2006 to February 2007 on all work-related injuries presenting to the Plastic Surgery service in St James's Hospital, Dublin. 201 work-related injuries were recorded during the six month study period. 40% (n = 81) of the study group were foreign-national workers. Foreign-national workers account for only nine percent of the total Irish workforce. 31% (n = 25) of the study group required a translator. Over half (55%) of all the foreign-national workers in the current study had been in their present job for less than six months at the time of injury compared to only nine percent of Irish workers. This study highlights that foreign-national workers in Ireland are at a disproportionately high risk of occupational injury when compared to their Irish colleagues and emphasises the need for targeted occupational health and safety measures in this vulnerable group.
Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H.; Van der Graaf, A.
From the patients point of view, keyhole surgery is the perfect solution. Recovery from the operation is more rapid, and scarring is minimal. For the surgeon,however, it remains a new and inconvenient way of working, having to watch a video monitor instead of being able to see directly what is going
Nathan S Rose
Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in twelve, 1-hour sessions over one month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood.
Rose, Nathan S; Rendell, Peter G; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M; Craik, Fergus I M
Prospective memory (PM) - the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities - is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood.
Rose, Nathan S.; Rendell, Peter G.; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Craik, Fergus I. M.
Prospective memory (PM) – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood. PMID:26578936
Pfandler, Michael; Lazarovici, Marc; Stefan, Philipp; Wucherer, Patrick; Weigl, Matthias
Virtual reality (VR)-based simulators offer numerous benefits and are very useful in assessing and training surgical skills. Virtual reality-based simulators are standard in some surgical subspecialties, but their actual use in spinal surgery remains unclear. Currently, only technical reviews of VR-based simulators are available for spinal surgery. Thus, we performed a systematic review that examined the existing research on VR-based simulators in spinal procedures. We also assessed the quality of current studies evaluating VR-based training in spinal surgery. Moreover, we wanted to provide a guide for future studies evaluating VR-based simulators in this field. This is a systematic review of the current scientific literature regarding VR-based simulation in spinal surgery. Five data sources were systematically searched to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles regarding virtual, mixed, or augmented reality-based simulators in spinal surgery. A qualitative data synthesis was performed with particular attention to evaluation approaches and outcomes. Additionally, all included studies were appraised for their quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) tool. The initial review identified 476 abstracts and 63 full texts were then assessed by two reviewers. Finally, 19 studies that examined simulators for the following procedures were selected: pedicle screw placement, vertebroplasty, posterior cervical laminectomy and foraminotomy, lumbar puncture, facet joint injection, and spinal needle insertion and placement. These studies had a low-to-medium methodological quality with a MERSQI mean score of 11.47 out of 18 (standard deviation=1.81). This review described the current state and applications of VR-based simulator training and assessment approaches in spinal procedures. Limitations, strengths, and future advancements of VR-based simulators for training and assessment in spinal surgery were explored. Higher-quality studies with
Schijven, Marlies P.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.
Minimal access surgery (MAS) requires additional training in the surgical curriculum, as skills needed to perform MAS are quite different from those used in open surgery. Moreover, residents do not seem to experience ample opportunity to gain such skills in the current surgical curriculum. Virtual
Abbott, Megan M; Meara, John G
Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has stimulated wide debate in the medical and surgical community. Endorsed by the American Medical Association and a number of primary care-focused organizations, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and nearly all other surgical associations opposed the bill. This divergence stems not from direct disagreement over provisions in the bill but from opposition to or support of certain provisions with direct implications for the physicians represented by a given organization, as well as the relative importance of provisions for which these organizations share a common opinion. Regarding the field of pediatric plastic surgery, the surgical perspective of the ACS and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the medical perspective of the American Academy of Pediatrics align on many issues. Given the lack of specificity of any of the provisions for a field as specialized as pediatric plastic surgery, this review will focus on broader implications of the PPACA both for medical and surgical needs of pediatric patients and for the surgeons providing their care. The provisions of the PPACA are distributed along an implementation timeline, with some major changes having already occurred. The popularity of some of the early provisions, many pertaining to the pediatric population, has implications for any attempt at repeal of the law as a whole in coming years. Despite its daunting length, the PPACA can be approached by considering its provisions in 4 major categories: increased consumer protections, increased accountability for insurers, increased access to affordable care, and quality and cost improvement.
Full Text Available BackgroundConscious sedation has been widely utilized in plastic surgery. However, inadequate research has been published evaluating adequate drug dosage and depth of sedation. In clinical practice, sedation is often inadequate or accompanied by complications when sedatives are administered according to body weight alone. The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing the depth of sedation during conscious sedation for plastic surgery.MethodsThis prospective study evaluated 97 patients who underwent plastic surgical procedures under conscious sedation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and glucose levels were measured. Midazolam and ketamine were administered intravenously according to a preset protocol. Bispectral index (BIS recordings were obtained to evaluate the depth of sedation 4, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after midazolam administration. Associations between variables and the BIS were assessed using multiple regression analysis.ResultsAlcohol intake and female sex were positively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01. Age was negatively associated with the mean BIS (P<0.01. Body mass index (P=0.263, creatinine clearance (P=0.832, smoking history (P=0.398, glucose (P=0.718, AST (P=0.729, and ALT (P=0.423 were not associated with the BIS.ConclusionsOlder patients tended to have a greater depth of sedation, whereas females and patients with greater alcohol intake had a shallower depth of sedation. Thus, precise dose adjustments of sedatives, accounting for not only weight but also age, sex, and alcohol consumption, are required to achieve safe, effective, and predictable conscious sedation.
Nellis, Jason C; Ishii, Masaru; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Lisa E
Though anecdotally linked, few studies have investigated the impact of facial paralysis on depression and quality of life (QOL). To measure the association between depression, QOL, and facial paralysis in patients seeking treatment at a facial plastic surgery clinic. Data were prospectively collected for patients with all-cause facial paralysis and control patients initially presenting to a facial plastic surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015. The control group included a heterogeneous patient population presenting to facial plastic surgery clinic for evaluation. Patients who had prior facial reanimation surgery or missing demographic and psychometric data were excluded from analysis. Demographics, facial paralysis etiology, facial paralysis severity (graded on the House-Brackmann scale), Beck depression inventory, and QOL scores in both groups were examined. Potential confounders, including self-reported attractiveness and mood, were collected and analyzed. Self-reported scores were measured using a 0 to 100 visual analog scale. There was a total of 263 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 66.9% were female) were analyzed. There were 175 control patients and 88 patients with facial paralysis. Sex distributions were not significantly different between the facial paralysis and control groups. Patients with facial paralysis had significantly higher depression, lower self-reported attractiveness, lower mood, and lower QOL scores. Overall, 37 patients with facial paralysis (42.1%) screened positive for depression, with the greatest likelihood in patients with House-Brackmann grade 3 or greater (odds ratio, 10.8; 95% CI, 5.13-22.75) compared with 13 control patients (8.1%) (P facial paralysis and female sex were significantly associated with higher depression scores (constant, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.77-3.39]; facial paralysis effect, 5.98 [95% CI, 4.38-7.58]; female effect, 1.95 [95% CI, 0.65-3.25]). Facial paralysis was associated with lower QOL scores (constant, 81.62 [95% CI, 78
Trimas, Scott J; Trimas, Morgan D
Patients who experience immediate postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after their facial plastic surgery procedure have a higher incidence of complications and dissatisfaction. To determine whether a single dose of aprepitant administered preoperatively can decrease the incidence of immediate PONV in patients undergoing facial plastic surgery compared with patients who are administered ondansetron hydrochloride alone and whether patient-related factors pose a greater risk of developing immediate PONV after surgery. In this retrospective study, we reviewed 172 patients undergoing facial plastic surgery with general anesthesia at an accredited office-based surgery practice from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013. All patients received prophylactic treatment to mitigate against immediate PONV. Fifty-six patients received aprepitant in addition to ondansetron as prophylaxis for PONV. Patients undergoing facial plastic surgery were assessed during the immediate postoperative period for PONV. In addition, patient age, type of procedure, duration of surgery, and sex were reported. The addition of aprepitant preoperatively effectively reduced the PONV rate from 15.5% to 1.8% (P = . 02). Logistic regression analysis revealed that duration of surgery longer than 90 minutes (odds ratio [OR], 2.936; 95% CI, 0.560-15.385; P = .20), female sex (OR, 1.893; 95% CI, 0.379-9.448; P = .44), and type of procedure increased the likelihood of PONV after facial plastic surgery with an odds ratio of greater than 1 in this sample population. However, the odds ratios were not statistically significantly greater than 1 for the 95% CIs. Of the 19 patients who experienced PONV, 17 were women, and 17 patients had a duration of surgery longer than 90 minutes. Patient age did not appear to affect the rate of PONV (P = .32). Preoperative aprepitant administered within 1 hour before facial plastic surgery in patients at risk of developing PONV effectively reduce the
Tergas, Ana I; Sheth, Sangini B; Green, Isabel C; Giuntoli, Robert L; Winder, Abigail D; Fader, Amanda N
Our objectives were to compare the utility of learning a suturing task on the virtual reality da Vinci Skills Simulator versus the da Vinci Surgical System dry laboratory platform and to assess user satisfaction among novice robotic surgeons. Medical trainees were enrolled prospectively; one group trained on the virtual reality simulator, and the other group trained on the da Vinci dry laboratory platform. Trainees received pretesting and post-testing on the dry laboratory platform. Participants then completed an anonymous online user experience and satisfaction survey. We enrolled 20 participants. Mean pretest completion times did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Training with either platform was associated with a similar decrease in mean time to completion (simulator platform group, 64.9 seconds [P = .04]; dry laboratory platform group, 63.9 seconds [P robotic surgical skills (mean, 4.6) and would attend future training sessions (mean, 4.5). Training on the virtual reality robotic simulator or the dry laboratory robotic surgery platform resulted in significant improvements in time to completion and economy of motion for novice robotic surgeons. Although there was a perception that both simulators improved performance, there was a preference for the virtual reality simulator. Benefits unique to the simulator platform include autonomy of use, computerized performance feedback, and ease of setup. These features may facilitate more efficient and sophisticated simulation training above that of the conventional dry laboratory platform, without loss of efficacy.
Ara A Salibian
Full Text Available BackgroundStem cells are a unique cell population characterized by self-renewal and cellular differentiation capabilities. These characteristics, among other traits, make them an attractive option for regenerative treatments of tissues defects and for aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. As research regarding the isolation, culture and behavior of stem cells has progressed, stem cells, particularly adult stem cells, have shown promising results in both translational and clinical applications.MethodsThe purpose of this review is to evaluate the applications of stem cells in the plastic surgery literature, with particular focus on the advances and limitations of current stem cell therapies. Different key areas amenable to stem cell therapy are addressed in the literature review; these include regeneration of soft tissue, bone, cartilage, and peripheral nerves, as well as wound healing and skin aging.ResultsThe reviewed studies demonstrate promising results, with favorable outcomes and minimal complications in the cited cases. In particular, adipose tissue derived stem cell (ADSC transplants appear to provide effective treatment options for bony and soft tissue defects, and non-healing wounds. ADSCs have also been shown to be useful in aesthetic surgery.ConclusionsFurther studies involving both the basic and clinical science aspects of stem cell therapies are warranted. In particular, the mechanism of action of stem cells, their interactions with the surrounding microenvironment and their long-term fate require further elucidation. Larger randomized trials are also necessary to demonstrate the continued safety of transplanted stem cells as well as the efficacy of cellular therapies in comparison to the current standards of care.
Bric, Justin D; Lumbard, Derek C; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C
Worldwide, the annual number of robotic surgical procedures continues to increase. Robotic surgical skills are unique from those used in either open or laparoscopic surgery. The acquisition of a basic robotic surgical skill set may be best accomplished in the simulation laboratory. We sought to review the current literature pertaining to the use of virtual reality (VR) simulation in the acquisition of robotic surgical skills on the da Vinci Surgical System. A PubMed search was conducted between December 2014 and January 2015 utilizing the following keywords: virtual reality, robotic surgery, da Vinci, da Vinci skills simulator, SimSurgery Educational Platform, Mimic dV-Trainer, and Robotic Surgery Simulator. Articles were included if they were published between 2007 and 2015, utilized VR simulation for the da Vinci Surgical System, and utilized a commercially available VR platform. The initial search criteria returned 227 published articles. After all inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a total of 47 peer-reviewed manuscripts were included in the final review. There are many benefits to utilizing VR simulation for robotic skills acquisition. Four commercially available simulators have been demonstrated to be capable of assessing robotic skill. Three of the four simulators demonstrate the ability of a VR training curriculum to improve basic robotic skills, with proficiency-based training being the most effective training style. The skills obtained on a VR training curriculum are comparable with those obtained on dry laboratory simulation. The future of VR simulation includes utilization in assessment for re-credentialing purposes, advanced procedural-based training, and as a warm-up tool prior to surgery.
Adolphs, Nicolai; Liu, Weichen; Keeve, Erwin; Hoffmeister, Bodo
Within the domain of craniomaxillofacial surgery, orthognathic surgery is a special field dedicated to the correction of dentofacial anomalies resulting from skeletal malocclusion. Generally, in such cases, an interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment approach is required. After initial orthodontic alignment of the dental arches, skeletal discrepancies of the jaws can be corrected by distinct surgical strategies and procedures in order to achieve correct occlusal relations, as well as facial balance and harmony within individualized treatment concepts. To transfer the preoperative surgical planning and reposition the mobilized dental arches with optimal occlusal relations, surgical splints are typically used. For this purpose, different strategies have been described which use one or more splints. Traditionally, these splints are manufactured by a dental technician based on patient-specific dental casts; however, computer-assisted technologies have gained increasing importance with respect to preoperative planning and its subsequent surgical transfer. In a pilot study of 10 patients undergoing orthognathic corrections by a one-splint strategy, two final occlusal splints were produced for each patient and compared with respect to their clinical usability. One splint was manufactured in the traditional way by a dental technician according to the preoperative surgical planning. After performing a CBCT scan of the patient's dental casts, a second splint was designed virtually by an engineer and surgeon working together, according to the desired final occlusion. For this purpose, RapidSplint, a custom-made software platform, was used. After post-processing and conversion of the datasets into .stl files, the splints were fabricated by the PolyJet procedure using photo polymerization. During surgery, both splints were inserted after mobilization of the dental arches then compared with respect to their clinical usability according to the occlusal fitting. Using
Liu, Weichen; Keeve, Erwin; Hoffmeister, Bodo
Background Within the domain of craniomaxillofacial surgery, orthognathic surgery is a special field dedicated to the correction of dentofacial anomalies resulting from skeletal malocclusion. Generally, in such cases, an interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment approach is required. After initial orthodontic alignment of the dental arches, skeletal discrepancies of the jaws can be corrected by distinct surgical strategies and procedures in order to achieve correct occlusal relations, as well as facial balance and harmony within individualized treatment concepts. To transfer the preoperative surgical planning and reposition the mobilized dental arches with optimal occlusal relations, surgical splints are typically used. For this purpose, different strategies have been described which use one or more splints. Traditionally, these splints are manufactured by a dental technician based on patient-specific dental casts; however, computer-assisted technologies have gained increasing importance with respect to preoperative planning and its subsequent surgical transfer. Methods : In a pilot study of 10 patients undergoing orthognathic corrections by a one-splint strategy, two final occlusal splints were produced for each patient and compared with respect to their clinical usability. One splint was manufactured in the traditional way by a dental technician according to the preoperative surgical planning. After performing a CBCT scan of the patient’s dental casts, a second splint was designed virtually by an engineer and surgeon working together, according to the desired final occlusion. For this purpose, RapidSplint®, a custom-made software platform, was used. After post-processing and conversion of the datasets into .stl files, the splints were fabricated by the PolyJet procedure using photo polymerization. During surgery, both splints were inserted after mobilization of the dental arches then compared with respect to their clinical usability according to the
Chen, Ying; Hu, Xuyi; Zhu, Qiguang
Mass point-spring model is one of the commonly used models in virtual surgery. However, its model parameters have no clear physical meaning, and it is hard to set the parameter conveniently. We, therefore, proposed a method based on genetic algorithm to determine the mass-spring model parameters. Computer-aided tomography (CAT) data were used to determine the mass value of the particle, and stiffness and damping coefficient were obtained by genetic algorithm. We used the difference between the reference deformation and virtual deformation as the fitness function to get the approximate optimal solution of the model parameters. Experimental results showed that this method could obtain an approximate optimal solution of spring parameters with lower cost, and could accurately reproduce the effect of the actual deformation model as well.
Reformat, Derek D; David, Joshua A; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Plana, Natalie M; Wang, Annie; Brownstone, Nicholas D; Ceradini, Daniel J
Intraoperative instrument recounts are performed to avoid retained foreign surgical items. These additional counts, however, beget risks of their own, including prolonged operative times, exposure to radiation, and increased cost. Our study aimed to identify factors that increase the likelihood of instrument recounts during plastic surgery procedures, and use our findings to guide potential solutions for preventing unnecessary recounts across all surgical fields. This is a retrospective review of all plastic surgical cases in the main operating setting at New York University Langone Medical Center (NYULMC) between March 2014 and February 2015. Of 1285 plastic surgery cases, 35 (2.7%) reported a missing instrument necessitating a recount. Of all subspecialties within plastic surgery, only microsurgery conferred an increased risk of a recount event. We identified multiple factors that increased the odds of a recount event, including increased operative time, number of surgical sites, and intraoperative instrument handoffs. Instrument recounts, although designed to prevent inadvertently retained surgical items, present inherent risks of their own. In a large retrospective review of plastic surgery cases at our medical center, we identified many factors that increased the likelihood of an instrument recount. On the basis of our findings and prior literature, we recommend limiting the number of staff handling instrument, the number of handoffs, and a heightened awareness by surgeons and perioperative staff of specific procedures and factors that increase the risk of a miscount event. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The study sought to assess the effectiveness of music on patient anxiety levels during minor surgery. Eighty patients attending a minor plastic surgery out-patient department were assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Questionnaire. Forty participants in the experimental group listened to music which was self selected and played during their operation. Forty participants in the control group received the standard care during their operation but with no music. The questionnaire was used to collect data pre and postoperatively. During the recovery period all participants were asked to reflect on their level of anxiety during surgery while completing the questionnaire. Analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. The postoperative mean anxiety score of the control group was 33.5 (SD 10.6). The mean anxiety score for the experimental group was 30.52 (SD 9.82). Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference among those who did and did not listen to music during their procedure. Although the researcher did not find statistically significant differences in the selected outcome measures, the intervention seemed to be enjoyed by the patients in the experimental group. Minimising anxiety prior to and during a minor operation may help promote relaxation and enhance patient comfort.
Sinno, Sammy; Mehta, Karan; Squitieri, Lee; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Koeckert, Michael S; Patel, Ashit; Saadeh, Pierre B; Thanik, Vishal
The National Residency Matching Program Match is a very unique process in which applicants and programs are coupled to each other based on a ranking system. Although several studies have assessed features plastic surgery programs look for in applicants, no study in the present plastic surgery literature identifies which residency characteristics are most important to plastic surgery applicants. Therefore, we sought to perform a multi-institutional assessment as to which factors plastic surgery residency applicants consider most important when applying for residency. A validated and anonymous questionnaire containing 37 items regarding various program characteristics was e-mailed to 226 applicants to New York University, Albany, University of Michigan, and University of Southern California plastic surgery residency programs. Applicants were asked to rate each feature on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the most important. The 37 variables were ranked by the sum of the responses. The median rating and interquartile range as well as the mean for each factor was then calculated. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare medians in rank order. A total of 137 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a 61% response rate. The characteristics candidates considered most important were impressions during the interview, experiences during away rotations, importance placed on resident training/support/mentoring by faculty, personal experiences with residents, and the amount of time spent in general surgery. The characteristics candidates considered least important were second-look experiences, compensation/benefits, program reputation from Internet forums, accessibility of program coordinator, opportunity for laboratory research, and fellowship positions available at the program. Applicants value personal contact and time spent in general surgery when selecting residency programs. As the number of integrated programs continues to grow, programs will benefit
Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars
The societies of thoracic surgery are working to incorporate simulation and competency-based assessment into specialty training. One challenge is the development of a simulation-based test, which can be used as an assessment tool. The study objective was to establish validity evidence for a virtual reality simulator test of a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy of a right upper lobe. Participants with varying experience in VATS lobectomy were included. They were familiarized with a virtual reality simulator (LapSim ® ) and introduced to the steps of the procedure for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy. The participants performed two VATS lobectomies on the simulator with a 5-min break between attempts. Nineteen pre-defined simulator metrics were recorded. Fifty-three participants from nine different countries were included. High internal consistency was found for the metrics with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for standardized items of 0.91. Significant test-retest reliability was found for 15 of the metrics (p-values 50 VATS lobectomies performed). A pass/fail level defined as approximately one standard deviation from the mean metric scores for experienced surgeons passed none of the novices (0 % false positives) and failed four of the experienced surgeons (29 % false negatives). This study is the first to establish validity evidence for a VATS right upper lobe lobectomy virtual reality simulator test. Several simulator metrics demonstrated significant differences between novices and experienced surgeons and pass/fail criteria for the test were set with acceptable consequences. This test can be used as a first step in assessing thoracic surgery trainees' VATS lobectomy competency.
Hardy, Krista L; Davis, Kathryn E; Constantine, Ryan S; Chen, Mo; Hein, Rachel; Jewell, James L; Dirisala, Karunakar; Lysikowski, Jerzy; Reed, Gary; Kenkel, Jeffrey M
Little evidence within plastic surgery literature supports the precept that longer operative times lead to greater morbidity. The authors investigate surgery duration as a determinant of morbidity, with the goal of defining a clinically relevant time for increased risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent a broad range of complex plastic surgical procedures (n = 1801 procedures) at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from January 1, 2008 to January 31, 2012. Adjusting for possible confounders, multivariate logistic regression assessed surgery duration as an independent predictor of morbidity. To define a cutoff for increased risk, incidence of complications was compared among quintiles of surgery duration. Stratification by type of surgery controlled for procedural complexity. A total of 1753 cases were included in multivariate analyses with an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Most operations were combined (75.8%), averaging 4.9 concurrent procedures. Each hour increase in surgery duration was associated with a 21% rise in odds of morbidity (P surgery (odds ratio, 1.6; P = .017), with progressively greater odds increases of 3.1 times after 4.5 hours (P surgery, longer operations continued to be associated with greater morbidity. Surgery duration is an independent predictor of complications, with a significantly increased risk above 3 hours. Although procedural complexity undoubtedly affects morbidity, operative time should factor into surgical decision making.
Kobraei, Edward M; Bohnen, Jordan D; George, Brian C; Mullen, John T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C
Milestones evaluations in plastic surgery reflect a shift toward competency-based training but have created a number of challenges. The authors have incorporated the smartphone application evaluation tool, System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning (SIMPL), that was recently developed by a multi-institutional research collaborative. In this pilot study, the authors hypothesize that SIMPL can improve resident evaluation and also collect granular performance data to simplify compliance with the plastic surgery Milestones. SIMPL was prospectively piloted with a plastic surgery resident and faculty surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital in this institutional review board-approved study. The study period was a 2-month interval corresponding to the resident's rotation. The resident-faculty combination performed 20 cases together. All cases were evaluated with SIMPL. SIMPL evaluations uniformly took under 1 minute to submit. The average time to completed evaluation from surgery completion was 5 hours (plastic surgery resident participates. SIMPL's competency-based framework can be easily scaled to facilitate data collection and reporting of mandatory Milestones evaluations at the program and national levels. This technology will support a shared vocabulary between residents and faculty to enhance intraoperative education.
Khor, Wee Sim; Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Chan, Adrian; Patel, Ketan; Wong, Jason
The continuing enhancement of the surgical environment in the digital age has led to a number of innovations being highlighted as potential disruptive technologies in the surgical workplace. Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are rapidly becoming increasingly available, accessible and importantly affordable, hence their application into healthcare to enhance the medical use of data is certain. Whether it relates to anatomy, intraoperative surgery, or post-operative rehabilitation, applications are already being investigated for their role in the surgeons armamentarium. Here we provide an introduction to the technology and the potential areas of development in the surgical arena.
Ward, Brittany; Ward, Max; Paskhover, Boris
Celebrities have long influenced the medical decisions of the general population. By analyzing Google search data using Google Trends, we measured the impact of highly publicized plastic surgery-related events on the interest level of the general population in specific search terms. Additionally, we investigated seasonal and geographic trends around interest in rhinoplasties, which is information that physicians and small surgical centers can use to optimize marketing decisions. Google Trends was used to access search data histories for three separate areas of interest: Kylie Jenner and lip fillers, Joan Rivers and plastic surgery, and rhinoplasty, which were then analyzed using two-tailed, two-sample equal variance t-tests. The average interest level in fillers increased by 30.31 points after Kylie Jenner announced that she received Juvéderm lip injections. The interest level in plastic surgery was decreased by 21.3% the month after Joan Rivers' death. Between January 2004 and May 2017, the average interest level for rhinoplasty was significantly different in January/December (67.91 ± 20.68) and June/July (70.12 ± 18.89) from the remaining calendar months (63.58 ± 19.67). Los Angeles, New York City, and Miami showed consistently high interest levels throughout the time period, while Tulsa, OK, showed a major interest increase between 2015 to 2016 of 65 points. A noticeable impact was observed in both celebrity cases on search term volume, and a seasonal effect is apparent for rhinoplasty searches. As many surgeons already employ aggressive Internet marketing strategies, understanding and utilizing these trends could help optimize their investments, increase social engagement, and increase practice awareness by potential patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www
Ritto, F G; Schmitt, A R M; Pimentel, T; Canellas, J V; Medeiros, P J
The aim of this study was to determine whether virtual surgical planning (VSP) is an accurate method for positioning the maxilla when compared to conventional articulator model surgery (CMS), through the superimposition of computed tomography (CT) images. This retrospective study included the records of 30 adult patients submitted to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Two groups were created according to the treatment planning performed: CMS and VSP. The treatment planning protocol was the same for all patients. Pre- and postoperative CT images were superimposed and the linear distances between upper jaw reference points were measured. Measurements were then compared to the treatment planning, and the difference in accuracy between CMS and VSP was determined using the t-test for independent samples. The success criterion adopted was a mean linear difference of 0.05). Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dogan, Firat; Atilgan, Yasemin
The virtual surgery planning and simulation tools have gained a great deal of importance in the last decade in a consequence of increasing capacities at the information technology level. The modern hardware architectures, large scale database systems, grid based computer networks, agile development processes, better 3D visualization and all the other strong aspects of the information technology brings necessary instruments into almost every desk. The last decade’s special software and sophisticated super computer environments are now serving to individual needs inside “tiny smart boxes” for reasonable prices. However, resistance to learning new computerized environments, insufficient training and all the other old habits prevents effective utilization of IT resources by the specialists of the health sector. In this paper, all the aspects of the former and current developments in surgery planning and simulation related tools are presented, future directions and expectations are investigated for better electronic health care systems.
Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C
The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Joseph; Ameri, Afshin; Susarla, Srinivas M; Reddy, Sashank; Soni, Ashwin; Tong, J W; Amini, Neda; Ahmed, Rizwan; May, James W; Lee, W P Andrew; Dorafshar, Amir
It is currently unknown whether formal research training has an influence on academic advancement in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formal research training was associated with higher research productivity, academic rank, and procurement of extramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding in plastic surgery, comparing academic surgeons who completed said research training with those without. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The main predictor variable was formal research training, defined as completion of a postdoctoral research fellowship or attainment of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The primary outcome was scientific productivity measured by the Hirsh-index (h-index, the number of publications, h that have at least h citations each). The secondary outcomes were academic rank and NIH funding. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. A total of 607 academic surgeons were identified from 94 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited plastic surgery training programs. In all, 179 (29.5%) surgeons completed formal research training. The mean h-index was 11.7 ± 9.9. And, 58 (9.6%) surgeons successfully procured NIH funding. The distribution of academic rank was the following: endowed professor (5.4%), professor (23.9%), associate professor (23.4%), assistant professor (46.0%), and instructor (1.3%). In a multiple regression analysis, completion of formal research training was significantly predictive of a higher h-index and successful procurement of NIH funding. Current evidence demonstrates that formal research training is associated with higher scientific productivity and increased likelihood of future NIH funding. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davis, Christopher R; Rosenfield, Lorne K
Google Glass has the potential to become a ubiquitous and translational technological tool within clinical plastic surgery. Google Glass allows clinicians to remotely view patient notes, laboratory results, and imaging; training can be augmented via streamed expert master classes; and patient safety can be improved by remote advice from a senior colleague. This systematic review identified and appraised every Google Glass publication relevant to plastic surgery and describes the first plastic surgical procedures recorded using Google Glass. A systematic review was performed using PubMed National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, following modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Key search terms "Google" and "Glass" identified mutually inclusive publications that were screened for inclusion. Eighty-two publications were identified, with 21 included for review. Google Glass publications were formal articles (n = 3), editorial/commentary articles (n = 7), conference proceedings (n = 1), news reports (n = 3), and online articles (n = 7). Data support Google Glass' positive impact on health care delivery, clinical training, medical documentation, and patient safety. Concerns exist regarding patient confidentiality, technical issues, and limited software. The first plastic surgical procedure performed using Google Glass was a blepharoplasty on October 29, 2013. Google Glass is an exciting translational technology with the potential to positively impact health care delivery, medical documentation, surgical training, and patient safety. Further high-quality scientific research is required to formally appraise Google Glass in the clinical setting.
Brandel, Michael G; Reid, Christopher M; Parmeshwar, Nisha; Dobke, Marek K; Gosman, Amanda A
Truly informed consent is an elusive goal, seldom attained in medical or surgical practice. Patients often do not fully understand procedures and therapies they undergo or the associated sequelae. Historically, informed consent and patient education have been limited to physician discussions, sometimes with the addition of simple visual aids. More recently, there is a growing body of decision aids available, including interactive multimedia patient educational modules that review preoperative through postoperative care, risks, benefits, alternatives, different surgical options, as well as commonly asked questions. We hypothesized that the addition of a Web-based educational tool would positively impact attainment of informed consent and satisfaction in plastic surgery patients. We performed a prospective randomized controlled study comparing patients who presented in consultation for breast reconstruction, breast reduction, and abdominoplasty. Patients received standard patient education along with a procedure-specific (study) or general patient safety (control) Web-based educational module. Informed consent was measured using a surgical-focused, modified version of the Shared Decision-making 25 index tool. Patient demographic information as well as surrogate markers of familiarity with technology were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Comparisons were made between study and control groups, procedure subgroups, and preoperative and postoperative time points. Demographic factors and consent variables were compared among experimental and procedure groups. Data were collected from 65 patients preoperatively and 48 patients postoperatively. Thirty patients competed both surveys. Overall, no differences in patient characteristics or familiarity with technology were observed between experimental groups. Demographic characteristics were also similar between groups. No meaningful differences were identified in comparisons between experimental groups on either
Graves, Steven Nicholas; Shenaq, Deana Saleh; Langerman, Alexander J; Song, David H
Significant improvements can be made in recoding surgical procedures, particularly in capturing high-quality video recordings from the surgeons' point of view. This study examined the utility of the GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera for high-definition, point-of-view recordings of plastic and reconstructive surgery. The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera was head-mounted on the surgeon and oriented to the surgeon's perspective using the GoPro App. The camera was used to record 4 cases: 2 fat graft procedures and 2 breast reconstructions. During cases 1-3, an assistant remotely controlled the GoPro via the GoPro App. For case 4 the GoPro was linked to a WiFi remote, and controlled by the surgeon. Camera settings for case 1 were as follows: 1080p video resolution; 48 fps; Protune mode on; wide field of view; 16:9 aspect ratio. The lighting contrast due to the overhead lights resulted in limited washout of the video image. Camera settings were adjusted for cases 2-4 to a narrow field of view, which enabled the camera's automatic white balance to better compensate for bright lights focused on the surgical field. Cases 2-4 captured video sufficient for teaching or presentation purposes. The GoPro HERO 3+ Black Edition camera enables high-quality, cost-effective video recording of plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. When set to a narrow field of view and automatic white balance, the camera is able to sufficiently compensate for the contrasting light environment of the operating room and capture high-resolution, detailed video.
Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew
Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.
Drolet, Brian C; Lorenzi, Nancy M
Evidence-based medicine is a vital process for maintaining and improving quality and value in health care. However, evidence-based practice is most limited by the availability of research and outcomes data. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been identified by numerous research organizations as the criterion standard for research methodology (eg, "level I evidence"), the execution of well-designed RCTs has proved either challenging or impossible in many surgical fields and with rare disease conditions. In particular, craniofacial and plastic surgery has been noted to be lacking in both the number and quality of RCTs. Many reasons are discussed for this dearth of research including inadequate sample size and challenges in randomization, blinding, and clinical equipoise. Yet, data for outcomes assessment are highly valued by surgeons and by consumers and payers. Therefore, alternative and more practical means for research and data collection must be sought. Observational studies of clinical practice are particularly useful for outcomes assessment despite relegation to a lower tier of evidence (eg, "level II evidence"). Functional databases with well-defined processes for data collection, called medical data registries, are an essential informatics tool to collect and store outcomes data and produce high-quality observational, practice-based research studies. A properly designed and implemented registry can provide surgeons with an abundance of data to perform research and quality improvement projects. In fact, registries may be superior in many ways to RCTs for craniofacial and plastic surgeons both pragmatically and functionally. In this commentary, we discuss the production of such registries in the framework of evidence-based practice and the relevant studies in craniofacial surgery.
Tahiri, Youssef; Lee, James; Kanevsky, Jonathan; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Gilardino, Mirko
Exposure to plastic surgery during medical school is limited. Most interested applicants form their perceptions of careers in this surgical specialty during elective rotations. To investigate the perceptions of Canadian medical students considering a career in plastic surgery. The results obtained were then compared with current Canadian plastic surgery residents' perceptions. The data were collected via two separate self-administered online surveys that were distributed to either Canadian plastic surgery residents or medical students. The questionnaires were similar and focused on three aspects: applicant details; driving force behind interest in the field; and essential character traits and competencies related to successful matching. Fifty-nine plastic surgery residents and 477 medical students participated in the online survey. The most commonly reported driving forces for interest in a plastic surgery career in both groups were variety of career choice, complexity of the field, future lifestyle and enjoyable rotations in plastic surgery. Despite these similarities, the proportion of medical students and residents who opted for future lifestyle and enjoyable rotations differed in a statistically significant manner (P=0.015 and P=0.029, respectively). In terms of the essential competencies to match into a plastic surgery training spot, the groups differed statistically in their opinions on the relevance of intellect (Pselection committees in identifying capable applicants.
Glisson, Courtenay; Ong, Rowena; Simpson, Amber; Clark, Peter; Herrell, S. D.; Galloway, Robert
The alignment of image-space to physical-space lies at the heart of all image-guided procedures. In intracranial surgery, point-based registrations can be used with either skin-affixed or bone-implanted extrinsic objects called fiducial markers. The advantages of point-based registration techniques are that they are robust, fast, and have a well developed mathematical foundation for the assessment of registration quality. In abdominal image-guided procedures such techniques have not been successful. It is difficult to accurately locate sufficient homologous intrinsic points in imagespace and physical-space, and the implantation of extrinsic fiducial markers would constitute "surgery before the surgery." Image-space to physical-space registration for abdominal organs has therefore been dominated by surfacebased registration techniques which are iterative, prone to local minima, sensitive to initial pose, and sensitive to percentage coverage of the physical surface. In our work in image-guided kidney surgery we have developed a composite approach using "virtual fiducials." In an open kidney surgery, the perirenal fat is removed and the surface of the kidney is dotted using a surgical marker. A laser range scanner (LRS) is used to obtain a surface representation and matching high definition photograph. A surface to surface registration is performed using a modified iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The dots are extracted from the high definition image and assigned the three dimensional values from the LRS pixels over which they lie. As the surgery proceeds, we can then use point-based registrations to re-register the spaces and track deformations due to vascular clamping and surgical tractions.
Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosique, Marina Junqueira Ferreira; Rosique, Rodrigo Gouvea; Costa, Ilson Rosique; Lara, Brunno Rosique; Figueiredo, Jozé Luiz Ferrari; Ribeiro, Davidson Gomes Barbosa
Acute swelling of the parotid glands after general anesthesia has become known as anesthesia mumps. Its cause is unknown. Only one case of postsurgical parotitis without general anesthesia is reported. This report describes three cases in this setting after plastic surgery. A 37-year-old women underwent breast surgery and abdominoplasty with a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block (bupivacaine 0.5 %). The operative time totaled almost 6 h. Subsequently, 4 h after surgery, the patient experienced painless bilateral parotid swelling without palpable crepitus. The edema resolved completely within 12 h under clinical observation and parenteral hydration. A 45-year-old patient received subglandular breast implants and body contouring with liposuction, all with the patient under a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with 0.5 % marcaine. The total surgical time was 5 h. Subsequently, 3 h after surgery, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. The problem resolved completely in 36 h with clinical observation and parenteral hydration. CASE 3: A 30-year-old patient received a subglandular breast implant and underwent liposuction of the outer thighs using a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with lidocaine 1 %. The duration of surgery was 1 h. Subsequently, 5 h postoperatively, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. Dexamethasone and parenteral hydration were administered. The problem resolved completely in 48 h without sequelae. The occurrence of parotitis in patients undergoing surgery under epidural anesthesia is a novel situation, which increases the range of possible etiologies for this little known condition. Dehydration leading to transient parotid secretion obstruction may play a significant role. Further reports of parotitis occurring in the regional anesthesia setting are expected to help elucidate its pathophysiology. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of
Günay İsmailoğlu, Elif; Zaybak, Ayten
The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a virtual intravenous simulator with a plastic arm model in teaching intravenous catheter insertion skills to nursing students. We used a randomized controlled quasi-experimental trial design and recruited 65 students who were assigned to the experimental (n = 33) and control (n = 32) groups using the simple random sampling method. The experimental group received intravenous catheterization skills training on the virtual intravenous simulator, and the control group received the same training on a plastic model of a human arm. Data were collected using the personal information form, intravenous catheterization knowledge assessment form, Intravenous Catheterization Skill Test, Self-Confidence and Satisfaction Scale, and Fear Symptoms Scale. In the study, the mean scores in the control group were 20.44 for psychomotor skills, 15.62 for clinical psychomotor skills, 31.78 for self-confidence, and 21.77 for satisfaction. The mean scores in the experimental group were 45.18 for psychomotor skills, 16.28 for clinical psychomotor skills, 34.18 for self-confidence, and 43.89 for satisfaction. The results indicated that psychomotor skills and satisfaction scores were higher in the experimental group, while the clinical psychomotor skills and self-confidence scores were similar in both groups. More students in the control group reported experiencing symptoms such as cold and sweaty hands, significant restlessness, and tense muscles than those in the experimental group.
Zhou, Chaozheng; Xie, Le; Shen, Xianglong; Luo, Maisheng; Wu, Zhaoli; Gu, Lixu
Cardiovascular interventional surgery (CIS) training has mainly been performed with fluoroscopic guidance on animals. However, this has potential drawbacks, including from the anatomical differences between animal models and the human body. The purpose of this research is to develop a virtual training platform for inexperienced trainees. The CIS virtual training platform is composed of a mechanical manipulation unit, a simulation platform and a user interface. A decoupled haptic device offers high-quality force feedback. An efficient physically based hybrid model was simulated. The CIS procedure was tested with three simulation studies. Translational and rotational tests were employed to preliminarily evaluate the platform. Tests showed that accuracies improved by 50% and 32.5%. Efficient collision detection and continuous collision response allowed real-time interactions. Furthermore, three simulation studies indicated that the platform had reasonable accuracy and robustness. The proposed simulation platform has the potential to be a good virtual training platform. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elkabetz, R.; And Others
This study examined the impact of facial plastic surgery, labeling (mentally retarded, normal, Down's syndrome), and level of knowledge of Down's syndrome on 127 student teachers' evaluations of slides of persons with such characteristics. Although there was no overall significant main effect for the pre-post operation condition, there was a…
Ros, M; Trives, J-V; Lonjon, N
To improve surgical practice, there are several different approaches to simulation. Due to wearable technologies, recording 3D movies is now easy. The development of a virtual reality headset allows imagining a different way of watching these videos: using dedicated software to increase interactivity in a 3D immersive experience. The objective was to record 3D movies via a main surgeon's perspective, to watch files using virtual reality headsets and to validate pedagogic interest. Surgical procedures were recorded using a system combining two side-by-side cameras placed on a helmet. We added two LEDs just below the cameras to enhance luminosity. Two files were obtained in mp4 format and edited using dedicated software to create 3D movies. Files obtained were then played using a virtual reality headset. Surgeons who tried the immersive experience completed a questionnaire to evaluate the interest of this procedure for surgical learning. Twenty surgical procedures were recorded. The movies capture a scene which is extended 180° horizontally and 90° vertically. The immersive experience created by the device conveys a genuine feeling of being in the operating room and seeing the procedure first-hand through the eyes of the main surgeon. All surgeons indicated that they believe in pedagogical interest of this method. We succeeded in recording the main surgeon's point of view in 3D and watch it on a virtual reality headset. This new approach enhances the understanding of surgery; most of the surgeons appreciated its pedagogic value. This method could be an effective learning tool in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
E. Cabrera Sánchez
Full Text Available La Telemedicina es aplicable a todos los campos médicos, incluyendo la Cirugía. Poca atención se ha prestado a sus aplicaciones diagnósticas, de las que sin embargo, nuestra especialidad, en la que es perfectamente aplicable el antiguo proverbio chino "una imagen vale mil palabras", podría salir muy beneficiada. Esto permitiría una mayor reducción de costes con contundentes mejoras en eficiencia y calidad. Presentamos un modelo de Telemedicina tipo envío y almacenaje (store and forward desarrollado y aplicado en un hospital británico del sureste de Inglaterra desde hace 7 años. Comentamos las ventajas e inconvenientes del sistema y sus posibles aplicaciones en nuestro medio. Es un hecho claro que estas tecnologías van a producir un gran cambio en la sociedad y en el quehacer diario del médico durante la próxima década. Lo que hoy conocemos como Telemedicina, en breve perderá el prefijo "tele" porque la población entenderá este tipo de Medicina y de aplicaciones telemáticas como algo habitual. Sin duda, nuestra especialidad será una de las grandes beneficiadas de la aplicación de estas tecnologías.Telemedicine is available in any medical fields, including Surgery. Poor attention has been showed to diagnosis application. Nevertheless, Plastic Surgery, is a practice in which the application of the old chinese proverb: "A picture is better than thousand words", would be very benefited, reducing costs and improving efficiency and quality. We present a Telemedicine store and forward model developed and worked in a Plastic Surgery Unit of southern England for 7 years. We show system advantages and disvantages and its potential applications in our country. It's clear that this technology will be able to produce a great change in our society and in our daily medical activity in the next years. What today we knows as Telemedicine, in a few time will lose "tele" prefix, because people will understand as usual this kind of Medicine and
Svider, Peter F; Keeley, Brieze R; Zumba, Osvaldo; Mauro, Andrew C; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Malpractice litigation has increased in recent decades, contributing to higher health-care costs. Characterization of complications leading to litigation is of special interest to practitioners of facial plastic surgery procedures because of the higher proportion of elective cases relative to other subspecialties. In this analysis, we comprehensively examine malpractice litigation in facial plastic surgery procedures and characterize factors important in determining legal responsibility, as this information may be of great interest and use to practitioners in several specialties. Retrospective analysis. The Westlaw legal database was examined for court records pertaining to facial plastic surgery procedures. The term "medical malpractice" was searched in combination with numerous procedures obtained from the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery website. Of the 88 cases included, 62.5% were decided in the physician's favor, 9.1% were resolved with an out-of-court settlement, and 28.4% ended in a jury awarding damages for malpractice. The mean settlement was $577,437 and mean jury award was $352,341. The most litigated procedures were blepharoplasties and rhinoplasties. Alleged lack of informed consent was noted in 38.6% of cases; other common complaints were excessive scarring/disfigurement, functional considerations, and postoperative pain. This analysis characterized factors in determining legal responsibility in facial plastic surgery cases. Several factors were identified as potential targets for minimizing liability. Informed consent was the most reported entity in these malpractice suits. This finding emphasizes the importance of open communication between physicians and their patients regarding expectations as well as documentation of specific risks, benefits, and alternatives. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Paschold, M; Huber, T; Kauff, D W; Buchheim, K; Lang, H; Kneist, W
This prospective study investigated the effect of preconditioning in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and appendectomy (LA) based on pre- and postoperative virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL) performances, with specific regard to the impact of different motor skills, types of surgery and levels of experience. Forty laparoscopic procedures (28 LC and 12 LA) were performed by 13 residents in the operating room. Participants completed a defined set of tasks on the VRL simulator directly prior to and after the operation: one preparational task (PT), a virtual procedural task with emphasis on fine preparation (VPT) and a navigational manoeuvre for instrument coordination (ICT). VRL performances were evaluated based on the assessed items of the simulator. Overall analysis of the surgeons' performance demonstrated better postoperative results for PT and VPT in 28 and 26 cases (p = 0.001 and p = 0.034), respectively. No significant difference was found for ICT (p = 0.638). Less-experienced residents had better postoperative results for PT and VPT (p = 0.009 and p = 0.041), whereas more-experienced surgeons had better postoperative results for PT only (p = 0.030). LC resulted in better postoperative performance for PT (p = 0.007). LA improved performance for PT and VPT (p = 0.034 and p = 0.006, respectively). Comparisons of surgeon's experience demonstrated a significant advantage for more-experienced surgeons in ICT (p = 0.033), while type of surgery showed an advantage for LA in VPT (p = 0.022). There is a preconditioning effect in laparoscopic surgery. The differing results related to LC and LA and the experience levels of surgeons suggest that differentiated warm-up strategies are required.
Fried, Marvin P; Sadoughi, Babak; Gibber, Marc J; Jacobs, Joseph B; Lebowitz, Richard A; Ross, Douglas A; Bent, John P; Parikh, Sanjay R; Sasaki, Clarence T; Schaefer, Steven D
Establish the feasibility of a predictive validity study in sinus surgery simulation training and demonstrate the effectiveness of the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator (ES3) as a training device. Prospective, multi-institutional controlled trial. Four tertiary academic centers with accredited otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency programs. Twelve ES3-trained novice residents were compared with 13 control novice residents. Subjects were assessed on the performance of basic sinus surgery tasks. Their first in vivo procedure was video recorded and submitted to a blinded panel of independent experts after the panel established a minimum inter-rater reliability of 80 percent. The recordings were reviewed by using a standardized computer-assisted method and customized metrics. Results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Internal rater consistency was verified with Pearson moment correlation. Completion time was significantly shorter in the experimental group (injection P = 0.003, dissection P manipulation (P = 0.011), and made fewer technical mistakes during the injection task (P = 0.048) compared with the control group. The raters' post hoc internal consistency was deemed adequate (r > 0.5 between serial measurements). The validity of the ES3 as an effective surgical trainer was verified in multiple instances, including those not depending on subjective rater evaluations. The ES3 is one of the few virtual reality simulators with a comprehensive validation record. Advanced simulation technologies need more rapid implementation in otolaryngology training, as they present noteworthy potential for high-quality surgical education while meeting the necessity of patient safety. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Cindy; Scott Hultman, C; Diegidio, Paul; Hermiz, Steven; Garimella, Roja; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Lee, Clara N
What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis. Second, to test the conjoint using an internet crowdsourcing service (Amazon Mechanical Turk [MTurk]). Anonymous university members were asked, via mass electronic survey, to pick a surgeon for facelift surgery based on five attributes. Attribute importance and preference was calculated. Once pre-tested, the facelift, breast augmentation and combined breast/abdominal surgery surveys were administered worldwide to MTurk. The university facelift cohort valued testimonials (33.9%) as the most important, followed by photos (31.6%), reputation (18.2%), pricing (14.4%), and practice years (1.9%). MTurk breast augmentation participants valued photos (35.3%), then testimonials (33.9%), reputation (15.7%), pricing (12.2%), and practice years (3%). MTurk combined breast/abdominal surgery and facelift participants valued testimonials (38.3% and 38.1%, respectively), then photos (27.9%, 29.4%), reputation (17.5%, 15.8%), pricing (13.9%, 13.9%), practice years (2.4%, 2.8%). Breast augmentation patients placed higher importance on photos; combined breast/abdominal surgery and facelift patients valued testimonials. Conjoint analysis has had limited application in plastic surgery. To our knowledge, internet crowdsourcing is a novel participant recruitment method in plastic surgery. Its unique benefits include broad, diverse and anonymous participant pools, low-cost, rapid data collection, and high completion rate. © 2016 The American Society for
Seres, László; Kocsis, András; Varga, Endre; Raskó, Zoltán; Virág, Virág; Bagó, Balázs; Varga, Endre; Piffkó, József
Correction of a severe facial asymmetry presents a challenge due to the geometric complexity of the dentition, the bony structures and the soft tissues. In most asymmetric cases two-jaw surgery is recommended. Manual model surgery is an essential part of treatment planning but it can be complicated, time-consuming and may contain potential errors. We present a case of a 26-year-old male with a severe right-sided hemimandibular elongation when computerized simulation surgery was performed instead of manual model surgery. High-resolution computer tomography scan was done following presurgical orthodontics and the stack images were reformatted into a three-dimensional structure. The symmetry of the maxilla was corrected via a virtual Le Fort I osteotomy with the help of a three-dimensional planning software. A virtual intermediate surgical wafer was designed and fabricated with a three-dimensional printer. Virtual bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed and the mandible was rotated into the correct position to visualize the movements of the osteotomized segments. Real surgery was accomplished according to the virtual plan. The splint fitted well. There is a significant improvement in the facial symmetry; the occlusion is good and stable. This case supports the usage of computer-aided surgical planning and three-dimensional rapid prototyping for the correction of facial asymmetries.
Gavazzi, Andrea; Bahsoun, Ali N; Van Haute, Wim; Ahmed, Kamran; Elhage, Oussama; Jaye, Peter; Khan, M Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar
This study aims to establish face, content and construct validation of the SEP Robot (SimSurgery, Oslo, Norway) in order to determine its value as a training tool. The tasks used in the validation of this simulator were arrow manipulation and performing a surgeon's knot. Thirty participants (18 novices, 12 experts) completed the procedures. The simulator was able to differentiate between experts and novices in several respects. The novice group required more time to complete the tasks than the expert group, especially suturing. During the surgeon's knot exercise, experts significantly outperformed novices in maximum tightening stretch, instruments dropped, maximum winding stretch and tool collisions in addition to total task time. A trend was found towards the use of less force by the more experienced participants. The SEP robotic simulator has demonstrated face, content and construct validity as a virtual reality simulator for robotic surgery. With steady increase in adoption of robotic surgery world-wide, this simulator may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical mentorship.
Swennen, Gwen R J
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the timing for three-dimensional (3D) virtual treatment planning of orthognathic surgery in the daily clinical routine. A total of 350 consecutive patients were included in this study. All patients were scanned following the standardized "Triple CBCT Scan Protocol" in centric relation. Integrated 3D virtual planning and actual surgery were performed by the same surgeon in all patients. Although clinically acceptable, still software improvements especially toward 3D virtual occlusal definition are mandatory to make 3D virtual planning of orthognathic surgery less time-consuming and more user-friendly to the clinician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ricci, Joseph A; Desai, Naman S
Evidence-based medicine, particularly randomized controlled trials, influence many of the daily decisions within plastic surgery as well as nearly every other medical specialty, and will continue to play a larger role in medicine in the future. Even though it is certainly not a new idea, evidence-based medicine continues to remain a hot topic among members of the healthcare community. As evidence-based medicine continues to grow and evolve, it is becoming more important for all physicians to understand the fundamentals of evidence-based medicine: how evidence-based medicine has changed, and how to successfully incorporate it into the daily practice of medicine. Admittedly, the wide acceptance and implementation of evidence-based medicine has been slower in surgical fields such as plastic surgery given the difficulty in performing large scale blinded randomized controlled trials due to the inherent nature of a surgical intervention as a treatment modality. Despite these challenges, the plastic surgery literature has recently begun to respond to the demand for more evidence-based medicine. Today's plastic surgeons are making a concerted embrace evidence-based medicine by increasing the amount of out of high-level clinical evidence and should be encouraged to continue to further their endeavors in the field of evidence-based medicine in the future. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Hume, Keith M; Giladi, Aviram M; Chung, Kevin C
Federal research funding is decreasing, forcing specialty organizations to have an increasingly important position in developing and fostering research. As the research and innovation arm of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, The Plastic Surgery Foundation has a key role in supporting promising plastic surgery research. Understanding the grant review process and factors that contribute to funding well-written grant funding applications is essential for aspiring academic surgeons. All research grant applications submitted to The Plastic Surgery Foundation in 2012 and 2013 were evaluated. Each reviewer comment was assessed independently by two study team members and classified into key weakness categories. The chi-square test was used to compare results between funded and unfunded grants. Linear regression identified which critique elements corresponded to changes in scores, and logistic regression identified elements that predicted funding. The authors analyzed 1764 comments from 240 applications. Of these, 55 received funding. Funded grants had significantly fewer reviewer comments in four of five weakness categories. As expected, funded grants received better (lower) scores. Concerns in the categories of plan for execution and other elements/grantsmanship significantly affected score and odds of funding. Ensuring that a grant addresses all required elements is important for receiving a low reviewer score. Our study demonstrates that plan for execution and grantsmanship influence reviewer scoring more than others. Investigators must clearly address items associated with conducting their experiments and performing the analysis. Investigators must also give equal attention to elements of overall quality and completeness to optimize chances of funding.
Highton, Lyndsey; Lamb, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Aidan; Wood, Simon; Lees, Vivien; Winterton, Robert
We performed a comprehensive analysis of the operative experience of UK Plastic Surgery Trainees using the web-based eLogbook. An analysis of data recorded prospectively by Plastic Surgery Registrars 2010-2014 in eLogbook. The eLogbook data of 336 Specialty Registrars entered from 2010 to 2014 was analysed. Over the six-year training programme, trainees participated in a mean of 2117 procedures and performed a mean of 1571 procedures with or without supervision. We also determined the mean number of procedures for 14 indicative operative domains performed during training and compared these to current (2012) indicative numbers required prior to the award of a Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT). The eLogbook contains valuable data to determine the operative experience of UK Plastic Surgery trainees. This new data will be reflected in the updated indicative numbers required for CCT. Both trainees and trainers may use the data to monitor the acquisition of operative experience over time and target training where necessary. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Duquette, Stephen P.; Valsangkar, Nakul P.; Sood, Rajiv; Socas, Juan; Zimmers, Teresa A.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surgical training pathways on the academic performance of plastic surgical divisions. Methods: Eighty-two academic parameters for 338 plastic surgeons (PS), 1737 general surgeons (GS), and 1689 specialist surgeons (SS) from the top 55 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded academic departments of surgery were examined using data gathered from websites, SCOPUS, and NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. Results: The median size of a PS division was 7 faculty members. PS faculty had lower median publications (P)/citations (C) (ie, P/C) than GS and SS (PS: 25/328, GS: 35/607, and SS: 40/713, P < 0.05). Publication and citation differences were observed at all ranks: assistant professor (PS: 11/101, GS: 13/169, and SS: 19/249), associate professor (PS: 33/342, GS: 40/691, and SS: 44/780), and professor (PS: 57/968, GS: 97/2451, and SS: 101/2376). PS had a lower percentage of faculty with current/former NIH funding (PS: 13.5%, GS: 22.8%, and SS: 25.1%, P < 0.05). Academic productivity for PS faculty was improved in integrated programs. P/C for PS faculty from divisions with traditional 3-year fellowships was 19/153, integrated 6-year residency was 25/329, and both traditional and 6-year programs were 27/344, P < 0.05. Craniofacial and hand fellowships increased productivity within the integrated residency programs. P/C for programs with a craniofacial fellowship were 32/364 and for those that additionally had a hand fellowship were 45/536. PS faculty at divisions with integrated training programs also had a higher frequency of NIH funding. Conclusions: PS divisions vary in degree of academic productivity. Dramatically improved scholarly output is observed with integrated residency training programs and advanced specialty fellowships. PMID:27014543
Heuts, Samuel; Sardari Nia, Peyman; Maessen, Jos G
For the past decades, surgeries have become more complex, due to the increasing age of the patient population referred for thoracic surgery, more complex pathology and the emergence of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Together with the early detection of thoracic disease as a result of innovations in diagnostic possibilities and the paradigm shift to personalized medicine, preoperative planning is becoming an indispensable and crucial aspect of surgery. Several new techniques facilitating this paradigm shift have emerged. Pre-operative marking and staining of lesions are already a widely accepted method of preoperative planning in thoracic surgery. However, three-dimensional (3D) image reconstructions, virtual simulation and rapid prototyping (RP) are still in development phase. These new techniques are expected to become an important part of the standard work-up of patients undergoing thoracic surgery in the future. This review aims at graphically presenting and summarizing these new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
Chung, Karen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Davidson, John
To describe the origin and development of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Queen's University School of Medicine (Kingston, Ontario). Resarch ethics board approval and privacy agreements from the Kingston General Hospital (KGH, Kingston, Ontario) medical archives were obtained. Primary and secondary data sources were identified. A systematic examination of newspaper archives, research literature, KGH medical advisory committee meeting minutes, and testimonies from Dr Kenneth Wyllie and Dr John Davidson were obtained. In 1949, Dr Albert Ross Tilley arrived at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. There, Tilley initiated the Burn Unit at the KGH and began monthly teaching during the academic semester. Ken Wyllie (Meds '55), Lloyd Carlson (Meds '57) and John Emery (Meds '57) were the notable progeny of his early initiatives. In 1963, Kenneth Wyllie founded the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Kingston, Ontario, having completed plastic surgery training in Toronto and Edinburgh with experiences in Stockholm (Sweden), Paris (France) and Baltimore (Maryland, USA). He was shortly joined by Pat Shoemaker (Meds '66). John Davidson (Meds '82) arrived in 1989, bringing an interest in microsurgery and critical inquiry to the division. Five notable surgeons, Cartotto (Meds '88), Watkins, Watters, Meathrel (Meds '03) and McKay, further enhanced the Division's clinical and academic mission. The collective activity of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Queen's School of Medicine in its 66-year history has encouraged more than 40 others to pursue distinguished careers in the specialty throughout North America, including three past presidents of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons.
Phé, Véronique; Cattarino, Susanna; Parra, Jérôme; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Ambrogi, Vanina; Vaessen, Christophe; Rouprêt, Morgan
The utility of the virtual-reality robotic simulator in training programmes has not been clearly evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a virtual-reality robotic simulator-training programme on basic surgical skills. A simulator-training programme in robotic surgery, using the da Vinci Skills Simulator, was evaluated in a population including junior and seasoned surgeons, and non-physicians. Their performances on robotic dots and suturing-skin pod platforms before and after virtual-simulation training were rated anonymously by surgeons experienced in robotics. 39 participants were enrolled: 14 medical students and residents in surgery, 14 seasoned surgeons, 11 non-physicians. Junior and seasoned surgeons' performances on platforms were not significantly improved after virtual-reality robotic simulation in any of the skill domains, in contrast to non-physicians. The benefits of virtual-reality simulator training on several tasks to basic skills in robotic surgery were not obvious among surgeons in our initial and early experience with the simulator. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pham Dang, Nathalie; Lafarge, Agathe; Depeyre, Arnaud; Devoize, Laurent; Barthélémy, Isabelle
Premaxillary tooth loss and bone deficiency or atrophy often occur in facial trauma. Onlay bone graft and implants have so far been the best means of restoring function and esthetic appearance. Void space between the graft and the jaw bone, over projection and mucosal trauma can cause mucosal dehiscence, bone exposure, or resorption and can compromise implant survival. Virtual surgical planning using 3-dimensional printing technology has improved the efficiency of craniofacial surgery. The drawbacks of this technology are its cost and time-consuming preparation. However, the democratization of high-performance 3-dimensional printing and open-source software have enabled surgeons to master the procedure. The authors applied this innovative technology to customize bone graft for insertion of a premaxillary implant. It enabled us to custom-make the bone graft on the template and to perfectly embed the graft in the gap with a reduce operating time and a good osteointegration.
Jokuszies, A; Niederbichler, A; Herold, C; Dodic, T; Vogt, P M
In Germany, clinically and experimentally proven, evidence-based guidelines for the perioperative prophylaxis of thromboembolism in plastic surgery have not yet been developed. The ever-expanding complexity of microsurgical reconstructive procedures associated with the immense technical progress in the medical field have once more highlighted the urgent need for evidence-based guidelines. Moreover, this urgency is underlined by more and more complex reconstructive procedures needing to be performed in elderly patients presenting with grave comorbidities and the related high risk for thromboembolic events. These facts prompted us to review and discuss the relevance of the updated S3-guidelines on prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic events for the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery . The existing S3-guidelines represent the result of a consensus between 27 medical societies and organisations. Delegates of the German Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (DGPRAEC) also participated in this consensus process and the development of the guidelines, which provide evidence-based and clinically oriented recommendations for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism for operative and non-operative as well as outpatient and inpatient settings. In the results section of this paper, general and specific recommendations with regard to plastic and reconstructive surgery are outlined. Indications for the pharmacological prophylaxis of thromboembolic events are oriented on the specific risk categories for surgical interventions with regard to the dispositional individual risk factors. Furthermore, the recommendations for the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery are subdivided into the various regions of the body. Evidence-based recommendations for perioperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in plastic surgery are not available yet. The establishment of an algorithm to screen and estimate the procedure-associated risks for thromboembolism
Novelli, Giorgio; Tonellini, Gabriele; Mazzoleni, Fabio; Bozzetti, Alberto; Sozzi, Davide
Correction of post traumatic orbital and zygomatic deformity is a challenge for maxillofacial surgeons. Integration of different technologies, such as software planning, surgical navigation and stereolithographic models, opens new horizons in terms of the surgeons' ability to tailor reconstruction to individual patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze surgical results, in order to verify the suitability, effectiveness and reproducibility of this new protocol. Eleven patients were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were: unilateral orbital pathology; associated diplopia and enophthalmos or exophthalmos, and zygomatic deformities. Syndromic patients were excluded. Pre-surgical planning was performed with iPlan 3.0 CMF software and we used Vector Vision II (BrainLab, Feldkirchen, Germany) for surgical navigation. We used 1:1 skull stereolithographic models for all the patients. Orbital reconstructions were performed with a titanium orbital mesh. The results refer to: correction of the deformities, exophthalmos, enophthalmos and diplopia; correspondence between reconstruction mesh positioning and preoperative planning mirroring; and the difference between the reconstructed orbital volume and the healthy orbital volume. Correspondence between the post-operative reconstruction mesh position and the presurgical virtual planning has an average margin of error of less than 1.3 mm. In terms of en- and exophthalmos corrections, we have always had an adequate clinical outcome with a significant change in the projection of the eyeball. In all cases treated, there was a complete resolution of diplopia. The calculation of orbital volume highlighted that the volume of the reconstructed orbit, in most cases, was equal to the healthy orbital volume, with a positive or negative variation of less than 1 cm(3). The proposed protocol incorporates all the latest technologies to plan the virtual reconstruction surgery in detail. The results obtained from our experience
Mendez, Bernardino M; Chiodo, Michael V; Patel, Parit A
Virtual surgical planning using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has improved surgical efficiency and precision. A limitation to this technology is that production of 3D surgical models requires a third-party source, leading to increased costs (up to $4000) and prolonged assembly times (averaging 2-3 weeks). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, cost, and production time of customized skull models created by an "in-office" 3D printer for craniofacial reconstruction. Two patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction with the assistance of "in-office" 3D printing technology. Three-dimensional skull models were created from a bioplastic filament with a 3D printer using computed tomography (CT) image data. The cost and production time for each model were measured. For both patients, a customized 3D surgical model was used preoperatively to plan split calvarial bone grafting and intraoperatively to more efficiently and precisely perform the craniofacial reconstruction. The average cost for surgical model production with the "in-office" 3D printer was $25 (cost of bioplastic materials used to create surgical model) and the average production time was 14 hours. Virtual surgical planning using "in office" 3D printing is feasible and allows for a more cost-effective and less time consuming method for creating surgical models and guides. By bringing 3D printing to the office setting, we hope to improve intraoperative efficiency, surgical precision, and overall cost for various types of craniofacial and reconstructive surgery.
Parchi, Paolo Domenico; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Piolanti, Nicola; Andreani, Lorenzo; Condino, Sara; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Lisanti, Michele
Each year approximately 1 million total hip replacements (THR) are performed worldwide. A percentage of failure due to surgical approach and imprecise implant placement still exists. These result in several serious complications. We propose an approach to plan, to simulate, and to assist prosthesis implantation for difficult cases of THR based on 3-D virtual models, generated by segmenting patients' CT images, 3-D solid models, obtained by rapid prototyping (RP), and virtual procedure simulation. We carried out 8 THR with the aid of 3-D reconstruction and RP. After each procedure a questionnaire was submitted to the surgeon to assess the perceived added value of the technology. In all cases, the surgeon evaluated the 3-D model as useful in order to perform the planning. The clinical results showed a mean increase in the Harris Hip Score of about 42.5 points. The mean time of prototyping was 7.3 hours, (min 3.5 hours, max 9.3 hours). The mean surgery time was 65 minutes (min 50 minutes, max 88 minutes). Our study suggests that meticulous preoperative planning is necessary in front of a great aberration of the joint and in absence of normal anatomical landmarks, CT scan is mandatory, and 3-D reconstruction with solid model is useful.
Nica, Adriana Sarah; Brailescu, Consuela Monica; Scarlet, Rodica Gabriela
In the last decade, Virtual Reality has encountered a continuous development concerning medical purposes and there are a lot of devices based on the classic "cyberglove" concept that are used as new therapeutic method for upper limb pathology, especially neurologic problems [1;2;3]. One of the VR devices is Pablo (Tyromotion), with very sensitive sensors that can measure the hand grip strenght and the pinch force, also the ROM (range of motion) for all the joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist) and offering the possibility of interactive games based on Virtual Reality concept with application in occupational therapy programs. We used Pablo in our study on patients with hand surgery as an objective tool for assessment and as additional therapeutic method to the classic Rehabilitation program [4;5]. The results of the study proved that Pablo represents a modern option for evaluation of hand deficits and dysfunctions, with objective measurement replacement of classic goniometry and dynamometry, with computerized data base of patients with monitoring of parameters during the recovery program and with better muscular and neuro-cognitive feedback during the interactive therapeutic modules.
Full Text Available Introducción: Internet permite desarrollar un nuevo modelo de clase teórica basado en la enseñanza nopresencial y asincrónica. Objetivo: Publicación virtual de un tema de "Fundamentos de Cirugía" y evaluación de los resultados de uso y participación de los 80 alumnos matriculados. Material y Métodos: Se diseñaron tres partes: teoría, cuestionario de autoevaluación, y foro de preguntas. La teoría consistía en hipertexto y gráficos, con cuatro tipos de asistentes de aprendizaje: 1 remarcadores de información esencial; 2 información no esencial adicional; 3 mnemotécnicos; 4 ampliación conceptos complejos. El cuestionario consistía en diez preguntas. La pantalla de respuesta ofrecía las respuestas correctas comentadas, la puntuación del alumno, y los centiles de cada nota. El foro de preguntas se basaba en el servidor Ez-Board. El profesor sólo explicó el sistema y los aspectos principales de la lección. Los alumnos podían consultar el material indefinidamente y el foro de preguntas estuvo activo durante dos meses. Resultados: El sistema facilitó la clase por parte del profesor y fue muy bien recibida por los alumnos. Se contabilizaron 239 visitas en dos meses, originadas en la Universidad en 80% de los casos. 16 alumnos usaron el asistente interactivo explicativo. El cuestionario fue respondido por 52 alumnos: 36 alumnos 1 vez y 16 alumnos 2 o más veces. El foro recibió 337 visitas. Se hicieron 38 preguntas de alumnos y 46 respuestas del profesor y otros especialistas. Conclusiones: 1 Diseño y funcionamiento correcto; 2 Excelente acogida y participación; 3 Probable mejora en el aprendizaje y adquisición de conocimientos.Background: Internet resources allow the development of a new theoretical lecture model based on an on-line, asynchronous teaching method. Objective: To evaluate a virtual case presentation related to the undergraduate course "Fundamentals of surgery" through an assessment of its use by the eighty
Ungureanu, Anca Roxana; Ioniţă, Dan; Drăghici, Liviu; Andrei, Daniel; Enescu, Dan Mircea; Drăghici, Isabela Magdalena
The main role of the melanin production belongs to the keratinocyte-Langerhans-melanocyte complex that within a burn injury might be destroyed. A particular aspect has the pediatric patient with burns due to a deficit in pigment synthesis and particularities involving the growth process of facial structures. This article presents four eloquent cases of pediatric patients with sequelae, consequence of facial burns that varied in depth and etiology. The age of patients at time of admission was between four and 18 years, and the interval between production of the primary lesion and admission was variable (0-17 years). Conservative treatments prove to be insufficient, requiring the destroyed structures to be replaced with compatible tissue by surgical intervention. The therapeutic success of skin grafts and dermal substituents acknowledges the main role of plastic surgery. New technologies as well as new cell focused studies support the clinical proven results as well as they enlarge the spectrum of potential available therapeutic methods in order to obtain the best therapeutic results.
Full Text Available Authors, editors and reviewers, publishers, and subscribers all play their role in scientific journals. These 5 stakeholders are essential to journals. In this paper, firstly, I briefly summarize the role of each journal stakeholder and their respective goals. Secondly, the status of each participant in the Archives of Plastic Surgery is described. Finally, I propose an appropriate role and plan for each of them. Specific roles and responsibilities include the following: subscribers should welcome and submit the critiques of published papers in letters to the editor. Publishers should trust editors and provide them with adequate financial support for ongoing quality improvement of the journal. The editor-in-chief should be given a sufficient period of time-several years-to build up journal quality and train the incoming editor. The editors, including section editors, are also responsible for increasing the author pool. One editor might be designated a 'devil's referee', that is, a kind of devil's advocate with the responsibility of examining the originality of the manuscript, taking a skeptical view of the manuscript, and looking for holes in the methods and results of reported experiments. Authors' responsibilities include submitting manuscripts with scientific integrity and being ready to take responsibility for their articles even long after publication. Finally, reviewers' responsibilities include identifying similar articles not cited. Reviewers are also welcome to write a discussion on the article they review.
Ayyildiz, Erdem; Tan, Enes; Keklik, Hakan; Demirtag, Zulfikar; Celebi, Ahmet Arif; Pithon, Matheus Melo
The aim of the this study was to evaluate the perception of smile esthetics and alterations in cases of gingival plastic surgery for correction of a gummy smile, by means of alterations in smile photograph among dentistry degree students. A frontal smile photograph of a 40-year-old woman having normal occlusion was used with diverse compositions of gingival exposure level and crown length of maxillary teeth. The eight photographs were evaluated by 216 dentistry students in five class groups (1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), 4(th) and 5(th) classes). The results revealed that almost all of the class' students perceived differences between images, additionally, the highest percentage of students that answered "no difference" was 12% at 1(st) class' students. 1(st) and 2(nd) class' students most liked photograph which is 2.5 mm gingival display and 3(rd) class students liked two different photographs which are 2.5 mm gingival display and 2 mm gingival display whereas 4(th) class students preferred two different photographs which are 1.5 mm gingival display and 1 mm gingival display, 5(th) class students preferred photograph which is 1.5 mm gingival display as the most. Esthetic perception of smile improve as a student passes to higher study classes in terms of gingival exposure. The harmonious display of gingiva exhibits an important effect in the smile esthetics rather than reduced or excessive display.
Authors, editors and reviewers, publishers, and subscribers all play their role in scientific journals. These 5 stakeholders are essential to journals. In this paper, firstly, I briefly summarize the role of each journal stakeholder and their respective goals. Secondly, the status of each participant in the Archives of Plastic Surgery is described. Finally, I propose an appropriate role and plan for each of them. Specific roles and responsibilities include the following: subscribers should welcome and submit the critiques of published papers in letters to the editor. Publishers should trust editors and provide them with adequate financial support for ongoing quality improvement of the journal. The editor-in-chief should be given a sufficient period of time-several years-to build up journal quality and train the incoming editor. The editors, including section editors, are also responsible for increasing the author pool. One editor might be designated a 'devil's referee', that is, a kind of devil's advocate with the responsibility of examining the originality of the manuscript, taking a skeptical view of the manuscript, and looking for holes in the methods and results of reported experiments. Authors' responsibilities include submitting manuscripts with scientific integrity and being ready to take responsibility for their articles even long after publication. Finally, reviewers' responsibilities include identifying similar articles not cited. Reviewers are also welcome to write a discussion on the article they review.
de Sanctis, Massimo; Clementini, Marco
To identify critical elements in design and execution of coronally advanced flap, lateral positioned flap and their variations for the treatment of facial gingival recessions or peri-implant soft tissue dehiscences. Clinical studies were identified with both electronic and hand searches, and examined for the following aspects: flap design and incision techniques, flap elevation, root conditioning, flap mobility, flap stability and suturing. Moreover, prognostic factors for complete recession coverage were identified. Some critical elements are evident in flap design and execution: the dimension and the thickness of tissue positioned over the denuded roots; the use on root surface of enamel matrix derivate; the stability and suturing of the flap in a position coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The pre-determination of the clinical cemento-enamel junction, smoking status, operator surgical skills and the compliance to a supportive care programme have a role in obtaining and maintaining a complete root coverage. Different flap approaches are available when performing periodontal plastic surgery, resulting in a great variability in clinical outcomes. The possibility of using pedicle flaps alone to achieve complete soft tissue coverage of facial implant dehiscence has not yet been investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rockwell, William Tyler; Agbenorku, Pius; Olson, Joshua; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Agarwal, Jayant P; Rockwell, William Bradford
This article aimed to assess the sustainability from collaboration between international plastic surgery consultants and a hospital of a developing country in the promotion and delivery of quality health care to the local population. Humanitarian medical missions have evolved in structure and volume during the last 40 years. Medical mission trips were initially designed to treat local populations and help decrease the burden of disease. A limited number of the local population benefited from the mission. Some mission trips evolved from not only treating the local population but also teaching local physicians. These trips produced some local sustainability. Host physicians carried on a broader range of care after the mission trip had departed. Further evolution of these medical trips involves not only care and teaching but also involvement of host medical students and residents. Regularly scheduled Internet-based consultations and educational conferences expand the educational opportunities. The sustainability of medical trips based on this model is maximized. This process still has limitations: a limited number of the local population are treated during the in-country 1-week visits, Internet reliability may limit the transmission or quality of conferences, and differences in hospital resource availability may limit transference of US techniques to other hospitals.
Pluvy, I; Garrido, I; Pauchot, J; Saboye, J; Chavoin, J P; Tropet, Y; Grolleau, J L; Chaput, B
Smoking patients undergoing a plastic surgery intervention are exposed to increased risk of perioperative and postoperative complications. It seemed useful to us to establish an update about the negative impact of smoking, especially on wound healing, and also about the indisputable benefits of quitting. We wish to propose a minimum time lapse of withdrawal in the preoperative and postoperative period in order to reduce the risks and maximize the results of the intervention. A literature review of documents from 1972 to 2014 was carried out by searching five different databases (Medline, PubMed Central, Cochrane library, Pascal and Web of Science). Cigarette smoke has a diffuse and multifactorial impact in the body. Hypoxia, tissue ischemia and immune disorders induced by tobacco consumption cause alterations of the healing process. Some of these effects are reversible by quitting. Data from the literature recommend a preoperative smoking cessation period lasting between 3 and 8 weeks and up until 4 weeks postoperatively. Use of nicotine replacement therapies doubles the abstinence rate in the short term. When a patient is heavily dependent, the surgeon should be helped by a tobacco specialist. Total smoking cessation of 4 weeks preoperatively and lasting until primary healing of the operative site (2 weeks) appears to optimize surgical conditions without heightening anesthetic risk. Tobacco withdrawal assistance, both human and drug-based, is highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tomulescu, V; Popescu, I
The aim of this study is to establish if the results obtained in the evaluation of the candidates for the laparoscopic surgery competence using the LapSim virtual reality simulator are comparable with intraoperative evaluation. For this study has been evaluated in front of the LapSim and in the operating room a number of 12 surgeons who have achieved the criteria for laparoscopic surgery competence evaluation. The results of any one of the candidates have been evaluated, on Lapsim and by the exam committee in the operation room relating to four criteria: (1) utilization of 300 camera; (2) manipulation and coordination of laparoscopic instruments, suturing; (3) grasping and cutting; (4) clip applying. The evaluation has been made relating to the time need for every candidate to perform the asked task, and the subjective evaluation of the examining committee with marks from 1 to 10. The LapSim evaluation, in concordance with intraoperative evaluation managed to establish 2 candidates with deficiency in manipulation and coordination of laparoscopic instruments, and difficulty in the laparoscopic bidimensional field orientation. We consider this experiment only the beginning in the evaluation of the utility of virtual reality simulator in the training and examination of the results in laparoscopic surgery. We consider that large series of subjects with different levels of knowledge in laparoscopic surgery have to be evaluated to conclude if the benefit of laparoscopic surgery virtual reality simulator is the same as in airplane pilots.
van Oosterom, Matthias N; van der Poel, Henk G; Navab, Nassir; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B
To provide an overview of the developments made for virtual- and augmented-reality navigation procedures in urological interventions/surgery. Navigation efforts have demonstrated potential in the field of urology by supporting guidance for various disorders. The navigation approaches differ between the individual indications, but seem interchangeable to a certain extent. An increasing number of pre- and intra-operative imaging modalities has been used to create detailed surgical roadmaps, namely: (cone-beam) computed tomography, MRI, ultrasound, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Registration of these surgical roadmaps with the real-life surgical view has occurred in different forms (e.g. electromagnetic, mechanical, vision, or near-infrared optical-based), whereby the combination of approaches was suggested to provide superior outcome. Soft-tissue deformations demand the use of confirmatory interventional (imaging) modalities. This has resulted in the introduction of new intraoperative modalities such as drop-in US, transurethral US, (drop-in) gamma probes and fluorescence cameras. These noninvasive modalities provide an alternative to invasive technologies that expose the patients to X-ray doses. Whereas some reports have indicated navigation setups provide equal or better results than conventional approaches, most trials have been performed in relatively small patient groups and clear follow-up data are missing. The reported computer-assisted surgery research concepts provide a glimpse in to the future application of navigation technologies in the field of urology.
Wrzosek, M K; Peacock, Z S; Laviv, A; Goldwaser, B R; Ortiz, R; Resnick, C M; Troulis, M J; Kaban, L B
Virtual surgical planning (VSP) is a tool for predicting complex surgical movements in three dimensions and it may reduce preoperative laboratory time. A prospective study to compare the time required for standard preoperative planning versus VSP was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2014 through January 2015. Workflow data for bimaxillary cases planned by both standard techniques and VSP were recorded in real time. Time spent was divided into three parts: (1) obtaining impressions, face-bow mounting, and model preparation; (2) occlusal analysis and modification, model surgery, and splint fabrication; (3) online VSP session. Average times were compared between standard treatment planning (sum of parts 1 and 2) and VSP (sum of parts 1 and 3). Of 41 bimaxillary cases included, 20 were simple (symmetric) and 21 were complex (asymmetry and segmental osteotomies). Average times for parts 1, 2, and 3 were 4.43, 3.01, and 0.67h, respectively. The average time required for standard treatment planning was 7.45h and for VSP was 5.10h, a 31% time reduction (Porthognathic surgery cases. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roy, Dipanjan; Sigala, Rodrigo; Breakspear, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Jirsa, Viktor K; Deco, Gustavo; Ritter, Petra
Spontaneous brain activity, that is, activity in the absence of controlled stimulus input or an explicit active task, is topologically organized in multiple functional networks (FNs) maintaining a high degree of coherence. These "resting state networks" are constrained by the underlying anatomical connectivity between brain areas. They are also influenced by the history of task-related activation. The precise rules that link plastic changes and ongoing dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) remain unclear. Using the framework of the open source neuroinformatics platform "The Virtual Brain," we identify potential computational mechanisms that alter the dynamical landscape, leading to reconfigurations of FNs. Using a spiking neuron model, we first demonstrate that network activity in the absence of plasticity is characterized by irregular oscillations between low-amplitude asynchronous states and high-amplitude synchronous states. We then demonstrate the capability of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) combined with intrinsic alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations to efficiently influence learning. Further, we show how alpha-state-dependent STDP alters the local area dynamics from an irregular to a highly periodic alpha-like state. This is an important finding, as the cortical input from the thalamus is at the rate of alpha. We demonstrate how resulting rhythmic cortical output in this frequency range acts as a neuronal tuner and, hence, leads to synchronization or de-synchronization between brain areas. Finally, we demonstrate that locally restricted structural connectivity changes influence local as well as global dynamics and lead to altered rs-FC.
Luigi Di Rosa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the efficiency and usefulness of tridimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery for lesions of the maxillofacial region. This was comparison study between two groups of patients. Six patients underwent surgical reconstruction, using a three-dimensional model built on the basis of CT scans (group 1; and six patients underwent surgical reconstruction, without the use of a three-dimensional model (group 2. The following variables were evaluated: age, gender, histological diagnosis, cancer location, size of bone lesion, type of reconstruction, complications and surgical timing. A statistically significant difference was found in microsurgical flap survival (p = 0.019, with a survival rate higher in group 1 than in the controls. This study provides preliminary evidence and partially confirms the validity of three-dimensional technology in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The results so far obtained, however, lead to hope for future uses of this ever-increasing technique.
O. I. Startseva
Full Text Available Nowadays autotransplantation of adipose tissue is the most popular subject for research in the field of plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. Transplantation of adipose tissue is widely recognized as a common technique to increase the volume of soft tissues or for filling of soft tissue defects caused by trauma or the aging process. Injections of autologous fat are widely used in plastic surgery and regenerative medicine, as performed transplant sometimes gives unpredictable and too short due to partial necrosis or progressive resorption of fat (from 20 to 60% according to various authors. Many scientists who involved in plastic surgery around the world (USA, Europe, China, Japan has revised its Outlook on the problem of transplantation of own fat tissue in connection with the advances in cellular technologies. Currently, the main object of study in this area are growth factors, which can affect the degree of engraftment of the adipose tissue and make it more predictable. This literature review describes the experimental studies focused on the study of the angiogenic properties of SCAT (stem cells of adipose tissue and SVCF (stromal- vascular cell fraction and their use for the stimulation of neovascularization and improving the survival of fat grafts in plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The results of studies on the survival of fat autografts in animal and clinical studies with the combination of dif ferent methods that improve the vascularization of adipose tiss ue.
Daniel Francisco Mello
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze cases of degloving of the trunk and limbs, comparing outcomes of early versus delayed assessment by the plastic surgery team.METHODS: we conducted a retrospective analysis of medical charts. Patients comprised two groups: Group I - early assessment, performed within 12 hours post trauma; and Group II - delayed assessment, performed more than 12 hours post trauma. We defined primary grafting as the use of skin from the traumatized skin flap. We excluded cases involving hands, feet or genitalia.RESULTS: there were 47 patients treated with degloving injuries between 2002 and 2010. The mean body surface area affected was 8.2%. Lower limbs were the most frequently affected site (95.7%, whether alone or in association with lesions to other sites. Delayed assessment by the plastic surgery team occurred in 25 cases. Mean hospital stay was 36.1 days for Group I and 57.1 days for Group II (p=0.026. Regarding the number of surgical operations (skin grafts, Group I received a mean of 1.3, while Group II underwent 1.6 (p=0.034.CONCLUSION: based on length of hospital stay and number of operations in trauma patients with degloving of the trunk and limbs, plastic surgery assessment should be carried out early.
Hughes, Christopher; Wong, Anselm; McCormack, Susan; Castiglione, Charles; Pap, Stephen A; Silverman, Richard; Babigian, Alan
Plastic and reconstructive surgery provide a necessary and essential service to public health efforts in resource-poor regions around the world. Disease processes amenable to plastic surgical treatment significantly contribute to worldwide disability, and it is the poor and underserved who are disproportionately affected. We conducted a week-long plastic and reconstructive surgical trip to Latacunga, Ecuador to provide reconstructive surgical services for the underserved in this region. Over the course of a week, 97 patients received surgery. Most patients were young (mean age = 21.8 years) and 50.5% were female. Burns and burn scar contractures were the most common diagnoses requiring surgery(21.6%), but cleft lip and palate deformities, scars, nevi, and congenital ear deformities comprised a significant proportion of the case load as well (17.5%, 11.3%, 12.4%, and 10.3%, respectively). There was one postoperative complication requiring reoperation. This short-term surgical trip successfully delivered essential reconstructive surgical care to an underserved population in rural Ecuador. Although this is most certainly only a fraction of the true surgical disease burden within this population, our experience provides a testament to the need for essential reconstructive surgical services in developing nations around the world.
Kossler, Andrea L; Peng, Grace L; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Massry, Guy G
To assess current practice patterns for management of upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty by active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members. An invitation to participate in a web-based anonymous survey was sent to the active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery membership via email. The survey consists of 34 questions, both multiple choice and free response, regarding upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty surgery. Practice patterns for both aesthetic and functional blepharoplasty are assessed. Thirty-four percent (161/472) of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members polled responded to the survey. Members perform an average of 196 upper eyelid, 46 lower eyelid, and 53 four-eyelid blepharoplasty procedures per year, with 70% of cases being functional and 30% purely aesthetic. Most members prefer monitored care (71%) to local (21%) or general (8%) anesthesia. Eighty-nine percent of surgeons use topical antibiotics after surgery, erythromycin being the most common (51%). Fourteen percent of members use postoperative oral antibiotics, with cephalexin (81%) being most common. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty, orbicularis muscle is excised by 86% of respondents. Orbital fat is excised, when deemed appropriate, in 97% of cases, with nasal fat excised most commonly (88%). Less commonly, fat repositioning (36%) and adjunctive fat grafting (33%) are performed. In lower eyelid blepharoplasty, surgeons report using one or more of the following approaches: transconjunctival (96%), transcutaneous (82%), and both transconjunctival and transcutaneous (51%). Common adjunctive procedures include orbital fat excision (99%), fat repositioning (80%), and lateral canthal suspension (96%). Less common adjunctive procedures include laser skin resurfacing (36%) and chemical peels (29%). This report outlines contemporary practice patterns among active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and
Gaber, Ramy M; Shaheen, Eman; Falter, Bart; Araya, Sebastian; Politis, Constantinus; Swennen, Gwen R J; Jacobs, Reinhilde
The aim of this study was to systematically review methods used for assessing the accuracy of 3-dimensional virtually planned orthognathic surgery in an attempt to reach an objective assessment protocol that could be universally used. A systematic review of the currently available literature, published until September 12, 2016, was conducted using PubMed as the primary search engine. We performed secondary searches using the Cochrane Database, clinical trial registries, Google Scholar, and Embase, as well as a bibliography search. Included articles were required to have stated clearly that 3-dimensional virtual planning was used and accuracy assessment performed, along with validation of the planning and/or assessment method. Descriptive statistics and quality assessment of included articles were performed. The initial search yielded 1,461 studies. Only 7 studies were included in our review. An important variability was found regarding methods used for 1) accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery or 2) validation of the tools used. Included studies were of moderate quality; reviewers' agreement regarding quality was calculated to be 0.5 using the Cohen κ test. On the basis of the findings of this review, it is evident that the literature lacks consensus regarding accuracy assessment. Hence, a protocol is suggested for accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery with the lowest margin of error. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shi, JingSheng; Xia, Jun; Wei, YiBing; Wang, SiQun; Wu, JianGuo; Chen, FeiYan; Huang, GangYong; Chen, Jie
Dextroscope three-dimensional (3D) imaging has been extensively applied for generation of virtual reality (VR) workspaces for in neurosurgery and laparoscopy, though few applications in orthopedic surgery have been reported. Patients undergoing surgery for periarticular tumors (n = 10) from Oct. 2008 to Jun. 2010 were enrolled and presurgically subjected to computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI angiography (MRI-A). Imaging data was transferred and integrated in Dextroscope, producing a VR simulation. Resultant presurgical 3D anatomical reconstructions and intraoperative anatomical characteristics (virtual vs. actual data) and surgical approach (virtual vs. actual situation) measurement and subjective appearance were compared. Anatomical characteristics in the area of interest and tumor diameters were consistent between virtual and actual data. However, the virtual surgical situations remained inconsistent with the actual intraoperative situation in many cases, leading to complications. The resolution of original CT, MRI, and MRI-A images directly correlated with the quality of 3D simulations, with soft tissues most poorly represented. Tumor tissue imaging quality in 3D varied extensively by tumor type. Anatomical structures of periarticular tumors can be reconstructed using the Dextroscope system with good accuracy in the case of simple fenestration, increasing individualization of treatment, surgical competence level, and potentially reducing intraoperative complications. However, further specialization of VR tools for use in orthopedic applications that involve specialized tools and procedures, such as drilling and implant placement, are urgently required.
Mohammad Abbaszadeh; Faranak Aghdasi Elmi; Mosa Saadati; Morteza Mobaraki
In the last decade, especial attention is given to medical issues in medical sociology. One of the important issues is beauty as it is pursued by plastic surgery. Since in modern society appearance has become very important and some beauty standards are given extraordinary importance (whether right or wrong), a lot of people undergo many problems and difficulties to achieve beauty by plastic surgery. The present study provides a sociological analysis of tendency towards beauty as it is follow...
Valdés Olmos, R A; Vidal-Sicart, S; Giammarile, F; Zaknun, J J; Van Leeuwen, F W; Mariani, G
The popularity gained by the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in the last two decades did increase the interest of the surgical disciplines for other applications of radioguided surgery. An example is the gamma-probe guided localization of occult or difficult to locate neoplastic lesions. Such guidance can be achieved by intralesional delivery (ultrasound, stereotaxis or CT) of a radiolabelled agent that remains accumulated at the site of the injection. Another possibility rested on the use of systemic administration of a tumour-seeking radiopharmaceutical with favourable tumour accumulation and retention. On the other hand, new intraoperative imaging devices for radioguided surgery in complex anatomical areas became available. All this a few years ago led to the delineation of the concept Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT) to include the whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures required for providing a roadmap that would optimise surgery. The introduction of allied signatures using, e.g. hybrid tracers for simultaneous detection of the radioactive and fluorescent signals did amply the GOSTT concept. It was now possible to combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. This hybrid approach is currently in progress and probably will become an important model to follow in the coming years. A cornerstone in the GOSTT concept is constituted by diagnostic imaging technologies like SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT was introduced halfway the past decade and was immediately incorporated into the SLN procedure. Important reasons attributing to the success of SPECT/CT were its combination with lymphoscintigraphy, and the ability to display SLNs in an anatomical environment. This latter aspect has significantly been improved in the new generation of SPECT/CT cameras and provides the base for the novel mixed reality protocols of image-guided surgery. In
Resnick, Cory M; Inverso, Gino; Wrzosek, Mariusz; Padwa, Bonnie L; Kaban, Leonard B; Peacock, Zachary S
Virtual surgical planning (VSP) and 3-dimensional printing of surgical splints are becoming the standard of care for orthognathic surgery, but costs have not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost of VSP and 3-dimensional printing of splints ("VSP") versus that of 2-dimensional cephalometric evaluation, model surgery, and manual splint fabrication ("standard planning"). This is a retrospective cohort study including patients planned for bimaxillary surgery from January 2014 to January 2015 at Massachusetts General Hospital. Patients were divided into 3 groups by case type: symmetric, nonsegmental (group 1); asymmetric (group 2); and segmental (group 3). All cases underwent both VSP and standard planning with times for all activities recorded. The primary and secondary predictor variables were method of treatment planning and case type, respectively. Time-driven activity-based micro-costing analysis was used to quantify the differences in cost. Results were analyzed using a paired t test and analysis of variance. The sample included 43 patients (19 in group 1, 17 in group 2, and 7 in group 3). The average times and costs were 194 ± 14.1 minutes and $2,765.94, respectively, for VSP and 540.9 ± 99.5 minutes and $3,519.18, respectively, for standard planning. For the symmetric, nonsegmental group, the average times and costs were 188 ± 17.8 minutes and $2,700.52, respectively, for VSP and 524.4 ± 86.1 minutes and $3,380.17, respectively, for standard planning. For the asymmetric group, the average times and costs were 187.4 ± 10.9 minutes and $2,713.69, respectively, for VSP and 556.1 ± 94.1 minutes and $3,640.00, respectively, for standard planning. For the segmental group, the average times and costs were 208.8 ± 13.5 minutes and $2,883.62, respectively, for VSP and 542.3 ± 118.4 minutes and $3,537.37, respectively, for standard planning. All time and cost differences were statistically significant (P
Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative
Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pisella, Laure; Salemme, Roméo; Tilikete, Caroline; Pélisson, Denis
Saccades allow us to visually explore our environment. Like other goal-directed movements, their accuracy is permanently controlled by adaptation mechanisms that, in the laboratory, can be induced by systematic displacement of the "real" visual target during the saccade. However, in an anti-saccade (AS) task, the target is "virtual" because gaze has to be shifted away from the "real" visual target toward its mentally defined mirror position. Here, we investigated whether the brain can adapt movements aimed at a virtual target by trying, for the first time, to adapt AS. Healthy human volunteers produced leftward AS during three different exposure phases in which a visual target provided feedback after the AS. In the adaptation condition, the feedback target appeared after completion of the AS response at a location shifted outward from final eye position (immediate non-veridical feedback). In the two control conditions, adaptation was prevented by delaying (800 ms) the shifted feedback target (delayed-shift) or by providing an immediate but veridical feedback at the mirror position of the visual target (no-shift). Results revealed a significant increase of AS gain only in the adaptation condition. Moreover, testing pro-saccades (PS) before and after exposure revealed a significant increase of leftward PS gain in the adaptation condition. This transfer of adaptation supports the hypotheses of a motor level of AS adaptation and of a visual level of AS vector inversion. Together with data from the literature, these results also provide new insights into adaptation and planning mechanisms for AS and for other subtypes of voluntary saccades.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.
Raison, Nicholas; Ahmed, Kamran; Fossati, Nicola; Buffi, Nicolò; Mottrie, Alexandre; Dasgupta, Prokar; Van Der Poel, Henk
To develop benchmark scores of competency for use within a competency based virtual reality (VR) robotic training curriculum. This longitudinal, observational study analysed results from nine European Association of Urology hands-on-training courses in VR simulation. In all, 223 participants ranging from novice to expert robotic surgeons completed 1565 exercises. Competency was set at 75% of the mean expert score. Benchmark scores for all general performance metrics generated by the simulator were calculated. Assessment exercises were selected by expert consensus and through learning-curve analysis. Three basic skill and two advanced skill exercises were identified. Benchmark scores based on expert performance offered viable targets for novice and intermediate trainees in robotic surgery. Novice participants met the competency standards for most basic skill exercises; however, advanced exercises were significantly more challenging. Intermediate participants performed better across the seven metrics but still did not achieve the benchmark standard in the more difficult exercises. Benchmark scores derived from expert performances offer relevant and challenging scores for trainees to achieve during VR simulation training. Objective feedback allows both participants and trainers to monitor educational progress and ensures that training remains effective. Furthermore, the well-defined goals set through benchmarking offer clear targets for trainees and enable training to move to a more efficient competency based curriculum. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available For the image-guided surgery, the positioning of mobile C-arms is a key technique to take X-ray images in a desired pose for the confirmation of current surgical outcome. Unfortunately, surgeons and patient often suffer the radiation exposure due to the repeated imaging when the X-ray image is of poor quality or not captured at a good projection view. In this paper, a virtual reality (VR aided positioning method for the mobile C-arm is proposed by the alignment of 3D surface model of region of interest and preoperative anatomy, so that a reference pose of the mobile C-arm with respect to the inside anatomy can be figured out from outside view. It allows a one-time imaging from the outside view to greatly reduce the additional radiation exposure. To control the mobile C-arm to the desired pose, the mobile C-arm is modeled as a robotic arm with a movable base. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of appearance model and precision of mobile C-arm positioning. The appearance model was reconstructed with the average error of 2.16 mm. One-time imaging of mobile C-arm was achieved, and new modeling of mobile C-arm with 8 DoFs enlarges the working space in the operating room.
Milašinović Danko Z.
Full Text Available This paper describes a set of software tools which we developed for the calculation of fluid flow through cardiovascular organs. Our tools work with medical data from a CT scanner, but could be used with any other 3D input data. For meshing we used a Tetgen tetrahedral mesh generator, as well as a mesh re-generator that we have developed for conversion of tetrahedral elements into bricks. After adequate meshing we used our PAKF solver for calculation of fluid flow. For human-friendly presentation of results we developed a set of post-processing software tools. With modification of 2D mesh (boundary of cardiovascular organ it is possible to do virtual surgery, so in a case of an aorta with aneurism, which we had received from University Clinical center in Heidelberg from a multi-slice 64-CT scanner, we removed the aneurism and ran calculations on both geometrical models afterwards. The main idea of this methodology is creating a system that could be used in clinics.
Ribeiro, Rafael Vilela Eiras
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in plastic surgery and dermatology patients, by performing a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. The most relevant studies published originally in any language were analyzed. The literature search was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Scielo databases. The final sample comprised 33 publications that were submitted to meta-analysis. The study verified that 15.04% of plastic surgery patients had body dysmorphic disorder (range 2.21-56.67%); patient mean age was 34.54 ± 12.41 years, and most were women (74.38%). Among dermatology patients, 12.65% (range 4.52-35.16%) had body dysmorphic disorder; patient mean age was 27.79 ± 9.03 years, and most were women (76.09%). Both plastic surgeons and dermatologists must adequately assess their patients to identify those with a higher likelihood of body dysmorphic disorder and should arrange multidisciplinary care for such individuals. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Wilgenbusch, Chelsea S; Dust, Peter W; Sunderland, Ian R
The acute care surgery model has gained favour in general surgery, but has yet to be widely adopted in other specialties. An Acute Care Plastic Surgery (ACS) Service was recently implemented in the Saskatoon Health Region in an effort to improve trauma care. To evaluate the impact of ACS on the management of flexor tendon lacerations. The authors hypothesize that ACS has resulted in more timely intervention, improved outcomes and decreased 'after hours' surgery. A retrospective review of patients treated for flexor tendon lacerations from 2007 to 2013 was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on whether they received treatment before (group A) or after (group B) ACS implementation. Variables included dates and times of patient referral, consultation and tendon repair; postoperative complications; and admissions. A surgeon survey was administered on the perceived impact of ACS. Group A was more likely to have surgery performed after hours (P=0.0019) and be admitted to hospital (P=0.0211) compared with group B. Time from referral to consultation and injury-to-surgery interval were slightly increased post-ACS (Group B). Surgeons were highly satisfied with the new system, citing benefits to patients and surgeons. ACS was designed to improve trauma care, while favourably impacting surgeon workload. Surprisingly, the injury-to-surgery interval was slightly increased. However, this was not clinically significant and did not lead to increased postoperative complications. This finding was likely due to a favourable change in practice patterns observed after ACS implementation. ACS has resulted in fewer hospital admissions, decreased after-hours surgeries and improved surgeon satisfaction.
Makam, Ramesh; Rajan, C S; Brendon, Tulip; Shreedhar, V; Saleem, K; Shrivastava, Sangeeta; Sudarshan, R; Naidu, Prakash
In this article, we present the results of a pilot study that examined the performance of people training on a Virtual Reality based BEST-IRIS Laparoscopic Surgery Training Simulator. The performance of experienced surgeons was examined and compared to the performance of residents. The purpose of this study is to validate the BEST-IRIS training simulator. It appeared to be a useful training and assessment tool.
Xiaoyun Zhang; Xianlong Jin; Wenguo Qi; Yi Sun [High Performance Computing Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)
The finite element method, which has been widely used in crashworthiness analyses and structural optimization design, is not practical in the traffic accident reconstruction because of the limitation of computation ability. Elastic-plastic deformation of the vehicle and the collision object are the important information produced during the course of the traffic accidents, and the information can be fully utilized by using the finite element method to increase the computing precision. Now, with the development of high performance computing technology, the finite element method based on parallel computing could be used in the accident reconstruction, both the direction and the crash velocity of pre-impact could be found accurately, and these results can provide a scientific foundation for accident judgement. In this paper, one typical traffic accident was studied using the finite element method. According to the simulation results, the deformation of the key points on the frontal longitudinal beam and the mudguard could be measured in the post process of the software. By comparing the results of the real accident and the simulation tests, the best simulation test could be found, thus the most accurate relative angle and the initial velocity could be found. (orig.)
Albino, Frank P; Fleury, Christopher; Higgins, James P
Approaches to upper extremity anesthesia in hand surgery include regional blocks, wide-awake hand surgery with local anesthesia, and stellate ganglion blocks. Retrospective review of the literature from 2000 to 2014 published on the delivery of local and regional anesthesia during hand surgery. Included studies describe techniques of administration and treatment outcomes to identify common practices of pain management in hand surgery. Regional blocks provide sufficient anesthesia for hand surgery and have been found to improve postoperative pain and measured outcome scores. Wide-awake surgery offers many advantages including minimizing anesthetic risk and expense, permitting patient participation in operative evaluation, decreasing hospital time, and improving functional outcomes scores. Pain management in hand surgery can be achieved through regional blocks and wide-awake techniques that do not necessitate general anesthesia in an effort to improve safety, convenience, cost savings, and efficiency.
Mazzola, Riccardo F; Kon, Moshe
By the end of WWI, plastic surgery had reached unexpected heights. The high quality of the work done for soldiers with facial injuries and burns, either as an emergency or as a delayed procedure, demonstrated that this new discipline was honourable, worthwhile and socially crucial, thus deserving official recognition and independence. The establishment of new plastic surgery centres, scientific societies and specialised journals were the key to success for the achievement of this goal. In 1936, the Belgian Maurice Coelst (1894-1963) founded the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, the first supranational society, with the aim of gathering once a year all those interested in this new branch of surgery and favouring confrontation of ideas by showing innovative clinical procedures. The very successful first Congress with a large international participation was held in Brussels, with Coelst as the president, the second in London, in 1937, organised by Kilner and the third in Milano, in 1938, arranged by Sanvenero Rosselli. Even live surgery was performed during the meetings. The beginning of the WWII stopped the Societé's activities, which were never resumed. In the late 1980s, when plastic surgery reached its zenith, the necessity was felt to create a new supranational society, different in its purpose from the existing European Section of IPRAS, later European Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS), an organisation where all the official European plastic surgery societies merged automatically. The aim was to promote the excellence of plastic surgery in Europe, to furnish an annual forum for the selection of the best scientific works presented at national societies and to stimulate research and education at a European level. Established in 1989, 53 years after the foundation of the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, it was named the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS). The first scientific meeting took place
Kölch, M; Izat, Y
Physical deformities may cause psychological stress and lead to psychological disorders in children and adolescents. On the other hand, the correction of non-pathological conditions is a legal issue in patients unable to consent, a group that is partly made up of minors. This article provides an overview on available evidence on the psychological consequences of physical deformities, psychiatric contraindications for plastic surgery due to psychological disorders, and on the issue of minors' ability to consent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Piromchai, Patorn; Avery, Alex; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen
Virtual reality simulation uses computer-generated imagery to present a simulated training environment for learners. This review seeks to examine whether there is evidence to support the introduction of virtual reality surgical simulation into ear, nose and throat surgical training programmes. 1. To assess whether surgeons undertaking virtual reality simulation-based training achieve surgical ('patient') outcomes that are at least as good as, or better than, those achieved through conventional training methods.2. To assess whether there is evidence from either the operating theatre, or from controlled (simulation centre-based) environments, that virtual reality-based surgical training leads to surgical skills that are comparable to, or better than, those achieved through conventional training. The Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group (CENTDG) Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the CENTDG Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; ERIC; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 27 July 2015. We included all randomised controlled trials and controlled trials comparing virtual reality training and any other method of training in ear, nose or throat surgery. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We evaluated both technical and non-technical aspects of skill competency. We included nine studies involving 210 participants. Out of these, four studies (involving 61 residents) assessed technical skills in the operating theatre (primary outcomes). Five studies (comprising 149 residents and medical students) assessed technical skills in controlled environments (secondary outcomes). The majority of the trials were at high risk of bias. We assessed the GRADE quality of evidence for most outcomes across studies as 'low'. Operating theatre environment (primary outcomes) In