WorldWideScience

Sample records for virtual nucleon approximation

  1. Low-energy theorems for virtual nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung; Formalism and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korchin, AY; Scholten, O; VanNeck, D

    1996-01-01

    We present results for cross sections and response functions in virtual bremsstrahlung induced by nucleon-nucleon collisions NN --> NN + e(+)e(-), based on two different low-energy theorems, The first low-energy theorem is a generalization of Low's theorem for real-photon bremsstrahlung. The second

  2. Twist-4 photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivel, N.; Mankiewicz, L.

    2001-07-01

    We computed the twist-4 part of the photon spin-flip amplitude in deeply virtual Compton scattering on a nucleon in the Wandzura Wilczek approximation. We found a factorizable contribution, which arises from photon scattering on quarks with non-zero angular momentum along the collision axis. As the genuine twist-2 amplitude arises at the NLO, for moderate virtualities of the hard photon, Q^2 le 10 GeV^2, a kinematical twist-4 correction can give a numerically important contribution to the photon helicity-flip amplitude.

  3. The frozen nucleon approximation in two-particle two-hole response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ruiz Simo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast and efficient method to compute the inclusive two-particle two-hole (2p–2h electroweak responses in the neutrino and electron quasielastic inclusive cross sections. The method is based on two approximations. The first neglects the motion of the two initial nucleons below the Fermi momentum, which are considered to be at rest. This approximation, which is reasonable for high values of the momentum transfer, turns out also to be quite good for moderate values of the momentum transfer q≳kF. The second approximation involves using in the “frozen” meson-exchange currents (MEC an effective Δ-propagator averaged over the Fermi sea. Within the resulting “frozen nucleon approximation”, the inclusive 2p–2h responses are accurately calculated with only a one-dimensional integral over the emission angle of one of the final nucleons, thus drastically simplifying the calculation and reducing the computational time. The latter makes this method especially well-suited for implementation in Monte Carlo neutrino event generators.

  4. Two-nucleon emission in neutrino and electron scattering from nuclei: The modified convolution approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Simo, I.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical formalism of inclusive lepton-nucleus scattering in the two-nucleon emission channel is discussed in the context of a simplified approach, the modified convolution approximation. This allows one to write the 2p2h responses of the relativistic Fermi gas as a folding integral of two 1p1h responses with the energies and momenta transferred to each nucleon. The idea behind this method is to introduce different average momenta for the two initial nucleons in the matrix elements of the two-body current, with the innovation that they depend on the transferred energies and momenta. This method treats exactly the two-body phase space kinematics, and reduces the formulae of the response functions from seven-dimensional integrals over momenta to much simpler three-dimensional ones. The applicability of the method is checked by comparing with the full results within a model of electroweak meson-exchange currents. The predictions are accurate enough, especially in the low-energy threshold region where the average momentum approximation works the best.

  5. Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, IN2P3-CNRS ISMRA, 14 (France); Carstoiu, F. [IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bonaccorso, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of {sup 17}C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)

  6. Covariant spectator theory for the electromagnetic three-nucleon form factors: Complete impulse approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Sérgio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2009-05-01

    We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of 3He and 3H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as "Z-graphs," but omits other two and three-body currents. Finally, we compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)2.

  7. The virtual environment student. An initial approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Borges Sáiz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The quote at the start of the "Introduction" ("Education follows an agricultural timetable, has an industrial structure and operation and is set in an increasingly digitalised society" illustrates the need for an in-depth understanding of training in virtual environments. This understanding rests on knowing its central element: the student.This article invites the reader to take a look at the figure and the performance of the virtual environment student. One of the features of the twenty-first century is that of leading increasingly to a learning society, where citizens learn, formally or informally, throughout their lives. Technology sustains many of the behavioural and attitude traits of these citizens, although technology is only the first step; beyond this, the attitudes, skills and motivation required for successfully performing in a virtual environment are necessary.

  8. Medium energy nucleon-nucleus scattering theory by semi-classical distorted wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The semiclassical distorted wave model (SCDW) is one of the quantum mechanical models for nucleon inelastic and charge exchange scattering at intermediate energies. SCDW can reproduce the double differential inclusive cross sections for multi-step direct processes quite well in the angular and outgoing energy regions where the model is expected to work. But the model hitherto assumed on-the-energy-shell (on-shell) nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nucleus, neglecting the difference in the distorting potentials for the incoming and the outgoing particles and also the Q-value in the case of (p,n) reactions. There had also been a problem in the treatment of the exchange of colliding nucleons. Now we modify the model to overcome those problems and put SCDW on sounder theoretical foundations. The modification results in slight reduction (increase) of double differential cross sections at forward (backward) angles. We also examine the effect of the in-medium modification of N-N cross sections in SCDW and find it small. A remedy of the disagreement at very small and large angles in terms of the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix is also discussed. This improvement gives very promising results. (author)

  9. Error reduction technique using covariant approximation and application to nucleon form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Thomas; Shintani, Eigo

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the new class of variance reduction techniques for hadron propagator and nucleon isovector form factor in the realistic lattice of $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion. All-mode averaging (AMA) is one of the powerful tools to reduce the statistical noise effectively for wider varieties of observables compared to existing techniques such as low-mode averaging (LMA). We adopt this technique to hadron two-point functions and three-point functions, and compare with LMA and traditional source-shift method in the same ensembles. We observe AMA is much more cost effective in reducing statistical error for these observables.

  10. NLO corrections to the twist-3 amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation: quark case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivel, N.; Mankiewicz, L. E-mail: lech@cft.edu.pl

    2003-11-10

    We computed the NLO corrections to twist-3, L{yields}T, flavor nonsinglet amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation. Explicit calculation shows that factorization holds for NLO contribution to this amplitude, although the structure of the factorized amplitude at the NLO is more complicated than in the leading-order formula. Next-to-leading order coefficient functions for matrix elements of twist-3 vector and axial-vector quark string operators and their LO evolution equations are presented.

  11. Nucleon spin-averaged forward virtual Compton tensor at large Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard J.; Paz, Gil

    2017-05-01

    The nucleon spin-averaged forward virtual Compton tensor determines important physical quantities such as electromagnetically-induced mass differences of nucleons, and two-photon exchange contributions in hydrogen spectroscopy. It depends on two kinematic variables: $\

  12. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon.

  13. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model; Mesure de l'asymetrie de spin de faisceau en diffusion compton virtuelle polarisee sur le proton. Etude du spectre d'energie du nucleon par le modele de potentiel de type QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensafa, I.K

    2006-05-15

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2} = 0.35 GeV{sup 2}) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep {yields} ep{gamma} and ep {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for {pi}{sup 0}) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles ({gamma}{sup *}N {yields} {pi}N). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the {delta}(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  14. Transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton and a resulting model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhenyu

    2007-02-15

    In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  15. Co/Ni Ratio Between Is Approximately 0.35 - 8.0 GeV/nucleon from the TIGER-2001 Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Barbier, L. M.; Binns, W. R.; Cummings, J. R.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. N.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Rauch, B. F.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) was launched in December 2001 and 2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica and was designed to observe elements ranging from 14 < Z < 40 over an extended energy range. Observations of radioactive isotopes produced during explosive nucleosynthesis such as Ni-59 that decay only through electron capture provide important constraints on the delay between nucleosynthesis and the acceleration of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The isotopes of Co and Ni at low energies, in particular, the observations of the Ni-59 and Co-59 from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer, indicate a significant time delay (greater than 7.6 x 10^4 yr) between GCR nucleosynthesis and acceleration. While TIGER is not able to resolve isotopes, observations of the elemental abundances of Co and Ni at high energies further constrain models for the acceleration and propagation of GCRs. The 2001 & 2003 flights of TIGER lasted a total of approx. 50 days and collected sufficient statistics to study the Co/Ni elemental ratio over a wide range in energies. We present the elemental ratio of Co/Ni in galactic cosmic rays between approx. 0.8- 5.0 GeV/nucleon and compare these results with previous measurements and models for cosmic-ray propagation.

  16. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    decreased in the chiral limit. The present formalism allows within chEFT to perform a consistent comparison of the in-medium nucleon mass and the density dependence of the scalar condensate derived from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem (in HF and BHF approximation). A decoupling of the in-medium nucleon mass and the scalar condensate is observed. It turns out that in contrast to QCD sum rules the effective nucleon mass in matter is mainly determined by short-range contact terms while virtual low-momentum pions provide the essential contributions responsible for the reduction of the in-medium scalar condensate. (orig.)

  17. Nucleon Resonance Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2016-07-25

    Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

  18. Nucleon polarizabilities: From Compton scattering to hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelstein, Franziska; Miskimen, Rory; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of the nucleon polarizabilities and of their role in nucleon Compton scattering and in hydrogen spectrum. We discuss the basic concepts, the recent lattice QCD calculations and advances in chiral effective-field theory. On the experimental side, we review the ongoing programs aimed to measure the nucleon (scalar and spin) polarizabilities via the Compton scattering processes, with real and virtual photons. A great part of the review is devoted to the g...

  19. Deeply virtual compton scattering on the nucleon with the Clas Detector of Jefferson Lab: measurement of the polarized and unpolarized cross sections; Etude de la diffusion compton profondement virtuelle sur le nucleon avec le detecteur Clas de Jefferson Lab: mesure des sections efficaces polarisees et non polarisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, H.S

    2007-03-15

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), introduced in the 1990's, provide the most complete description of the structure (in quarks and gluons) of the nucleon. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), which corresponds to the 'hard' exclusive electroproduction of photons on the nucleon, is a key process among the reactions allowing access to the GPDs. A DVCS-dedicated experiment was carried out in 2005 with the CLAS detector of Jefferson Lab, using a polarized electron beam of 5.776 GeV and a hydrogen target. For this experiment, we built and used a dedicated electromagnetic calorimeter capable of detecting the final-state photon. The collected data allowed us to study the DVCS in the widest kinematic range ever accessed for this reaction: 1 < Q{sup 2} < 4.6 GeV{sup 2}, 0.1 < x{sub B} < 0.58, 0.09 < -t < 2 GeV{sup 2}. The work performed during this PhD includes simulation work done for the preparation of the experiment, timing calibration of one of the CLAS subsystems, and data analysis. The aim of the data analysis was the extraction of the unpolarized cross sections of the studied reaction and of the difference of the polarized cross sections, this latter observable being linearly proportional to the GPDs. The obtained results were compared to DVCS theoretical calculations based on one of the most up-to-date GPD parametrizations. (author)

  20. Virtual-source diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of photon-migration in low-albedo medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mengyu; Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Huijuan; Cui, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Lingling; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-26

    Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we herein report on an improved explicit model for a semi-infinite geometry, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to fit for low-albedo medium and short source-detector separation. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the near-field to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. This parameterized scheme is proved to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA approximation while considerably extending its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. The superiority of the proposed VS-DA method to the established ones is demonstrated in comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the source-detector separation and the medium optical properties.

  1. Nucleon-nucleon correlations, short-lived excitations, and the quarks within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Or; Miller, Gerald A.; Piasetzky, Eli; Weinstein, Lawrence B.

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews our current understanding of how the internal quark structure of a nucleon bound in nuclei differs from that of a free nucleon. The interpretation of measurements of the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect for valence quarks, a reduction in the deep inelastic scattering cross-section ratios for nuclei relative to deuterium, and its possible connection to nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei are focused on. This review and new analysis (involving the amplitudes of non-nucleonic configurations in the nucleus) of the available experimental and theoretical evidence shows that there is a phenomenological relation between the EMC effect and the effects of SRCs that is not an accident. The influence of strongly correlated neutron-proton pairs involving highly virtual nucleons is responsible for both effects. These correlated pairs are temporary high-density fluctuations in the nucleus in which the internal structure of the nucleons is briefly modified. This conclusion needs to be solidified by the future experiments and improved theoretical analyses that are discussed herein.

  2. Design of a polarized target made of pure HD: analysis and distillation of HD, resonant virtual Compton scattering on the nucleon at TJNAF; Developpement d'une cible polarisee de pur HD: analyse et distillation du HD, diffusion compton virtuelle resonante sur le nucleon a TJNAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchigny, S

    2004-04-01

    The first part describe my work on the frozen spin target project HYDILE. This target has to be made of very pure HD (Hydrogen Deuterium), better than 99.95%. However, commercial HD is never found with a concentration better than 98%. The goal was, then, to build an HD distillation facility which could produce pure HD. We describe, in this thesis, the design of the distillator and the implementation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor the HD purity during the distillation process. The second part of the thesis concerns the analysis taken at the electron accelerator facility TJNAF (Virginia, USA). We look at the electroproduction of Delta resonances involving Deep Virtual Compton Scattering (DeltaVCS). The interpretation of this reaction in terms of GPDs (Generalized Parton Distribution) can provide new insights to the nucleon structure. We focus on the measurement of the beam spin asymmetry which comes from the interference of the Bethe Heitler process with the DeltaVCS. (author)

  3. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Baptiste [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  4. Few-Nucleon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Michele

    The recent theoretical advances in the study of the statical and dynamical properties of few-nucleon systems are here reported, with particular attention to the research activities performed under the Italian MURST-PRIN project FISICA DEL NUCLEO E DEI SISTEMI A PIÙ CORPI. The latter studies also include the development of methods for dealing with pionic degrees of freedom, the determination of static properties of light nuclei, and the computation of few-nucleon reaction observables, including electroweak processes.

  5. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  6. Few-Nucleon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievsky, A.

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in the theoretical description of few-nucleon systems are reported. This research activity has been performed under the Italian project FISICA TEORICA DEL NUCLEO E DEI SISTEMI A MOLTI CORPI. Bound and scattering states as well as specific reactions are analyzed in connection with the current experimental activity.

  7. Closed form S matrix in terms of matter distributions and nucleon-nucleon interaction for heavy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Y.K.; Shastry, C.S.

    1984-10-01

    We derive an approximate analytical expression for the S matrix in terms of the parameters of the nuclear matter distributions and nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of folding model for heavy ion scattering. The numerical calculations carried out for /sup 18/O+ /sup 58/Ni scattering (E/sub lab/ = 60 MeV), a test case, agree well with the corresponding results of the phenomenological optical model.

  8. Nucleon-nucleon final state interactions in NN-->NNπ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubach, J.; Kloet, W. M.; Silbar, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Peaks in cross sections for the NN-->NNπ reaction at low relative momentum for the final nucleon-nucleon pair are successfully explained using 1S0 and 3S1 final state interactions. Both singlet and triplet final state interactions are important and can interfere dramatically in certain spin observables.

  9. Nucleon-nucleon final state interactions in NN NN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubach, J.; Kloet, W.M.; Silbar, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Peaks in cross sections for the NN NN reaction at low relative momentum for the final nucleon-nucleon pair are successfully explained using S0 and TS1 final state interactions. Both singlet and triplet final state interactions are important and can interfere dramatically in certain spin observables.

  10. Generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon in baryon chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensky, Vadim; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The nucleon generalized polarizabilities (GPs), probed in virtual Compton scattering (VCS), describe the spatial distribution of the polarization density in a nucleon. They are accessed experimentally via the process of electron-proton bremsstrahlung (ep→ epγ ) at electron-beam facilities, such as MIT-Bates, CEBAF (Jefferson Lab), and MAMI (Mainz). We present the calculation of the nucleon GPs and VCS observables at next-to-leading order in baryon chiral perturbation theory (Bχ PT), and confront the results with the empirical information. At this order our results are predictions, in the sense that all the parameters are well known from elsewhere. Within the relatively large uncertainties of our calculation we find good agreement with the experimental observations of VCS and the empirical extractions of the GPs. We find large discrepancies with previous chiral calculations - all done in heavy-baryon χ PT (HBχ PT) - and discuss the differences between Bχ PT and HBχ PT responsible for these discrepancies.

  11. Coupled-cluster calculations of nucleonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.; Ekström, A.; Wendt, K. A.; Baardsen, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The equation of state (EoS) of nucleonic matter is central for the understanding of bulk nuclear properties, the physics of neutron star crusts, and the energy release in supernova explosions. Because nuclear matter exhibits a finely tuned saturation point, its EoS also constrains nuclear interactions. Purpose: This work presents coupled-cluster calculations of infinite nucleonic matter using modern interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT). It assesses the role of correlations beyond particle-particle and hole-hole ladders, and the role of three-nucleon forces (3NFs) in nuclear matter calculations with chiral interactions. Methods: This work employs the optimized nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential NNLOopt at next-to-next-to leading order, and presents coupled-cluster computations of the EoS for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter. The coupled-cluster method employs up to selected triples clusters and the single-particle space consists of a momentum-space lattice. We compare our results with benchmark calculations and control finite-size effects and shell oscillations via twist-averaged boundary conditions. Results: We provide several benchmarks to validate the formalism and show that our results exhibit a good convergence toward the thermodynamic limit. Our calculations agree well with recent coupled-cluster results based on a partial wave expansion and particle-particle and hole-hole ladders. For neutron matter at low densities, and for simple potential models, our calculations agree with results from quantum Monte Carlo computations. While neutron matter with interactions from chiral EFT is perturbative, symmetric nuclear matter requires nonperturbative approaches. Correlations beyond the standard particle-particle ladder approximation yield non-negligible contributions. The saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter is sensitive to the employed 3NFs and the employed regularization scheme. 3NFs with nonlocal cutoffs exhibit a

  12. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  13. The structure of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Anthony William

    2001-01-01

    As the only stable baryon, the nucleon is of crucial importance in particle physics. Since the nucleon is a building block for all atomic nuclei, there is a need to analyse the its structure in order to fully understand the essential properties of all atomic nuclei. After more than forty years of research on the nucleon, both the experimental and theoretical situations have matured to a point where a synthesis of the results becomes indispensable. Here, A.W. Thomas and W. Weise present a unique report on the extensive empirical studies, theoretical foundations and the different models of t

  14. Pseudo resonance behavior in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.; Silbar, Richard R.

    1981-02-01

    In a relativistic unitary model for intermediate energy nucleon-nucleon scattering there are strong indications that the resonance-like looping behavior of the 3F 3 and 1D 2 amplitudes is not due to a resonance pole but to the coupling with the inelastic NNπ channel. In its most simple form the looping behavior is caused by a square root branch cut.

  15. Nucleon-nucleon resonance behavior in an exactly soluble model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The resonance-like structure in 1D 2 and 3F 3 nucleon-nucleon phase parameters at medium energy can be understood from the simple dynamics of coupling to the inelastic NNπ channel. In an exactly soluble coupled channel model the analytic structure of the scattering amplitude is studied in detail. The role of the NΔ branch cut and the presence and origin of dynamical poles is discussed.

  16. Nucleon-nucleon resonance behavior in an exactly soluble model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Tjon, J.A. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Theoretische Fysica)

    1983-01-17

    The resonance-like structure in /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 3/F/sub 3/ nucleon-nucleon phase parameters at medium energy can be understood from the simple dynamics of coupling to the inelastic NNsub(..pi..) channel. In an exactly soluble coupled channel model the analytic structure of the scattering amplitude is studied in detail. The role of the N..delta.. branch cut and the presence and origin of dynamical poles is discussed.

  17. Leading nucleons from peripheral processes in lepton deep inelastic scattering and the nucleon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, A

    1999-01-01

    The experimental information on nucleon production in lepton deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is rather scarce. Recently there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanism of the production of baryons in DIS, stimulated by recent results on leading protons and neutrons from electron-proton scattering at HERA. I review on different peripheral mechanisms of nucleon (proton or neutron) production in lepton DIS and discuss their role in understanding the spectra of nucleons for both fixed target and collider experiments. In DIS ep to e'Xh, the QCD hardness scale gradually diminishes from the hard scale, Q/sup 2/, in the virtual photon (current) fragmentation region to the soft, hadronic, scale in the proton (target) fragmentation region. This suggests a similarity of the inclusive spectra of leading protons and neutrons, h=p, n, in high energy hadron-proton collisions and in lepton DIS at small Bjorken-x. The semi-inclusive cross section for production of slow protons in charged-current deep inelastic (ant...

  18. Resonance estimates for single spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-07-01

    We discuss the target and beam normal spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering which depend on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon. We express this imaginary part as a phase space integral over the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor on the nucleon. We use unitarity to model the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor in the resonance region in terms of {gamma}* N {yields} {pi} N electroabsorption amplitudes. Taking those amplitudes from a phenomenological analysis of pion electroproduction observables, we present results for beam and target normal single spin asymmetries for elastic electron-nucleon scattering for beam energies below 1 GeV and in the 1-3 GeV region, where several experiments are performed or are in progress.

  19. Sum rules across the unpolarized Compton processes involving generalized polarizabilities and moments of nucleon structure functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lensky, Vadim; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We derive two new sum rules for the unpolarized doubly-virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) process on a nucleon, which establish novel low-$Q^2$ relations involving the so-called generalized polarizabilities (GPs) and moments of the nucleon's unpolarized structure functions $F_1$ and $F_2(x,Q^2)$. These relations facilitate the determination of some structure constants which can only be accessed in off-forward VVCS, not experimentally accessible at present. We perform an empirical determination...

  20. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  1. Electroexcitation of nucleon resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inna Aznauryan, Volker D. Burkert

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the investigation of the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances, both in experiment and in theory. The most accurate results have been obtained for the electroexcitation amplitudes of the four lowest excited states, which have been measured in a range of Q2 up to 8 and 4.5 GeV2 for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1535)S11 and N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, respectively. These results have been confronted with calculations based on lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD (pQCD), and QCD-inspired models. The amplitudes for the Delta(1232) indicate large pion-cloud contributions at low Q2 and don't show any sign of approaching the pQCD regime for Q2<7 GeV2. Measured for the first time, the electroexcitation amplitudes of the Roper resonance, N(1440)P11, provide strong evidence for this state as a predominantly radial excitation of a three-quark (3q) ground state, with additional non-3-quark contributions needed to describe the low Q2 behavior of the amplitudes. The longitudinal transition amplitude for the N(1535)S11 was determined and has become a challenge for quark models. Explanations may require large meson-cloud contributions or alternative representations of this state. The N(1520)D13 clearly shows the rapid changeover from helicity-3/2 dominance at the real photon point to helicity-1/2 dominance at Q2 > 0.5 GeV2, confirming a long-standing prediction of the constituent quark model. The interpretation of the moments of resonance transition form factors in terms of transition transverse charge distributions in infinite momentum frame is presented.

  2. Numerical Exact Ab Initio Four-Nucleon Scattering Calculations: from Dream to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. C.; Deltuva, A.

    2017-03-01

    In the present manuscript we review the work of the last ten years on the pursuit to obtain numerical exact solutions of the four-nucleon scattering problem using the most advanced force models that fit two nucleon data up to pion production threshold with a χ ^2 per data point approximately one, together with the Coulomb interaction between protons; three- and four-nucleon forces are also included in the framework of a meson exchange potential model where NN couples to NΔ. Failure to describe the world data on four-nucleon scattering observables in the framework of a non relativistic scattering approach falls necessarily on the force models one uses. Four-nucleon observables pose very clear challenges, particular in the low energy region where there are a number of resonances whose position and width needs to be dynamically generated by the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions one uses. In addition, our calculations constitute the most advance piece of work where observables for all four-nucleon reactions involving isospin I=0, I=0 coupled to I=1 and isospin I=1 initial states are calculated at energies both below and above breakup threshold. We also present a very extensive comparison between calculated results and data for cross sections and spin observables. Therefore the present work reveals both the shortcomings and successes of some of the present NN force models in describing four-nucleon data and serve as a benchmark for future developments.

  3. Universality of many-body two-nucleon momentum distributions: Correlated nucleon spectral function of complex nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Morita, Hiko

    2017-12-01

    Background: The nuclear spectral function is a fundamental quantity that describes the mean-field and short-range correlation dynamics of nucleons embedded in the nuclear medium; its knowledge is a prerequisite for the interpretation of various electroweak scattering processes off nuclear targets aimed at providing fundamental information on strong and weak interactions. Whereas in the case of the three-nucleon and, partly, the four-nucleon systems, the spectral function can be calculated ab initio within a nonrelativistic many-body Schroedinger approach, in the case of complex nuclei only models of the correlated, high-momentum part of the spectral function are available so far. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach such that the spectral function for a specific nucleus can be obtained from a reliable many-body calculation based upon realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, thus avoiding approximations leading to adjustable parameters. Methods: The expectation value of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian, containing realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family, is evaluated variationally by a normalization-conserving linked-cluster expansion and the resulting many-body correlated wave functions are used to calculate the one-nucleon and the two-nucleon momentum distributions; by analyzing the high-momentum behavior of the latter, the spectral function can be expressed in terms of a transparent convolution formula involving the relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions in specific regions of removal energy E and momentum k . Results: It is found that as a consequence of the factorization of the many-body wave functions at short internucleon separations, the high-momentum behavior of the two-nucleon momentum distributions in A =3 ,4 ,12 ,16 ,40 nuclei factorizes, at proper values of the relative and c.m. momenta, into the c.m. and relative momentum distributions, with the latter exhibiting a universal A

  4. Nucleon spin decomposition and orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    To get a complete decomposition of nucleon spin is a fundamentally important homework of QCD. In fact, if our researches end up without accomplishing this task, a tremendous efforts since the 1st discovery of the nucleon spin crisis would end in the air. We now have a general agreement that there are at least two physically inequivalent gauge-invariant decompositions of the nucleon. In these two decompositions, the intrinsic spin parts of quarks and gluons are just common. What discriminate these two decompositions are the orbital angular momentum (OAM) parts. The OAMs of quarks and gluons appearing in the first decomposition are the so-called ``mechanical'' OAMs, while those appearing in the second decomposition are the generalized (gauge-invariant) ``canonical'' ones. By this reason, these decompositions are broadly called the ``mechanical'' and ``canonical'' decompositions of the nucleon spin. Still, there remains several issues, which have not reached a complete consensus among the experts. (See the latest recent). In the present talk, I will mainly concentrate on the practically most important issue, i.e. which decomposition is more favorable from the observational viewpoint. There are two often-claimed advantages of canonical decomposition. First, each piece of this decomposition satisfies the SU(2) commutation relation or angular momentum algebra. Second, the canonical OAM rather than the mechanical OAM is compatible with free partonic picture of constituent orbital motion. In the present talk, I will show that both these claims are not necessarily true, and push forward a viewpoint that the ``mechanical'' decomposition is more physical in that it has more direct connection with observables. I also emphasize that the nucleon spin decomposition accessed by the lattice QCD analyses is the ``mechanical'' decomposition not the ``canonical'' one. The recent lattice QCD studies of the nucleon spin decomposition are also briefly overviewed.

  5. Finite volume effects for nucleon and heavy meson masses

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Lanz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We apply the resummed version of the L\\"uscher formula to analyze finite volume corrections to the mass of the nucleon and of heavy mesons. We show that by applying the subthreshold expansion of the scattering amplitudes one can express the finite volume corrections in terms of only a few physical observables and the size of the box. In the case of the nucleon, the available information about the quark mass dependence of these physical quantities is discussed and used to assess the finite volume corrections to the nucleon mass as a function of the quark mass including a detailed analysis of the remaining uncertainties. For heavy mesons, the L\\"uscher formula is derived both fully relativistically and in a nonrelativistic approximation and a first attempt at a numerical analysis is made.

  6. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  7. Covariant approximation averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  8. Nucleon structure observables with PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora EspÍ, MarÍa Carmen

    2017-12-01

    The PANDA detector will be built as a part of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt. The availability of an antiproton beam with beam momenta up to 15 GeV/c will make possible a broad nuclear physics program. Topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region, the property of hadrons inside nuclear matter, hypernuclear physics, or nucleon properties using electromagnetic processes are part of the physics program of PANDA. The main part of this contribution concentrates on the feasibility of measurement of nucleon structure observables, such as electromagnetic form factors or transition distribution amplitudes, via experiments using electromagnetic processes in PANDA.

  9. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialas, Andrzej [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Bzdak, Adam [AGH - Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  10. Hammer events, neutrino energies, and nucleon-nucleon correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation measurements depend on a difference between the rate of neutrino-nucleus interactions at different neutrino energies or different distances from the source. Knowledge of the neutrino energy spectrum and neutrino-detector interactions are crucial for these experiments. Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (SRC) affect properties of nuclei. The ArgoNeut liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (lArTPC) observed neutrino-argon scattering events with two protons back-to-back in the final state ("hammer" events) which they associated with SRC pairs. The MicroBoone lArTPC will measure far more of these events. We simulate hammer events using two simple models. We use the well-known electron-nucleon cross section to calculate e-argon interactions where the e- scatters from a proton, ejecting a pi+, and the pi+ is then absorbed on a moving deuteron-like $np$ pair. We also use a model where the electron excites a nucleon to a Delta, which then deexcites by interacting with a second nucle...

  11. Nucleonic coal detector with independent, hydropneumatic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Handy, K.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a nucleonic, coal interface detector which measures the depth of coal on the roof and floor of a coal mine is presented. The nucleonic source and the nucleonic detector are on independent hydropneumatic suspensions to reduce the measurement errors due to air gap.

  12. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...

  13. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  14. Nucleon structure studies with the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platchkov Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses hadron and lepton beams for nucleon structure studies. Most of the data collected so far with a muon beam and either proton or deuteron polarised target were analysed in terms of longitudinally or transversely polarised parton distribution functions and transverse momentum-dependent distributions in the nucleon. A negative hadron beam is used to perform Drell-Yan measurements. The COMPASS large polarised target gives access to several momentum-dependent singlespin asymmetries and provides a stringent test of the fundamental QCD factorisation assumptions. With positive and negative muon beams COMPASS also studies Generalised Parton Distributions using exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering and meson production experiments. An overview of the most recent COMPASS results is given. The expected physics outcome of the forthcoming measurements is discussed.

  15. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-11-13

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.

  16. A nucleon-pair and boson coexistent description of nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We study a mixture of s-bosons and like-nucleon pairs with the standard pairing interaction outside an inert core. Competition between the nucleon-pairs and s-bosons is investigated in this scenario. The robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena are examined through an analysis of pf-shell nuclei with realistic single-particle energies, in which two configurations with Pauli blocking of nucleon-pair orbits due to the formation of the s-bosons is taken into account. When the nucleon-pair orbits are considered to be independent of the s-bosons, the BCS-BEC crossover becomes smooth, with the number of the s-bosons noticeably more than that of the nucleon-pairs near the half-shell point, a feature that is demonstrated in the pf-shell for several values of the standard pairing interaction strength. As a further test of the robustness of the BCS-BEC coexistence and crossover phenomena in nuclei, results are given for values of even-even 102-130Sn with 100Sn taken as a core and valence neutron pairs confined within the 1d 5/2, 0g 7/2, 1d 3/2, 2s 1/2, 1h 11/2 orbits in the nucleon-pair orbit and the s-boson independent approximation. The results indicate that the B(E2) values are reproduced well. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375080, 11675071), the U.S. National Science Foundation (OCI-0904874 and ACI-1516338), U. S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0005248), the Southeastern Universities Research Association, the China-U. S. Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei (CUSTIPEN) (DE-SC0009971), and the LSU-LNNU joint research program (9961) is acknowledged

  17. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  18. Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is presented of experiments designed to detect parity nonconservation (PNC) in the interaction between nucleons. A recent measurement of PNC in proton-proton scattering is described, and some of the methods which were developed to reduce systematic errors to less than or equal to 2 x 10/sup -8/ are discussed. The results of this experiment and of other measurements on PNC are compared to theoretical predictions.

  19. Solution of two nucleon systems using vector variables in momentum space - an innovative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Saravanan

    An alternate formalism that uses vector variables to treat the two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equation for realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials in momentum space is discussed in this thesis. The formalism uses the symmetry properties of the nucleon-nucleon potential and expands the nucleon-nucleon potential in terms of six linearly independent spin operators. The alternate formalism discussed in this thesis brings to light the role of time-odd spin operators. The vector variable formalism's treatment of spin degrees of freedom heavily depends on the analytical computation of hundreds of algebraic expression. A mathematical framework and computer algorithms for an automated symbolic reduction of algebraic expressions into scalar functions of vector variables are explained in this thesis. The vector variable formalism requires nucleon-nucleon potentials that are in operator form as input. The configuration space nucleon-nucleon potential Argonne V18 is one such potential that can be used for relativistic energies if it can be computed efficiently in momentum space. This thesis develops an efficient numerical technique using Chebyshev approximation to compute the Argonne V18 potential in momentum-space. The tools discussed in this thesis, the algebraic system and the efficient computation of the Argonne V18 potential in momentum space are tested by computing the binding energy and bound state wavefunctions of the deuteron using the vector variable approach. The results were successful and the first step towards a higher goal of using vector formalism of the three-body Faddeev equations for intermediate and high energies has been made.

  20. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress towards a microscopic understanding of nucleon- antinucleon N/ovr N/ annihilation is reviewed. We consider statistical models, the constraints imposed by SU(2) or SU(3) flavor symmetry and the spin-flavor-color dependence of effective operators for the creation/destruction of quark-antiquark (Q/ovr Q/) pairs in N/ovr N/ annihilation processes. The importance of dynamical selection rules is emphasized as a means of revealing the underlying reaction mechanism. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  2. Generalized folding model for elastic and inelastic nucleus-nucleus scattering using realistic density dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, D T

    2000-01-01

    A generalized double-folding model for elastic and inelastic nucleus-nucleus scattering is presented. It is designed to accommodate effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that depend upon the density of nuclear matter in which the two nucleons are immersed. A recently parametrized density dependent M3Y interaction, based on the G-matrix elements of the Paris NN potential, has been used in the present folding calculation. The effects of knock-on exchange of the interacting nucleon pair are included in an accurate local approximation. Examples of the application of this model to study the refractive elastic and inelastic scattering data of sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 sup 2 C and alpha+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 0 Ni systems are presented. A detailed comparison of the use of deformed optical potential (DP) and microscopic folded potential in the analysis of inelastic scattering has shown that the use of DP fails to reproduce the inelastic sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 sup 2 C scattering data measured over a wide angular ...

  3. Tree-fold loop approximation of AMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-05-01

    AMD (antisymmetrized molecular dynamics) is a frame work for describing a wave function of nucleon multi-body system by Slater determinant of Gaussian wave flux, and a theory for integrally describing a wide range of nuclear reactions such as intermittent energy heavy ion reaction, nucleon incident reaction and so forth. The aim of this study is induction on approximation equation of expected value, {nu}, in correlation capable of calculation with time proportional A (exp 3) (or lower), and to make AMD applicable to the heavier system such as Au+Au. As it must be avoided to break characteristics of AMD, it needs not to be anxious only by approximating the {nu}-value. However, in order to give this approximation any meaning, error of this approximation will have to be sufficiently small in comparison with bond energy of atomic nucleus and smaller than 1 MeV/nucleon. As the absolute expected value in correlation may be larger than 50 MeV/nucleon, the approximation is required to have a high accuracy within 2 percent. (G.K.)

  4. Database of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Cross Sections by Stochastic Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A database of nucleon-nucleon elastic differential and total cross sections will be generated by stochastic simulation of the quantum Liouville equation in the...

  5. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  6. On the resonance structure in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.

    1981-10-01

    A possible explanation of resonance-like structure in 1D 2 and 3F 3 proton-proton phase parameters at medium energy is suggested by the analysis of an exactly soluble coupled channel model. Looping in the Argand plot is mainly due to the nucleon-delta branch cut. This effect is already present in the NΔ box diagram, but is modified by higher order multiple scattering. Poles occur close to the NΔ branch point and originate from left-hand singularities in the unphysical sheet.

  7. Population of 13Be with a Nucleon-Exchange Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Bradon; Deyoung, Paul; Smith, Jenna; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-unbound nuclei are traditionally formed by the removal of one or more nucleons from a fast beam of ions. This method often results in a background, which is difficult to separate from the particle of interest. Nucleon-removal entrance-channels also require the ion beam to be more massive than the particle of interest, which presents the additional challenges of the beam being difficult to make. The present work was done with a nucleon-exchange entrance channel. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, a 71 MeV/u 13B beam impinged on a 47 mg/cm2 thick target of 9Be. As a result numerous reactions occurred, including the population of 13Be through the nucleon-exchange entrance-channel. The 13Be nuclei decayed to 12Be and one neutron in approximately 10-21 seconds. The resulting neutrons were detected by either the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) or the Large multi-Institution Scintillator Array (LISA), while the 12Be nuclei were directed through an array of charged particle detectors by a 4T superconducting sweeper magnet. The four-momentum vectors of the fragment nucleus and the neutron were calculated to determine the decay energy of 13Be. Monte-Carlo simulations consistent with results from previous analyses of 13Be were satisfactorily fit to the decay-energy spectrum. Additionally, the cross-section for the nucleon-exchange entrance-channel is consistent with a theoretical prediction. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306074.

  8. Relativistic extended Thomas-Fermi calculations of finite nuclei with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M. (Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)); Ohtsuka, N.; Faessler, A.; Khoa, D.T.; Muether, H. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-7400 Tuebingen (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    A relativistic energy density functional is constructed to investigate the Dirac effects on different properties of the structure and scattering of finite nuclei. The kinetic energy density has been derived within a relativistic extended Thomas-Fermi model and includes gradient corrections to second order in [h bar]. The effective mass and the volume term of the potential energy density have been obtained from a local density approximation to Dirac-Brueckner calculations of nuclear matter carried out with a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. This volume term is supplemented by the Coulomb energy and by conventional phenomenological surface and symmetry terms, and the few free parameters of the functional are suitably adjusted. Attention is then focused on the calculation of fission barriers of rotating nuclei and of the complex optical potential for heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. It turns out that the effects of the density-dependent Dirac spinor which have been incorporated in this approach allow for a reasonable description of the investigated properties.

  9. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  10. Approximation Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Approximation Clustering. Clustering within (1+ ε) of the optimum cost. ε is user defined tolerance. For metric spaces even approximating is. hard (below, say 30%). Euclidean k-median in fixed dimension can. be approximated in polynomial time.

  11. Quark model for kaon nucleon scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kaon nucleon elastic scattering is studied using chiral SU(3) quark model including antiquarks. Parameters of the present model are essentially based on nucleon–nucleon and nucleon– hyperon interactions. The mass of the scalar meson σ is taken as 635 MeV. Using this model, the phase shifts of the S and P ...

  12. Two-Pion Production in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Heinz; Brodowski, W.; Bilger, R.; Calén, H.; Clement, H.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Häggström, S.; Höistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Kilian, K.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Oelert, W.; Pätzold, J.; Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Schepkin, M.; Scobel, W.; Seluzhenkov, I.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G. J.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zabierowski, J.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the two-pion production near threshold have been carried out at CELSIUS with the PROMICE-WASA detector for the channels pp → pnπ+π0, pp → ppπ0π0 and pp → ppπ+π-. For the latter channel the first exclusive data of solid statistics have been obtained. Within a conventional interpretation of the reaction mechanism they reveal pp → pp*(1440) → ppσ → pp(π+π-)I=ℓ=0 as the dominant process as well as significant contributions from p*(1440) → Δπ → p(π+π-)I=ℓ=0. The observed anisotropy in the proton angular distribution is consistent with heavy-meson exchange between the colliding nucleons.

  13. Reaction of Quasielastic Knock-Out of Nucleons From Nuclei by Protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirteymur MIRABUTALYBOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. On the basis of non-relativistic theory in the distorted-wave approximation in three dimensions, a theory of from nuclei by nucleons of intermediate energies has been developed. On the baizing on this theory the differential cross sections of quasielastic knock-out reactions of protons with shells 1 , 1   in the nucleus and  have been calculated, which allows to determine the orbital momentum of the nucleons in the nucleus before scattering by the angular distribution of emitted protons.Keywords: Reaction A (p, 2pB, distorted-wave approximation, and  nuclei.

  14. Pairing gaps in nucleonic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.M.C. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Clark, J.W. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Dave, R.D. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Khodel, V.V. (McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1993-04-05

    Singlet S-wave nucleonic superfluids are studied within a microscopic many-body theory that incorporates explicit spatial correlations due to strong short-range repulsive forces as well as the momentum-space pairing correlations of BCS theory. The theory is formulated within the method of correlated basis functions (CBF). Within this scheme, there results a nonlinear problem for the superfluid energy gap that is identical in form to the gap problem of conventional BCS theory. However, the input single-particle energies and pairing matrix elements are dressed by the short-range spatial correlations and accordingly incorporate an important class of medium corrections. The effective pairing force of the theory is finite even if the bare two-nucleon potential contains an infinitely hard core; both the pairing matrix elements and single-particle energies are to be constructed from normal-state CBF matrix elements and may be evaluated by cluster-expansion techniques. The theory is explicated and applied at a variational level that is equivalent to the leading order of a CBF superstate perturbation theory. New results are presented for the [sup 1]S[sub 0] pairing gap [Delta][sub kF] in pure neutron matter at densities relevant to the inner crust of a neutron star, based on a simplified version of the Reid soft-core interaction and spin-dependent spatial correlations optimized in the correlated normal state. Careful considering is given to the treatment of the gap equation at large intermediate-state momenta. The variational gap function evaluated at the Fermi surface, [Delta][sub F], is found to be larger than predicted in earlier work. Estimates of the suppression of the gap due to polarization processes (and other particle-particle and hole-irreducible medium effects of higher order within CBF superstate perturbation theory) yield values of [Delta][sub kF].

  15. Nucleon resonances in γ p →K*+Λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. C.; Wang, W. L.; Huang, F.; Haberzettl, H.; Nakayama, K.

    2017-09-01

    The high-precision cross section data for the reaction γ p →K*+Λ reported by the CLAS Collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have been analyzed based on an effective Lagrangian approach in the tree-level approximation. Apart from the t -channel K ,κ ,K* exchanges, the s -channel nucleon (N ) exchange, the u -channel Λ ,Σ ,Σ*(1385 ) exchanges, and the generalized contact term, the contributions from the near-threshold nucleon resonances in the s channel are also taken into account in constructing the reaction amplitude. It is found that to achieve a satisfactory description of the differential cross section data, at least two nucleon resonances should be included. By including the N (2060 ) 5/2 - resonance, which is responsible for the shape of the angular distribution near the K*Λ threshold, and one of the N (2000 ) 5/2 + , N (2040 ) 3/2 +,N (2100 ) 1/2 +,N (2120 ) 3/2 - and N (2190 ) 7/2 - resonances, one can describe the cross section data quite well, with the fitted resonance masses and widths compatible with those advocated by the Particle Data Group. The resulted predictions of the beam, target, and recoil asymmetries are found to be quite different from various fits, indicating the necessity of the spin observable data for γ p →K*+Λ to further pin down the resonance contents and associated parameters in this reaction.

  16. Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnadara, U.J.

    1992-12-01

    A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission at E[sub lab]/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with [sup 28]Si beams interacting on [sup 208]Pb). [sup 120]Sn. [sup 64]C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z[sub T] and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si [yields] p+[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si [yields] n+[sup 27]Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in [sup 28]Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],p])[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],n])[sup 27]Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in [sup 28]Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

  17. Confining quark condensate model of the nucleon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Michael; Tandy, Peter

    1992-07-01

    We obtain a mean-field solution for the nucleon as a quark-meson soliton obtained from the action of the global color-symmetry model of QCD. All dynamics is generated from an effective interaction of quark currents. At the quark-meson level there are two novel features: (1) absolute confinement is produced from the space-time structure of the dynamical self-energy in the vacuum quark propagator; and (2) the related scalar meson field is an extended q-barq composite that couples nonlocally to quarks. The influence of these features upon the nucleon mass contributions and other nucleon properties is presented.

  18. Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Nikolaus

    2008-04-15

    In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  19. Convergence of the hole-line expansion with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Jing; Li, Zeng-Hua; Chen, Chong-Yang; Baldo, M.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2017-10-01

    We calculate the three-hole-line contributions to the binding energy of symmetric nuclear matter in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone expansion using various modern nucleon-nucleon potentials of high precision. The relation with the correlation parameter κ =ρ Vcore is examined. In all cases the three-hole-line contributions turn out to be sufficiently small, but no satisfactory saturation is obtained. This means that three-nucleon forces are essential for all considered potentials.

  20. Particle production from off-shell nucleons

    OpenAIRE

    Bozek, P

    1998-01-01

    Particle production in equilibrium and nonequilibrium quantum systems is calculated. The effects of the off-shell propagation of nucleons in medium on the particle production are discussed. Comparision to the semiclassical production rate is given.

  1. Nuclear interaction and quark structure of nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catara, F. (Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy) Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Catania (Italy)); Sambataro, M. (Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy))

    1991-12-30

    We discuss a procedure to construct the nucleon image of a quark operator in a non-relativistic approach. The procedure is based on the concept of mapping and establishes a correspondence between a space of three-quark clusters and a space of elementary nucleons. As an example, we search for the nucleon image of a quark hamiltonian proposed by Oka and Yazaki. The nucleon hamiltonian is hermitian, non-local and N-body (if N is the number of clusters under consideration). We construct the two-body term of this hamiltonian and search for a local effective-interaction equivalent in a harmonic-oscillator basis to the quark-derived hamiltonian. (orig.).

  2. Nucleon form factors in the nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanyong; Lee, Jung Hun

    2018-01-01

    By using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we investigate various form factors between nucleons and mesons in a nuclear medium. In order to describe a nuclear medium holographically, we take into account the thermal charged AdS geometry with an appropriate IR cutoff. After introducing an anomalous dimension as a free parameter, we investigate how the nucleon’s mass is affected by the change of the anomalous dimension. Moreover, we study how the form factors of nucleons rely on the properties of the nuclear medium. We show that in a nuclear medium with different numbers of proton and neutron, the degenerated nucleon form factor in the vacuum is split into four different values depending on the isospin charges of nucleon and meson.

  3. Insights into nucleon structure from parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the substructure of the nucleon from global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). New high-precision data onW-boson production in p ¯ p collisions have significantly reduced the uncertainty on the d=u PDF ratio at large values of x, indirectly constraining models of the medium modification of bound nucleons. Drell-Yan data from pp and pd scattering reveal new information on the d¯-u¯ asymmetry, clarifying the role of chiral symmetry breaking in the nucleon. In the strange sector, a new chiral SU(3) analysis finds a valence-like component of the strange-quark PDF, giving rise to a nontrivial s- ¯ s asymmetry at moderate x values. We also review recent analyses of charm in the nucleon, which have found conflicting indications of the size of the nonperturbative charm component.

  4. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Carl E. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  5. Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: Transverse-Longitudinal Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udias, J. M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, (Spain); Caballero, J. A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla, (Spain); Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Amaro, J. E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, (Spain); Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1999-12-27

    Predictions for electron induced proton knockout from p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented using various approximations for the relativistic nucleonic current. Results for differential cross section, transverse-longitudinal response (R{sub TL} ), and left-right asymmetry A{sub TL} are compared at |Q{sup 2}|=0.8(GeV/c){sup 2} . We show that there are important dynamical and kinematical relativistic effects which can be tested by experiment. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  6. Nucleon distribution amplitudes from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Kaltenbrunner, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others)

    2008-04-15

    We calculate low moments of the leading-twist and next-to-leading twist nucleon distribution amplitudes on the lattice using two flavors of clover fermions. The results are presented in the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV and can be immediately applied in phenomenological studies. We find that the deviation of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form is less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. (orig.)

  7. A review of the nucleon-nucleon Paris potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiseau, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire. Div. de Physiqe Theorique

    1997-12-31

    In this talk, after an introduction pointing out recent activity to explain the NN interaction in a more fundamental manner from the chiral symmetry of QCD, we present a preview of the NN Paris potential. We demonstrate the evidence for the one-pion exchange (OPE) in NN by analyzing neutron-proton (np) charge exchange differential cross section. This allows to determine the charged {pi} NN coupling constant. We recall how the next longest range force after that of OPE, i.e. that of the 2{pi} exchange, is calculated. Analiticity and unitarity allow to use dispersion relations. They express the NN amplitudes in terms of {pi}N and {pi}{pi} amplitudes. We then define the 2{pi}-exchange potential to be used in the Schroedinger equation. The unknown short range part where heavier meson exchanges and/or quark degree of freedom becomes important is parametrized and fitted to the data. In few body reactions one often needs initial or final state NN interactions. Those can be described in terms of scattering wave functions. A parametrization of the np scattering wave functions is given. We show how dispersion relations can be used to calculate NN peripheral inelasticities from {pi}N scattering amplitudes up to kinetic energies of 2.5 GeV. The quark degree of freedom is considered. We first test a short range quark cluster model supplemented by the long range Paris potential. We then describe a model for np scattering when we consider pion exchanges between the quarks constituents of the nucleon. Some recent nuclear calculations with the Paris potential are reviewed. In the conclusion we remark that dispersion relations constitute a constraint for any theory, in particular for recent chiral approaches, the long range of which should be compared to that of the Paris potential. An up to date Paris potential with chiral constraints from QCD will be welcome. (author) 70 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Dilepton production in nucleon–nucleon collisions around 1 GeV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a fully relativistic and gauge invariant framework for calculating the cross-sections of dilepton production in nucleon–nucleon (NN) collisions which is based on the meson-exchange approximation for the NN scattering amplitudes. Predictions of our model are compared with those of other covariant ...

  9. Dilepton production in nucleon–nucleon collisions around 1 GeV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We present a fully relativistic and gauge invariant framework for calculating the cross-sections of dilepton production in nucleon–nucleon ( ) collisions which is based on the meson-exchange approximation for the scattering amplitudes. Predictions of our model are compared with those of other ...

  10. Signatures of three-nucleon interactions in few-nucleon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Epelbaum, E.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Nogga, A.

    Recent experimental results in three-body systems have unambiguously shown that calculations based only on nucleon-nucleon forces fail to accurately describe many experimental observables and one needs to include effects which are beyond the realm of the two-body potentials. This conclusion owes its

  11. Virtual patrolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, M.; Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; van Beek, P.; Suijs, L.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25 per cent of all congestion on motorways is caused by incidents. By virtual patrolling, incidents e.g. queues, accidents and car breakdowns on a road network, can be predicted or detected in an early stage. This early detection and prediction of an incident likely to happen, offers

  12. Virtual patrolling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, M.; Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; van Beek, P.; Suijs, L.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25 per cent of all congestion on motorways is caused by incidents. By virtual patrolling, incidents e.g. queues, accidents and car breakdowns on a road network, can be predicted or detected in an early stage. This early detection and prediction of an incident likely to happen, offers

  13. Effect of nucleon and hadron structure changes in-medium and its impact on observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Saito; K. Tsushima; A.W. Thomas

    2005-07-05

    We study the effect of hadron structure changes in a nuclear medium using the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. The QMC model is based on a mean field description of non-overlapping nucleon (or baryon) bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons in the isoscalar and isovector channels. The model is extended to investigate the properties of finite nuclei, in which, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to describe the interacting quark-meson system, one can derive the effective equation of motion for the nucleon (or baryon), as well as the self-consistent equations for the meson mean fields.

  14. Isospin mixing in the nucleon and He-4 and the nucleon strange electric form-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Viviani; R. Schiavilla; B. Kubis; R. Lewis; L. Girlanda; A. Kievsky; L.E. Marcucci; S. Rosati

    2007-09-01

    In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4He(\\vec e,e')4He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4He. We examine this issue in the present letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. A careful analysis of the model dependence in the resulting predictions for the nucleon and nuclear ISB contributions to the asymmetry is carried out. We conclude that, at the low momentum transfers of interest in recent measurements reported by the HAPPEX collaboration at Jefferson Lab, these contributions are of comparable magnitude to those associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor.

  15. Global characteristics of oxygen and sulfur interactions in emulsion at 200 GeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kawiory 26A, 30-055 Krakow (Poland)); Cherry, M.L.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, J.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)); Freier, P.S.; Waddington, C.J. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)); The KLM Collaboration

    1993-06-15

    Oxygen and sulfur nuclei with energies of 200 GeV/nucleon from CERN (experiment EMU07) interacted in nuclear emulsions, which were scanned with minimum bias criteria so that essentially all the interactions are detected. Approximately 1000 interactions of each projectile have been analyzed. Results on the multiplicity distributions of produced particles and their pseudorapidity distributions are presented. The mean number of intranuclear collisions occurring in each interaction, calculated from a superposition model, provides a useful parameter to organize the data. No significant deviations are found, even at these energies, from models such as the Venus'' model, of the nucleus---nucleus interactions as being the superposition of individual nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  16. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  17. Hard exclusive pseudoscalar meson electroproduction and spin structure of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, L. L.; Pobylitsa, P. V.; Polyakov, M. V.; Strikman, M.

    1999-07-01

    The amplitude for hard exclusive pseudoscalar meson electroproduction off nucleon (nuclear) targets is computed in QCD within the leading αslnQ2/Λ2QCD approximation. We show that the distribution of recoil nucleons depends strongly on the angle between the momentum of the recoil nucleon and the polarization vector of the target (or outgoing nucleon). This dependence is especially sensitive to the spin flip skewed parton distribution (SPD) E~. We argue also that the scaling for this spin asymmetry sets in at lower Q2 than that for the absolute cross section. Based on the chiral quark-soliton model of the nucleon we estimate quantitatively the spin asymmetry. In the case of π+ production this asymmetry is dominated at small t by the contribution of the pion pole in the isovector SPD E~ as required by PCAC. In the case of K0 production off a proton we find a large enhancement of the cross section as compared to the case of π0 production. For the forward production of neutral pseudoscalar mesons off a deuteron target we find the cross section should be zero for the zero deuteron helicity (along the γ*D direction). We consider also cross sections of quasielastic processes off nuclei including the feasibility to implant K+,ρ mesons into nuclear volume.

  18. Models of direct reactions and quantum pre-equilibrium for nucleon scattering on spherical nuclei; Modeles de reactions directes et de pre-equilibre quantique pour la diffusion de nucleons sur des noyaux spheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.

    2006-01-15

    When a nucleon collides with a target nucleus, several reactions may occur: elastic and inelastic scatterings, charge exchange... In order to describe these reactions, different models are involved: the direct reactions, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus models. Our goal is to study, within a quantum framework and without any adjustable parameter, the direct and pre-equilibrium reactions for nucleons scatterings off double closed-shell nuclei. We first consider direct reactions: we are studying nucleon scattering with the Melbourne G-matrix, which represents the interaction between the projectile and one target nucleon, and with random phase approximation (RPA) wave functions which describe all target states. This is a fully microscopic approach since no adjustable parameters are involved. A second part is dedicated to the study of nucleon inelastic scattering for large energy transfer which necessarily involves the pre-equilibrium mechanism. Several models have been developed in the past to deal with pre-equilibrium. They start from the Born expansion of the transition amplitude which is associated to the inelastic process and they use several approximations which have not yet been tested. We have achieved some comparisons between second order cross sections which have been calculated with and without these approximations. Our results allow us to criticize some of these approximations and give several directions to improve the quantum pre-equilibrium models. (author)

  19. The strange spin of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.; Ellis, John; Karliner, Marek

    1997-01-01

    The recent series of experiments on polarized lepton-nucleon scattering have provided a strange new twist in the story of the nucleon, some of whose aspects are reviewed in these lectures. In the first lecture, we review some issues arising in the analysis of the data on polarized structure functions, focusing in particular on the importance and treatment of high-order QCD perturbation theory. In the second lecture some possible interpretations of the ``EMC spin effect" are reviewed, principally in the chiral soliton (Skyrmion) approach, but also interpretations related to the axial U(1) anomaly. This lecture also discusses other indications from recent LEAR data for an \\bar{s} s component in the nucleon wave function, and discusses test of a model for this component. Finally, the third lecture reviews the implications of polarized structure functions measurements for experiments to search for cold dark matter particles, such as the lightest supersymmetric particle and the axion, after reviewing briefly the a...

  20. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Keh-Fei [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Draper, Terrence [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-08-30

    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan that "understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics." Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out first-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large-scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors -- electromagnetic, axial-vector, πNN, and scalar form factors, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment, the quark orbital angular momentum, the quark momentum fraction, and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum. The first round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the `quenched' approximation where the dynamical effects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge configurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at ~ 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors, charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the Ds meson decay constant fDs, the strangeness and charmness, the meson mass

  1. Three-nucleon reactions with chiral dynamics*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Faddeev calculations using the chiral three-nucleon force at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order show that this force is not able to provide an explanation for the low-energy Ay puzzle. Also the large discrepancies between data and theory for the symmetric-space-star and for the neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering cross sections in low energy neutron-deuteron breakup cannot be explained by that three-nucleon force. The discrepancy for the neutron-neutron quasi-free-scattering cross section seems to require a modification of the 1S0 neutron-neutron force.

  2. Light-cone sum rules for the nucleon form factors in NLO; Lichtkegelsummenregeln fuer die Formfaktoren des Nukleons in NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Gerhard

    2008-05-15

    In this work the leading-twist next-to-leading order (NLO) correction to the light-cone sum rules prediction for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon are calculated. Here the Ioffe nucleon interpolation current is used and it is worked in the M{sub N}=0 approximation, with M{sub N} being the mass of the nucleon. In this approximation, only the Pauli form factor F{sub 2} receives a correction and the calculated correction is quite sizable. The numerical results for the proton form factors show the improved agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore the problems encountered when going away from M{sub N}=0 approximation at NLO, as well as, gauge invariance of the perturbative results are discussed. This work presents the first step towards the NLO accuracy in the light-cone sum rules for baryon form factors. (orig.)

  3. Three-nucleon scattering by using chiral perturbation theory potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Kita-kyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Three-nucleon scattering problems are studied by using two-nucleon and three-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory. The three-nucleon term is shown to appear in the effective potential of the rank of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). New three-nucleon forces are taken into consideration in addition to the conventional Fujita-Miyazawa (FM) type three-nucleon potential. Two-nucleon potential of the chiral perturbation theory is as precise as the conventional ones in low energy region. The FM type three-nucleon force which explains Sagara discrepancy in high energy region is introduced automatically. Concerning the Ay puzzle, the results seems to behave as if the puzzle has been solved at the level of NLO, but at the NNLO (without three-nucleon force) level the result is similar to the cases of conventional potential indicating the need of three-nucleon force. In contrast to the FM type three-nucleon force, five free parameters exist in the new D and E type three-nucleon forces introduced by the NNLO, but they are reduced to two independent parameters by antisymmetrization, which are found to be sensitive to the coupling energy of tritons and to the nd scattering length (spin doublet state). Parameters determined from them cannot give satisfactory answer to the A{sub y} puzzle. It seems, however, too hasty to conclude that A{sub y} puzzle cannot be solved by the chiral perturbation theory. (S. Funahashi)

  4. First results of the cosmic ray NUCLEON experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, E.; Bulatov, V.; Dorokhov, V.; Gorbunov, N.; Filippov, S.; Grebenyuk, V.; Karmanov, D.; Kovalev, I.; Kudryashov, I.; Kurganov, A.; Merkin, M.; Panov, A.; Podorozhny, D.; Polkov, D.; Porokhovoy, S.; Shumikhin, V.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Turundaevskiy, A.; Vasiliev, O.; Voronin, A.

    2017-07-01

    The NUCLEON experiment was designed to study the chemical composition and energy spectra of galactic cosmic ray nuclei from protons to zinc at energies of ~ 1011-1015 eV per particle. The research was carried out with the NUCLEON scientific equipment installed on the Russian satellite "Resource-P" No. 2 as an additional payload. This article presents the results for the measured nuclei spectra related to the first approximately 250 days of the scientific data collection during 2015 and 2016. The all-particle spectrum and the spectra of p, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe are presented. Some interesting ratios of the spectra are also presented and discussed. The experiment is now in its beginning stage and the data still have a preliminary character, but they already give numerous indications of the existence of various non-canonical phenomena in the physics of cosmic rays, which are expressed in the violation of a simple universal power law of the energy spectra. These features of the data are briefly discussed.

  5. Three-nucleon forces and their importance in three-nucleon systems and heavier nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, several laboratories have produced a large amount of data for cross sections, analyzing powers, and other spin observables from various reactions in the three-nucleon system. The experimental results are moderately described by only using the two-nucleon potentials in Faddeev-type calculations. The remaining discrepancies should, in principle, and aside from Coulomb and relativistic effects, be removed once the effects of three-nucleon forces are implemented. High precision data on elastic and break-up reactions show, however, that even after the inclusion of these effects, the picture is not complete yet and some ingredients are still missing in the calculations. With the advent of new frameworks within which two and three-nucleon forces can be properly implemented in the calculation of observables in heavy nuclei, it is essential that these forces are better understood.

  6. Chiral perturbation theory and nucleon polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    The available experimental data concerning the unpolarized cross section for the Compton scattering on the nucleon at low energy are compared with the predictions of the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) at the order q{sup 3}.

  7. Introduction to Nucleonics: A Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William; And Others

    This student text and laboratory manual is designed primarily for the non-college bound high school student. It can be adapted, however, to a wide range of abilities. It begins with an examination of the properties of nuclear radiation, develops an understanding of the fundamentals of nucleonics, and ends with an investigation of careers in areas…

  8. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  9. From nuclei to nucleons. [10 to 200 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-03-01

    Some initial experiments in the intermediate energy region between 10 and 200 MeV/nucleon, which is largely unexplored and poorly understood is considered as regards some initial experiments in this energy region. Included are the emission of complex fragments, localization in heavy ion reactions, coincidence experiments between light and heavy fragments, and the emission of light particles in heavy ion collisions. Some initial results in the region between 20 and 100 MeV/nucleon are presented. 41 references. (JFP)

  10. Novel three-nucleon-force terms in the three-nucleon system

    CERN Document Server

    Hüber, D; Nogga, A; Witala, H; Kolck, U V

    2001-01-01

    We include to specific three-nucleon-force terms of pion-range-short-range form in our momentum-space calculations for the three-nucleon continuum. These two terms are expected by chiral perturbation theory to be non-negligible. We study the effects of these terms in elastic neutron-deuteron scattering and pay special attention to the neutron vector-analyzing power A sub y. (author)

  11. Spectator-Tagged Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on Light Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Whitney; Arrington, John; Cloët, Ian; Freese, Adam; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hattawy, Mohammad; Riordan, Seamus; Johnston, Sereres; Potteveld, David; Reimer, Paul; Ye, Zhihong; Ball, Jacques; Defurne, Maxime; Garcon, Michel; Moutarde, Herve

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional picture of quarks and gluons in the proton is set to be revealed through Deeply virtual Compton scattering while a critically important puzzle in the one-dimensional picture remains, namely, the origins of the EMC effect. Incoherent nuclear DVCS, i.e. DVCS on a nucleon inside a nucleus, can reveal the 3D partonic structure of the bound nucleon and shed a new light on the EMC effect. However, the Fermi motion of the struck nucleon, off-shell effects and final-state intera...

  12. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  13. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  14. Chiral extrapolations for nucleon electric charge radii

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J M M; Young, R D

    2013-01-01

    Lattice simulations for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon yield insights into the internal structure of hadrons. The logarithmic divergence of the charge radius in the chiral limit poses an interesting challenge in achieving reliable predictions from finite-volume lattice simulations. Recent results near the physical pion mass are examined in order to confront the issue of how the chiral regime is approached. The electric charge radius of the nucleon presents a forum for achieving consistent finite-volume corrections. Newly-developed techniques within the framework of chiral effective field theory are used to achieve a robust extrapolation of the electric charge radius to the physical pion mass, and to infinite volume. The chiral extrapolations exhibit considerable finite-volume dependence; lattice box sizes of L > 7 fm are required in order to achieve a direct lattice simulation result within 2% of the infinite-volume value at the physical point. Predictions of the volume-dependence are provide...

  15. The Form Factors of the Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdrisat, Charles F. [William and Mary College, JLAB

    2013-11-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has been greatly improved by performing double-polarization experiments, in comparison with with pre-vious unpolarized cross section data. Here we will review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton and the neutron, obtained at MIT-Bates, JLab and MAMI. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high- precision experiments will be discussed. In particular, the possibility that the proton is non-spherical in its ground state, and that the transverse charge density are model in- dependently defined in the infinite momentum frame. Likewise, flavor decomposition of the nucleon form factors into dressed u and d quark form factors, may give information about the quark-diquark structure of the nucleon. The current proton radius "crisis" will also be discussed.

  16. Nucleon and delta masses in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Rafecas López, María Magdalena; Vento Torres, Vicente

    1992-01-01

    Using the positivity of the path integral measure of $QCD$ and defining a structure for the quark propagator in a background field according to the fluxon scenario for confinement, we calculate and compare the correlators for nucleon and delta. From their shape we elucidate about the origin of their mass difference, which in our simplified scenario is due to the tensor structure in the propagator. This term arises due to a dynamical mechanism which is responsible simultaneously for confinemen...

  17. Extra dimensions, SN1987a, and nucleon-nucleon scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph Hanhart; Daniel R. Phillips; Sanjay Reddy; Martin J. Savage

    2001-02-01

    One of the strongest constraints on the existence of large, compact, ''gravity-only'' dimensions comes from SN1987a. If the rate of energy loss into these putative extra dimensions is too high, then the neutrino pulse from the supernova will differ from that actually seen. The dominant mechanism for the production of Kaluza-Klein gravitons and dilatons in the supernova is via gravistrahlung and dilastrahlung from the nucleon-nucleon system. In this paper we compute the rates for these processes in a model-independent way using low-energy theorems which relate the emissivities to the measured nucleon-nucleon cross section. This is possible because for soft gravitons and dilatons the leading contribution to the energy-loss rate is from graphs in which the gravitational radiation is produced from external nucleon legs. Previous calculations neglected these mechanisms. We re-evaluate the bounds on toroidally-compactified ''gravity-only'' dimensions (GODs), and find that consistency with the observed SN1987a neutrino signal requires that if there are two such dimensions then their radius must be less than 1 micron.

  18. Nucleon localization within nuclear density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunli; Schuetrumpf, Bastian; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a nucleon localization measure based on Hartree-Fock densities has been introduced to investigate α-cluster structures in light nuclei. Compared to the local nucleonic density, the nucleon localization function (NLF) has been shown to be an excellent indicator of cluster correlations. To investigate the cluster structures in light nuclei and study the development of fission fragments in heavy nuclei, we analyse NLFs in deformed nuclei. We use both the deformed harmonic oscillator model and self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with energy density functionals UNEDF1 and UNEDF1-HFB, which were optimized for fission studies. In this contribution, we will discuss particle densities and spatial localization functions for deformed configurations of 8Be and 20Ne and along fission pathways of 232Th and 240Pu. We illustrate the usefulness of the NLF by showing how the third hyperdeformed minimum of 232Th can be understood in terms of the ground states of 132Sn and 100Zr. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under Award Numbers DOE-DE-NA0002847, DE-SC0013365 (Michigan State University), and DE-SC0008511 (NUCLEI SciDAC-3 collaboration).

  19. Nucleon-nucleon dynamics at medium energies (I). Unitary model for elastic and inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Silbar, Richard R.

    1980-04-01

    A framework is presented for a unified theory of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering and single-pion production at medium energies. The model is relativistic, unitary, and takes into account all spin complications. In the simplest version of the theory the driving mechanism is one-pion exchange but the model can be extended to include short-range forces. The resulting set of coupled linear integral equations have the structure of three-body equations and can be solved exactly. The method of solution is discussed.

  20. Nucleon-nucleon dynamics at medium energies (II). Results for NN phase parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbar, Richard R.; Kloet, W. M.

    1980-04-01

    We present predictions for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, one-pion-exchange model, which takes single-pion-production inelasticity into account. The agreement of the high- L phase shifts with data is considerably improved at intermediate energies by inclusion of the NΔ inelastic channel. Our predicted inelasticities are in generally good agreement with the data, but are smaller than the predictions of Green and Sainio. The Argand plots of the 1D 2, 3F 3, 3P 1, and 1G 4 all show counterclockwise motion resulting from the onset of inelastic channels.

  1. High energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays at mountain altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    The diffusion equations describing the unidimensional propagation of .the high energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays throughout the atmosphere are sol"V'ed under two assumptions: (l) The nucleon-nucleon collisions are described according to Fermi's therlnOdynamical model involving completely inelastic pion and.nucleon-antinucleon pair production. (2) A somewhat opposite assumption is made assuming partially elastic collisions without nucleon-anti.nucleon pair production. Due to the present inaccuracy of experiments, we are able to derive only tentati v.e conclusions. The values computed under both hypotheses for the absorption mean free path and the charged to neutral particles ratio are found in acceptable ranges when compared to experimental data. The diffeential energy spectrum at a given depth is always found steeper than the primary, and steeper than indicated by experimental values if the primary is taken proportional to the 2.5 inverse power of energy.

  2. Virtually teaching virtual leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Børgesen, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the challenges to virtual collaboration and leadership on basis of findings from a virtual course on collaboration and leadership. The course used for this experiment was designed as a practical approach, which allowed participants to experience curriculum phenomena....... This experimental course provided insights into the challenges involved in virtual processes, and those experiences where used for addressing the challenges that virtual leadership is confronted with. Emphasis was placed on the reduction of undesired virtual distance and its consequences through affinity building....... We found that student scepticism appeared when a breakdown resulted in increasing virtual distance, and raises questions on how leaders might translate or upgrade their understandings of leadership to handling such increased distance through affinity building....

  3. Nuclear disassembly of the Pb+Au system at E sub lab =29 MeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, E.; Bresson, S.; Lott, B.; Bougault, R.; Colin, J.; Crema, E.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Guerreau, D.; Horn, D.; Jacquet, D.; Jahnke, U.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kordyasz, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Morjean, M.; Paulot, C.; Pienkowski, L.; Pouthas, J.; Quednau, B.; Schroeder, W.U.; Schwinn, E.; Skulski, W.; Toeke, J. (Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa, Poland (PL) Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), BP 5027, 14021 Caen CEDEX, France Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Strasbourg, BP 20 CRO, 67037 Strasbourg CEDEX, France Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire Caen, boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen CEDEX, France Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Institut de Physique Nucleaire, BP 1, 91406 Orsay CEDEX, France Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canda K0J 1J0 Hahn Meitner Institut, D-1000 Berlin 39, Germany Heavy Ion

    1991-03-11

    Nuclei with {ital Z} up to 82 emitted in the {sup 208}Pb+{sup 197}Au reaction at {ital E}{sub lab}=29 MeV per nucleon have been measured as a function of the associated neutron multiplicity. The data reveal the presence of strong correlations between character of a collision and neutron multiplicity. The trends suggest a disassembly of the nuclear system into a large number of nucleons and small fragments in the events with the highest neutron multiplicity. In such events, approximately one-third of the neturons are released from the system and fragment yields decrease in an exponential fashion with increasing mass.

  4. Complete Set of Deuteron Analyzing Powers for dp Elastic Scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon and Three Nucleon Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers (iT11, T20, T21, T22 for elastic deuteron–proton scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon have been performed with polarized deuteron beams at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon–nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne’99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces.

  5. Investigation on the altitude dependence of the diffuse photon energy spectra initiated by primary nucleon air collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Majumdar, R; Mitra, M; Pal, P B

    1999-01-01

    A study has been made on the altitude dependence of the high energy spectra of electromagnetic components like gamma rays initiated by primary cosmic nucleon-air collisions. The primary cosmic nucleon spectrum has been estimated from the directly measured elemental fluxes at high energies obtained from the recent absolute measurements by different groups. Considering the superposition model the estimated all particle primary nucleon spectrum follows the form approximately=2.56 E/sup -2.73/ in the energy range 0.1-100 TeV. Taking this as source of parent neutral mesons along with the spectrum weighted moments for neutral pion production from the CERN accelerator data on the neutral pion production spectrum in the atmosphere has been calculated. (29 refs).

  6. Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development.

  7. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  8. Nucleon form factors from 5D skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, Giuliano [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Wulzer, Andrea [Institut de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: andrea.wulzer@epfl.ch

    2009-06-15

    Several aspects of hadron physics are well described by a simple 5D effective field theory. Baryons arise in this scenario as 'large' (and therefore calculable) 5D skyrmions. We extend and refine the existing analysis of this 5D soliton, which is fairly non-trivial due to the need of numerical methods. We perform the complete quantization of those collective coordinates which are relevant for computing the static observables like the nucleon form factors. We compare the result with simple expectations about large-N{sub c} QCD and with the experimental data. An agreement within 30% is found.

  9. Weak η production off the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.

  10. Organizaciones Virtuales Organizaciones Virtuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Cecilia Villegas Arias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Organizations are new organizational forms originated from both the replacementof face to face communications by remote communications supported by electronic means,and from the accesibility of real time information about the operation of the company, forall employees.This article pursues the following goals: 1 To define virtual organization, review its sociotechnical antecedents and propose a preliminary classification into inter-organizationaland intra-organizational forms.  2 To discuss the characteristics of virtual organizationsand their impact on organizational design, and 3 To compare virtual organizations toother organizational forms.Las organizaciones virtuales son formas organizativas nuevas, que resultan de: primero, reemplazar las interacciones cara a cara con interacciones remotas, soportadas por comunicaciones electrónicas y segundo,  proveer acceso en tiempo real a toda la información de la empresa para todos los trabajadores.En este artículo se busca: 1 Definir organización virtual, revisar sus antecedentes y proponeruna clasificación básica preliminar de las mismas  2 Discutir las características de las organizaciones virtuales y sus implicaciones para el diseño organizativo 3 Comparar estaforma organizativa a las formas organizativas no virtuales.

  11. A higher-dimensional model of the nucleon-nucleon central potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Eric R.

    2014-04-01

    Based on a theory of extra dimensional confinement of quantum particles [E. R. Hedin, Physics Essays, 2012, 25(2): 177], a simple model of a nucleon-nucleon (NN) central potential is derived which quantitatively reproduces the radial profile of other models, without adjusting any free parameters. It is postulated that a higher-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into three-dimensional (3D) space, but allows for an evanescent penetration of the particles into two higher spatial dimensions. Producing an effect identical with the relativistic quantum phenomenon of zitterbewegung, the higher-dimensional oscillations of amplitude ħ/( mc) can be alternatively viewed as a localized curvature of 3D space back and forth into the higher dimensions. The overall spatial curvature is proportional to the particle's extra-dimensional ground state wave function in the higher-dimensional harmonic confining potential well. Minimizing the overlapping curvature (proportional to the energy) of two particles in proximity to each other, subject to the constraint that for the two particles to occupy the same spatial location one of them must be excited into the 1 st excited state of the harmonic potential well, gives the desired NN potential. Specifying only the nucleon masses, the resulting potential well and repulsive core reproduces the radial profile of several published NN central potential models. In addition, the predicted height of the repulsive core, when used to estimate the maximum neutron star mass, matches well with the best estimates from relativistic theory incorporating standard nuclear matter equations of state. Nucleon spin, Coulomb interactions, and internal nucleon structure are not considered in the theory as presented in this article.

  12. Contribution of boundness and motion of nucleons to the EMC effect

    OpenAIRE

    Birbrair, B. L.; Ryskin, M.G; Ryazanov, V. I.

    2004-01-01

    The kinematical corrections to the structure function of nucleon in nucleus due to the boundness and motion of nucleons arise from the excitation of the doorway states for one-nucleon transfer reactions in the deep inelastic scattering on nuclei.

  13. Multistep direct emission from nucleon-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowski, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Demetriou, P. [Institute d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    Unbound 1p1h states are excited together with the bound ones in one-step direct processes induced by nucleons of energy greater than the particle binding energy. The cross-sections of the one-step direct reactions to bound final states are folded into a convolution integral to obtain the multistep cross-sections. This is done in the framework of the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) that describes the emission of one particle. The processes to unbound 1p1h final states give rise to more complicated direct reactions, that are evaluated by an approximate method. The comparison of the theory with inclusive proton inelastic scattering by iron and with the charge exchange (p,n) reaction on zirconium is revised, at energies from 25 MeV to 120 MeV. It is shown that in the case of the (p,n) reaction the theory of FKK does not account for approximately 35% of the direct processes. (orig.)

  14. Multistep direct emission from nucleon-induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, A.; Demetriou, P.

    Unbound 1p1h states are excited together with the bound ones in one-step direct processes induced by nucleons of energy greater than the particle binding energy. The cross-sections of the one-step direct reactions to bound final states are folded into a convolution integral to obtain the multistep cross-sections. This is done in the framework of the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) that describes the emission of one particle. The processes to unbound 1p1h final states give rise to more complicated direct reactions, that are evaluated by an approximate method. The comparison of the theory with inclusive proton inelastic scattering by iron and with the charge exchange (p,n) reaction on zirconium is revised, at energies from 25 MeV to 120 MeV. It is shown that in the case of the (p,n) reaction the theory of FKK does not account for approximately 35% of the direct processes.

  15. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2014-06-15

    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  16. Probing three-nucleon-force effects via (p ,2 p ) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kosho; Kohno, Michio; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use proton knockout reactions (p ,2 p ) from a deeply bound orbit as a new probe into three-nucleon-force (3NF) effects. The remarkable advantage of using (p ,2 p ) reaction is that we can choose an appropriate kinematical condition to probe the 3NF effects. We analyze (p ,2 p ) reactions on a 40Ca target within the framework of distorted-wave impulse approximation with a g -matrix interaction based on chiral two- and three-nucleon forces. The chiral 3NF effects significantly change the peak height of the triple differential cross section of (p ,2 p ) reaction. We also clarify the correspondence between the (p ,2 p ) cross sections and the in-medium p p cross sections.

  17. Flavor content of nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Departamento de Estructura de la Materia, lnstituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, AP 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E [l.N.F.N. and Dipartimento di Fisica, via Dodecaneso 33, Genova, I-16146 (Italy)]. e-mail: bijkernucleares. unam. mx

    2007-12-15

    The flavor content of nucleon form factors is analyzed using two different theoretical approaches. The first is based on a phenomenological two-component model in which the external photon couples to both an intrinsic three-quark structure and a meson cloud via vector-meson dominance. The flavor content of the nucleon form factors is extracted without introducing any additional parameter. A comparison with recent data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments shows a good overall agreement for the strange form factors. A more microscopic approach is that of an unquenched quark model proposed by Geiger and Isgur which is based on valence quark plus glue dominance to which quark-antiquark pairs are added in perturbation. In the original version the importance of ss loops in the proton was studied. Here we present the formalism for a new generation of unquenched quark models which, among other extensions, includes the contributions of uu and dd loops. Finally, we discuss some preliminary results in the closure limit. (Author)

  18. Nucleon self-energy in the relativistic Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waindzoch, T.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, A. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The self-energy of the nucleon in nuclear matter is calculated in the relativistic Brueckner theory. We solve the Thompson equation for the two nucleon scattering in the medium using different Bonn potentials. The self-energy has a rather strong momentum dependence while the equation of state compares well with previous calculations. (orig.)

  19. Three-nucleon force studies at intermediate energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messchendorp, JG; KalantarNayestanaki, N; Timmermans, RGE; Bakker, BLG

    2005-01-01

    High-precision data in three-nucleon scattering processes and state-of-the-art few-body calculations have contributed significantly to our present understanding of three-nucleon forces at intermediate energies. This paper discusses in more detail the pd -> He-3 gamma reaction as a probe for

  20. Nucleon form factors program with SBS at JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The physics of the nucleon form factors is the basic part of the Jefferson Laboratory program. We review the achievements of the 6-GeV era and the program with the 12- GeV beam with the SBS spectrometer in Hall A, with a focus on the nucleon ground state properties.

  1. Nucleon resonance decay by the $ K^{0}\\sum^{+} $ channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strange meson production on a proton target in the K 0 ∑ + channel is sensitive to nucleon resonance contributions. The K 0 production on a deuteron target can provide information on the hyperon-nucleon final-state interaction. The experiments p → K 0 ∑ + and d → K 0 ∑ + n have been carried out at the ELSA ...

  2. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  3. Propriety of Approximation for Calculations of Nuclear Matrix Elements by Woods-Saxon Wave Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Utamuratov, R K; Nasirov, A K

    2005-01-01

    Single-particle matrix elements of nucleon transfer were calculated by Woods--Saxon potential wave functions and results are compared with ones calculated by spherical well approximation. The application of the approximation of the mean-field of nuclei at heavy-ion collisions by the spherical well, which is widely used in the model based on dinuclear concept, is proved.

  4. New large-Nc relations among the nucleon and nucleon-to-Delta GPDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Vladimir Pascalutsa

    2006-11-15

    We establish relations which express the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describing the N {yields} {Delta} transition in terms of the nucleon GPDs. These relations are based on the known large-N{sub c} relation between the N {yields} {Delta} electric quadrupole moment and the neutron charge radius, and a newly derived large-N{sub c} relation between the electric quadrupole (E2) and Coulomb quadrupole (C2) transitions. Namely, in the large-N{sub c} limit we find C2=E2. The resulting relations among the nucleon and N {yields} {Delta} GPDs provide predictions for the N {yields} {Delta} electromagnetic form factors which are found to be in very good agreement with experiment for moderate momentum transfers.

  5. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea and the five-quark components of the nucleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chen; Peng, Jen-Chieh

    2011-06-24

    The existence of the five-quark Fock states for the intrinsic charm quark in the nucleons was suggested some time ago, but conclusive evidence is still lacking. We generalize the previous theoretical approach to the light-quark sector and study possible experimental signatures for such five-quark states. In particular, we compare the d-ū and ū + d-s-s data with the calculations based on the five-quark Fock states. The qualitative agreement between the data and the calculations is interpreted as evidence for the existence of the intrinsic light-quark sea in the nucleons. The probabilities for the |uuduū and |uuddd Fock states are also extracted.

  6. A versatile dielectron trigger for nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R; Tsertos, H

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach for a versatile first level dielectron trigger is presented. This trigger operates in the low multiplicity environment of nucleon-nucleon reactions as well as in the high multiplicity situation of nucleus-nucleus collisions. For optimal trigger performance, time of flight conditions for the two fastest particles of the event are combined with event multiplicity requirements. The dielectron trigger efficiency is given. The event reduction factor of such a trigger approach is studied for a low, a medium and a high multiplicity environment. The impact parameter dependence of the event reduction is given. The timing properties of the trigger signal are described. The losses due to deadtime are specified. Finally, the first level trigger rate is reported.

  7. Lectures from the workshop on nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, January 25--26, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, B.F.; Schillaci, M.E.; Wender, S.A. (comps.)

    1990-07-01

    The Nucleon-Nucleon Bremsstrahlung Workshop was convened at LAMPF on 25--26 January 1990 in order to review the theoretical and experimental aspects of that reaction with focus on a possible new initiative to measure neutron-proton bremsstrahlung using the intermediate-energy, white-spectrum neutron source at the LAMPF/WNR facility. Over the course of this intense day-and-a-half workshop, experts in the field established the historical perspective for both theory and experiment, presented result of recent calculations, and examined new approaches to the difficult neutron-proton bremsstrahlung experiment. Theoretical and experimental working groups generated recommendations for action and actually converged upon a plan for an experimental program, not just a single measurement.

  8. Probing nucleon-nucleon correlations in heavy-ion transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilner S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-particle coincident measurements, performed by coupling of the PRISMA spectrometer to the large γ arrays (CLARA and AGATA, demonstrate a strong interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom that is pertinent to the reaction dynamics. By using the unique PRISMA performance in terms of both resolution and efficiency, measurements at very low bombarding energies have been performed. Via transfer of nucleon pairs, valuable information on the component responsible for particle correlations has been derived.

  9. Virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  10. From Nucleons To Nuclei To Fusion Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W

    2012-02-15

    Nuclei are prototypes of many-body open quantum systems. Complex aggregates of protons and neutrons that interact through forces arising from quantum chromo-dynamics, nuclei exhibit both bound and unbound states, which can be strongly coupled. In this respect, one of the major challenges for computational nuclear physics, is to provide a unified description of structural and reaction properties of nuclei that is based on the fundamental underlying physics: the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them. This requires a combination of innovative theoretical approaches and high-performance computing. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques, the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method, and discuss applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-base fusion facilities.

  11. Peripheral scattering of nucleons by isoscalar targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares e Teoria Nuclear]. E-mail: higa@if.usp.br

    2001-07-01

    As is well known, the exchange of a single pion does not contribute to scattering of nucleons by isoscalar targets, since the pion is an isovector. This simple idea were employed in a recent work in order to probe the next layer of NN interaction and we showed that a clear dependence of phase shifts on the NN potential is obtained. As N{alpha} scattering data is still not free of ambiguity, few conclusions can be extracted. Motivated by more precise Nd scattering data recently available, we began a new study of Nd system. This give us more information about the intermediate region of NN potential, but first we need to study the techniques involved in extracting phase shifts and mixing parameters. (author)

  12. Structure and spin of the nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian H.

    2014-03-01

    Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL. TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC, FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.

  13. Nucleon form factors with light Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Jeremy; Krieg, Stefan; Meinel, Stefan; Negele, John; Pochinsky, Andrew; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We present nucleon observables - primarily isovector vector form factors - from calculations using 2+1 flavors of Wilson quarks. One ensemble is used for a dedicated high-precision study of excited-state effects using five source-sink separations between 0.7 and 1.6 fm. We also present results from a larger set of calculations that include an ensemble with pion mass 149 MeV and box size 5.6 fm, which nearly eliminates the uncertainty associated with extrapolation to the physical pion mass. The results show agreement with experiment for the vector form factors, which occurs only when excited-state contributions are reduced. Finally, we show results from a subset of ensembles that have pion mass 254 MeV with varying temporal and spatial box sizes, which we use for a controlled study of finite-volume effects and a test of the "$m_\\pi L=4$" rule of thumb.

  14. The spin structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J.M

    2005-02-15

    The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*{delta}{sigma} + {delta}g + L{sub q} + L{sub g} where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and L{sub q} and L{sub g} are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The {delta}{sigma} contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization {delta}g/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)

  15. Nucleon Polarisabilities and Effective Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2017-09-01

    Low-energy Compton scattering probes the nucleon's two-photon response to electric and magnetic fields at fixed photon frequency and multipolarity. It tests the symmetries and strengths of the interactions between constituents, and with photons. For convenience, this energy-dependent information is often compressed into the two scalar dipole polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 at zero photon energy. These are fundamental quantities, and important for the proton charge radius puzzle and the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Combined with emerging lattice QCD computations, they provide stringent tests for our understanding of hadron structure. Extractions of the proton and neutron polarisabilities from all published elastic data below 300 MeV in Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit Δ (1232) are now available. This talk emphasises χEFT as natural bridge between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at HI γS, MAMI and MAX-lab. Chiral lattice extrapolations from mπ > 200 MeV to the physical point compare well to lattice computations. Combining χEFT with high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams will extract not only scalar polarisabilities, but in particular the four so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. These parametrise the stiffness of the spin in external electro-magnetic fields (nucleonic bi-refringence/Faraday effect). New chiral predictions for proton, deuteron and 3He observables show intriguing sensitivities on spin and neutron polarisabilities. Data consistency and a model-independent quantification of residual theory uncertainties by Bayesian analysis are also discussed. Proton-neutron differences explore the interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and short-distance Physics. Finally, I address their impact on the neutron-proton mass difference, big-bang nucleosynthesis, and their relevance for anthropic arguments. Supported in part by DOE DE-SC0015393 and George Washington University.

  16. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-09-29

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  17. Perturbative Pions in Effective Field Theory for Nucleon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehen, Thomas

    2001-12-01

    I discuss pions in effective field theory (EFT) for the nucleon interaction within the power counting scheme proposed by Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW). After explaining why KSW power counting demands perturbative treatment of pions, I present results of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) calculations of nucleon-nucleon scattering in S-,P-, and D-wave channels. Perturbative treatment of pions fails in spin-triplet channels. The origin of large perturbative corrections is the piece of the spin-tensor force which survives in the chiral limit.

  18. Two Nucleon (B-L)-Conserving Reactions Involving Tau Leptons

    OpenAIRE

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Tau lepton emission in two-nucleon disappearance reactions from within nuclei which conserve baryon number minus lepton number (B − L) is considered. It is shown that some existing limits on proton decay channels and two-nucleon disappearance reactions resulting in electrons and muons can be applied to ΔB=ΔL=2 decays involving τ leptons. For the two-nucleon disappearance channel np→τ+ν¯τ the estimated limit for the partial mean life is τBr>1×1030 yrs based on results from the IMB3 experime...

  19. Minimally non-local nucleon-nucleon potentials with chiral two-pion exchange including Δ’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piarulli Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coordinate-space nucleon-nucleon potential is constructed in chiral effective field theory (χEFT retaining pions, nucleons and Δ-isobars as explicit degrees of freedom. The calculation of the potential is carried out by including one- and two-pionexchange contributions up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO and contact interactions up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO. The low-energy constants multiplying these contact interactions are fitted to the 2013 Granada database in the laboratory-energy range 0–300 MeV.

  20. Review of Nucleon Decay Searches at Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    Baryon number violation appears in many contexts. It is a requirement for baryogenesis and is a consequence of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), which predict nucleon decay. Nucleon decay searches provide the most direct way to test baryon number conservation and also serve as a unique probe of GUT scale physics around $10^{14-16}$ GeV. Such energies cannot be reached directly by accelerators. However, they can be explored indirectly at large underground water Cherenkov (WC) experiments, which due to the size of their fiducial volume are highly sensitive to nucleon decays. We review searches for baryon number violating processes at the state of the art WC detector, the Super-Kamiokande. Analyses of the typically dominant non-SUSY and SUSY nucleon decay channels such as $p \\rightarrow (e^+, \\mu^+) \\pi^0$ and $p \\rightarrow \

  1. All the states of the nucleon. Nucleon spectroscopy through the production of mesons; Le nucleon dans tous ses etats. Etude de la spectroscopie du nucleon via la photoproduction de mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebreyend, D

    2006-10-15

    The photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon gives a direct access to its spectroscopy and is a promising way for the study of the structure of the nucleon. The GRAAL experiment uses a tagged and polarized photon beam produced through the Compton diffusion of laser photons on the electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. The combination of this photon beam and an efficient detection system has allowed a series of measurements concerning the photoproduction of light mesons on the proton and on the neutron. The first 4 chapters are dedicated to the nucleon spectroscopy: the nucleon models and their consequences on the excited levels are recalled, the experimental technique used is described and the difficulties due to the extraction of relevant data are presented. Highly accurate measurements of cross-sections, {sigma} asymmetry beams and resonance parameters have been performed. The last part is dedicated to the principle of the measurement of the electric dipole momentum of the neutron. (A.C.)

  2. The parton distributions in nuclei and in polarized nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The emerging information was reviewed on the way quark and anti-quark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. Some implications of the recent data on polarized leptoproduction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Two nucleon (B - L)-conserving reactions involving tau leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    Tau lepton emission in two-nucleon disappearance reactions from within nuclei which conserve baryon number minus lepton number (B - L) is considered. It is shown that some existing limits on proton decay channels and two-nucleon disappearance reactions resulting in electrons and muons can be applied to ΔB = ΔL = 2 decays involving τ leptons. For the two-nucleon disappearance channel np →τ+ν‾τ the estimated limit for the partial mean life is τ/Br > 1 ×1030 yrs based on results from the IMB3 experiment. Re-analysis of existing data and future experiments could result in higher sensitivity for two-nucleon disappearance modes involving τ lepton final states.

  4. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions...

  5. Transverse momentum distributions inside the nucleon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musch, Bernhard Ulrich

    2009-05-29

    Nucleons, i.e., protons and neutrons, are composed of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), part of the standard model of particle physics. This work applies lattice QCD to compute quark momentum distributions in the nucleon. The calculations make use of lattice data generated on supercomputers that has already been successfully employed in lattice studies of spatial quark distributions (''nucleon tomography''). In order to be able to analyze transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, this thesis explores a novel approach based on non-local operators. One interesting observation is that the transverse momentum dependent density of polarized quarks in a polarized nucleon is visibly deformed. A more elaborate operator geometry is required to enable a quantitative comparison to high energy scattering experiments. First steps in this direction are encouraging. (orig.)

  6. Transverse Momentum, Centrality, and Participant Nucleon Number Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Chun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the combined framework of a multisource and participant-spectator model, we study the elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum and number of participating nucleons in s N N = 200  GeV Au-Au and s N N = 2.76  TeV Pb-Pb collisions and argue that the geometry of the initial overlap region in the collisions determines the experimentally measured azimuthal asymmetries. Our results are approximately in agreement with the data from PHENIX and ALICE collaborations.

  7. High Energy Break-Up of Few-Nucleon Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsian, Misak M.

    2008-01-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up reactions of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The...

  8. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei.

  9. Strange quark and the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon: the first results from the G{sup 0} experiment; Contribution du quark etrange a la structure electromagnetique du nucleon: les premiers resultats de l'experience G{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, B

    2005-10-15

    In the framework of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the nucleon is described as being composed of three valence quarks surrounded by a sea of virtual quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. If the role of this virtual sea in the nucleon properties is inferred to be important, this contribution is still poorly understood. In this context, we study the role of the strange quarks in the nucleon since this is the lightest quark flavor of the sea with no valence contribution. We are determining its contribution to the charge and magnetization distributions in the nucleon via parity violation experiments. The measurement is performed by elastically scattering polarized electrons from nucleon target. A world wide program in which the G0 experiment takes place has been performing for a decade. The G0 experiment and the analysis of the results from its forward angles phase are the topics of this thesis. This document presents the physics case of the strangeness content of the nucleon (mass, spin, impulsion). It describes also the formalism related to the electroweak probe and the form factors, and then the principle of parity violating asymmetry measurement. The G0 experimental setup, which was built and installed in the Hall C of the Jefferson Laboratory (Usa), is detailed. This set-up was designed for the measurement of asymmetries of the order of 10{sup -6} with an overall relative uncertainty better than 10 %, over a momentum transfer range 0.1-1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The various steps of the data analysis are exposed. They have allowed us to start from measured counting rates to reach parity violating physics asymmetries. This required a careful treatment of the various sources of systematical errors which is discussed extensively. Finally the results from the G0 forward angle measurement, its comparison with others experiments and with theoretical models, are presented. They support a non null strange quark contribution. (author)

  10. In-medium NN interactions and nucleon and meson masses studied with nucleon knockout reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Noro, T; Akiyoshi, H; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Hatanaka, K; Ihara, F; Ishikawa, T; Ito, M; Kawabata, M; Kawabata, T; Maeda, Y; Matsuoka, N; Morinobu, S; Nakamura, M; Obayashi, E; Okihana, A; Sagara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Takeda, H; Taki, T; Tamii, A; Tamura, K; Yamazaki, H; Yoshida, H; Yoshimura, M; Yosoi, M

    2000-01-01

    Spin observables have been measured for (p, 2p) reactions aiming at studying medium effects on NN interactions in nuclear field. Observed strong density-dependent reduction of the analyzing power is consistent with a model calculation where reduction of nucleon and meson masses are taken into account. On the other hand, calculations with g-matrices in the Shroedinger framework does not predict the reduction. The spin-transfer coefficients, which data are not reproduced by the model calculation, are found to be sensitive to reduction rate of each meson mass and have a possibility to test scaling lows in mass reductions.

  11. Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James

    2007-04-01

    The Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) will employ a revolutionary increase in Figure of Merit to obtain precise g^p2 and A^p1 results at high x. Using the highest available JLab beam energy, a 194 msr electromagnetic calorimeter will view the UVa polarized NH3 target at 8.5 .10^34 proton luminosity. The large Bjorken x region provides an important view on proton structure where the sea quarks have been stripped away. Using measurements of these ``naked protons'' is crucial for the understanding of strong QCD and can provide a connection between experimentally measured moments of polarized structure functions and quark matrix elements calculated in lattice QCD. The experiment will take place in 2008, using JLab's 5.7 GeV polarized electron beam, and covering the Bjorken x range from 0.3 and 0.8 with an average Q^2 of 4.5 GeV^2. We will discuss the physics motivation for SANE as well as the proposed experimental arrangement, and expected results.

  12. Structure and Spin of the Nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut A. [JLAB

    2014-03-01

    Parton distribution functions, describing longitudinal momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of quarks and gluons, have been recently generalized to account also for transverse degrees of freedom. Two new sets of more general distributions, Transverse Momentum Distributions and Generalized Parton Distributions, were introduced to describe transverse momentum and space distributions of partons. Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs) in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL). TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC), FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.

  13. Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Oliver K.

    2013-08-20

    Professor Baker was a faculty member at Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia, and, jointly, a Staff Physicist at Jefferson Lab in nearby Newport News from September 1989 to July 2006. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the grant DE-FG02-97ER41035 Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei, while Baker was in this joint appointment. Baker sent a closeout report on these activities to Hampton University’s Sponsored Research Office some years ago, shortly after joining Yale University in 2006. In the period around 2001, the research grant with Baker as the Principal Investigator (PI) was put under the supervision of Professor Liguang Tang at Hampton University. Baker continued to pursue the research while in this join appointment, however the administrative responsibilities with the DOE and with Hampton University rested with Professor Tang after 2001, to my recollection. What is written in this document is from Baker’s memory of the research activities, which he has not pursued since joining the Yale University faculty.

  14. Modeling a nucleon system: static and dynamical properties - density fluctuations; Modelisation d`un system de nucleons: proprietes statiques et dynamiques - fluctuation de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idier, D. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1997-02-15

    This thesis sets forth a quasi-particle model for the static and dynamical properties of nuclear matter. This model is based on a scale ratio of quasi-particle to nucleons and the projection of the semi-classical distribution on a coherent Gaussian state basis. The first chapter is dealing with the transport equations, particularly with the Vlasov equation for Wigner distribution function. The second one is devoted to the statics of nuclear matter. Here, the sampling effect upon the nuclear density is treated and the state equation of the Gaussian fluid is compared with that given by Hartree-Fock approximation. We define state equation as the relationship between the nucleon binding energy and density, for a given temperature. The curvature around the state equation minimum of the quasi-particle system is shown to be related to the speed of propagation of density perturbation. The volume energy and the surface properties of a (semi-)infinite nucleon system are derived. For the resultant saturated auto-coherent semi-infinite system of quasi-particles the surface coefficient appearing in the mass formula is extracted as well as the system density profile. The third chapter treats the dynamics of the two-particle residual interactions. The effect of different parameters on relaxation of a nucleon system without a mean field is studied by means of a Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling. The fourth chapter treats the volume instabilities (spinodal decomposition) in nuclear matter. The quasi-particle systems, initially prepared in the spinodal region of the utilized interaction, are set to evolve. It is shown then that the scale ratio acts upon the amount of fluctuations injected in the system. The inhomogeneity degree and a proper time are defined and the role of collisions in the spinodal decomposition as well as that of the initial temperature and density, are investigated. Assuming different effective macroscopic interactions, the influence of quantities as

  15. The nucleonic matter LOCV calculations in a periodic box versus the FHNC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir; Tafrihi, A.

    2013-10-23

    The lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method is reformulated for a fixed number of nucleons in a period box (PBLOCV) with the inter-nucleon interactions such as the Bethe homework potential, v{sub B}, and the scalar (v{sub 4}) part of the Argonne interaction (Av{sub 8}{sup ′}){sub c(4)}. The two-body cluster approximation is used in the (PB)LOCV formalism to obtain the energy per particle subjected to the normalization constraint for an infinite (a finite) number of nucleons. It is shown that our (PB)LOCV results are reasonably consistent with those of Fantoni and Schmidt (Periodic-Box) Fermi HyperNetted Chain ((PB)FHNC) calculations. In addition, unlike the thermodynamic limit, it is found that the normalization constraint in the periodic box is not exactly satisfied. However, it is realized that, by increasing the number of particles, the value of normalization constraint in the periodic box improves. Therefore, the two-body cluster approximation in the PBLOCV method becomes more reliable in the larger periodic boxes than the smaller ones. On the other hand, the PBLOCV energy per particle approaches the corresponding LOCV prediction for the large number of particles. The anisotropic behavior of the PB two-body distribution function, which is one of the main point of this report, is discussed. Finally, it is found that the PBLOCV results, i.e. the total (two-body cluster) energy and the normalization constraint, similar to the PBFHNC calculations depend on the number of particles in the periodic box and this dependence principally becomes negligible for the large number of particles.

  16. Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relative to the direction of the away-side jet.

  17. Di-nucleon structures in homogeneous nuclear matter based on two- and three-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Hugo F. [University of Chile, Department of Physics - FCFM, Santiago (Chile); CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Isaule, Felipe [University of Chile, Department of Physics - FCFM, Santiago (Chile); Rios, Arnau [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    We investigate homogeneous nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach in the limits of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) as well as pure neutron matter at zero temperature. The study is based on realistic representations of the internucleon interaction as given by Argonne v{sub 18}, Paris, Nijmegen I and II potentials, in addition to chiral N{sup 3}LO interactions, including three-nucleon forces up to N{sup 2}LO. Particular attention is paid to the presence of di-nucleon bound states structures in {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}SD{sub 1} channels, whose explicit account becomes crucial for the stability of self-consistent solutions at low densities. A characterization of these solutions and associated bound states is discussed. We confirm that coexisting BHF single-particle solutions in SNM, at Fermi momenta in the range 0.13-0.3 fm{sup -1}, is a robust feature under the choice of realistic internucleon potentials. (orig.)

  18. Computing approximate diagnoses by using approximate entailment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teije, A. ten; Harmelen, van F.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The most widely accepted models of diagnostic reasoning are all phrased in terms of the logical consequence relations. In work in recent years, Schaerf and Cadoli have proposed efficient approximations of the classical consequence relation. The central idea of this paper is to parameterise the

  19. Bonner Prize: The Elastic Form Factors of the Nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments initiated in 1998 at the then new Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator, or CEBAF in Newport News Virginia, resulted in unexpected results, changing significantly our understanding of the structure of the proton. These experiments used a relatively new technique to obtain the ratio of the two form factors of the proton, namely polarization. An intense beam of highly polarized electrons with energy up to 6 GeV was made to interact elastically with un-polarized protons in a hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoiling protons, with energies up to 5 GeV, was measured from a second interaction in a polarimeter consisting of blocs of graphite or CH2 and tracking wire chambers. The scattered electrons were detected in an electromagnetic lead-glass calorimeter, to select elastically scattered events. After a short introduction describing the path which brought me from the University of Geneva to the College of William and Mary in 1966, I will introduce the subject of elastic electron scattering, describe some of the apparatus required for such experiments, and show the results which were unexpected at the time. These results demonstrated unequivocally that the two form factors required to describe elastic ep scattering, electric GE and magnetic GM in the Born approximation, had a drastically different dependence upon the four-momentum squared q2 = q2 -ω2 with q the momentum, and ω the energy transferred in the reaction. The finding, in flagrant disagreement with the data available at the time, which had been obtained dominantly from cross section measurements of the type first used by Nobel Prize R. Hofstadter 60 years ago, have led to a reexamination of the information provided by form factors on the structure of the nucleon, in particular its quark-gluon content. The conclusion will then be a brief outline of several theoretical considerations to put the results in a proper perspective.

  20. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  1. Overview of the nucleon spin studies at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Celso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment [1] at CERN is one of the leading experiments studying the spin structure of the nucleon. These studies are being carried on since 2002, by measuring hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS of 160 GeV/c polarised muons off different polarised targets (NH3 for polarised protons and 6LiD for polarised deuterons. One of the main goals is to determine how the total longitudinal spin projection of the nucleon, 1/2, is distributed among its constituents, quarks and gluons. We review here the recent results on the quark and gluon helicities obtained by COMPASS, using a longitudinally polarised target. However, the understanding of the nucleon (spin structure based only on the parton helicities is not in any way complete. It basically provides us with a one-dimensional picture in a longitudinal momentum space. Therefore, COMPASS also studies the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs with a transversely polarised target. Concerning the TMDs, the latest results on the Collins and Sivers asymmetries will be shown. The former is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the latter reflects the correlations between the quarks transverse momentum and the nucleon spin.

  2. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-09-29

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  3. A novel nuclear dependence of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Hongkai [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Rong, E-mail: rwang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Yin [Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xurong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-10

    A linear correlation is found between the magnitude of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations and the nuclear binding energy per nucleon with pairing energy removed. By using this relation, the strengths of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations of some unmeasured nuclei are predicted. Discussions on nucleon–nucleon pairing energy and nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations are made. The found nuclear dependence of nucleon–nucleon short-range correlations may shed some lights on the short-range structure of nucleus.

  4. Approximation of Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  5. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  6. Virtual Instrumentation and Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, H.J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation, interaction and virtual environments provide a challenging triplet for the next generation of instrumentation and measurement tools. As such, they are the logical continuation of an increasingly important component within (virtual) instrumentation. Despite these changes, however,

  7. Measurement of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction by polarized cold neutron capture on protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The NPDGamma Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is measuring the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in the capture of polarized cold neutrons on protons. A parity violating asymmetry from this process is directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons. The experiment was run first with heavier nuclear targets to check systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Since early 2012 the experiment has been collecting data with a 16-liter liquid parahydrogen target. Data taking will continue through 2013 until statistics for a 10−8 asymmetry measurement are expected. The experiment performance will be discussed as well as the status of the asymmetry measurements.

  8. The general operator form for the total-momentum-dependent nucleon-nucleon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topolnicki, Kacper; Golak, Jacek; Skibinski, Roman; Witala, Henryk [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we describe a procedure to obtain the general operator form of two-nucleon (2N) potentials and apply it to the case of the 2N potential that has an additional dependence on the total momentum of the system. This violates Galilean invariance but terms including the total momentum appear in some relativistic approaches. In operator form, the potential is expressed as a linear combination of a fixed number of known spin-momentum operators and scalar functions of momenta. Since the scalar functions effectively define the potentials, using the operator form significantly reduces the number of parameters that are needed in numerical implementations. The proposed operator form explicitly obeys the usual symmetries of rotational invariance, particle exchange, time reflection and parity. (orig.)

  9. Coarse graining the Bethe-Goldstone equation: Nucleon-nucleon high-momentum components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, I. Ruiz; Pérez, R. Navarro; Amaro, J. E.; Arriola, E. Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    The δ -shell representation of the nuclear force allows a simplified treatment of nuclear correlations. We show how this applies to the Bethe-Goldstone equation as an integral equation in coordinate space with a few mesh points, which is solved by inversion of a five-dimensional square matrix in the single channel cases and a 10 ×10 matrix for the tensor-coupled channels. This allows us to readily obtain the high-momentum distribution, for all partial waves, of a back-to-back correlated nucleon pair in nuclear matter. We find that the probability of finding a high-momentum correlated neutron-proton pair is about 18 times that of a proton-proton one, as a result of the strong tensor force, thus confirming in an independent way previous results and measurements.

  10. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  11. Virtual marketing in virtual enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Fattahi, Hamaid Ali; Golnam, Arash

    2008-01-01

    Virtualization caused tremendous evolution in the economics of marketing channels, patterns of physical distribution and the structure of distributors and developed a new concept that is known as virtual marketing (VM). VM combines the powerful technologies of interactive marketing and virtual reality. Virtual enterprise (VE) refers to an organization not having a clear physical locus. In other words, VE is an organization distributed geographically and whose work is coordinated through e...

  12. Polarization transfer in weak pion production off the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.; Kowal, Beata E.

    2018-01-01

    Polarization transfer (PT) observables in the single pion production induced by the charged current interaction of the neutrino with the nucleon are examined. The polarization components of the final nucleon and the charged lepton are calculated within two models for the pion production. The predictions are made for neutrino energy of the order of 1 GeV as well as for the T2K energy distribution. It is demonstrated that the PT observables, the degree of polarization and the polarization components of outgoing fermions, are sensitive to assumptions about the nonresonant background model. In particular it is shown that the normal components of the polarization of the outgoing nucleon and the lepton are determined by the interference between the resonant (RES) and nonresonant (NB) amplitudes. Moreover, the sign of the normal component of the polarization of the charged lepton is fixed by the relative sign between the RES and the NB amplitudes.

  13. Isospin Violation in Threshold Pion-Nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the electromagnetic corrections to the pion-nucleon scattering lengths generated by minimal e. m. coupling from a knowledge of the low energy expansion of the pion-nucleon elastic scattering amplitude as well as from the nucleon and delta pole terms, all a consequence of purely strong interactions. We assume the heavy baryon limit; the e.m. and axial form factors and the masses are used with their empirical values, such that there is no free parameter. The different terms have a clear physical and intuitive origin. In particular, a large isospin breaking contribution to the isoscalar term appears for the elastic charged-pion scattering lengths. We attempt a comparison to the results from chiral effective field theory (EFT) with a physical interpretation of the empirical constants in that approach. The results are applied to the energy shift and width of pionic hydrogen.

  14. High Energy Break-Up of Few-Nucleon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2008-03-01

    We discus recent developments in theory of high energy two-body break-up reactions of few-nucleon systems. The characteristics of these reactions are such that the hard two-body quasielastic subprocess can be clearly separated from the accompanying soft subprocesses. We discuss in details the hard rescattering model (HRM) in which hard photodisintegration develops in two stages. At first, photon knocks-out an energetic quark which rescatters subsequently with a quark of the other nucleon. The latter provides a mechanism of sharing the initial high momentum of the photon by the outgoing two nucleons. Within HRM we discuss hard break-up reactions involving 2D and 3He targets. Another development of HRM is the prediction of new helicity selection mechanism for hard two-body reactions, which was apparently confirmed in the recent JLab experiment.

  15. Higher order terms of the nucleon current in the neutrino mass mechanism of neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Pantis, G

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear matrix elements for light and heavy Majorana neutrino in neutrinoless double beta decay have been reconsidered by including additional higher order terms in the nucleon current. The form of the nucleon current now includes except the usual vector and axial-vector terms additional contributions arising from weak magnetism and induced pseudoscalar coupling. The later is derived by the partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis. We have considered all nuclei that undergo double beta decay in the mass region A=76 up to A=150 using the renormalized quasiparticle random phase approximation. Our results show that these contributions are very important. They bring significant reductions to the nuclear matrix element for both the light and the heavy neutrino. Thus new limits for the neutrino mass are extracted using the best presently available experimental limits on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta-decay.

  16. Approximate Loop Unrolling

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cancio, Marcelino; Combemale, Benoit; Baudry, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Approximate Unrolling, a loop optimization that reduces execution time and energy consumption, exploiting the existence of code regions that can endure some degree of approximation while still producing acceptable results. This work focuses on a specific kind of forgiving region: counted loops that map a given functions over the elements of an array. Approximate Unrolling transforms loops in a similar way Loop Unrolling does. However, unlike its exact counterpart, our optimizatio...

  17. Excited-Nucleon Spectroscopy with 2+1 Fermion Flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Saul; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Wong, Ricky; Edwards, Robert G; Joo, Balint; Richards, David G; Juge, Jimmy; Lin, Huey-Lin; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Micheal J

    2010-01-01

    We present progress made by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration (HSC) in determining the tower of excited nucleon states using 2+1-flavor anisotropic clover lattices. The HSC has been investigating interpolating operators projected into irreducible representations of the cubic group in order to better calculate two-point correlators for nucleon spectroscopy; results are published for quenched and 2-flavor anisotropic Wilson lattices. In this work, we present the latest results using a new technique, distillation, which allows us to reach higher statistics than before. Future directions will be outlined at the end.

  18. Doubly-polarised pion photoproduction on the nucleon at MAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Susanna

    2017-01-01

    These new, high-quality doubly-polarised pion-photoproduction data sets provide a valuable input to the study of the nucleon structure and excitation spectrum by significantly constraining the electromagnetic multipole evaluation performed by the different available partial wave analysis models. Furthermore, the helicity dependent observables provide the main ingredient for the verification of the well-known Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH sum rule, which relates the helicity-dependent photoasborption process to the main static nucleon properties (mass, charge, spin.

  19. Use of the Husimi distribution for nucleon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Yoshikazu [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hatta, Yoshitaka, E-mail: hatta@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    In the context of nucleon structure, the Wigner distribution has been commonly used to visualize the phase-space distribution of quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. However, the Wigner distribution does not allow for a probabilistic interpretation because it takes negative values. In pursuit of a positive phase-space distribution in QCD, we introduce the Husimi distribution and demonstrate its advantages via a simple one-loop example. We also comment on a possible connection to the semiclassical approach to saturation physics at small-x.

  20. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  1. Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic 28Si by nucleon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnadara, Upal Jayasiri [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of 28Si by nucleon emission at Elab/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with 28Si beams interacting on 208Pb). 120Sn. 64C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge ZT and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of 28Si → p+27Al and 28Si → n+27Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in 28Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear 28Si(γ,p)27Al and 28Si(γ,n)27Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in 28Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

  2. Strange quarks in the nucleon and parity violation in polarized electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Wiele, J

    2001-01-01

    In this review, we show that the measurement of asymmetry in polarized electron- nucleon scattering provides information about the quark structure of the nucleon.. The formalism of parity-violating electron-nucleon scattering with the theoretical assumptions is presented. An experimental overview of specific experiments with recent results as well as upcoming experiments is discussed.

  3. Few-body semiclassical approach to nucleon transfer and emission reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, D.

    2014-04-01

    A three-body semiclassical model is proposed to describe the nucleon transfer and emission reactions in a heavy-ion collision. In this model the two heavy particles, i.e. nuclear cores A1(ZA1, MA1) and A2(ZA2, MA2), move along classical trajectories {{R}_1}( t ) and {{R}_2}( t ) respectively, while the dynamics of the lighter neutron (n) is considered from a quantum mechanical point of view. Here, Mi are the nucleon masses and Zi are the Coulomb charges of the heavy nuclei (i = 1, 2). A Faddeev-type semiclassical formulation using realistic paired nuclear-nuclear potentials is applied so that all three channels (elastic, rearrangement and break-up) are described in a unified manner. In order to solve the time-dependent equations the Faddeev components of the total three-body wave-function are expanded in terms of the input and output channel target eigenfunctions. In the special case, when the nuclear cores are identical (A1 ≡ A2) and also the two-level approximation in the expansion over the target (subsystem) functions is used, the time-dependent semiclassical Faddeev equations are resolved in an explicit way. To determine the realistic {{R}_1}( t ) and {{R}_2}( t ) trajectories of the nuclear cores, a self-consistent approach based on the Feynman path integral theory is applied.

  4. Virtual Congresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecueder, Silvia; Manyari, Dante E.

    2000-01-01

    A new form of scientific medical meeting has emerged in the last few years—the virtual congress. This article describes the general role of computer technologies and the Internet in the development of this new means of scientific communication, by reviewing the history of “cyber sessions” in medical education and the rationale, methods, and initial results of the First Virtual Congress of Cardiology. Instructions on how to participate in this virtual congress, either actively or as an observer, are included. Current advantages and disadvantages of virtual congresses, their impact on the scientific community at large, and future developments and possibilities in this area are discussed. PMID:10641960

  5. On the nucleon–nucleon scattering phase shifts through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By exploiting the supersymmetry-inspired factorization method through a judicious use of deuteron ground state wave function, higher partial wave nucleon–nucleon potentials, both energy independent and energy dependent, are generated. We adopt the phase function method to deal with the scattering phase shifts and ...

  6. Photoproduction ofeta-pi pairs off nucleons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeser, A; Ahrens, J; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Bartolome, P A; Beck, R; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cherepnya, S; Costanza, S; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil'kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Hamilton, D; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jaegle, I; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Maghrbi, Y; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Marinides, Z; McGeorge, J C; McNicoll, E; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Micanovic, S; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ostrick, M; Otte, P; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Pheron, F; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S; Robinson, J; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Sober, D; Starostin, A; Strub, Th; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-free photoproduction of $\\pi\\eta$-pairs has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of 1.4 GeV, respectively up to photon-nucleon invariant masses up to 1.9 GeV. Total cross sections, angular distributions, invariant-mass distributions of the $\\pi\\eta$ and meson-nucleon pairs, and beam-helicity asymmetries have been measured for the reactions $\\gamma p\\rightarrow p\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma n\\rightarrow n\\pi^0\\eta$, $\\gamma p\\rightarrow n\\pi^+\\eta$, and $\\gamma n\\rightarrow p\\pi^-\\eta$ from nucleons bound inside the deuteron. For the $\\gamma p$ initial state data for free protons have also been analyzed. Finally, the total cross sections for quasi-free production of $\\pi^0\\eta$ pairs from nucleons bound in $^3$He nuclei have been investigated in view of final state interaction (FSI) effects. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost $4\\pi$ covering electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS dete...

  7. Hadron wave functions and the issue of nucleon deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2003-01-01

    Using gauge invariant hadronic two- and three- density correlators we extract information on the spatial distributions of quarks in hadrons, and on hadron shape and multipole moments within quenched lattice QCD. Combined with the calculation of N to Delta transition amplitudes the issue of nucleon deformation can be addressed.

  8. Introduction to Nucleonics: A Laboratory Course. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William; And Others

    This collection of laboratory lessons is designed primarily for the non-college bound high school student. It can be adapted, however, to a wide range of abilities. It begins with an examination of the properties of nuclear radiation, develops an understanding of the fundamentals of nucleonics, and ends with an investigation of careers in areas…

  9. A relativistic quark–diquark model for the nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: Maurizio.DeSanctis@roma1.infn.it. MS received 3 September 2008; accepted 14 October 2008. Abstract. We developed a constituent quark–diquark model for the nucleon and its resonances using a harmonic oscillator potential for the interaction. The effects due to relativistic kinetic energy correction are studied.

  10. Nuclear matter EoS including few-nucleon correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.

    2017-11-01

    Improving a mean-field approach to the nuclear matter equation of state (EoS), few-nucleon correlations are investigated. The contribution of clusters to the thermodynamic properties is suppressed at increasing density because of Pauli blocking. Continuum correlations are implemented. Applications to heavy-ion collisions (HIC) are discussed.

  11. Mathematics of Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    de Villiers, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The approximation of a continuous function by either an algebraic polynomial, a trigonometric polynomial, or a spline, is an important issue in application areas like computer-aided geometric design and signal analysis. This book is an introduction to the mathematical analysis of such approximation, and, with the prerequisites of only calculus and linear algebra, the material is targeted at senior undergraduate level, with a treatment that is both rigorous and self-contained. The topics include polynomial interpolation; Bernstein polynomials and the Weierstrass theorem; best approximations in

  12. Approximate calculation of integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, V I

    2006-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the principal ideas and results of the contemporary theory of approximate integration, this volume approaches its subject from the viewpoint of functional analysis. In addition, it offers a useful reference for practical computations. Its primary focus lies in the problem of approximate integration of functions of a single variable, rather than the more difficult problem of approximate integration of functions of more than one variable.The three-part treatment begins with concepts and theorems encountered in the theory of quadrature. The second part is devoted to t

  13. Nucleon-deuteron scattering with the JISP16 potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiński, R.; Golak, J.; Topolnicki, K.; Witała, H.; Volkotrub, Yu.; Kamada, H.; Shirokov, A. M.; Okamoto, R.; Suzuki, K.; Vary, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon J -matrix inverse scattering potential JISP16 is applied to elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and the deuteron breakup process at the laboratory nucleon energies up to 135 MeV. The formalism of the Faddeev equations is used to obtain three-nucleon scattering states. We compare predictions based on the JISP16 force with data and with results based on various two-body interactions, including the CD Bonn, the Argonne AV18, the chiral force with the semilocal regularization at the fifth order of the chiral expansion and with low-momentum interactions obtained from the CD Bonn force as well as with the predictions from the combination of the AV18 NN interaction and the Urbana IX 3 N force. JISP16 provides a satisfactory description of some observables at low energies but strong deviations from data as well as from standard and chiral potential predictions with increasing energy. However, there are also polarization observables at low energies for which the JISP16 predictions differ from those based on the other forces by a factor of two. The reason for such a behavior can be traced back to the P -wave components of the JISP16 force. At higher energies the deviations can be enhanced by an interference with higher partial waves and by the properties of the JISP16 deuteron wave function. In addition, we compare the energy and angular dependence of predictions based on the JISP16 force with the results of the low-momentum interactions obtained with different values of the momentum cutoff parameter. We found that such low-momentum forces can be employed to interpret the nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering data only below some specific energy which depends on the cutoff parameter. Since JISP16 is defined in a finite oscillator basis, it has properties similar to low momentum interactions and its application to the description of nucleon-deuteron scattering data is limited to a low momentum transfer region.

  14. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  15. Approximation by mediants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Wieb

    1990-01-01

    The distribution is determined of some sequences that measure how well a number is approximated by its mediants (or intermediate continued fraction convergents). The connection with a theorem of Fatou, as well as a new proof of this, is given.

  16. Study of the Few Nucleon Systems at CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The study of few nucleon systems with electromagnetic probes is an essential component of the scientific program carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Here we present measurements of exclusive reactions on light nuclei using real photon beams with energies up to 3 GeV and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), a nearly 4π magnetic spectrometer, in order to study the properties of strongly interacting matter and the transition from hadronic (i.e in terms of nucleons and mesons) to partonic (in terms of quark and gluons) degrees of freedom in nuclear interactions. We discuss the progress made in understanding the relevant degrees of freedom using polarisation observables and cross sections of deuteron and ^3He photodisintegration in the few-GeV photon-energy region. In addition, recent high-statistics experiments with the CLAS detector have provided us with sufficient counting rates to study the effects of initial- and final-state interactions in reactions off the deuteron. Such data allow us to extract a large set of polarisation observables for final-state interactions in hyperon photoproduction and to study the properties of the hyperon-nucleon interaction. Initial-state effects are studied by mapping the dependence of experimental observables on the spectator-nucleon momentum. We also present recent results for polarisation observables for quasi-free K^+Λ off the bound proton in a deuteron as well as for final-state interactions in the reaction γ d→ K^+Λ n, and will discuss their impact on hyperon-nucleon studies.

  17. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  18. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  19. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  20. Twist-3 effects for polarized virtual photon structure function g2γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K.

    2003-03-01

    We investigate twist-3 effects in the polarized virtual photon. The structure function g2γ, which exists only for the virtual photon target and can be measured in future polarized e+e- collider experiments, receives both twist-2 and twist-3 contributions. The twist-3 part is analyzed in pure QED interaction as well as in LO QCD. We find the twist-3 contribution is appreciable for the photon in contrast to the nucleon case.

  1. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of light exotic nuclei at energies below than 100 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2012-11-15

    The proton elastic scattering data on some light exotic nuclei, namely, {sup 6,} {sup 8}He, {sup 9,} {sup 11}Li, and {sup 10,} {sup 11,} {sup 12}Be, at energies below than 100MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the single folding optical model. The real, imaginary, and spin-orbit parts of the optical potential (OP) are constructed only from the folded potentials and their derivatives using M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. These OP parts, their renormalization factors and their volume integrals are studied. The surface and spin-orbit potentials are important to fit the experimental data. Three model densities for halo nuclei are used and the sensitivity of the cross-sections to these densities is tested. The imaginary OP within high-energy approximation is used and compared with the single folding OP. This OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have systematic behavior with incident energy, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with exotic nuclei. (orig.)

  2. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  3. Virtual Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Savioja, Lauri

    The term virtual acoustics is often applied when sound signal is processed to contain features of a simulated acoustical space and sound is spatially reproduced either with binaural or with multichannel techniques. Therefore, virtual acoustics consists of spatial sound reproduction and room acoustics modeling.

  4. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...... for performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from...... that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects...

  5. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion of activity-systems to denote a virtual frame of activity that requires mutually coordinated action. The underlying assumption is that such framings may support the informal learning and reflective practices of actors, and especially so, when they are provoking...... and challenging. It is suggested that the prevailing ‘traditions’ of collaborative learning and knowledge sharing need to be challenged and complemented, if we are to be able to support the variety and the diversity in the repertoires of virtual learning activities. In order to conceptualize such activity......-systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...

  6. The virtual slice setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  7. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations. [Fixed-scatterer model, three-body problem, two-body amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation.

  8. Dynamical Cluster Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, H.; Yang, S.; Chen, K.; Pathak, S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.; Mikelsons, K.; Khatami, E.; Galanakis, D.

    The dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) is a method which systematically incorporates nonlocal corrections to the dynamical mean-field approximation. Here we present a pedagogical discussion of the DCA by describing it as a Φ-derivable coarse-graining approximation in k-space, which maps an infinite lattice problem onto a periodic finite-sized cluster embedded in a self-consistently determined effective medium. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the two-dimensional Hubbard model. From this application, we show evidences of the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) at a finite doping underneath the superconducting dome. The QCP is associated with the second-order terminus of a line of first order phase separation transitions. This critical point is driven to zero temperature by varying the band parameters, generating the QCP. The effect of the proximity of the QCP to the superconducting dome is also discussed.

  9. Limits on spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross sections from the XENON10 experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, J; Aprile, E; Arneodo, F; Baudis, L; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Coelho, L C C; Dahl, C E; DeViveiros, L; Ferella, A D; Fernandes, L M P; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Giboni, K L; Gomez, R; Hasty, R; Kastens, L; Kwong, J; Lopes, J A M; Madden, N; Manalaysay, A; Manzur, A; McKinsey, D N; Monzani, M E; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orboeck, J; Plante, G; Santorelli, R; dos Santos, J M F; Shagin, P; Shutt, T; Sorensen, P; Schulte, S; Winant, C; Yamashita, M

    2008-08-29

    XENON10 is an experiment to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which may comprise the bulk of the nonbaryonic dark matter in our Universe. We report new results for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions with 129Xe and 131Xe from 58.6 live days of operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Based on the nonobservation of a WIMP signal in 5.4 kg of fiducial liquid xenon mass, we exclude previously unexplored regions in the theoretically allowed parameter space for neutralinos. We also exclude a heavy Majorana neutrino with a mass in the range of approximately 10 GeV/c2-2 TeV/c2 as a dark matter candidate under standard assumptions for its density and distribution in the galactic halo.

  10. Measuring one nucleon transfer reaction 24Mg( p, d)23Mg for astrophysical reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. J.; Chae, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The level structure of a radionuclide 23Mg has been studied by using the 24Mg( p, d)23Mg one nucleon transfer reaction measurement for the astrophysical 19Ne(α, γ)23Mg reaction rate. A 41 MeV proton beam was produced and accelerated at the 25 MV tandem accelerator of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The beam particles impinged on an isotopically-enriched 24Mg solid target. Angular distributions of recoiling deuterons were extracted by using a large area silicon strip detector array. By comparing the experimentally-obtained angular distributions with zero range distorted wave Born approximation calculations, spins and parities of three energy levels of 23Mg could be constrained for the first time, which is very important information needed to understand the 19Ne(α, γ)23Mg reaction rate.

  11. Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering and Dirac Phenomenology: What We Have Learned and What Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Kerr, Lisa K.; Hama, S.

    2005-05-01

    It is now generally recognized that the Dirac equation is a viable alternative to the usual Schrödinger equation approach for analyzing nucleon-nucleus scattering data. This paper reviews the development of Dirac phenomenology, stressing how closely this development has been tied to experiment. In addition we discuss a new method for extracting neutron densities from intermediate energy elastic proton-nucleus scattering observables uses a global Dirac phenomenological (DP) approach based on the Relativistic Impulse Approximation (RIA). Data sets for 40Ca, 48Ca and 208Pb in the energy range from 500 MeV to 1040 MeV are used. The global fits reproducing the data well and this allows one to obtain the proton and neutron densities, their root-mean-square radii, Rp and Rn, and the neutron skin thickness, Sn = Rn - Rp.

  12. Introduction to Diophantine Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we formalize some results of Diophantine approximation, i.e. the approximation of an irrational number by rationals. A typical example is finding an integer solution (x, y of the inequality |xθ − y| ≤ 1/x, where 0 is a real number. First, we formalize some lemmas about continued fractions. Then we prove that the inequality has infinitely many solutions by continued fractions. Finally, we formalize Dirichlet’s proof (1842 of existence of the solution [12], [1].

  13. A Virtual Tour of Virtual Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2002-01-01

    Briefly describes the eight virtual schools in the United States: Kentucky Virtual High School; Illinois Virtual High School; Florida Virtual School; CCS Web Academy in Fayetteville, North Carolina; The Virtual High School in Hudson, Massachusetts; Basehor-Linwood Virtual Charter School in Kansas; Monte Vista Online Academy in Colorado; and…

  14. Symmetry energy of cold nucleonic matter within a relativistic mean field model encapsulating effects of high-momentum nucleons induced by short-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations (SRC) from the tensor components and/or the repulsive core of nuclear forces lead to a high- (low-)momentum tail (depletion) in the single-nucleon momentum distribution above (below) the nucleon Fermi surface in cold nucleonic matter. Significant progress was made recently in constraining the isospin-dependent parameters characterizing the SRC-modified single-nucleon momentum distribution in neutron-rich nucleonic matter using both experimental data and microscopic model calculations. Using the constrained single-nucleon momentum distribution in a nonlinear relativistic mean field (RMF) model, we study the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nucleonic matter (ANM), especially the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ ) . First, as a test of the model, the average nucleon kinetic energy extracted recently from electron-nucleus scattering experiments using a neutron-proton dominance model is well reproduced by the RMF model incorporating effects of the SRC-induced high-momentum nucleons, while it is significantly under predicted by the RMF model using a step function for the single-nucleon momentum distribution as in free Fermi gas (FFG) models. Second, consistent with earlier findings within nonrelativistic models, the kinetic symmetry energy of quasinucleons is found to be Esymkin(ρ0) =-16.94 ±13.66 MeV which is dramatically different from the prediction of Esymkin(ρ0) ≈12.5 MeV by FFG models at nuclear matter saturation density ρ0=0.16 fm-3 . Third, comparing the RMF calculations with and without the high-momentum nucleons using two sets of model parameters both reproducing identically all empirical constraints on the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and the symmetry energy of ANM at ρ0, the SRC-modified single-nucleon momentum distribution is found to make the Esym(ρ ) more concave around ρ0 by softening it significantly at both subsaturation and suprasaturation

  15. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Approximate and Incomplete Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, T.F.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief overview of a particular class of preconditioners known as incomplete factorizations. They can be thought of as approximating the exact LU factorization of a given matrix A (e.g. computed via Gaussian elimination) by disallowing certain ll-ins. As opposed to other

  17. Photoproduction of Mesons on Quasi–Free Nucleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshelashvili I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of excited baryon states is important to understand the underling nature/symmetries of hadronic matter. Historically, the first nucleon excitation experiments have been done using charged pion and kaon secondary beams. Later the antiproton-proton scattering has also been involved. However, since the beginning of the 90’s meson photoproduction reactions have been considered as a powerful tool in baryon spectroscopy. In this contribution, we overview our experimental programs conducted at the bremsstrahlung photon beams of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz and the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The results are differential and total cross sections for photoproduction of light neutral mesons and of meson pairs off quasi-free nucleons bound in the deuteron (and sometimes other light nuclei. The scientific programs of this experiments also include single and double polarization measurements as well.

  18. 11th Workshop on The Physics of Excited Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Hans-Werner; Thoma, Ulrike; Schmieden, Hartmut; NSTAR 2007

    2008-01-01

    The excitation spectrum of the nucleon promises to offer important insights into the non-perturbative regime of QCD. Dedicated experimental programs at various laboratories exist to perform accurate measurements of meson photo- and electroproduction off the nucleon, studying its excitation. The NStar workshops are a well-established series of meetings that bring together experimenters and theoreticians working on baryon resonances and related areas to discuss New results on pseudoscalar and vector meson production; Partial wave analysis and resonance parameters; Baryon resonance structure and quark models; Dynamical models and coupled channel analysis; Baryon resonances in lattice QCD; Chiral symmetry and baryon resonances; Laboratory reports and future projects. The refereed and edited proceedings constitute an indispensable archival record of the progress in the field.

  19. From Nucleons to Nucleus Concepts of Microscopic Nuclear Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2007-01-01

    From Nucleons to Nucleus deals with single-particle and collective features of spherical nuclei. Each nuclear model is introduced and derived in detail. The formalism is then applied to light and medium-heavy nuclei in worked-out examples, and finally the acquired skills are strengthened by a wide selection of exercises, many relating the models to experimental data. Nuclear properties are discussed using particles, holes and quasiparticles. A large number of matrix elements of standard operators have been tabulated for reference. From Nucleons to Nucleus is based on lectures on nuclear physics given by the author. Its main scope is thus to serve as a textbook for advanced students. But also researchers will appreciate it as wellbalanced reference to theoretical nuclear physics.

  20. Benchmark calculations for polarization observables in three-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Piazza Torricelli 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Rosati, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Piazza Torricelli 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Hueber, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. B283, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gloeckle, W.; Kamada, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Witala, H.; Golak, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, PL-30059 Cracow (Poland)

    1998-12-01

    High precision benchmark calculations for phase shifts and mixing parameters as well as observables in elastic neutron-deuteron scattering below the deuteron breakup threshold are presented using a realistic nucleon-nucleon potential. Two totally different methods, one using a variational principle in configuration space and the other solving the Faddeev equations in momentum space, are used and compared to each other. The agreement achieved in phase shifts and mixing parameters as well as in the polarization observables is excellent. The extreme sensitivity of the vector analyzing power A{sub y} to small changes of the phase shifts and mixing parameters is pointed out. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Transverse spin structure of the nucleon from lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik; Haegeler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    We present the first calculation in lattice QCD of the lowest two moments of transverse spin densities of quarks in the nucleon. They encode correlations between quark spin and orbital angular momentum. Our dynamical simulations are based on two flavors of clover-improved Wilson fermions and Wilson gluons. We find significant contributions from certain quark helicity flip generalized parton distributions, leading to strongly distorted densities of transversely polarized quarks in the nucleon. In particular, based on our results and recent arguments by Burkardt [Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 094020], we predict that the Boer-Mulders-function h{sub 1} {sup perpendicular} {sup to}, describing correlations of transverse quark spin and intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, is large and negative for both up and down quarks. (orig.)

  2. Moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P.A.; Papinutto, M. [UJF/CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie; Constantinou, M.; Kallidonis, C. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Guichon, P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU-Service de Physique Nucleaire; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Korzec, T. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2011-07-15

    We present results on the lower moments of the nucleon generalized parton distributions within lattice QCD using two dynamical flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Our simulations are performed on lattices with three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm, allowing the investigation of cut-off effects. The volume dependence is examined using simulations on two lattices of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. The simulations span pion masses in the range of 260-470 MeV. Our results are renormalized nonperturbatively and the values are given in the MS scheme at a scale {mu}=2 GeV. They are chirally extrapolated to the physical point in order to compare with experiment. The consequences of these results on the spin carried by the quarks in the nucleon are investigated. (orig.)

  3. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  4. A gauge theory of nucleonic interactions by contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Ioannou, Pavlos D.; Agop, Maricel

    2014-04-01

    A gauge theory of contact is presented, based on the general idea that the local deformation of the nucleon surface at contact should be gauged by the variation of curvature. A contact force is then defined so as to cope with both the variation of curvature and the deformation. This force generalizes the classical definition of surface tension, in that it depends on the mean curvature, but also depends on the variance of the second fundamental form of surface, considered as a statistical variable over the ensemble of contact spots. It turns out that the variance of the second fundamental form does not depend but on the metric of the space of curvature parameters, organized as Riemann space. This result compels us to review the definition of physical surface of a nucleon.

  5. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  6. Exciting Nucleons in Compton Scattering and Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelstein, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is devoted to the low-energy structure of the nucleon (proton and neutron) as seen through electromagnetic probes, e.g., electron and Compton scattering. The research presented here is based primarily on dispersion theory and chiral effective-field theory. The main motivation is the recent proton radius puzzle, which is the discrepancy between the classic proton charge radius determinations (based on electron-proton scattering and normal hydrogen spectroscopy) and the highly p...

  7. Chiral perturbation theory for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik

    2006-08-15

    We analyze the moments of the isosinglet generalized parton distributions H, E, H, E of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We discuss in detail the construction of the operators in the effective theory that are required to obtain all corrections to a given order in the chiral power counting. The results will serve to improve the extrapolation of lattice results to the chiral limit. (orig.)

  8. Nucleon spin and quark content at the physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Kallidonis, Ch; Koutsou, G; Jansen, K; Wiese, Ch; Avilés-Casco, A Vaquero

    2016-01-01

    We present results on the spin and quark content of the nucleon using $N_f=2$ twisted mass clover-improved fermion simulations with a pion mass close to its physical value. We use recently developed methods to obtain accurate results for both connected and disconnected contributions. We provide results for the axial charge, quark and gluon momentum fraction as well as the light, strange and charm $\\sigma$-terms.

  9. Photoproduction of ηπ pairs off nucleons and deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, A.; Mueller, F.; Dieterle, M.; Garni, S.; Jaegle, I.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Maghrbi, Y.; Oberle, M.; Pheron, F.; Rostomyan, T.; Strub, T.; Walford, N.K.; Witthauer, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Bartolome, P.A.; Ostrick, M.; Otte, P.; Thomas, A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Hamilton, D.; Howdle, D.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mancell, J.; McGeorge, J.C.; McNicoll, E.; Robinson, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bantawa, K.; Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States); Beck, R.; Nikolaev, A.; Schumann, S.; Unverzagt, M. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Briscoe, W.J.; Marinides, Z. [The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Cherepnya, S.; Fil' kov, L.V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Downie, E.J. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Drexler, P.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Thiel, M. [University of Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Glazier, D.I. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hornidge, D.; Middleton, D.G. [Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada); Huber, G.M. [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Jude, T.C.; Sikora, M.H.; Watts, D.P. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kashevarov, V.L. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korolija, M.; Mekterovic, D.; Micanovic, S.; Supek, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Oussena, B. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Prakhov, S.; Starostin, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sober, D. [The Catholic University of America, Washington (United States); Werthmueller, D. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The A2 Collaboration

    2016-09-15

    Quasi-free photoproduction of πη-pairs has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of 1.4 GeV, respectively up to photon-nucleon invariant masses up to 1.9 GeV. Total cross sections, angular distributions, invariant-mass distributions of the πη and meson-nucleon pairs, and beam-helicity asymmetries have been measured for the reactions γp → pπ{sup 0}η, γn → nπ{sup 0}η, γp → nπ{sup +}η, and γn → pπ{sup -}η from nucleons bound inside the deuteron. For the γp initial-state data for free protons have also been analyzed. Finally, the total cross sections for quasi-free production of π{sup 0}η pairs from nucleons bound in {sup 3} He nuclei have been investigated in view of final state interaction (FSI) effects. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost 4π covering electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The shapes of all differential cross section data and the asymmetries are very similar for protons and neutrons and agree with the conjecture that the reactions are dominated by the sequential Δ*3/2{sup -} → ηΔ(1232) → πηN decay chain, mainly with Δ(1700)3/2{sup -} and Δ(1940)3/2{sup -}. The ratios of the magnitude of the total cross sections also agree with this assumption. However, the absolute magnitudes of the cross sections are reduced by FSI effects with respect to free proton data. (orig.)

  10. Nucleon spin and quark content at the physical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, Karl; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, Alejandro [INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    We present results on the spin and quark content of the nucleon using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass clover-improved fermion simulations with a pion mass close to its physical value. We use recently developed methods to obtain accurate results for both connected and disconnected contributions. We provide results for the axial charge, quark and gluon momentum fraction as well as the light, strange and charm σ-terms.

  11. Obtaining {sigma}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} Width from Nucleon Polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Bernabeu, Jose [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Apt. de Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    We propose a new method that fixes the coupling to two photons of the recently found lightest QCD resonance, the {sigma}. This coupling provides crucial information for discriminating the yet unknown nature of this special state. Our method uses available data on the nucleon polarizabilities together with analyticity and unitarity. Taking into account all the uncertainties, our result is {gamma}{sub pole}=1.2{+-}0.4keV.

  12. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

  13. Effect of valence nucleons on nuclear binding energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, I. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (HU))

    1991-10-01

    The nucleonic promiscuity factor P = N{sub p}N{sub n}/(N{sub p} + N{sub n}), where N{sub p}(N{sub n}) is the number of valence protons (neutrons) or holes, is shown to be a useful parameter in the description of the mass number dependence of nuclear binding energies. This means that most of the deviation from a smooth mass number dependence is caused by the isoscalar interaction between valence protons and neutrons.

  14. Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrãmã

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the presentation of Virtual Reality principles together with the main implementation methods and techniques. An overview of the main development directions is included.

  15. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    It is a daunting task to visualize square kilometers of African savannah and currently in zoos it is impossible to present true African ecology to visitors. Virtual Savannah is a dynamic virtual world that introduces school children to a 3D representation of the wildlife sanctuaries Serengeti...... and Masai Mara. The objective is to substitute supplementary textual information currently used in schools and provide the teacher with information about each pupil. The Virtual Savannah was tested in situ on 19 pupils age 10-11 with the purpose of logging all interaction with animals, GUI...... and the navigation. The test depicted how they managed to search the virtual world for answers in patterns related to restrictions in the system and using graphical points of interest as reference points. Collecting information about the complete interaction provides teachers with a tool to assess the individual...

  16. Virtual care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne

    of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... and professionals, and they instigate change in organization and professional identities. Studies, which more specifically deal with telecare, stress how virtualization alters the character of the observations care workers are able to make, and how the validity of the patients’ own measurements and observations...... point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....

  17. Virtual Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...... participated from different institutions in the workshop. The result of the workshop was experiences with different communication tools and media. Facing the difficulties and possibilities in collaborateting virtually concerned around group work and development of a shared presentation. All based on getting...... experiences for the learning design of MVU courses. The workshop intented to give the participants the possibility to draw their own experiences with issues on computer supported collaboration, group work in a virtual environment, synchronous and asynchronous communication media, and different perspectives...

  18. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  19. Nucleon structure functions in noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiei, A.; Rezaei, Z.; Mirjalili, A. [Yazd University, Physics Department, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    In the context of noncommutative space-time we investigate the nucleon structure functions which play an important role in identifying the internal structure of nucleons. We use the corrected vertices and employ new vertices that appear in two approaches of noncommutativity and calculate the proton structure functions in terms of the noncommutative tensor θ{sub μν}. To check our results we plot the nucleon structure function (NSF), F{sub 2}(x), and compare it with experimental data and the results from the GRV, GJR and CT10 parametrization models. We show that with the new vertex that arises the noncommutativity correction will lead to a better consistency between theoretical results and experimental data for the NSF. This consistency will be better for small values of the Bjorken variable x. To indicate and confirm the validity of our calculations we also act conversely. We obtain a lower bound for the numerical values of Λ{sub NC} scale which correspond to recent reports. (orig.)

  20. Strange Nucleon Form Factors from ep and vp Elastic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, S.F. [Physics Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces NM 88003 (United States)]. e-mail: pate@nmsu.edu

    2007-12-15

    The recent parity-violating ep forward-scattering elastic asymmetry data from Jefferson Lab (HAPPEx and G0), when combined with the vp elastic cross section data from Brookhaven (E734), permit an extraction of the strangeness contribution to the vector and axial nucleon form factors for momentum transfers in the range 0.45 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These results, combined with the recent determination of the strange vector form factors at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 GeV{sup 2} (SAMPLE, HAPPEx, PVA4, G0) have been interpreted in terms of uudss{sup -} configurations very different from the kaon-loop configurations usually associated with strangeness in the nucleon. New experiments are being proposed to improve the state of our knowledge of the vp elastic cross section -- these new experiments will push the range of Q{sup 2} to much lower values, and greatly increase the precision of the vp elastic data. One outcome of this can be a measurement of the strangeness contribution to the nucleon spin, {delta}s. Nuclear targets (e.g. C or Ar) are to be used in these neutrino experiments, and so a deep understanding of the nuclear physics, particularly in regard to final state effects, is needed before the potential of these precision experiments can be fully realized. (Author)

  1. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Topology, calculus and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...

  3. Pumping approximately integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Lenarčič, Zala; Rosch, Achim

    2017-06-01

    Weak perturbations can drive an interacting many-particle system far from its initial equilibrium state if one is able to pump into degrees of freedom approximately protected by conservation laws. This concept has for example been used to realize Bose-Einstein condensates of photons, magnons and excitons. Integrable quantum systems, like the one-dimensional Heisenberg model, are characterized by an infinite set of conservation laws. Here, we develop a theory of weakly driven integrable systems and show that pumping can induce large spin or heat currents even in the presence of integrability breaking perturbations, since it activates local and quasi-local approximate conserved quantities. The resulting steady state is qualitatively captured by a truncated generalized Gibbs ensemble with Lagrange parameters that depend on the structure but not on the overall amplitude of perturbations nor the initial state. We suggest to use spin-chain materials driven by terahertz radiation to realize integrability-based spin and heat pumps.

  4. Optimization and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedregal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.

  5. Off-Mass-Shell Behaviors of Nucleon Self-Energies and the Gamow-Teller Sum Rule in the Relativistic Hartree-Fock Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, T.

    2011-06-01

    The relativistic Hartree approximation predicts a deep attractive potential for antinucleon, which largely reduces the threshold energies of the nucleon-antinucleon (N{bar N}) production. This effect has played an important role in explaining the quenching of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength because the quenched strength in the particle-hole excitation is partially taken by the {N{bar N}} production. On the other hand antiproton experiments do not reveal a deep attractive potential for antinucleon. In this paper, we study the energy dependence of the nucleon self-energies in the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approximation in off-mass-shell states. Then, we demonstrate that the antinucleon appearing in low-energy observables is in the off-mass-shell energy region and its properties are quite different from those at the on-mass-shell state. Furthermore, we show that the quenched amount of the GT strength is taken by not only the N{bar N} production but also the meson production through the imaginary part of the nucleon self-energy in the RHF approximation.

  6. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  7. Approximation and perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, B R

    1993-01-01

    Few problems in nature are amenable to an exact solution and hence when one proceeds from elegant problems of theory to messy complicated problems of practice one is forced to recourse to methods of approximation and perturbation. The development of such techniques has been natural in attempts to extract physically verifiable consequences from either exact solutions of general relativity or from specific astrophysical systems for which an exact solution is impossible to find. However, this should not be taken to imply giving up of mathematical rigour and an appeal to only physical intuition.

  8. Quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering in the weak binding approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, Jacob J. [William and Mary College, JLAB; Doshi, Nidhi P. [Carnegie Mellon University; Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    We perform a global analysis of all available electron-deuteron quasielastic scattering data using Q^2-dependent smearing functions that describe inclusive inelastic e-d scattering within the weak binding approximation. We study the dependence of the cross sections on the deuteron wave function and the off-shell extrapolation of the elastic electron-nucleon cross section, which show particular sensitivity at x >> 1. The excellent overall agreement with data over a large range of Q^2 and x suggest a limited need for effects beyond the impulse approximation, with the exception of the very high-x or very low-Q^2 regions, where short-distance effects in the deuteron become more relevant.

  9. Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnåker, Mikael; Corander, Jukka; Foll, Matthieu; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology). PMID:23341757

  10. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  11. Time Dependent Channel Packet Calculation of Two Nucleon Scattering Matrix Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    CHANNEL PACKET CALCULATION OF TWO NUCLEON SCATTERING MATRIX ELEMENTS DISSERTATION Brian S. Davis, Major, USAF AFIT/DS/ENP/10-M03...CALCULATION OF TWO NUCLEON SCATTERING MATRIX ELEMENTS DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management...ENPIlO-M03 TIME DEPENDENT CHANNEL PACKET CALCULATION OF TWO NUCLEON SCATTERING MATRIX ELEMENTS Brian S. Davis, BA, MS Major, USAF Approved: ~ !Y

  12. New measurements of high-momentum nucleons and short-range structures in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, N; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M H S; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D B; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fassi, L El; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Gaskell, D; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Seely, J; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We present new, high-Q^2 measurements of inclusive electron scattering from high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. This yields an improved extraction of the strength of two-nucleon correlations for several nuclei, including light nuclei where clustering effects can, for the first time, be examined. The data extend to the kinematic regime where three-nucleon correlations are expected to dominate and we observe significantly greater strength in this region than previous measurements.

  13. Few-body semiclassical approach to nucleon transfer and emission reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanov Renat A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-body semiclassical model is proposed to describe the nucleon transfer and emission reactions in a heavy-ion collision. In this model the two heavy particles, i.e. nuclear cores A1(ZA1, MA1 and A2(ZA2, MA2, move along classical trajectories R→1(t${{\\vec R}_1}\\left( t \\right$ and R→2(t${{\\vec R}_2}\\left( t \\right$ respectively, while the dynamics of the lighter neutron (n is considered from a quantum mechanical point of view. Here, Mi are the nucleon masses and Zi are the Coulomb charges of the heavy nuclei (i = 1, 2. A Faddeev-type semiclassical formulation using realistic paired nuclear-nuclear potentials is applied so that all three channels (elastic, rearrangement and break-up are described in a unified manner. In order to solve the time-dependent equations the Faddeev components of the total three-body wave-function are expanded in terms of the input and output channel target eigenfunctions. In the special case, when the nuclear cores are identical (A1 ≡ A2 and also the two-level approximation in the expansion over the target (subsystem functions is used, the time-dependent semiclassical Faddeev equations are resolved in an explicit way. To determine the realistic R→1(t${{\\vec R}_1}\\left( t \\right$ and R→2(t${{\\vec R}_2}\\left( t \\right$ trajectories of the nuclear cores, a self-consistent approach based on the Feynman path integral theory is applied.

  14. Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points...... in the projection within a tolerance given by the reference curve, and the rulings are lines perpendicular to the projection plane. Application of the method in ship design is given....

  15. Virtual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  17. Virtual Touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslie, Ståle

    Erotogod. The third chapter investigates the foundations of touch through a physiological and psychological approach. Chapter four presents an alternative haptic history of Virtual Realities through the presentation and discussion of several technological and artistic works that are computer...... is the analysis and conclusion of my experiments. The problems addressed concern how it feels to touch and be touched in multimodal environments, or so called Virtual Realities. Firstly how haptic, corporeal interaction influence the overall experience of a given interactive human-to-computer system. Secondly...... and the psychophysically-contextualized work of art The main results and applications of the study are firstly that haptic technologies bridge the gap between the real (corporeal) and the virtual (immaterial) world, supporting the assumption that the distinction between the ‘virtual’ and the ‘real’ is not convincing...

  18. Covariant nucleon wave function with S, D, and P-state components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross, G. Ramalho, M. T. Pena

    2012-05-01

    Expressions for the nucleon wave functions in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon wave function that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon wave function includes contributions from S, P and D-waves.

  19. Bound Nucleon Form Factors, Quark-Hadron Duality, and the Nuclear EMC Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Tsushima; D.H. Lu; W. Melnitchouk; K. Saito; A.W. Thomas

    2002-09-13

    We discuss the electromagnetic form factors, axial form factors, and structure functions of a nucleon bound in the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. Free space nucleon form factors are calculated using the improved cloudy bag model (ICBM). After describing finite nuclei and nuclear matter in the quark-based (EMC) model, the in-medium modification of the bound nucleon form factors is calculated in the same model. Finally, the bound nucleon structure function, F2, is extracted using the calculated in-medium electromagnetic form factors and Bloom-Gilman (quark-hadron) duality.

  20. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  1. Virtual Reality and Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István TÓZSA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.

  2. Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin,H.W.

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon {Sigma} and {Xi} axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g{sub {Sigma}{Sigma}} = 0.441(14) and g{sub {Xi}{Xi}} = -0.277(11).

  3. Three-Nucleon Forces and Triplet Pairing in Neutron Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Clark, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of superfluidity of the neutron component in the core of a neutron star, associated specifically with triplet P-wave pairing, is currently an open question that is central to interpretation of the observed cooling curves and other neutron-star observables. Ab initio theoretical calculations aimed at resolving this issue face unique challenges in the relevant high-density domain, which reaches beyond the saturation density of symmetrical nuclear matter. These issues include uncertainties in the three-nucleon (3N) interaction and in the effects of strong short-range correlations—and more generally of in-medium modification of nucleonic self-energies and interactions. A survey of existing solutions of the gap equations in the triplet channel demonstrates that the net impact on the gap magnitude of 3N forces, coupled channels, and mass renormalization shows extreme variation dependent on specific theoretical inputs, in some cases even pointing to the absence of a triplet gap, thus motivating a detailed analysis of competing effects within a well-controlled model. In the present study, we track the effects of the 3N force and in-medium modifications in the representative case of the ^3P_2 channel, based on the Argonne v_{18} two-nucleon (2N) interaction supplemented by 3N interactions of the Urbana IX family. Sensitivity of the results to the input interaction is clearly demonstrated. We point out consistency issues with respect to the simultaneous treatment of 3N forces and in-medium effects, which warrant further investigation. We consider this pilot study as the first step toward a systematic and comprehensive exploration of coupled-channel ^3P F_2 pairing using a broad range of 2N and 3N interactions from the current generation of refined semi-phenomenological models and models derived from chiral effective field theory.

  4. Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistant with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g_SigmaSigma = 0.441(14) and g_XiXi = -0.277(11).

  5. Three-nucleon forces in exotic open-shell isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somà V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the self-consistent Green’s function approach to finite nuclei are discussed, including the implementation of three-nucleon forces and the extension to the Gorkov formalism. We report results on binding energies in the nitrogen and fluorine isotopic chains, as well as spectral functions of 22O. The application to medium-mass open-shell systems is illustrated by separation energy spectra of two argon isotopes, which are compared to one-neutron removal experiments.

  6. Quarks and gluons in the nucleon: Proceedings. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the quark and gluon structure of the nucleon as probed experimentally by hard processes with lepton and hadron beams and studied theoretically by perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective models on the one hand and to stimulate research activities in the fields related to RHIC and RHIC-SPIN projects on the other hand. There were 18 talks and 2 discussion sessions. About 50, including 5 from abroad participated in the symposium. An excellent summary in the form of 5 most important transparencies and a one-page explanation is included for each of the invited talks.

  7. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nucleons near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friman, B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Soyeur, M. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-12-31

    A simple meson-exchange model is proposed for the photoproduction of {rho}- and {omega}-mesons off protons near threshold. This model provides a good description of the available data and implies a large {rho}-nucleon interaction in the scalar channel ({sigma}-exchange). This phenomenological interaction is applied to estimate the leading contribution to the self-energy of {rho}-mesons in matter. The implications of our calculation for experimental studies of the {rho}-meson mass in nuclei are discussed. (author). 28 refs.

  8. Spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric; Mantovani, Luca; Pasquini, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    We discuss in detail the spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon. We show that the discrepancies between different definitions originate from terms that integrate to zero. Even though these terms can safely be dropped at the integrated level, they have to be taken into account when discussing distributions. Using the scalar diquark model, we illustrate our results and, for the first time, check explicitly that the equivalence between kinetic and canonical orbital angular momentum persists at the level of distributions, as expected in a system without gauge degrees of freedom.

  9. Single pion production in neutrino-nucleon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirnezhad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work represents an extension of the single pion production model proposed by Rein [Z. Phys. C 35, 43 (1987)., 10.1007/BF01561054]. The model consists of resonant pion production and nonresonant background contributions coming from three Born diagrams in the helicity basis. The new work includes lepton mass effects, and nonresonance interaction is described by five diagrams based on a nonlinear σ model. This work provides a full kinematic description of single pion production in the neutrino-nucleon interactions, including resonant and nonresonant interactions in the helicity basis, in order to study the interference effect.

  10. A Search for Nucleon Decay via $n \\rightarrow \\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Hayato, Y; Iida, T; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Kozuma, Y; Marti, Ll; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Ueno, K; Ueshima, K; Yamada, S; Yokozawa, T; Ishihara, C; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Shimizu, Y; Tanimoto, N; Kearns, E; Litos, M; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Regis, C; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Albert, J B; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wendell, R; Wongjirad, T M; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Ikeda, M; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Tanaka, T; Jung, C K; Lopez, G D; Taylor, I; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Mino, S; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Toyota, H; Kuno, Y; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Yang, B S; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Yokoyama, M; Totsuka, Y; Martens, K; Schuemann, J; Vagins, M R; Chen, S; Heng, Y; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Kielczewska, D; Mijakowski, P; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Thrane, E; Wilkes, R J

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of searches for nucleon decay via bound neutron to antineutrino plus pizero and proton to antineutrino plus piplus using data from a combined 172.8 kiloton-years exposure of Super-Kamiokande-I, -II, and -III. We set lower limits on the partial lifetime for each of these modes. For antineutrino pizero, the partial lifetime is >1.1x10^{33} years; for antineutrino piplus, the partial lifetime is >3.9x10^{32} years at 90% confidence level.

  11. Color fluctuations in the nucleon in high-energy scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, L; Strikman, M; Treleani, D; Weiss, C

    2008-11-14

    We study quantum fluctuations of the nucleon's parton densities by combining QCD factorization for hard processes with the notion of cross section fluctuations in soft diffraction. The fluctuations of the small-x gluon density are related to the ratio of inelastic and elastic vector meson production in ep scattering. A simple dynamical model explains the HERA data and predicts the x and Q2 dependence of the ratio. In pp/p[over ]p scattering, fluctuations enhance multiple hard processes (but cannot explain the Tevatron CDF data), and reduce gap survival in central exclusive diffraction.

  12. Weak production of strange particles off the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy); Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The strange particle production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is investigated at low and intermediate energies. We develop a microscopic model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangian. The studied mechanisms are the main source of single kaon production for (anti)neutrino energies up to 1.5 GeV. Using this model we have also studied the associated production of kaons and hyperons. The cross sections are large enough to be measured by experiments such as MINERνA, T2K and NOνA.

  13. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. The nonconforming virtual element method

    OpenAIRE

    de Dios, B. Ayuso; Lipnikov, K.; Manzini, G

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the nonconforming Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the approximation of second order elliptic problems. We present the construction of the new element in two and three dimensions, highlighting the main differences with the conforming VEM and the classical nonconforming finite element methods. We provide the error analysis and establish the equivalence with a family of mimetic finite difference methods.

  15. Virtual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The first chapter provides an overview of the popular systems for distance learning. In the second chapter, a review of all major social and economic activities in order to improve the system of virtual learning is given. The third chapter deals with the influence of technology in the management of educational institutions. The fourth chapter…

  16. Virtual modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, J.; Kiss, S.; Cano, P.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We concentrate our efforts on building virtual modelling environments where the content creator uses controls (widgets) as an interactive adjustment modality for the properties of the edited objects. Besides the advantage of being an on-line modelling approach (visualised just like any other on-line

  17. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  18. Virtual landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  19. Virtual Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class ...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  20. Virtualize Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  1. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  2. Limits on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross sections from the first science run of the ZEPLIN-III experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedenko, V N; Araújo, H M; Barnes, E J; Bewick, A; Cashmore, R; Chepel, V; Currie, A; Davidge, D; Dawson, J; Durkin, T; Edwards, B; Ghag, C; Horn, M; Howard, A S; Hughes, A J; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Kalmus, G E; Kovalenko, A G; Lindote, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2009-10-09

    We present new experimental constraints on the WIMP-nucleon spin-dependent elastic cross sections using data from the first science run of ZEPLIN-III, a two-phase xenon experiment searching for galactic dark matter weakly interacting massive particles based at the Boulby mine. Analysis of approximately 450 kg x days fiducial exposure allow us to place a 90%-confidence upper limit on the pure WIMP-neutron cross section of sigma(n)=1.9x10(-2) pb at 55 GeV/c(2) WIMP mass. Recent calculations of the nuclear spin structure based on the Bonn charge-dependent nucleon-nucleon potential were used for the odd-neutron isotopes 129Xe and 131Xe. These indicate that the sensitivity of xenon targets to the spin-dependent WIMP-proton interaction could be much lower than implied by previous calculations, whereas the WIMP-neutron sensitivity is impaired only by a factor of approximately 2.

  3. Microscopic study on proton elastic scattering of helium and lithium isotopes at energy range up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag M. Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The proton elastic scattering data on 4,6,8 He and 6,7,9,11Li nuclei at energies below 160 MeV/nucleon are analyzed using the optical model. The optical potential (OP is taken microscopically, with few and limited fitting parameters, using the single folding model for the real part and high-energy approximation (HEA for the imaginary one. Clear dependencies of the volume integrals on energy and rms radii are obtained from the results. The calculated differential and the reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the available experimental data. In general, this OP with few and limited fitting parameters, which have a systematic behavior with incident energy and matter radii, successfully describes the proton elastic scattering data with stable and exotic light nuclei at energies up to 160 MeV/nucleon.

  4. Instanton effects on extracting the nucleon parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjalili, A. [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O.B 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences) P.O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M. [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O.B 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanpanah, M.M. [Physics Department, Kerman Shahid-Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences) P.O.B 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    In considering the nucleon parton distributions at low energy values, the non-perturbative effects will have an important role. It is usual to assume for the related vacuum a structure and attribute it a back ground field. It is very like to the situation which we have for Bohm-Aharnov effect when an electron moved in a region where there is not any magnetic field (vacuum). In this case we can attribute to the related vacuum a back ground field which is in fact the gauge field of electrodynamics force. The fluctuations which exist with respect to the concerned vacuum in QCD can appear as instantons and will effect on then nucleon parton distributions especially at low Bjorken-x values. A comparison between the proton structures when we consider the instanton effect with respect to the usual one, indicates the non-perturbative effect on extracting these functions. Considering this effect will yield a better result for the F{sub 2}{sup p} structure function.

  5. Nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, W.P. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Spicer, B.M. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    An historical review of the development of ideas pertaining to Gamow-Teller giant resonances is given, and a description of the emergence of techniques for the study of charge exchange reactions - particularly the technical advances which yielded the recent volume of new date. The present status of charge exchange reactions is reviewed and assessed. Evidence is presented from the {sup 14}C(p,n) reaction for the dominance of the spin-isospin component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in intermediate energy reactions. In (p,n) reactions the Gamow-Teller giant resonance dominates the spectra, with higher multipoles contributing. By contrast, in (n,p) reactions in the heavier nuclei, the Gamow-Teller transitions are substantially Pauli-blocked and the spin dipole resonance dominates, with contributions from higher multipoles. Discussions of the multipole decomposition process, used to obtain from the data the contributions of the different multipoles, and the contributions of the multipoles, are given. 226 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Do nucleons in abnormal-parity states contribute to deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, K.H. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy-Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)); Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Raman, S. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))

    1992-07-01

    We consider intrinsic states of highly deformed nuclei in the framework of the universal Woods-Saxon model and show that valence nucleons in abnormal-parity high-{ital j} states contribute {similar to}20% to the electric quadrupole moments of these nuclei. Similarly, we show that in the single-shell asymptotic Nilsson model this contribution is {similar to}25% if reasonable effective charges are employed. We discuss, at some length, procedures used to arrive at reasonable effective charges. Both models reproduce the measured {ital B}({ital E}2;0{sub 1}{sup +}{r arrow}2{sub 1}{sup +}) values in the rare-earth and actinide regions without the need for normalization constants. No support is found for the assumption made in the pseudo-SU(3) and the fermion dynamic symmetry models that valence nucleons in abnormal-parity high-{ital j} states do not contribute to deformation. This counterintuitive assumption leads to an underestimate of the {ital B}({ital E}2;0{sub 1}{sup +}{r arrow}2{sub 1}{sup +}) values, which is compensated in these models by the use of appropriate normalization constants. Once the magnitudes are fixed, both models do correctly reproduce the {ital B}({ital E}2) trends.

  7. Cooling of Compact Stars with Nucleon Superfluidity and Quark Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    We show a cooling scenario of compact stars to satisfy recent observations of compact stars. The central density of compact stars can exceed the nuclear density, and it is considered that many hadronic phases appear at such a density. It is discussed that neutron superfluidity (1S0 for lower density, and 3P2 for higher density) and proton superfluidity/superconductivity (1S0) appears in all compact stars. And some "Exotic" states are considered to appear in compact stars, such as meson condensation, hyperon mixing, deconfinement of quarks and quark colour superconductivity. These exotic states appear at the density region above the threshold densities of each state. We demonstrate the thermal evolution of isolated compact stars, adopting the effects of nucleon superfluidity and quark colour superconductivity. We assume large gap energy (Δ > 10 MeV) for colour superconducting quark phase, and include the effects of nucleon superfluidity with parametrised models. We simulate the cooling history of compact stars, and shows that the heavier star does not always cool faster than lighter one, which is determined by the parameters of neutron 3P2 superfluidity.

  8. Controlling excited-state contamination in nucleon matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Joó, Bálint; Lin, Huey-Wen; Negele, John; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Richards, David; Syritsyn, Sergey; Winter, Frank

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of methods to reduce statistical errors and excited-state contamination in the calculation of matrix elements of quark bilinear operators in nucleon states. All the calculations were done on a 2+1 flavor ensemble with lattices of size $32^3 \\times 64$ generated using the rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm at $a=0.081$~fm and with $M_\\pi=312$~MeV. The statistical precision of the data is improved using the all-mode-averaging method. We compare two methods for reducing excited-state contamination: a variational analysis and a two-state fit to data at multiple values of the source-sink separation $t_{\\rm sep}$. We show that both methods can be tuned to significantly reduce excited-state contamination and discuss their relative advantages and cost-effectiveness. A detailed analysis of the size of source smearing used in the calculation of quark propagators and the range of values of $t_{\\rm sep}$ needed to demonstrate convergence of the isovector charges of the nucleon to the $t_{\\rm sep} \\to \\infty $ estimates is presented.

  9. Study of Z boson production in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-05-01

    A search for Z bosons in the mu^+mu^- decay channel has been performed in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, in a 7.2 inverse microbarn data sample. The number of opposite-sign muon pairs observed in the 60--120 GeV/c^2 invariant mass range is 39, corresponding to a yield per unit of rapidity (y) and per minimum bias event of (33.8 +/- 5.5 (stat) +/- 4.4 (syst)) 10^{-8}, in the |y|<2.0 range. Rapidity, transverse momentum, and centrality dependencies are also measured. The results agree with next-to-leading order QCD calculations, scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  10. $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon systems: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, Rocco [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A status report on $\\chi$EFT studies of few-nucleon electroweak structure and dynamics is provided, including electromagnetic elastic form factors of few-nucleon systems, the $pp$ weak fusion and muon weak captures on deuteron and $^3$He, and a number of parity-violating processes induced by hadronic weak interactions.

  11. Results and Perspectives on Nucleon Form Factors from Snd and CMD-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achasov, M. N.; Akhmetshin, R. R.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Barkov, L. M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bondar, A. E.; Botov, A. A.; Bragin, A. V.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Golubev, V. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grevtsov, K. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Gromov, E. M.; Ignatov, F. V.; Kardapoltsev, L. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kazanin, V. F.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khazin, B. I.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kozyrev, E. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kupich, A. S.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Lysenko, A. P.; Martin, K. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Obrazovsky, A. E.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Popov, Yu. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Romanov, A. L.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shtol, D. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Solodov, E. P.; Surin, I. K.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Vasiljev, A. V.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.; Zemlyansky, I. M.; Zharinov, Yu. M.

    2014-12-01

    During years 2011 and 2012 data taking runs have been carried out at VEPP-2000 e+e- collider to measure the production of the nucleon-antinucleon pairs (p\\bar {p}, n\\bar {n}) near threshold. In this talk the preliminary results on the nucleon timelike electromagnetic form factors (FF) and the |GE/GM| ratio are presented.

  12. Disappearance of flow and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section for {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Yong He [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Peter, J.; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Auger, A.; Cabot, C.; Crema, E. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Buta, A. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Experimental measurement and theoretical comparison of collective flow can give important information about the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section. Experimental measurements of {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collision from 35 to 79 MeV/u with the 4{pi} array MUR=TONNEAU are presented. The results are compared to BUU calculations. (K.A.).

  13. Virtual Presenters: Towards Interactive Virtual Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cappellini, V.; Hemsley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss having virtual presenters in virtual environments that present information to visitors of these environments. Some current research is surveyed and we will look in particular to our research in the context of a virtual meeting room where a virtual presenter uses speech, gestures, pointing

  14. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  15. The cosmological evolution of the nucleon mass and the electroweak coupling constants

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, X; Calmet, Xavier; Fritzsch, Harald

    2002-01-01

    Starting from astrophysical indications that the fine structure constant might undergo a small time shift, we discuss the implications of such an effect from the point of view of particle physics. Grand unification implies small time shifts for the nucleon mass, the magnetic moment of the nucleon and the Fermi constant as well. The relative change of the nucleon mass is 123 times larger than the relative change of alpha. Astrophysical constraints indicate that the data from astrophysics are inconsistent, or the errors are largely underestimated. Laboratory measurements using very advanced methods in quantum optics might soon reveal small time shifts of the nucleon mass, the magnetic moment of the nucleon and the fine structure constant, thereby providing not only a breakthrough in the understanding of the unified particle interactions, but also an important cross-link between particle physics and cosmology.

  16. The two-nucleon system at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgeny Epelbaum; Walter Gloeckle; Ulf-G. Meissner

    2005-01-01

    We consider the two-nucleon system at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO) in chiral effective field theory. The two--nucleon potential at N{sup 3}LO consists of one-, two- and three-pion exchanges and a set of contact interactions with zero, two and four derivatives. In addition, one has to take into account various isospin--breaking and relativistic corrections. We employ spectral function regularization for the multi--pion exchanges. Within this framework, it is shown that the three-pion exchange contribution is negligibly small. The low--energy constants (LECs) related to pion-nucleon vertices are taken consistently from studies of pion-nucleon scattering in chiral perturbation theory. The total of 26 four--nucleon LECs has been determined by a combined fit to some np and pp phase shifts from the Nijmegen analysis together with the nn scattering length.

  17. Shear viscosity of pionic and nucleonic components from their different possible mesonic and baryonic thermal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi, E-mail: sabyaphy@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Teorica

    2015-12-15

    Owing to the Kubo relation, the shear viscosities of pionic and nucleonic components have been evaluated from their corresponding retarded correlators of viscous stress tensor in the static limit, which become non-divergent only for the non-zero thermal widths of the constituent particles. In the real-time thermal field theory, the pion and nucleon thermal widths have respectively been obtained from the pion self-energy for different meson, baryon loops, and the nucleon self-energy for different pion-baryon loops. We have found non-monotonic momentum distributions of pion and nucleon thermal widths, which have been integrated out by their respective Bose-enhanced and Pauli-blocked phase space factors during evaluation of their shear viscosities. The viscosity to entropy density ratio for this mixed gas of pion-nucleon system decreases and approaches its lower bound as the temperature and baryon chemical potential increase within the relevant domain of hadronic matter. (author)

  18. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Anchishkin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions are derived which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before a freeze-out.

  19. Quark structure of the nucleon and angular asymmetry of proton-neutron hard elastic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Carlos G; Sargsian, Misak M

    2009-11-20

    We investigate an asymmetry in the angular distribution of hard elastic proton-neutron scattering with respect to the 90 degrees center of mass scattering angle and demonstrate that it's magnitude is related to the helicity-isospin symmetry of the quark wave function of the nucleon. Our estimate of the asymmetry within the quark-interchange model of hard scattering demonstrates that the quark wave function of a nucleon based on the exact SU(6) symmetry predicts an angular asymmetry opposite to that of experimental observations. We found that the quark wave function based on the diquark picture of the nucleon produces a correct asymmetry. Comparison with the data allowed us to show that the vector diquarks contribute around 10% in the nucleon wave function and they are in negative phase relative to the scalar diquarks. These observations are essential in constraining QCD models of a nucleon.

  20. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  1. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  2. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan-Yu Chen; Hsiu-Yu Liao; Jyun-Hung Chen; Duen-Ren Liu

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies’ intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable v...

  3. Virtual reality as a way to good business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mošorinski Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A virtual economy is the emergent property of the interaction between participants in a virtual world. As businesses compete in the real world, they also compete in virtual worlds. Many companies now incorporate virtual world as a new form of advertising. There are many advantages to using these methods of commercialization. The use of advertising within virtual world is a relatively new idea, due to Virtual World as a relatively new technology. According to trade media company Virtual Worlds Management, commercial investments in the virtual sector were in excess of USD 425 million in 2007, and USD 594 million in 2008. During the last year, investments made were approximately 1 billion US $. Investment in marketing and virtual commercials, in Republic of Serbia was about 840 million euros during the last few years.

  4. International Conference Approximation Theory XV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...

  5. Nucleon electromagnetic structure studies in the spacelike and timelike regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttmann, Julia

    2013-07-23

    The thesis investigates the nucleon structure probed by the electromagnetic interaction. One of the most basic observables, reflecting the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon, are the form factors, which have been studied by means of elastic electron-proton scattering with ever increasing precision for several decades. In the timelike region, corresponding with the proton-antiproton annihilation into a electron-positron pair, the present experimental information is much less accurate. However, in the near future high-precision form factor measurements are planned. About 50 years after the first pioneering measurements of the electromagnetic form factors, polarization experiments stirred up the field since the results were found to be in striking contradiction to the findings of previous form factor investigations from unpolarized measurements. Triggered by the conflicting results, a whole new field studying the influence of two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering emerged, which appeared as the most likely explanation of the discrepancy. The main part of this thesis deals with theoretical studies of two-photon exchange, which is investigated particularly with regard to form factor measurements in the spacelike as well as in the timelike region. An extraction of the two-photon amplitudes in the spacelike region through a combined analysis using the results of unpolarized cross section measurements and polarization experiments is presented. Furthermore, predictions of the two-photon exchange effects on the e{sup +}p/e{sup -}p cross section ratio are given for several new experiments, which are currently ongoing. The two-photon exchange corrections are also investigated in the timelike region in the process p anti p → e{sup +}e{sup -} by means of two factorization approaches. These corrections are found to be smaller than those obtained for the spacelike scattering process. The influence of the two-photon exchange corrections on

  6. Single-particle spin-orbit strengths of the nucleon and hyperons by SU sub 6 quark-model

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Fujita, T; Nakamoto, C; Suzuki, Y

    2000-01-01

    The quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction suggests an important antisymmetric spin-orbit component. It is generated from a color analogue of the Fermi-Breit interaction dominating in the one-gluon exchange process between quarks. We discuss the strength S sub B of the single-particle spin-orbit potential, following the Scheerbaum's prescription. Using the SU sub 6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction which was recently developed by the Kyoto-Niigata group, we calculate NN, LAMBDA N and SIGMA N G-matrices in symmetric nuclear matter and apply them to estimate the strength S sub B. The ratio of S sub B to the nucleon strength S sub N approx-40 MeV fm sup 5 is S subLAMBDA/S sub N approx 1/5 and S subSIGMA/S sub N approx 1/2 in the Born approximation. The G-matrix calculation of the model FSS modifies S subLAMBDA to S subLAMBDA/S sub N approx 1/12. For S sub N and S subSIGMA, the effect of the short-range correlation is comparatively weak against meson-exchange potentials with a short-range repulsive core. The...

  7. A Unified approach for nucleon knock-out, coherent and incoherent pion production in neutrino interactions with nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M.; Chanfray, G.; Marteau, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a theory of neutrino interactions with nuclei aimed at the description of the partial cross-sections, namely quasi-elastic and multi-nucleon emission, coherent and incoherent single pion production. For this purpose, we use the theory of nuclear responses treated in the random phase approximation, which allows a unified description of these channels. It is particularly suited for the coherent pion production where collective effects are important whereas they are moderate in the other channels. We also study the evolution of the neutrino cross-sections with the mass number from carbon to calcium. We compare our approach to the available neutrino experimental data on carbon. We put a particular emphasis on the multi-nucleon channel, which at present is not easily distinguishable from the quasi-elastic events. This component turns out to be quite relevant for the interpretation of experiments (K2K, MiniBooNE, SciBooNE). It can account in particular for the unexpected behavior of the quasi-elastic cro...

  8. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  9. Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Nouy, Anthony

    2016-01-07

    Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.

  10. Mass distributions in nucleon-induced fission at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Duijvestijn, M C; Hambsch, F J

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fission barriers and fission-fragment mass distributions are calculated in the framework of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MM-RNRM). It is shown how the distinction between the different fission modes disappears at higher excitation energies, due to the melting of shell effects. The fission-fragment mass yield calculations are coupled to the nuclear reaction code ALICE-91, which takes into account the competition between the other reaction channels and fission. With the combination of the temperature-dependent MM-RNRM and ALICE-91 nucleon-induced fission is investigated at energies between 10 and 200 MeV for nuclei varying from Au to Am. (72 refs).

  11. Relativity constraints on the two-nucleon contact potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girlanda, Luca [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Pastore, Saori [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Viviani, Michele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    We construct the most general, relativistically invariant, contact Lagrangian at order $Q^2$ in the power counting, $Q$ denoting the low momentum scale. A complete, but non-minimal, set of (contact) interaction terms is identified, which upon non-relativistic reduction generate 2 leading independent operator combinations of order $Q^0$ and 7 sub-leading ones of order $Q^2$---a result derived previously in the heavy-baryon formulation of effective field theories (EFT's). We show that Poincar\\'e covariance of the theory requires that additional terms with fixed coefficients be included, in order to describe the two-nucleon potential in reference frames other than the center-of-mass frame. These terms will contribute in systems with mass number $A>2$, and their impact on EFT calculations of binding energies and scattering observables in these systems should be studied.

  12. Studies of spin-dependent hyperon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K. [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Dept. of Physics, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The observation of the LS-effect in {sigma}-hyper nuclear experiments has been explored at KEK-ps(proton synchrotron) to study the {sigma}N interaction through the hyperon -scattering experiments. In this experiment, a newly developed track-imaging detector named SCITIC (SCIntillation Track Image Camera) was used. The results on asymmetries of polarized {sigma}{sup +} and {lambda} hyperon scattering on protons have indicated a large {sigma}{sup +}p LS-interaction in contrast to the small {lambda}p LS-interaction. This experimental result is in accord with the quark-model predictions. The {sigma} hyperons are depolarized due to interaction with nucleons in nuclei, but the {lambda} hyperons suffer little depolarization. The result indicates the weakness of the interaction between s-quark and u-, d-quarks. (Y. Kazumata)

  13. Electromagnetic Meson Production in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volker Burkert; T.-S. H. Lee

    2004-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in investigating electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region are reviewed. The article gives a description of current experimental facilities with electron and photon beams and presents a unified derivation of most of the phenomenological approaches being used to extract the resonance parameters from the data. The analyses of {pi} and {eta} production data and the resulting transition form factors for the {Delta}(1232)P{sub 33}, N(1535)S{sub 11}, N(1440)P{sub 11}, and N(1520)D{sub 13} resonances are discussed in detail. The status of our understanding of the reactions with production of two pions, kaons, and vector mesons is also reviewed.

  14. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Thomas [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile); Schmidt, Ivan [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q{sub v}(x) and δq{sub v}(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  15. A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M; Jiménez-Argüello, A Martí; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2017-11-10

    The internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) remains one of the greatest outstanding problems in modern nuclear physics. By scattering high-energy electrons off a proton we are able to resolve its fundamental constituents and probe their momenta and positions. Here we investigate the dynamics of quarks and gluons inside nucleons using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS)-a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton, which subsequently radiates a photon. DVCS interferes with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, where the photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the regime where the scattering is expected to occur off a single quark, measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.

  16. INHOMOGENEOUS DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATION WITH PRIME ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    50

    INHOMOGENEOUS DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATION WITH PRIME. CONSTRAINTS. STEPHAN BAIER AND ANISH GHOSH. Abstract. We study the problem of ... this area under primality constraints. Indeed, the ...... [7] A. Ghosh, Diophantine approximation on subspaces of Rn and dynamics on homogeneous spaces, to.

  17. Photoproduction de Mesons sur le Nucleon aux Energies Intermediaire (in French) [Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, Michel [Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France)

    1996-12-13

    One object of this thesis is to propose a model taking account of low transfer reaction mechanisms for a series of photoproduction reactions on nucleons for photon energies ≳4 GeV. If our comprehension of processes with low transfers is correct, then extrapolating our model in the domain of large transfers and the comparison with data supplied will give us information on the domains in energy and transfers from which an interpretation of reactions in terms of the "soft" process ceases to be valid. In the domain of large transfers, only one approach in terms of "hard" process can then explain the data. We are interested in electromagnetic photoproduction reactions because the probe, firstly, interacts with the target via an exact and well known mechanism (described by the QED theory) and also eliminates the interaction phenomena in the initial state. No probe is as well known as the photon. The extraction of reaction mechanisms, amplitudes and coupling constants match is made easier than in the case of hadronic probes. The energy domain Eγ >4 GeV studied is particularly interesting because it is from this energy of incident photons that can be expected to achieve large enough pulse transfers to hope for emergence of hard processes and therefore see the cessation of validity of interpretation of hadron models. Also, resonance effects are minor and do not interfere with our interpretations. Experimentally, this area is widely unexplored and the new generation accelerators of a large duty cycle (CEBAF, MAMI, ESRF, ELF, ...) combined with 4π detectors will allow to precisely measure low cross sections reactions of a large transfer. We first study pion photoproduction reactions on nucleon because they are the most experimentally accessible reactions and many data of high energy and low transfers exist. This will require strong constraints on the model parameters of the numerous analyses performed previously. Then we'll move on to kaon photoproduction

  18. Diophantine approximation in prescribed degree

    OpenAIRE

    Schleischitz, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    We investigate approximation to a given real number by algebraic numbers and algebraic integers of prescribed degree. We deal with both best and uniform approximation, and highlight the similarities and differences compared with the intensely studied problem of approximation by algebraic numbers (and integers) of bounded degree. We establish the answer to a question of Bugeaud concerning approximation to transcendental real numbers by quadratic irrational numbers, and thereby we refine a resu...

  19. Periodismo virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo virtual se produce en diarios que no ofrecen noticias (concebidas como versión o reflejo de la realidad sino que crean sus propias ficciones, especialmente en primeras planas. El autor del artículo señala que esto esta sucediendo en LA NACIÓN de San José de Costa Rica, diario premiado por la inefable Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa - SIP - y periódico económicamente más importante del país.

  20. First measurement of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon using D mesons at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    von Hodenberg, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The complicated structure of the nucleon has been studied with great success in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering (DIS) experiments at CERN, SLAC and DESY. As a result the unpolarised structure functions have been measured accurately over a wide kinematic range. From these measurements it is possible to determine the gluon density in the nucleon with good accuracy via a so-called QCD fit. In the case of the spin structure of the nucleon the situation is different. Even after decades of experimental and theoretical efforts it remains to be understood how the spin of the nucleon of 1/2 in units of h-bar is to be accounted for in terms of contributions from the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. Of particular interest is the question whether the polarised gluon density can explain the unexpected smallness of the quark contribution to the nucleon spin. The QCD fit, which worked well in the unpolarised case, yields a polarised gluon density Delta G which is only badly constrained. This is due to the fact...

  1. Leading order relativistic hyperon-nucleon interactions in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bing-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We apply a recently proposed covariant power counting in nucleon-nucleon interactions to study strangeness S=‑1 {{\\varLambda }}N-{{\\varSigma }}N interactions in chiral effective field theory. At leading order, Lorentz invariance introduces 12 low energy constants, in contrast to the heavy baryon approach, where only five appear. The Kadyshevsky equation is adopted to resum the potential in order to account for the non-perturbative nature of hyperon-nucleon interactions. A fit to the 36 hyperon-nucleon scattering data points yields {χ }2≃ 16, which is comparable with the sophisticated phenomenological models and the next-to-leading order heavy baryon approach. However, one cannot achieve a simultaneous description of the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts and strangeness S=‑1 hyperon-nucleon scattering data at leading order. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375024, 11522539, 11375120), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M600845, 2017T100008) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

  2. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  3. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2014-01-01

    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  4. Translation invariance and antisymmetry in the theory of the nucleon optical model

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    The first step in any formalism that aims to connect a many-nucleon theory of nucleon-nucleus scattering and the concept of an optical model potential in the sense pioneered by Feshbach is to explain what is meant by the optical model wavefunction. By definition this is a function of a single space coordinate plus a set of single nucleon internal variables. This article gives a critique of the definitio as it is frequently expressed in 2nd Quantisation language and suggest a new definition wh...

  5. Production and interaction of the η meson with nucleons and nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the status of the search for η-mesic nuclei and the studies of the interaction of the η meson with nucleons. Recently we have completed the analysis of the newWASA-at-COSY data on the production of the η meson with polarized proton beam. New results on the analyzing power for the p̄p → ppη reaction with more than an order of magnitude improved precision shed a new light on the production mechanism of the η meson in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Also, the latest results of the search for η-mesic nuclei are discussed.

  6. Translation invariance and antisymmetry in the theory of the nucleon optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    The first step in any formalism that aims to connect a many-nucleon theory of nucleon-nucleus scattering and the concept of an optical model potential in the sense pioneered by Feshbach is to explain what is meant by the optical model wave function. By definition, this is a function of a single space coordinate plus a set of single-nucleon internal variables. This article gives a critique of the definition as it is frequently expressed in second quantization language and suggests a new definition which is more consistent with the requirements of antisymmetry and translational invariance. A modification of the time-dependent Green's function formalism is suggested.

  7. Kaon-nucleon scattering states and potentials in the Skyrme model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Takashi; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    We study the (anti)kaon nucleon interaction in the Skyrme model. The kaon field is introduced as a fluctuation around the rotating Skyrmion for the nucleon. As an extension of our previous work, we study scattering states and examine phase shifts in various kaon-nucleon channels. Then we study the interaction, where we find that it consists of central and spin-orbit components for isospin channels, I =0 , 1, with an energy dependence and a nonlocality. The interaction is then fitted to a Shrödinger equivalent local potential for s and p waves.

  8. No-Core Shell Model Calculations in Light Nuclei with Three-Nucleon Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, B R; Vary, J P; Nogga, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E

    2004-01-08

    The ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) has recently been expanded to include nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions at the three-body cluster level. Here it is used to predict binding energies and spectra of p-shell nuclei based on realistic NN and 3N interactions. It is shown that 3N force (3NF) properties can be studied in these nuclear systems. First results show that interactions based on chiral perturbation theory lead to a realistic description of {sup 6}Li.

  9. HETFIS: High-Energy Nucleon-Meson Transport Code with Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    A model that includes fission for predicting particle production spectra from medium-energy nucleon and pion collisions with nuclei (Z greater than or equal to 91) has been incorporated into the nucleon-meson transport code, HETC. This report is primarily concerned with the programming aspects of HETFIS (High-Energy Nucleon-Meson Transport Code with Fission). A description of the program data and instructions for operating the code are given. HETFIS is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM computers and is readily adaptable to other systems.

  10. Production and interaction of the eta meson with nucleons and nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Krzemien, Wojciech; Moskal, Paweł; Ozyrianska-Schätti, Iryna; Rundel, Oleksandr; Skurzok, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the search for eta-mesic nuclei and the studies of the interaction of the eta meson with nucleons. Recently we have completed the analysis of the new WASA-at-COSY data on the production of the eta meson with polarized proton beam. New results on the analyzing power for the pp->ppeta reaction with more than an order of magnitude improved precision shed a new light on the production mechanism of the eta meson in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Also, the latest results of the search for eta-mesic nuclei are discussed.

  11. Probing the repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon interaction via the (4)He(e,e'pN) triple-coincidence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korover, I; Muangma, N; Hen, O; Shneor, R; Sulkosky, V; Kelleher, A; Gilad, S; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Watson, J W; Wood, S A; Aguilera, P; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Anez, D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Averett, T; Badman, T; Baghdasaryan, H; Bai, X; Beck, A; Beck, S; Bellini, V; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bittner, J; Boeglin, W; Camsonne, A; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chirapatpimol, K; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Defurne, M; Flay, D; Fomin, N; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Fuchey, E; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gu, C; Gueye, P; Hamilton, D; Hanretty, C; Hansen, J-O; Hashemi Shabestari, M; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Iqbal, S; Jin, G; Kalantarians, N; Kang, H; Khandaker, M; LeRose, J; Leckey, J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marti Jimenez-Arguello, A; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Monaghan, P; Munoz Camacho, C; Norum, B; Nuruzzaman; Pan, K; Phillips, S; Pomerantz, I; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qiu, X; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Riordan, S; Ron, G; Rondon-Aramayo, O; Saha, A; Schulte, E; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Sjoegren, J; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R; Tireman, W; Wang, D; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, W; Yaron, I; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P; Zielinski, R

    2014-07-11

    We studied simultaneously the (4)He(e,e'p), (4)He(e,e'pp), and (4)He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q(2)=2(GeV/c)(2) and x(B)>1, for an (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830  MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ∼500  MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in (4)He and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force.

  12. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  13. Virtual screening of virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darren V S

    2003-01-01

    Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry

  14. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Baptistse [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  16. Realidad virtual y materialidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Herranz, Fernando Miguel

    2009-01-01

    1. Fenomenología de partida: Real / Simbólico / Imaginario 2. Realidad 3. Virtual 3.1. Virtual / real / posible / probable 3.2. Los contextos de la realidad virtual A) REALIDAD VIRTUAL INMERSIVA B) REALIDAD VIRTUAL NO INMERSIVA C) REALIDAD VIRTUAL Y DIGITALIZACIÓN 3.3. Cruce virtual / real 3.4. Cuestiones filosóficas 4. Materialidad 5. Materialidad y descentramiento 5.1. Ejemplos de descentramiento en los contextos de Realidad Virtual A’) DUALISMO CARTESIANO, CUERPO Y «CIBORG » B’) EL ESPÍRIT...

  17. Scaled hydrogenic approximation wavefunctions. [Hartree-Fock approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B.W.

    1979-09-01

    Although widespread use of computer codes for the solution of Schrodinger equations makes available numerical Hartree-Fock model radial wave functions, there remains persistant interest in simple analytic expressions for atomic wave functions. One such frequency favored approach employs hydrogenic functions, suitably scaled, as approximate wave functions. The following note displays typical inaccuracies to be expected from such approximations. 13 references.

  18. Microscopic description of elastic and direct inelastic nucleon scattering off spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to improve the modeling of nucleon direct inelastic scattering to the continuum using a microscopic and parameter-free approach. For the first time, direct elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete excitations and to the continuum are described within a microscopic approach without adjustable parameters. Proton scattering off {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb are the reactions used as test case examples of the calculations. The model uses the Melbourne g-matrix and the Random Phase Approximation description of nuclear states, implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The relevant optical and transition potentials in a finite nucleus are calculated within a local density approximation. As we use the nuclear matter approach we limit our study to incident energies above 40 MeV. We first checked that this model provides an accurate account of measured cross sections for elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to discrete states. It is then applied to the direct inelastic scattering to the continuum considering all one-phonon excitations predicted within the RPA approach. This accounts for a part of the direct pre-equilibrium emission, often labeled as the one-step direct process in quantum-based approaches. Our approach provides a very accurate description of angular distributions where the one-step process dominates. The impact of collective excitations is shown to be non negligible for energy transfer to the target up to 20 MeV, decreasing as the incident energy increases. For incident energies above 80 MeV, our modeling provides a good account of direct proton emission for an energy transfer to the target up to 30 MeV. However, the proton emission we predict underestimates the measured cross sections for incident energies below 80 MeV. We compare our prediction to those of the phenomenological exciton model to help interpret this result. Directions that may improve our modeling are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Microsoft Virtualization Master Microsoft Server, Desktop, Application, and Presentation Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Olzak, Thomas; Boomer, Jason; Keefer, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Virtualization helps you understand and implement the latest virtualization strategies available with Microsoft products. This book focuses on: Server Virtualization, Desktop Virtualization, Application Virtualization, and Presentation Virtualization. Whether you are managing Hyper-V, implementing desktop virtualization, or even migrating virtual machines, this book is packed with coverage on all aspects of these processes. Written by a talented team of Microsoft MVPs, Microsoft Virtualization is the leading resource for a full installation, migration, or integration of virtual syste

  20. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  1. Probing nucleon strange asymmetry from charm production in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Puze; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    .... The difference for the $D(c\\bar{q})$ and $\\bar{D}(\\bar{c}q)$ meson production cross sections in neutrino and antineutrino induced charged current deep inelastic scattering is illustrated to be sensitive to the nucleon strange asymmetry...

  2. 180th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Three-dimensional Partonic Stucture of the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Avakian, H; Hasch, D; Schweitzer, P

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional nucleon structure is central to many theoretical and experimental activities, and research in this field has seen many advances in the last two decades, addressing fundamental questions such as the orbital motion of quarks and gluons inside the nucleons, their spatial distribution, and the correlation between spin and intrinsic motion. A real three-dimensional imaging of the nucleon as a composite object, both in momentum and coordinate space, is slowly emerging. This book presents lectures and seminars from the Enrico Fermi School: Three-Dimensional Partonic Structure of the Nucleon, held in Varenna, Italy, in June and July 2011. The topics covered include: partonic distributions, fragmentation functions and factorization in QCD; theory of transverse momentum dependent partonic distributions (TMDs) and generalized partonic distributions (GPDs); experimental methods in studies of hard scattering processes; extraction of TMDs and GPDs from data; analysis tools for azimuthal asymmetries; ...

  3. Radial Dependence of the Nucleon Effective Mass in B sup 1 sup 0

    CERN Document Server

    Bever, L J D; Hicks, R; Jager, K D; Kelly, J; Lapikas, L; Miskimen, R; Neck, D V; Peterson, G; Steenhoven, G; Vries, H D

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic properties of the atomic nucleus depend strongly on correlations between the nucleons. We present a combined analysis of inelastic electron-scattering data and electron-induced proton knockout measurements in an effort to obtain phenomenological information on nucleon-nucleon correlations. Our results indicate that the ration of radial wave functions extracted from precise B sup 1 sup 0 (e,e') and B sup 1 sup 0 (e, e'p) measurements evolve from an interior depression for small Em, characteristic of short-range correlations, to a surface-peaked enhancement for larger Em, characteristic of long-range correlations. This observation can be interpreted in terms of the nucleon effective mass.

  4. Two nucleon (B − L)-conserving reactions involving tau leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-06-02

    Tau lepton emission in two-nucleon disappearance reactions from within nuclei which conserve baryon number minus lepton number (B − L) is considered. It is shown that some existing limits on proton decay channels and two-nucleon disappearance reactions resulting in electrons and muons can be applied to ΔB=ΔL=2 decays involving τ leptons. For the two-nucleon disappearance channel np→τ{sup +}ν{sup ¯}{sub τ} the estimated limit for the partial mean life is (τ)/(Br) >1×10{sup 30} yrs based on results from the IMB3 experiment. Re-analysis of existing data and future experiments could result in higher sensitivity for two-nucleon disappearance modes involving τ lepton final states.

  5. Strangeness violating lambda-nucleon cross-section from hypernuclei life times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. (ISN/UJF, 38 - Grenoble (France) DRFM/CENG, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1993-08-01

    It is shown that the recently obtained hypernuclei lifetimes can be explained in term of a weak strangeness violating lambda-nucleon interaction with a cross section close to 6.0 10[sup -15] barns. (orig.)

  6. Dispersion theory of nucleon Compton scattering and polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M. [II. Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Scadron, M.D. [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A status report on the topic nucleon Compton scattering and polarizabilities is presented with emphasis on the scalar t-channel as entering into dispersion theory. Precise values for the polarizabilities are obtained leading to {alpha}{sub p} = 12.0 {+-} 0.6 (12.0), {beta}{sub p}= 1.9-+ 0.6 (1.9), {alpha}{sub n}= 12.5 {+-} 1.7 (13.4), {beta}{sub n}= 2.7 -+ 1.8 (1.8) in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and {gamma}{sup (p)}{sub {pi}}= -36.4 {+-} 1.5 (-36.6), {gamma}{sup (n)}{sub {pi}}= 58.6 {+-} 4.0 (58.3), ({gamma}{sup (p)}{sub 0} = -0.58 {+-} 0.20), ({gamma}{sup (n)}{sub 0} = +0.38 {+-} 0.22) in units of 10{sup -4} fm{sup 4}, for the proton (p) and neutron (n), respectively. The data given with an error are recommended experimental values with updates compared to [1] where necessary, the data in parentheses are predicted values. These predicted values are not contained in [1], but are the result of a newly developed analysis which is the main topic of the present paper. The most important recent discovery is that the largest part of the electric polarizability and the total diamagnetic polarizability of the nucleon are properties of the {sigma} meson as part of the constituent-quark structure, as expected from the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking. This view is supported by an experiment on Compton scattering by the proton carried out in the second resonance region, where a large contribution from the {sigma} meson enters into the scattering amplitudes. This experiment led to a determination of the mass of the {sigma} meson of m{sub {sigma}}= 600{+-} 70 MeV. From the experimental {alpha}{sub p} and predicted differences ({alpha}{sub n}-{alpha}{sub p}) neutron polarizabilities in the range {alpha}{sub n} = 12.0 - 13.4 are predicted, where the uncertainties are related to the f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) scalar mesons. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. A Hybrid Reliable Heuristic Mapping Method Based on Survivable Virtual Networks for Network Virtualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliable mapping of virtual networks is one of the hot issues in network virtualization researches. Unlike the traditional protection mechanisms based on redundancy and recovery mechanisms, we take the solution of the survivable virtual topology routing problem for reference to ensure that the rest of the mapped virtual networks keeps connected under a single node failure condition in the substrate network, which guarantees the completeness of the virtual network and continuity of services. In order to reduce the cost of the substrate network, a hybrid reliable heuristic mapping method based on survivable virtual networks (Hybrid-RHM-SVN is proposed. In Hybrid-RHM-SVN, we formulate the reliable mapping problem as an integer linear program. Firstly, we calculate the primary-cut set of the virtual network subgraph where the failed node has been removed. Then, we use the ant colony optimization algorithm to achieve the approximate optimal mapping. The links in primary-cut set should select a substrate path that does not pass through the substrate node corresponding to the virtual node that has been removed first. The simulation results show that the acceptance rate of virtual networks, the average revenue of mapping, and the recovery rate of virtual networks are increased compared with the existing reliable mapping algorithms, respectively.

  8. The nucleon as a test case to calculate vector-isovector form factors at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Extending a recent suggestion for hyperon form factors to the nucleon case, dispersion theory is used to relate the low-energy vector-isovector form factors of the nucleon to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the nucleons and optionally the Delta baryons. Two methods to include pion rescattering are compared: a) solving the Muskhelishvili-Omnès (MO) equation and b) using an N/D approach. It turns out that the results differ strongly from each other. Furthermore the results are compared to a fully dispersive calculation of the (subthreshold) pion-nucleon amplitudes based on Roy-Steiner (RS) equations. In full agreement with the findings from the hyperon sector it turns out that the inclusion of Delta baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The magnetic isovector form factor depends strongly on a low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. If it is adjusted such that the corresponding magnetic radius is reproduced, then the results for the corresponding pion-nucleon scattering amplitude (based on the MO equation) agree very well with the RS results. Also in the electric sector the Delta degrees of freedom are needed to obtain the correct order of magnitude for the isovector charge and the corresponding electric radius. Yet quantitative agreement is not achieved. If the subtraction constant that appears in the solution of the MO equation is not taken from nucleon+Delta chiral perturbation theory but adjusted such that the electric radius is reproduced, then one obtains also in this sector a pion-nucleon scattering amplitude that agrees well with the RS results.

  9. A shell model approach of the stability of nuclei against nucleon emission

    CERN Document Server

    Calboreanu, A

    1976-01-01

    The stability of nuclei with respect to nucleon emission is discussed in the frame of the shell model. It is assumed that a central potential of Woods-Saxon type capable of reproducing correctly and systematically the location of the single particle energies in the neighbourhood of the Fermi level for a large range of nuclei is capable of predicting those instances when the available bound states cannot accommodate more nucleons. (15 refs).

  10. Centrality dependence of charged hadron production in deuteron+gold and nucleon+gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorg}o, T; Cussonneau, J P; D'Enterria, D; Das, K; Dávid, G; Deák, F; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Yu V; Enyo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S Y; Gadrat, S; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Le Bornec, Y; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qualls, J M; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarjan, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V N; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Willis, N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X; van Hecke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We present transverse momentum (p_T) spectra of charged hadrons measured in deuteron-gold and nucleon-gold collisions at \\sqrts = 200 GeV for four centrality classes. Nucleon-gold collisions were selected by tagging events in which a spectator nucleon was observed in one of two forward rapidity detectors. The spectra and yields were investigated as a function of the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, \

  11. Distributions of neutron yields and doses around a water phantom bombarded with 290-MeV/nucleon and 430-MeV/nucleon carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, D., E-mail: satoh.daiki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kajimoto, T. [Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Shigyo, N.; Itashiki, Y.; Imabayashi, Y. [Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Koba, Y.; Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sanami, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho-cho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nakao, N. [Shimizu Corporation, Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Uozumi, Y. [Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Double-differential neutron yields from a water phantom bombarded with 290-MeV/nucleon and 430-MeV/nucleon carbon ions were measured at emission angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, and angular distributions of neutron yields and doses around the phantom were obtained. The experimental data were compared with results of the Monte-Carlo simulation code PHITS. The PHITS results showed good agreement with the measured data. On the basis of the PHITS simulation, we estimated the angular distributions of neutron yields and doses from 0° to 180° including thermal neutrons.

  12. Isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and symmetry energy in isotopic nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Fei; Chen, Peng-Hui; Niu, Fei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jin, Gen-Ming; Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2017-10-01

    Within an isospin and momentum dependent transport model, the dynamics of isospin particles (nucleons and light clusters) in Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated for constraining the isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. The impacts of the isoscalar and isovector parts of the momentum dependent interaction on the emissions of isospin particles are explored, i.e., the mass splittings of and (). The single and double neutron to proton ratios of free nucleons and light particles are thoroughly investigated in the isotopic nuclear reactions of 112Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn at incident energies of 50 and 120 MeV/nucleon, respectively. It is found that both the effective mass splitting and symmetry energy impact the kinetic energy spectra of the single ratios, in particular at the high energy tail (larger than 20 MeV). The isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass slightly impacts the double ratio spectra at the energy of 50 MeV/nucleon. A soft symmetry energy with stiffness coefficient of γs=0.5 is constrained from the experimental data with the Fermi-energy heavy-ion collisions. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program in China (2014CB845405, 2015CB856903), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11722546, 11675226, 11675066, U1332207) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  13. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  14. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  15. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  16. Nucleon correlations and the structure of Zn413071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bottoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of 71Zn was investigated by one-neutron transfer and heavy-ion induced complex (deep-inelastic reactions using the GRETINA-CHICO2 and the Gammasphere setups, respectively. The observed inversion between the 9/2+ and 1/2− states is explained in terms of the role of neutron pairing correlations. Non-collective sequences of levels were delineated above the 9/2+ isomeric state. These are interpreted as being associated with a modest oblate deformation in the framework of Monte-Carlo shell-model calculations carried out with the A3DA-m Hamiltonian in the pfg9/2d5/2 valence space. Similarities with the structure of Ni402868 were observed and the shape-coexistence mechanism in the N=40 region of neutron-rich nuclei is discussed in terms of the so-called Type-II shell evolution, with an emphasis on proton–neutron correlations between valence nucleons, especially those involving the shape-driving g9/2 neutron orbital.

  17. Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements in NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qun

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) experiment, using the SPS (Super Proton Syncrotron) neutrino beam (1 GeV < E [nu] < 200 GeV) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), has collected more than 1.7 million neutrino induced charged and neutral current (CC and NC) events. This data is the largest high resolution neutrino nucleon scattering data to date and is ideal for precision measurements and searches in neutrino-physics. This thesis presents the precise measurement of the inclusive neutrino CC cross section in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV region. The linear dependence of the inclusive CC cross section ([Special characters omitted.] ) versus the incoming neutrino energy ( E [nu] ) is observed in the high energy region of 30 GeV < E [nu] < 150 GeV. Especially, the measurement in 2.5 GeV < E [nu] < 30 GeV region provides the first precise determination of [Special characters omitted.] . The significant deviation from the linear dependence for [Special character...

  18. The gluon momentum fraction of the nucleon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Martha [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jansen, Karl; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Panagopoulos, Haralambos [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2016-11-21

    We perform a direct calculation of the gluon momentum fraction of the nucleon using maximally twisted mass fermion ensembles with N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavors at a pion mass of about 370 MeV and a lattice spacing of a∼0.082 fm and with N{sub f}=2 flavors at the physical pion mass and a lattice spacing of a∼0.093 fm. In the definition of the gluon operator we employ stout smearing to obtain a statistically significant result for the bare matrix elements. In addition, we perform a lattice perturbative calculation including 2 levels of stout smearing to carry out the mixing and the renormalization of the quark and gluon operators. We find, after conversion to the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV: left angle x right angle {sup R}{sub g}=0.284(23)(23) for pion mass of about 370 MeV and left angle x right angle {sup R}{sub g}=0.283(23)(15) for the physical pion mass.

  19. Central and tensor Lambda-nucleon potentials from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nemura, H

    2010-01-01

    We present our latest study of Lambda-Nucleon (LN) interaction by using lattice QCD, following up on our report at LATTICE 2008. We have calculated not only the scattering lengths but also the central and tensor potentials, which are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude measured in lattice QCD. For these calculations, we employ two different types of gauge configurations: (i) 2+1 flavor full QCD configurations generated by the PACS-CS collaboration at $\\beta=1.9$ ($a=0.0907(13)$ fm) on a $32^3\\times 64$ lattice, whose spatial volume is (2.90 fm)$^3$, with the quark masses corresponding to $(m_\\pi,m_K)\\approx (301,592)$, $(414,637)$, $(570,724)$ and $(699,787)$ (in units of MeV). (ii) Quenched QCD configurations at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a=0.1416(9)$ fm) on a $32^3\\times48$ lattice, whose spatial volume is (4.5 fm)$^3$, with the quark masses corresponding to $(m_\\pi,m_K)\\approx (512,606)$, $(464, 586)$ and $(407,565)$. The following qualitative features are found: The LN potential has a relatively strong (we...

  20. Quasi-elastic Charm Production In Neutrino-nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bischofberger, M

    2005-01-01

    A study of quasi elastic charm production in charged current neutrino-nucleon scattering is presented. A sample of about 1.3 million interactions recorded with the NOMAD detector in the CERN SPS wide band neutrino beam has been searched for quasi elastically produced charmed baryons ( L+c,Sc and S*c ). The search has been performed in two exclusive decay channels of the L+c, both including a L . Also, the semi-inclusive decay channels L+c,Sc,S *c→L+X have been studied. Kinematic selection criteria have been chosen in order to obtain samples enriched with quasi elastic charm events. Signal efficiencies and background expectations have been estimated by Monte Carlo simulations. The observed number of events in each searched channel has been found to agree with the background expectation from charged and neutral current reactions and an upper limit for the cross section has been derived. For the quasi elastic charm production cross section averaged over the neutrino energy spectrum (&lan...

  1. Detailed measurements of structure functions from nucleons and nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment will study deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering in a wide range of $Q^{2}$(1-200 (GeV/c)$^{2}$) and $x(0.005-0.75)$. The main aims of the experiment are: \\\\\\\\ a) Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of the structure function $F_{2}^{A}$, of $R = \\sigma_/\\sigma_{T}$ and of the cross-section for $J/\\psi$ production. They will provide a basis for the understanding of the EMC effect: the modification of quark and gluon distributions due to the nuclear environment. \\\\b) A simultaneous high luminosity measurement of the structure function $F_{2}$ on hydrogen and deuterium. This will provide substantially improved accuracy in the knowledge of the neutron structure function $F_{2}^{n}$, of $F_{2}^{p}-F_{2}^{n}$ and $F_{2}^{n}/F_{2}^{p}$ and their $Q^{2}$ dependence. Furthermore, the data will allow a determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}(Q^{2})$ with reduced experimental and theoretical uncertainties as well as of the ratio of the down to up quark distributions in the v...

  2. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  3. Meson cloud in the nucleon and its consequences in various phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczurek, A. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-06-01

    Consequences of the meson cloud in the nucleon and search for its evidences in various phenomena in both soft and hard processes were discussed. The cut-off parameters of the form factors (FF) for meson-baryon vertices are determined from high-energy particle production data. An universal cut-off parameter for processes involving octet baryons has been found. Relativistic calculations of the effects of the pion cloud on the electromagnetic properties of the nucleon are presented. Light-cone formalism was used to construct the nucleon wave function. The elastic electromagnetic nucleon FF G{sup p,n}{sub E}(Q{sup 2}) and G{sup p,n}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) are computed in terms of matrix elements of current operator and the nucleon wave function. The Q{sup 2}-dependence of contributions to the nucleon FF from the various sectors of the model space is calculated. The observed deviations from FF scaling and dipole parameterization is discussed. A set of formulae for longitudinal momentum distribution functions (splitting functions) of mesons in the nucleon has been determined. The value of the Gottfried Sum Rule obtained from model (S{sub G}=0.224) agrees with that obtained by the NMC. The calculated axial coupling constants for semileptonic decays of the octet baryons agree with the experimental data. Enhanced production of events at large x in comparison to standard sets of quark distributions with rather mild Q{sup 2}-dependence was predicted. The semi-inclusive cross section for producing slow protons in charged current deep inelastic (anti-)neutrino scattering nucleons is calculated as a function of the x and the proton momentum. The possible consequences of the meson cloud in the nucleon for the production of the W and Z bosons in hadron-hadron collisions were discussed. A good description of the total W and Z production cross sections measured in the proton-antiproton collisions as well as the lepton asymmetry have been obtained. The model predicts an enhancement of the

  4. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds (VWs are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies’ intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others’ homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users’ buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment’s data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  5. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  6. Nucleon electric dipole moments and the isovector parity- and time-reversal-odd pion–nucleon coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yeah Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The isovector time-reversal- and parity-violating pion–nucleon coupling g¯π(1 is uniquely sensitive to dimension-six interactions between right-handed light quarks and the Standard Model Higgs doublet that naturally arises in left-right symmetric models. Recent work has used the g¯π(1-induced one-loop contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment dn, together with the present experimental dn bound, to constrain the CP-violating parameters of the left-right symmetric model. We show that this and related analyses are based on an earlier meson theory dn computation that is not consistent with the power-counting appropriate for an effective field theory. We repeat the one-loop calculation using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and find that the resulting dn sensitivity to g¯π(1 is suppressed, implying more relaxed constraints on the parameter space of the left-right symmetric model. Assuming no cancellations between this loop contribution and other contributions, such as the leading order EDM low-energy constant, the present limit on dn implies |g¯π(1|≲1.1×10−10.

  7. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  8. Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a

  9. -commuting maps and invariant approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoades BE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain common fixed point results for generalized -nonexpansive -commuting maps. As applications, various best approximation results for this class of maps are derived in the setup of certain metrizable topological vector spaces.

  10. Some results in Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen Højris

    This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...... the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered....... The first part is about a failed attempt of applying dynamical methods to obtain results and is not part of the paper. It explains the ideas of how the real case works and what goes wrong in the case of the formal Laurent series. The second part contains the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs....

  11. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  12. Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations...... of such functions. Recently, cartoon-like images were introduced in 2D and 3D as a suitable model class, and approximation properties were measured by considering the decay rate of the $L^2$ error of the best $N$-term approximation. Shearlet systems are to date the only representation system, which provide...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...

  13. The cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 ratio from 200 MeV per nucleon(-1) to 3.7 GeV per nucleon(-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Menn, W.; Hof, M.

    1998-01-01

    The abundances of cosmic-ray helium isotopes between 0.2 and 3.7 GeV nucleon(-1) were measured by the Isotope Matter Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) during a flight from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada on 1992 July 16-17. The IMAX balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer realized a direct measurement...

  14. Virtual PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

    2006-02-23

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary

  15. Sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Yang, Yi-Bo; Liang, Jian; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; χ QCD Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report a comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment, charge radius, and the electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We adopt a model-independent extrapolation of the nucleon magnetic moment and the charge radius. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is μM(DI )=-0.022 (11 )(09 ) μN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is ⟨r2⟩E(DI ) =-0.019 (05 )(05 ) fm2 which is about 1 /3 of the difference between the ⟨rp2⟩E of electron-proton scattering and that of a muonic atom and so cannot be ignored in obtaining the proton charge radius in the lattice QCD calculation. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton mean square charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron mean square charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤Q2≤0.5 GeV2 .

  16. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bratt, J.D.; Engelhardt, M.; Hagler, Ph.; Lin, H.W.; Lin, M.F.; Meyer, H.B.; Musch, B.; Negele, J.W.; Orginos, K.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Procura, M.; Richards, D.G.; Schroers, W.; Syritsyn, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  17. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. This article...... reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. We show that the virtual trackball by Chen et al. does not rotate the object along the intended great circular arc on the virtual...... trackball and we give a correction. Another popular virtual trackball is Shoemake's quaternion implementation [CHECK END OF SENTENCE], which we show to be a special case of the virtual trackball by Chen et al.. Shoemake extends the scope of the virtual trackball to the full screen. Unfortunately, Shoemake...

  18. Dossier: "The virtual environment student"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Borges Sáiz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this monographic dossier is to offer the reader a basic view of the figure of the student in virtual teaching and learning environments from the point of view of professionals from diverse backgrounds and actions, who coincide in giving importance to the centrality of the figure of the student as ultimately responsible for their learning.The articles that are part of this monograph are as follows:Federico Borges, "The virtual environment student. An initial approximation"Marta Dziubinska and Joanna Opoka, "The online student as a driving force in the transformation of the Polish Virtual University"Itziar Portillo, "Construction of a valid online training model from the point of view of the student as part of their study discipline"Lluís Vicent, "The online student on technical degree courses. Motivation, interests and technical problems"Federico Borges, Jaume Farrés and Cristina Gallego, "The virtual environment student in Humanities, Language and Literature, and foreign languages at the UOC".

  19. Chat, pizarra virtual, aulas modulares virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Demo, Juan Pablo; Painefilu, Jaime Paul; Ferreira Szpiniak, Ariel; Zorzán, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se estudian distintas herramientas sincrónicas y asincrónicas que pueden ser incorporadas dentro de un aula virtual. En particular, se analizan desde el punto de vista de integrarlas a un Entorno Virtual de Enseñanza y Aprendizaje (EVEA) específico. Los componentes seleccionados tienen que ver con comunicación por texto de forma on-line (chat), pizarras virtuales, y organización de aulas virtuales por unidades o módulos que permitan a cada alumno seguir su propia secue...

  20. Approximate number sense theory or approximate theory of magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Alain; Velde, Michael Vande; Adriano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Leibovich et al. argue that the evidence in favor of a perceptual mechanism devoted to the extraction of numerosity from visual collections is unsatisfactory and propose to replace it with an unspecific mechanism capturing approximate magnitudes from continuous dimensions. We argue that their representation of the evidence is incomplete and that their theoretical proposal is too vague to be useful.

  1. Approximate entropy of network parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James; Lacasa, Lucas; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We study the notion of approximate entropy within the framework of network theory. Approximate entropy is an uncertainty measure originally proposed in the context of dynamical systems and time series. We first define a purely structural entropy obtained by computing the approximate entropy of the so-called slide sequence. This is a surrogate of the degree sequence and it is suggested by the frequency partition of a graph. We examine this quantity for standard scale-free and Erdös-Rényi networks. By using classical results of Pincus, we show that our entropy measure often converges with network size to a certain binary Shannon entropy. As a second step, with specific attention to networks generated by dynamical processes, we investigate approximate entropy of horizontal visibility graphs. Visibility graphs allow us to naturally associate with a network the notion of temporal correlations, therefore providing the measure a dynamical garment. We show that approximate entropy distinguishes visibility graphs generated by processes with different complexity. The result probes to a greater extent these networks for the study of dynamical systems. Applications to certain biological data arising in cancer genomics are finally considered in the light of both approaches.

  2. Deeply virtual compton scattering on a virtual pion target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.; Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lansberg, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-07-15

    We study deeply virtual Compton scattering on a virtual pion that is emitted by a proton. Using a range of models for the generalized parton distributions of the pion, we evaluate the cross section, as well as the beam spin and beam charge asymmetries in the leading-twist approximation. Studying Compton scattering on the pion in suitable kinematics puts high demands on both beam energy and luminosity, and we find that the corresponding requirements will first be met after the energy upgrade at Jefferson Laboratory. As a by-product of our study, we construct a parameterization of pion generalized parton distributions that has a non-trivial interplay between the x and t dependence and is in good agreement with form factor data and lattice calculations. (orig.)

  3. Chiral effective field theory analysis of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Baroni, A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Girlanda, L. [Univ. of Salento and INFN-Lecce, Lecce (Italy). Dept. of Mathematical and Physics; Kievsky, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Marcucci, L. E. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Schiavilla, R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-06-18

    Weak interactions between quarks induce a parity-violating (PV) component in the nucleon-nucleon potential, whose effects are currently being studied in a number of experiments involving few-nucleon systems. In the present work, we reconsider the derivation of this PV component within a chiral effective field theory (${\\chi }$EFT) framework. Purpose: The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to perform a detailed analysis of the PV nucleon-nucleon potential up to next-to-next-to-leading (N2LO) order in the chiral expansion, in particular, by determining the number of independent low-energy constants (LECs) at N2LO. The second objective is to investigate PV effects in a number of few-nucleon observables, including the $\\vec{p}$-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in n-p and n-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the 3He( $\\vec{n}$,p)3H charge-exchange reaction. Methods: The ${\\chi }$EFT PV potential includes one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, and contact terms as well as 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) nonstatic corrections. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize pion loops. The wave functions for the A=2-4 nuclei are obtained by using strong two- and three-body potentials also derived, for consistency, from ${\\chi }$EFT. In the case of the A=3-4 systems, systems, the wave functions are computed by expanding on a hyperspherical harmonics functions basis. Results: We find that the PV potential at N2LO depends on six LECs: the pion-nucleon PV coupling constant h$1\\atop{π}$ and five parameters multiplying contact interactions. An estimate for the range of values of the various LECs is provided by using available experimental data, and these values are used to obtain predictions for the other PV observables. Conclusions: The ${\\chi }$EFT approach provides a very satisfactory framework to analyze PV effects in few-nucleon systems.

  4. Approximation methods in probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Čekanavičius, Vydas

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.

  5. Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...

  6. Three-Nucleon Bound States and the Wigner-SU(4) Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Jared; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the extent to which the properties of three-nucleon bound states are well-reproduced in the limit that nuclear forces satisfy Wigner's SU(4) (spin-isospin) symmetry. To do this we compute the charge radii up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in an effective field theory that is an expansion in powers of R/ a, with R the range of the nuclear force and a the nucleon-nucleon (N N) scattering lengths. In the Wigner-SU(4) limit, the triton and helium-3 point charge radii are equal. At NLO in the range expansion both are 1.66 fm. Adding the first-order corrections due to the breaking of Wigner symmetry in the N N scattering lengths gives a ^3{H} point charge radius of 1.58 fm, which is remarkably close to the experimental number, 1.5978± 0.040 fm (Angeli and Marinova in At Data Nucl Data Tables 99:69-95, 2013). For the ^3{He} point charge radius we find 1.70 fm, about 4% away from the experimental value of 1.77527± 0.0054 fm (Angeli and Marinova 2013). We also examine the Faddeev components that enter the tri-nucleon wave function and find that an expansion of them in powers of the symmetry-breaking parameter converges rapidly. Wigner's SU(4) symmetry is thus a useful starting point for understanding tri-nucleon bound-state properties.

  7. Best Approximation in Numerical Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven; Lewicki, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Let $X$ be a reflexive Banach space. In this paper we give a necessary and sufficient condition for an operator $T\\in \\mathcal{K}(X)$ to have the best approximation in numerical radius from the convex subset $\\mathcal{U} \\subset \\mathcal{K}(X),$ where $\\mathcal{K}(X)$ denotes the set of all linear, compact operators from $X$ into $X.$ We will also present an application to minimal extensions with respect to the numerical radius. In particular some results on best approximation in norm will be...

  8. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  9. Polarization observables in Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Luca

    2007-10-15

    Virtual Compton Scattering (VCS) is an important reaction for understanding nucleon structure at low energies. By studying this process, the generalized polarizabilities of the nucleon can be measured. These observables are a generalization of the already known polarizabilities and will permit theoretical models to be challenged on a new level. More specifically, there exist six generalized polarizabilities and in order to disentangle them all, a double polarization experiment must be performed. Within this work, the VCS reaction p(e,e'p){gamma} was measured at MAMI using the A1 Collaboration three spectrometer setup with Q{sup 2}=0.33 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Using the highly polarized MAMI beam and a recoil proton polarimeter, it was possible to measure both the VCS cross section and the double polarization observables. Already in 2000, the unpolarized VCS cross section was measured at MAMI. In this new experiment, we could confirm the old data and furthermore the double polarization observables were measured for the first time. The data were taken in five periods between 2005 and 2006. In this work, the data were analyzed to extract the cross section and the proton polarization. For the analysis, a maximum likelihood algorithm was developed together with the full simulation of all the analysis steps. The experiment is limited by the low statistics due mainly to the focal plane proton polarimeter efficiency. To overcome this problem, a new determination and parameterization of the carbon analyzing power was performed. The main result of the experiment is the extraction of a new combination of the generalized polarizabilities using the double polarization observables. (orig.)

  10. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...

  11. Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and

  12. Approximation by Penultimate Stable Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens); L. Peng (Liang); H. Iglesias Pereira

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn certain cases partial sums of i.i.d. random variables with finite variance are better approximated by a sequence of stable distributions with indices \\\\alpha_n \\\\to 2 than by a normal distribution. We discuss when this happens and how much the convergence rate can be improved by using

  13. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  14. APPROXIMATE MODELS FOR FLOOD ROUTING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kinematic model and a nonlinear convection-diffusion model are extracted from a normalized form of the St. Venant equations, and applied to ... normal flow condition is moderate. Keywords: approximate models, nonlinear kinematic ... The concern here is with the movement of an abnormal amount of water along a river or ...

  15. Approximation for Bayesian Ability Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-18

    two-way contingency tables. Journal of Educational Statistics, 11, 33-56. Lindley, D.V. (1980). Approximate Bayesian methods. Trabajos Estadistica , 31...Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Avenue New York, NY 10021 Dr. Wallace Wulfeck, 11 Navy Personnel R&D Center San Diego, CA 92152-6800 Dr. Wendy

  16. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances......, not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  17. Organization Virtual or Networked?

    OpenAIRE

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-01-01

    Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked org...

  18. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  19. Network Virtualization Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Fornazarič, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Server virtualization is a widespread and well known technology that has fundamentally changed the operations in data centers. Virtual servers and data storage can be fast and easily provisioned. On the other hand network requires a lot of administrative changes and configurations that increase time of adoption. The consequences of server virtualization are changed requirements for network resources therefore the next logical step is network virtualization. The different approaches for netwo...

  20. Server virtualization solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lodziņš, Gunārs Ernests

    2007-01-01

    Currently in the information technology sector that is responsible for a server infrastructure is a huge development in the field of server virtualization on x86 computer architecture. As a prerequisite for such a virtualization development is growth in server productivity and underutilization of available computing power. Several companies in the market are working on two virtualization architectures – hypervizor and hosting. In this paper several of virtualization products that use host...

  1. Quark sea structure functions of the nucleon in a statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, L. A.; Mirez, C.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, L.

    2008-07-01

    Within a statistical model of linear confined quarks we obtain the flavor asymmetry and corresponding structure function of the nucleon. The model parameters are fixed by the experimental available data. The temperature parameter is adjusted by the Gottfried sum rule violation and the chemical potentials by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalizations in the nucleon. The light antiquark and quark distributions in the proton, given by d¯/ū, d/u and d¯-ū, as well as the neutron to proton ratio of the structure functions, extracted from the experimental data, are well fitted by the model. As the quark-confining strengths should be flavor dependent, a mechanism is introduced in the model to adjust the corresponding distribution, in order to improve the comparison obtained for the sea-quark asymmetries in the nucleon with the available experimental analysis.

  2. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  3. General operator form of the non-local three-nucleon force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topolnicki, K. [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-09-15

    This paper describes a procedure to obtain the general form of the three-nucleon force. The result is an operator form where the momentum space matrix element of the three-nucleon potential is written as a linear combination of 320 isospin-spin-momentum operators and scalar functions of momenta. Any spatial and isospin rotation invariant three-nucleon force can be written in this way and in order for the potential to be Hermitian, symmetric under parity inversion, time reversal and particle exchange, the scalar functions must have definite transformation properties under these discrete operations. A complete list of the isospin-spin-momentum operators and scalar function transformation properties is given. (orig.)

  4. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors using lattice simulations at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Jansen, K.; Kallidonis, Ch.; Koutsou, G.; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present results for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using an ensemble of maximally twisted mass clover-improved fermions with pion mass of about 130 MeV. We use multiple sink-source separations and three analysis methods to probe ground-state dominance. We evaluate both the connected and disconnected contributions to the nucleon matrix elements. We find that the disconnected quark loop contributions to the isoscalar matrix elements are small, giving an upper bound of up to 2% of the connected and smaller than its statistical error. We present results for the isovector and isoscalar electric and magnetic Sachs form factors and the corresponding proton and neutron form factors. By fitting the momentum dependence of the form factors to a dipole form or to the z expansion, we extract the nucleon electric and magnetic radii, as well as the magnetic moment. We compare our results to experiment as well as to other recent lattice QCD calculations.

  5. Test of weak and strong factorization in nucleus-nucleuscollisions atseveral hundred MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Tessa, Chiara; Sihver, Lembit; Zeitlin, Cary; Miller, Jack; Guetersloh, Stephen; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Mancusi, Davide; Iwata,Yoshiuki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2006-06-21

    Total and partial charge-changing cross sections have been measured for argon projectiles at 400 MeV/nucleon in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets; cross sections for hydrogen were also obtained, using a polyethylene target. The validity of weak and strong factorization properties has been investigated for partial charge-changing cross sections; preliminary cross section values obtained for carbon, neon and silicon at 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon and iron at 400 MeV/nucleon, in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets have been also used for testing these properties. Two different analysis methods were applied and both indicated that these properties are valid, without any significant difference between weak and strong factorization. The factorization parameters have then been calculated and analyzed in order to find some systematic behavior useful for modeling purposes.

  6. Polarization transfer measurement for H-1((d)over-right-arrow,(p)over-right-arrow)H-2 elastic scattering at 135 MeV/nucleon and three-nucleon force effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekiguchi, K; Sakai, H; Witala, H; Ermisch, K; Glockle, W; Golak, J; Hatano, M; Kamada, H; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kato, H; Maeda, Y; Nishikawa, J; Nogga, A; Ohnishi, T; Okamura, H; Saito, T; Sakamoto, N; Sakoda, S; Satou, Y; Suda, K; Tamii, A; Uchigashima, T; Uesaka, T; Wakasa, T; Yako, K

    The deuteron-to-proton polarization-transfer coefficients for d-p elastic scattering were precisely measured with an incoming deuteron energy of 135 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility. The data are compared to theoretical predictions based on exact solution's of the three-nucleon

  7. Study on lateral distribution of neutron cascade induced by only one nucleon in the atmosphere; Estudo da distribuicao lateral da cascata nucleonica induzida por um unico nucleon na atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellandi, J.; Covolan, R.J.M.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Costa, C.G.S.; Mundim, L.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1993-12-31

    Some aspects of lateral behavior of nucleonic cascade induced by only one nucleon which interacts with the atmosphere, such as: energy dependence, height of interaction, lateral dispersion and average matter quantity crossed by cascade, are discussed. (M.C.K.). 6 refs, 6 figs.

  8. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  9. Nucleon structure from Lattice QCD using a nearly physical pion mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Engelhardt, M. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Krieg, S. [Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); IAS, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Syritsyn, S.N., E-mail: ssyritsyn@quark.phy.bnl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    We report the first Lattice QCD calculation using the almost physical pion mass m{sub π}=149 MeV that agrees with experiment for four fundamental isovector observables characterizing the gross structure of the nucleon: the Dirac and Pauli radii, the magnetic moment, and the quark momentum fraction. The key to this success is the combination of using a nearly physical pion mass and excluding the contributions of excited states. An analogous calculation of the nucleon axial charge governing beta decay has inconsistencies indicating a source of bias at low pion masses not present for the other observables and yields a result that disagrees with experiment.

  10. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Aaron S; Kronfeld, Andreas S; Li, Ruizi; Simone, James N

    2016-01-01

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  11. Scalar response of the nucleon chiral symmetry and nuclear matter properties

    CERN Document Server

    Chanfray, G

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we present a description of nuclear binding in a chiral approach based on the existence of a chiral invariant scalar field associated with the generation of the masses through spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. We discuss the emergence of such a field on the example of the NJL model. We also incorporate the effect of confinement at the level of the nucleon substructure to stabilize nuclear matter. In a particular quark-diquark model we illustrate the simutaneous influences of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and confinement on the nucleon mass and on the nuclear matter description.

  12. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C

    1999-03-01

    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  13. Self-consistent Green's function calculation of the nucleon mean free path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Arnau; Somà, Vittorio

    2012-01-06

    The extension of Green's functions techniques to the complex energy plane provides access to fully dressed quasiparticle properties from a microscopic perspective. Using self-consistent ladder self-energies, we find both spectra and lifetimes of such quasiparticles in nuclear matter. With a consistent choice of the group velocity, the nucleon mean-free path can be computed. Our results indicate that, for energies above 50 MeV at densities close to saturation, a nucleon has a mean-free path of 4 to 5 fm.

  14. Azimuthal and single spin asymmetry in deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2006-09-21

    The collinear expansion technique is generalized to thefactorization of unintegrated parton distributions and other higher twistparton correlations from the corresponding collinear hard parts thatinvolve multiple parton final state interaction. Such a generalizedfactorization provides a consistent approach to the calculation ofinclusive and semi-inclusive cross sections of deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering. As an example, the azimuthal asymmetry iscalculated to the order of 1/Q in semi-inclusive deeply inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering with transversely polarized target. Anon-vanishing single-spin asymmetry in the "triggered inclusive process"is predicted to be 1/Q suppressed with a part of the coefficient relatedto a moment of the Sivers function.

  15. Cosmic Ray Deuterium from 0.2 to 3.0 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A.J.; Labrador, A.W.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The abundances of cosmic ray protons and deuterium between 0.2 and 3.0 GeV/nucleon were measured by the IMAX balloon--borne magnet spectrometer during a flight in July, 1992. These isotope measurements extend to significantly higher energies than have previously been achieved. A high--resolution ......The abundances of cosmic ray protons and deuterium between 0.2 and 3.0 GeV/nucleon were measured by the IMAX balloon--borne magnet spectrometer during a flight in July, 1992. These isotope measurements extend to significantly higher energies than have previously been achieved. A high...

  16. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  17. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  18. Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies; Photoproduction de mesons sur le nucleon aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, M

    1997-01-01

    In this work a model is proposed to simulate the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons ('PI' and K) on the nucleon at high energy. This model is based on the exchange of mesonic or baryonic Regge trajectories, it is gauge invariant and it uses a Feynman diagram formalism inspired from isobaric models. The measurements concerning the following reactions {gamma}p {yields} n{pi}{sup +}, {gamma}n {yields} p{pi}{sup -}, {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}n {yields} n{pi}{sup 0} are reviewed and the new model is confronted to the experimental results. The model gives a reasonable and coherent description of these 4 reactions. The model has also been applied to the photoproduction of strange mesons and of {lambda} and {sigma} baryons and has been extrapolated at low energy to the threshold of the reaction, the model matches the results even up to E{sub {gamma}} = 2 GeV for differential cross-sections and recoil polarization. An attempt has been made to associate a Regge based description, which is valid with low transfers, with perturbative quantum chromodynamics which is valid with high transfers. The model relies on the saturation of trajectories in the high transfer region and on the counting laws that give the right variation of the cross-section. It seems that a model based on linear trajectories can be reliable up to 4 GeV. The domain of high transfer has been too little investigated to provide enough experimental data to validate the model. An experiment whose purpose is to study the photoproduction of {phi} at high transfer, is proposed. This experiment requires an accelerator with high useful cycle because of the smallness of the expected cross-section. The CEBAF (continuous electron beam accelerator facility) as well as the CLAS 4{pi} detector is presented. The study of {gamma}p {yields} p{phi} and {gamma}p {yields} K{lambda}{sup *} (1520) requires the discrimination of kaons from pions so the measurement of 180 ps as time resolution allows the

  19. Good points for diophantine approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Given a sequence ( x n ) n = 1 ∞ of real numbers in the interval [0,1) and a sequence ( n ) n = 1 ∞ of positive numbers tending to zero, we consider the size of the set of numbers in [0,1] which can be `well approximated' by terms of the first sequence, namely, those y ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] for which the inequality | y − x n | < n holds ...

  20. Computer Experiments for Function Approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

    2007-10-15

    This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

  1. Many Faces of Boussinesq Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    The \\emph{equations of Boussinesq approximation} (EBA) for an incompressible and inhomogeneous in density fluid are analyzed from a viewpoint of the asymptotic theory. A systematic scaling shows that there is an infinite number of related asymptotic models. We have divided them into three classes: `poor', `reasonable' and `good' Boussinesq approximations. Each model can be characterized by two parameters $q$ and $k$, where $q =1, 2, 3, \\dots$ and $k=0, \\pm 1, \\pm 2,\\dots$. Parameter $q$ is related to the `quality' of approximation, while $k$ gives us an infinite set of possible scales of velocity, time, viscosity, \\emph{etc.} Increasing $q$ improves the quality of a model, but narrows the limits of its applicability. Parameter $k$ allows us to vary the scales of time, velocity and viscosity and gives us the possibility to consider any initial and boundary conditions. In general, we discover and classify a rich variety of possibilities and restrictions, which are hidden behind the routine use of the Boussinesq...

  2. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  3. Virtualization A Manager's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kusnetzky, Dan

    2011-01-01

    What exactly is virtualization? As this concise book explains, virtualization is a smorgasbord of technologies that offer organizations many advantages, whether you're managing extremely large stores of rapidly changing data, scaling out an application, or harnessing huge amounts of computational power. With this guide, you get an overview of the five main types of virtualization technology, along with information on security, management, and modern use cases. Topics include: Access virtualization-Allows access to any application from any deviceApplication virtualization-Enables applications

  4. Studies of Nucleon Resonance Structure in Exclusive Meson Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznauryan, Inna G. [Yerevan Physics Institute, JLAB; Bashir, Adnan; Braun, Vladimir M.; Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC; Burkert, Volker D. [JLAB; Chang, L.; Chen, Ch.; El-Bennich, Bruno O.; Cloet, Ian C.; Cole, Philip L. [Idaho State U.; Edwards, Robert G. [JLAB; Fedotov, Gleb V. [South Carolina U.; Giannini, Mauro M.; Gothe, Ralf W. [South Carolina U.; Lin, Huey-Wen [Washington; Kroll, Peter; Lee, T.-S. H.; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB; Mokeev, Viktor I [JLAB; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP; Ramalho, Gilberto T.F. [CFTP; Roberts, Craig D. [ANL; Santopinto, Elena; De Teramond, Guy F.; Tsushima, Kazuo [Adelaide U.; Wilson, David J. [Old Dominion U.

    2013-06-01

    The studies of N* structure represent a key direction in the N* Program with CLAS detector. After 12 GeV Upgrade, the dedicated experiment on the studies of N* structure at largest photon virtualities ever achieved Q^2<12 GeV^2 is scheduled for the first year of running with the CLAS12 detector. The current status and plans for theory support of the N* structure studies in exclusive meson electroproduction are presented. They include the recent advances in the reaction theory for extraction of N* electrocouplings from the data and the approaches for high level theoretical interpretation of these fundamental quantities, allowing us to access dynamics of non-perturbative strong interaction which is responsible for the resonance formation and explore how it emerges from QCD.

  5. Chiral symmetry effect on the pion-nucleon coupling constant; O efeito da simetria quiral na constante de acoplamento pion-nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanilse da Silva

    1997-12-31

    In this work we study the effects of chiral symmetry in the pion-nucleon coupling constant in the context of the linear {sigma}- model. First, we introduce the linear {sigma}-model and we discuss the phenomenological hypothesis of CVC and PCAC. Next, we calculate the coupling constant g+{pi}{sub NN}(q{sup 2}) and the nucleon pionic mean square radius considering the contribution of all the diagrams up to one-loop in the framework of the linear {sigma}-model for different values of the mass of the sigma meson and we compare them with the phenomenological form factors. Finally we make an extension of the linear {sigma}-model that consists of taking into account the mass differences of ions and nucleons into the Lagrangian of the model, to study the change dependence of g{sub {pi}nn} (q{sup 2}) and of the mean square radius. (author) 21 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Approximate treatment of the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertse, T. (Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)); Curutchet, P.; Liotta, R.J. (Research Institute of Physics, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-12-01

    Pole expansions of the Green function (Berggren and Mittag-Leffler) are used to calculate single-particle and particle-hole response functions for a square well plus Coulomb potential and the results are compared with the corresponding exact ones. The approximate and exact response functions agree well with each other in the resonant energy region. The Mittag-Leffler expansion is shown to be valid even for the long-range Coulomb potential. The computation time needed for the calculation of the particle-hole response function can be reduced considerably by using the pole expansions.

  7. Convex approximations of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Massimiliano F.; Sacchi, Tito

    2017-09-01

    We address the problem of optimally approximating the action of a desired and unavailable quantum channel Φ having at our disposal a single use of a given set of other channels {Ψi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable channel from Φ among the convex set ∑ipiΨi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing of the available channels {Ψi} . For single-qubit channels we study specifically cases where the available convex set corresponds to covariant channels or to Pauli channels, and the desired target map is an arbitrary unitary transformation or a generalized damping channel.

  8. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  9. Transfer of Juggling Skills Acquired in a Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Alex Patrick; Kragegaard, Christian Skriver; Kjæhr, Emil Bering

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether motoric skills acquired within a virtual training environment can be successfully transferred to the real world by comparing a virtual environment with a traditional learning environment. Specifically, a system for learning juggling with virtual balls was designed...... with a focus on approximating natural interaction. We propose a method of evaluating the acquisition and transfer of motoric skills through a virtual environment, which is compared to a traditional learning environment. Each environment was evaluated using various criteria ranging from improvement in skills...... to observations of performance. The findings suggest that a transfer of motoric skills and knowledge takes place for users of the virtual system with only little difference between the environments. They also suggest that a virtual environment can create a less frustrating learning experience....

  10. Approximating distributions in stochastic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Todd K; Friel, Robert; Nielsen, David

    2012-08-01

    On-line machine learning algorithms, many biological spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rules, and stochastic neural dynamics evolve by Markov processes. A complete description of such systems gives the probability densities for the variables. The evolution and equilibrium state of these densities are given by a Chapman-Kolmogorov equation in discrete time, or a master equation in continuous time. These formulations are analytically intractable for most cases of interest, and to make progress a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) is often used in their place. The FPE is limited, and some argue that its application to describe jump processes (such as in these problems) is fundamentally flawed. We develop a well-grounded perturbation expansion that provides approximations for both the density and its moments. The approach is based on the system size expansion in statistical physics (which does not give approximations for the density), but our simple development makes the methods accessible and invites application to diverse problems. We apply the method to calculate the equilibrium distributions for two biologically-observed STDP learning rules and for a simple nonlinear machine-learning problem. In all three examples, we show that our perturbation series provides good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations in regimes where the FPE breaks down. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulated nucleon–nucleon and nucleon–nucleus reactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fission cross-sections for pre-actinides. Therefore, its predictive power and applicability to evaluate arbitrary fission cross-sections is unknown. Cascade exciton model (CEM) of nuclear reactions was initially proposed to describe nucleon-induced reactions at bombarding energies below or at ∼100 MeV, but lately this.

  12. Neutrino-nucleon cross-section at ultra-high energies in models with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sUKANTA PANDA. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India. Abstract. We examine whether the models with large extra dimensions can provide an explanation for the GZK violating ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). In these models the neutrino-nucleon cross-section rises rapidly ...

  13. Low energy structure of the nucleon from chiral effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some updated results regarding the scalar and electromagnetic structure of the nucleon obtained by the relativistic formulation of chiral effective field theory with baryons. We compare them with previous determinations available in the literature, and show their relevance for searches of physics beyond the standard model in the low energy frontier.

  14. Bound-state energy of double magic number plus one nucleon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... In this work, we have obtained energy levels and charge radius for the β-stability line nucleus, in ... levels of nuclei is to consider the nucleon–nucleon ..... A: Math. Gen. 34, 9827 (2001). [17] M R Shojaei and M Mousavi, Adv. High Energy Phys. 2016,. Article ID 8314784, 12 pages (2016). [18] C Eckart, Phys ...

  15. Supernova neutrino scattering rates reduced by nucleon spin fluctuations: Perturbative limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffelt, Georg; Seckel, David; Sigl, Gunter

    1996-03-01

    In a nuclear medium, spin-dependent forces cause the nucleon spins to fluctuate with a rate \\Gamma_\\sigma. We have previously shown that as a consequence the effective axial-current neutrino-nucleon scattering cross section is reduced. Here, we calculate this reduction explicitly in the perturbative limit \\Gamma_\\sigma\\ll T. By virtue of an exact sum rule of the spin-density structure function, we express the modified cross section in terms of the matrix element for neutrino-nucleon scattering in the presence of a spin-dependent nuclear potential. This representation allows for a direct comparison with and confirmation of Sawyer's related perturbative result. In a supernova core with a typical temperature T=10\\,\\rm MeV, the perturbative limit is relevant for densities \\rho\\alt10^{13}\\,\\rm g\\,cm^{-3} and thus applies around the neutrino sphere. There, the cross-section reduction is of order a few percent and thus not large; however, a new mode of energy transfer between neutrinos and nucleons is enabled which may be important for neutrino spectra formation. We derive an analytic perturbative expression for the rate of energy transfer.

  16. Nuclear matter saturation with chiral three-nucleon interactions fitted to light nuclei properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logoteta, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bombaci, Ignazio, E-mail: ignazio.bombaci@unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); European Gravitational Observatory, Via E. Amaldi, I-56021 S. Stefano a Macerata, Cascina (Italy); Kievsky, Alejandro [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-10

    The energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter is calculated using the many-body Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach and employing the Chiral Next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential, supplemented with various parametrizations of the Chiral Next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) three-nucleon interaction. Such combination is able to reproduce several observables of the physics of light nuclei for suitable choices of the parameters entering in the three-nucleon interaction. We find that some of these parametrizations provide a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter L in very good agreement with those extracted from various nuclear experimental data. Thus, our results represent a significant step toward a unified description of few- and many-body nuclear systems starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the symmetries of QCD.

  17. Soft photon production in central 200 GeV nucleon S-32+Au collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, MM; Angelis, ALS; Antonenko, [No Value; Awes, TC; Badyal, SK; Barlag, C; Bhalla, KB; Bhatia, VS; Blume, C; Bock, D; Bohne, EM; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Claussen, A; Clewing, G; Das, AC; Devanand, [No Value; Donni, P; Durieux, E; Majumdar, MRD; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Ganti, MS; Garpman, S; Geurts, F; Ghosh, TK; Glasow, R; Gupta, SK; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, HH; Hartig, M; Holker, G; Ippolitov, M; Izycki, M; Kachroo, S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, KH; Karadjev, K; Kolb, BW; Kumar, [No Value; Langbein, [No Value; Langheinrich, J; Lebedev, A; Lohner, H; Lokanathan, S; Manko, [No Value; Martin, M; Mittra, IS; Mookerjee, S; Naef, H; Nayak, SK; Nikolaev, S; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, FE; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, [No Value; Peitzmann, T; Plasil, F; Purschke, M; Raniwala, S; Rao, NK; Rosselet, L; Roters, B; Rubio, JM; Saini, S; Sambyal, SS; Santo, R; Siemiarczuk, T; Siemssen, R; Sinha, BC; Slegt, S; Soderstrom, K; Solomey, N; Sorensen, SP; Stefanek, G; Steinhaeuser, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stuken, D; Trivedi, MD; Twenhoefel, C; vanEijndhoven, N; vanHeeringen, E; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, YP; Young, GR

    Inclusive photons of low transverse momenta have been measured in 200 GeV/nucleon S-32+Au collisions at the CERN SPS. Data were taken in the WA93 experiment using a small acceptance BGO detector with longitudinal segmentation. The results are compared to WA80 measurements for the same system and

  18. Two-nucleon Hulthen-type interactions for few higher partial waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By exploiting supersymmetry and factorization method, higher partial wave nucleon–nucleon potentials (ℓ = 1,2,3) for a few selected triplet and singlet states are generated from the ground-state interaction and wave function. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding wave function with the parameters of Arnold ...

  19. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) $F_3$ and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor $F_2$ due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the CP-violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for $F_3$. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  20. Nucleon resonance decay by the K0Σ+ channel: Preliminary results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strange meson production on a proton target in the K0Σ+ channel is sensitive to nucleon resonance contributions. ... photon beam was obtained by passing the electron beam through a Cu radiator. The photon beam was made incident on a liquid hydrogen or a liquid deuterium target. The hyperon- and meson-decay ...

  1. Simulated nucleon–nucleon and nucleon–nucleus reactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we have used the cascade exciton model (CEM) to investigate different characteristics of nuclear reactions. Number of nucleon–nucleon ... M F Zaki1. Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt; Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Bath University, Homs, Syria ...

  2. Basic Course in Nucleonics. Technical Education Curriculum Development Series No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Jacob H.

    This combined teaching and study guide is for use by students and teachers in post secondary programs for nucleonics technicians. It was developed by the author under the National Defense Education Act, Title VIII. The unit headings are: (1) Physics of the Atom, (2) Natural Radioactivity and Atomic Energy, (3) Induced Radioactivity and Atomic…

  3. Cosmic Ray Helium Isotopes From 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Hof, M.; Menn, W.

    1996-01-01

    mass by means of the velocity vs. magnetic rigidity technique. A model of the instrument response was developed in order to unfold the species and rigidity-dependent effects. Measurements and astrophysical interpretation of the ^3He/^4He isotope ratio from 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon will be presented...

  4. The nucleon electric dipole form factor from dimension-six time-reversal violation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole form factor of the nucleon that arises as a low-energy manifestation of time-reversal violation in quark-gluon interactions of effective dimension 6: the quark electric and chromoelectric dipole moments, and the gluon chromoelectric dipole moment. We use the

  5. Nucleon-generalized parton distributions in the light-front quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-12

    Jan 12, 2016 ... We calculate the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) for the up- and downquarks in nucleon using the effective light-front wavefunction. The results obtained for GPDs in momentum and impact parameter space are comparable with phenomenological parametrization methods.

  6. Charmonium-nucleon interaction from lattice QCD with a relativistic heavy quark action

    CERN Document Server

    Kawanai, Taichi

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information of the low-energy interaction between the charmonia ({\\eta}c and J/{\\psi}) and the nucleon is indispensable for exploring the formation of charmonium bound to nuclei. In order to investigate the charmonium-nucleon interactions at low energies, we adopt two essentially different approaches in lattice QCD simulations. The charmonium-nucleon potential can be calculated from the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude through the effective Schr\\"odinger equation. This novel method is based on the same idea originally applied for the nucleon force by Aoki- Hatsuda-Ishii. Another approach is to utilize extended L\\"uscher’s formula with partially twisted boundary conditions, which allows us to calculate the s-wave phase shift at any small value of the relative momentum even in a finite box. We then extract model independent information of the scattering length and the effective range from the phase shift through the effective-range expansion. Our simulations are carried out at a lattice cutoff ...

  7. $\\psi^'$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B.; Arnaldi, R.; Atayan, M.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Borges, G.; Castor, J.; Chaurand, B.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigoryan, A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavicheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Bornec, Y.Le; Lourenco, C.; Cormick, M.Mac; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Monteno, M.; Musso, A.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prino, F.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Santos, H.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Sitta, M.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.; Willis, N.

    2007-01-01

    \\psi^' production is studied in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum. Absolute cross-sections are measured and production rates are investigated as a function of the centrality of the collision. The results are compared with those obtained for lighter colliding systems and also for the J/\\psi meson produced under identical conditions.

  8. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  9. Charged particle production in the Pb + Pb system at 158 GeV/c per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P.; Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B.S.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Waddington, C.Jake; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.

    2000-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities from high multiplicity central interactions of 158 GeV/nucleon Pb ions with Pb target nuclei have been measured in the central and far forward projectile spectator regions using emulsion chambers. Multiplicities are significantly lower than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. We examine the shape of the pseudorapidity distribution and its dependence on centrality in detail.

  10. Pion-nucleon scattering in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit Delta resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, De-Liang [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Siemens, D. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Bernard, V. [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8606,CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Epelbaum, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Gasparyan, A.M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gegelia, J. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi (Georgia); Krebs, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-05-05

    We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P-partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.

  11. Physical meaning of the multiplicities of emitted nucleons in hadron-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data on hadron-nucleus collisions at energies from about 2 up to about 400 GeV was performed in order to discover a physical meaning of the multiplicity of emitted nucleons. Simple relations between the multiplicities and the thickness of the nuclear matter layer involved in collisions were obtained.

  12. Exclusive spin-dependent pion production in medium-energy nucleon-nucleon collisions: The role of unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubach, J.; Kloet, W. M.; Cass, A.; Silbar, R. R.

    1981-10-01

    Polarization asymmetries are calculated for the reaction p↑ + p → p + π+ + n at 800 MeV. The dynamics are treated in a relativistic model that preserves two- and three-body unitarity. These calculations, when compared to recent data taken at LAMPF, show marked improvement over simple Born approximation predictions.

  13. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Nucleon Spin Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, A.; Qiu, Jianwei; Vogelsang, W.; Yuan, F.

    2011-08-02

    Understanding the structure of the nucleon is of fundamental importance in sub-atomic physics. Already the experimental studies on the electro-magnetic form factors in the 1950s showed that the nucleon has a nontrivial internal structure, and the deep inelastic scattering experiments in the 1970s revealed the partonic substructure of the nucleon. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin and the gluonic structure of the nucleon. Experiments using deep inelastic scattering or polarized p-p collisions are carried out in the US at the CEBAF and RHIC facilities, respectively, and there are other experimental facilities around the world. More than twenty years ago, the European Muon Collaboration published their first experimental results on the proton spin structure as revealed in polarized deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, and concluded that quarks contribute very little to the proton's spin. With additional experimental and theoretical investigations and progress in the following years, it is now established that, contrary to naive quark model expectations, quarks and anti-quarks carry only about 30% of the total spin of the proton. Twenty years later, the discovery from the polarized hadron collider at RHIC was equally surprising. For the phase space probed by existing RHIC experiments, gluons do not seem to contribute any to the proton's spin. To find out what carries the remaining part of proton's spin is a key focus in current hadronic physics and also a major driving force for the new generation of spin experiments at RHIC and Jefferson Lab and at a future Electron Ion Collider. It is therefore very important and timely to organize a series of annual spin physics meetings to summarize the status of proton spin physics, to focus the effort, and to layout the future perspectives. This summer program on 'Nucleon Spin Physics' held at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on July 14-27, 2010 [http://www.bnl.gov/spnsp/] is the

  14. First evaluation of $g_{A}g_{V}$ in lattice QCD in the quenched approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Fucito, F; Petrarca, S

    1982-01-01

    The authors report on a first preliminary evaluation of the axial current matrix element between states of the nucleon octet. The computation is done by studying the dependence of the nucleon energy on an appropriate external field.

  15. Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points...... in the projection within a tolerance given by the reference curve, and the rulings are lines perpendicular to the projection plane. Application of the method in ship design is given....

  16. Virtual reality for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    De Gennaro, Silvano; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality for Engineers. Virtual Reality is a very powerful visualization technique for 3D data, which can bring enormous benefits to engineering design. CAD models can be exported to a VR application and used as "Virtual Prototypes". Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for wooden models as they can be generated automatically from most CAD products. They are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, on a one-to-one scale and using a 3D-stereo vision. Navigation can be performed using a number of instinctive tools, such as joysticks, spaceballs, VR helmets and 3D mice. The lectures will cover today's Virtual Reality products and methods, and describe how to transform CAD models into Virtual Prototypes. A "hands on" VR experience featuring the LHC detectors models can be organized for people interested.

  17. Learning by doing virtually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sternberg, N; Bartsch, M S; Petersik, A; Wiltfang, J; Sibbersen, W; Grindel, T; Tiede, U; Warnke, P H; Heiland, M; Russo, P A J; Terheyden, H; Pohlenz, P; Springer, I N

    2007-05-01

    Selective reduction of bone without collateral damage (nerves, teeth) is essential in apicectomy. To test whether skills acquired on a virtual apicectomy simulator (VOXEL-MAN system with integrated force-feedback) are transferable from virtual to physical reality, two groups of trainees were compared. Group 1 received computer-based virtual surgical training before performing an apicectomy in a pig cadaver model. The probability of preserving vital neighboring structures was improved significantly, i.e. six-fold, after virtual surgical training (P<0.001). The average volume of the bony defects created by the trainees of Group 2 (mean: 0.47 ml) was significantly (P<0.001) larger than by the trainees of Group 1 (mean: 0.25 ml). Most importantly, the ability to objectively self-assess performance was significantly improved after virtual training. Training with a virtual apicectomy simulator appears to be effective, and the skills acquired are transferable to physical reality.

  18. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  19. Approximate cohomology in Banach algebras | Pourabbas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We introduce the notions of approximate cohomology and approximate homotopy in Banach algebras and we study the relation between them. We show that the approximate homotopically equivalent cochain complexes give the same approximate cohomologies. As a special case, approximate Hochschild cohomology is ...

  20. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  1. Spacebody actual virtual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbek, Jytte; Sørensen, Gert

    2005-01-01

    DVD som indeholder filmen 'spacebody actual virtual' . Videoen er værkdelen af forskningsprojektet Arkitektur og skikkelse, spacebody actual virtual. Foruden DVD'en indeholder projektet et reflekterende materiale på hjemmesiden www.spacebody.dk Fysisk medie: DVD......DVD som indeholder filmen 'spacebody actual virtual' . Videoen er værkdelen af forskningsprojektet Arkitektur og skikkelse, spacebody actual virtual. Foruden DVD'en indeholder projektet et reflekterende materiale på hjemmesiden www.spacebody.dk Fysisk medie: DVD...

  2. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  3. Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...

  4. On the intrinsic bottom content of the nucleon and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyonnet, Florian [Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Kusina, Aleksander [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France); Jezo, Tomas [Università di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Kovařík, Karol [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster,Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 9, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Olness, Fred [Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Schienbein, Ingo [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France); Yu, Ji-Young ans [Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. It is clearly necessary to test this hypothesis with suitable QCD processes. Conversely, a non-perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark parton distribution has been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows us to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. We exploit this freedom to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature in order to estimate the impact of this non-perturbative contribution to the bottom-quark PDF, and on parton-parton luminosities at the LHC. This technique can be applied to the case of intrinsic charm, albeit within the limitations outlined in the following.

  5. On the intrinsic bottom content of the nucleon and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonnet, Florian; Kusina, Aleksander; Jezo, Tomas; Kovarík, Karol; Olness, Fred; Schienbein, Ingo; Yu, ans Ji-Young

    2015-07-01

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. It is clearly necessary to test this hypothesis with suitable QCD processes. Conversely, a non-perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark parton distribution has been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows us to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. We exploit this freedom to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature in order to estimate the impact of this non-perturbative contribution to the bottom-quark PDF, and on parton-parton luminosities at the LHC. This technique can be applied to the case of intrinsic charm, albeit within the limitations outlined in the following.

  6. 3D parton imaging of the nucleon in high-energy p p and p A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frankfurt, L; Weiss, C

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several examples of how the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the nucleon, as well as multiparton correlations, can be probed by observing hard processes (dijets) in high-energy pp(pp) and pA(dA) collisions. Such studies can complement the information gained from measurements of hard exclusive processes in ep scattering. The transverse spatial distribution of partons determines the distribution over pp impact parameters of events with hard dijet production. Correlations in the transverse positions of partons can be studied in multiple dijet production. We find that the correlation cross section measured by the CDF Collaboration, sigma//e //f//f = 14.5 plus or minus 1.7//-//2//.//3**+**1**.**7 mb, can be explained by "constituent quark" type quark-gluon correlations with r //q approximately equals r//N/3, as suggested by the instanton liquid model of the QCD vacuum. Longitudinal and transverse multiparton correlations can be separated in a model-independent way by comparing multiple dije...

  7. Sigma terms and strangeness content of the nucleon with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Frezzotti, Roberto; Rossi, Giancarlo [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Herdoiza, Gregorio [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    We study the nucleon matrix elements of the quark scalar-density operator using maximally twisted mass fermions with dynamical light (u,d), strange and charm degrees of freedom. We demonstrate that in this setup the nucleon matrix elements of the light and strange quark densities can be obtained with good statistical accuracy, while for the charm quark counterpart only a bound can be provided. The present calculation which is performed at only one value of the lattice spacing and pion mass serves as a benchmark for a future more systematic computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon. (orig.)

  8. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  9. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering Beam-Spin Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.X. Girod; R.A. Niyazov

    2008-01-24

    The beam spin asymmetries in the hard exclusive electroproduction of photons on the proton (ep -> epg) were measured over a wide kinematic range and with high statistical accuracy. These asymmetries result from the interference of the Bethe-Heitler process and of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Over the whole kinematic range (x_B from 0.11 to 0.58, Q^2 from 1 to 4.8 GeV^2, -t from 0.09 to 1.8 GeV^2), the azimuthal dependence of the asymmetries is compatible with expectations from leading-twist dominance, A = a*sin(phi)/[1+c*cos(phi)]. This extensive set of data can thus be used to constrain significantly the generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in the valence quark sector.

  11. Comparison of a deterministic reaction model with an INC model for the production of nucleon in nucleon induced rection on light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, H

    2015-01-01

    Among many reaction models, the intranuclear cascade (INC) calculates par- ticle production in continuum and other physical quantities for nucleon induced reaction on target nuclei. Since it is based on Monte-Carlo method, the time of computation of the INC model is rather large to get reasonable statistical error on double differential cross sections of outgoing particles in continuum for reaction on very light target nuclei. We propose a deterministic approach to calculate double differential cross sections much faster than INC model does. We present some preliminary results and compare them with the results of our INC code.

  12. Three- and five-nucleon transfers in sup 9 Be( p ,. alpha. ) sup 6 Li reaction at 25 and 30 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, F.; Segato, G.F.; Barbadoro, A.; Corradi, L.; Morando, M.; Pavan, P. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)); Gabrielli, I. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Valerio 2, I-34127, Trieste (Italy))

    1992-12-01

    Angular distributions of the {sup 9}Be({ital p},{alpha}){sup 6}Li reaction leading to the ground and first two excited states of {sup 6}Li were measured at incident energies of 25.0 and 30.0 MeV. Both the one-step three- and five-nucleon transfers were considered in the theoretical analysis using current shell-model wave functions. We reproduce fairly well with distorted-wave Born approximation theory the experimental energy dependence of the integrated cross sections for the ground and first excited states of {sup 6}Li. A marked disagreement is observed for the second excited state, whose experimental integrated cross section shows a steeper energy dependence than the calculated one.

  13. Separable Representation of Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potentials as Input to (d; p) Reaction Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, Linda D.

    The three-body description of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions requires the nucleon-nucleon (NN) and effective nucleon-nucleus interactions as input. The latter are given by Optical Model Potentials (OMPs), which are complex as well as energy-dependent. While a lot of effort has been dedicated to creating separable NN potentials, the same is not true for the nucleon-nucleus OMPs. In this work, separable representations of nucleon-nucleus OMPs are presented. To construct separable representations of neutron-nucleus OMPs, a scheme due to Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler (EST) is adopted as a starting point. It is shown that, by including both incoming and outgoing scattering states in the EST scheme, separable expansions for complex neutron-nucleus potentials that partially obey reciprocity are obtained. For the application to neutron-nucleus potentials that are complex as well as energy-dependent, a further generalization is carried out leading to an energy-dependent separable expansion that exactly fulfills reciprocity. By working exclusively with half-shell transition matrices in momentum space, the implementation of these separable representation schemes is straightforward. The proton-nucleus interaction consists of a short-ranged nuclear piece as well as the long-ranged point-Coulomb potential. After separating the point-Coulomb piece via the Gell-Mann-Goldberger relation, one is left with the short-ranged potential in the Coulomb basis. An extension of the separable representation schemes for neutron-nucleus OMPs to proton-nucleus systems thus requires scattering solutions in the Coulomb basis. This complicates a momentum space implementation of the aforementioned separable expansions. However, by employing the techniques first suggested by Elster, Liu, and Thaler, the separable representation schemes generalized for proton-nucleus OMPs are implemented in a similar manner to neutron-nucleus OMPs. Taking into account the internal structure of the nucleus leads to

  14. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2015-12-15

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  15. OVERLAPPING VIRTUAL CADASTRAL DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina - Cristina Marian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cadastrale plans of buildings, can overlap virtual. Overlap is highlighted when digital reception. According to Law no. 7/1996 as amended and supplemented, to solve these problems is by updating the database graphs, the repositioning. This paper addresses the issue of overlapping virtual cadastre in the history of the period 1999-2012.

  16. Virtual School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  17. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  18. Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Fosgerau, Anders; Hansen, Peter Søren Kirk

    1999-01-01

    The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented.......The initial design considerations and research goals for an ATM network based virtual seminar room with 5 sites are presented....

  19. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  20. Virtual Trauma Team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The clinical motivation for Virtual Trauma Team is to improve quality of care in trauma care in the vital first "golden hour" where correct intervention can greatly improve likely health outcome. The motivation for Virtual Homecare Team is to improve quality of life and independence for patients by