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Sample records for virola sebifera policetideos

  1. Lignanos en Hojas de Virola sebifera

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    Ruth Von Rotz R.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available De las hojas de Virola sebifera fueron aislados tres lignanos furofuránicos: (+ -sesamina, (+ -kobusina y (-t- -eudesmina. Se describe una adaptación de la técnica de cromatografía liquida al vacío.

  2. Diarilpropanos y derivado Indolico en madera de virola sebifera y virola calophylloidea

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    Ruth von Rotz R.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available De la madera de Virola sebifera fueron aislados tres díarilpropanos: 1-(4'-hidroxi-2'-metoxifenil-3-(3"-hidrox¡-4"-metoxifenil-propano, Virolanol B y Virolanol C. De la madera de Virola calophylloidea fue aislado el 3-¡ndolcarboxaldehido.

  3. Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae Derived from Shotgun 454 Pyrosequencing

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    Na Wei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterized in the dioecious neotropical rainforest tree Virola sebifera. The markers will be used to study ecological and genetic impacts of hunting and landscape change in this vertebrate-dispersed, insect-pollinated tree species. Methods and Results: Simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were screened from genomic libraries of South American V. sebifera obtained by shotgun 454 pyrosequencing. Primer pairs were tested on Panamanian samples (N = 42. Approximately 52% of the 61 tested SSR markers amplified, and 16% were polymorphic. Ten selected polymorphic SSR loci contained seven to 15 alleles per locus, and polymorphic information content averaged 0.694. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.465 to 0.905, and expected heterozygosity was between 0.477 and 0.876. Conclusions: The 10 polymorphic loci will be useful in studying gene flow and genetic structure at local and regional spatial scales in V. sebifera.

  4. Transformações químicas de lignanas isoladas de Virola sebifera em análogos de podofilotoxina

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    Fernandes,João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fraga, Regina Lúcia

    1988-01-01

    0 fracionamento do extrato clorofórmico das folhas de Virola sebifera levou ao isolamento da lignanas (2R, 3R) -2, 3-Di- (3', 4'-dimetoxibenzil) -butirolactona (1), (2R, 3R) -2, 3-Di (3'', 4'' -dimetoxibenzil) -butirolactona(3). Tentativa de transformações da lignana(1) em ánalogo de Podofilotoxina (4) foram realizadas com resultados parciais negativos. Um dos produtos obtidos nas transformações propostas foi (2R, 3R) -2, 3Di- (5'-bromo-3', 4' -Dimetoxibenzil) -butirolactona (5). The chlor...

  5. Atividade antiproliferativa dos extratos e da fração orgânica obtidos das folhas de Virola sebifera Aubl. (Myristicaceae

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    Carina Denny

    Full Text Available As cascas de Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae são utilizadas por populações indígenas amazônicas em preparações alucinógenas, nas quais foram encontrados alcalóides como a dimetiltriptamina e seus derivados. Considerando a enorme importância dos alcalóides isolados de plantas na terapêutica do câncer e a presença desses compostos em espécies de Virola, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da atividade antiproliferativa em cultura de células tumorais humanas de extratos e da fração orgânica, obtidos das folhas de Virola sebifera. O extrato bruto diclorometânico (EBD foi considerado o mais ativo, com seletividade principalmente para a linhagem de pulmão (NCI-460 - IC50: 4,46 µg/mL e para a fração orgânica (FO obtida por extração ácido-base - IC50; 6,91 µg/mL. A atividade observada possivelmente pode ser atribuída a alcalóides ou compostos nitrogenados que foram evidenciados pelo corante Dragendorff. Assim, a purificação da FO será necessária a fim de comprovar a presença de compostos nitrogenados, através de isolamento e determinação estrutural, bem como a participação desses compostos na atividade antiproliferativa observada.

  6. Esteroides de virola calophylloidea (markgraf

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    Juan C. Martinez V.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto bencénico de la madera de Virola calophylloldea (Myristicaceae se separaron seis sustancias tipo esteroidal, valiéndose de las técnicas de Cromatografía de gases (CG y Cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC. Utilizando los tiempos de retención con relación al colesterol (t^j. en CG y HPLC, junto con los pesos moleculares obtenidos por CG—MS se infiere la presencia de algunos esteroides.- " • ' ;

  7. Neolignanos en hojas de virola calophylla (Warb*

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    Enrique Alvarez V.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available De las hojas de Virola Calophylla (Mynsticaceae se aislaron e identificaron dos neolignanos nuevos, calophyn y calophyllin, y dos neolignanos conocidos, ácido meso-dihidroguaiarético y austrobailignano-6. Las estructuras fueron establecidas por métodos espectroscópicos.

  8. Biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae floral biology

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    Mario Augusto Gonçalves Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentadas informações sobre a biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, espécie florestal dióica de relevante importância econômica na região amazônica. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de várzea próximo à bacia do igarapé Murutucum, lado direito do rio Guamá, localizada no Campus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias do Pará, na cidade de Belém, Estado do Pará, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Avaliou-se a biologia floral desde o aparecimento dos botões florais até a senescência das flores estaminadas, bem como a formação de frutos nas flores pistiladas. Testes bioquímicos foram aplicados para verificação de odor, pigmentos, osmóforos e receptividade do estigma. A observação no comportamento dos visitantes florais foi realizada durante o período diurno, registrando-se os horários de visitas, tempo de permanência na flor e freqüência; alguns indivíduos foram coletados com rede entomológica e identificados no Departamento de Zoologia do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. A antese ocorreu entre 6 e 16 h nas flores estaminadas e entre 8 e 16 h nas flores pistiladas; a presença de odor foi constatada apenas nas flores estaminadas, enquanto os pigmentos e osmóforos foram encontrados em ambas as flores; o estigma mostrou-se receptivo no período entre 12 e 14 h. Os insetos da ordem diptera foram os visitantes mais freqüentes nas flores estaminadas e pistiladas e as espécies Copestylum sp. e Erystalys sp., as responsáveis pela polinização.Information was obtained on the floral biology of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, a dioecious arboreal species of great importance for the Amazon region economy. The study was carried out in the floodplain area near the Murucutu stream, on the right side of the Guamá River, at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém-Pará , from January to December 2001. Floral biology was assessed from

  9. Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Gold Nanocrystals Using Virola oleifera.

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    Milaneze, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Jairo P; Augusto, Ingrid; Keijok, Wanderson J; Côrrea, Andressa S; Ferreira, Débora M; Nunes, Otalíbio C; Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia R; Kitagawa, Rodrigo R; Celante, Vinícius G; da Silva, André Romero; Pereira, Ana Claudia H; Endringer, Denise C; Schuenck, Ricardo P; Guimarães, Marco C C

    2016-12-01

    The development of new routes and strategies for nanotechnology applications that only employ green synthesis has inspired investigators to devise natural systems. Among these systems, the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts has been actively developed as an alternative, efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles, and this approach is also suitable for large-scale synthesis. This study reports reproducible and completely natural gold nanocrystals that were synthesized using Virola oleifera extract. V. oleifera resin is rich in epicatechin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and flavonoids (i.e., quercetin and eriodictyol). These gold nanoparticles play three roles. First, these nanoparticles exhibit remarkable stability based on their zeta potential. Second, these nanoparticles are functionalized with flavonoids, and third, an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly mechanism can be employed to produce green nanoparticles with organic compounds on the surface. Our model is capable of reducing the resin of V. oleifera, which creates stability and opens a new avenue for biological applications. This method does not require painstaking conditions or hazardous agents and is a rapid, efficient, and green approach for the fabrication of monodisperse gold nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract The Virola oleifera reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP's).

  10. Gastroprotective activity of the resin from Virola oleifera.

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    Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel; Lenz, Dominik; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Scherer, Rodrigo; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Costa, Helber Barcellos da; Romão, Wanderson; Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2017-12-01

    The resin from the trunk wood of Virola oleifera (Schott) A. C. Smith (Myristicaceae) is used in folk medicine to hasten wound repair and to treat pain and inflammatory conditions, and our previous report indicated the anti-oxidative properties in other oxidative stress model. To investigate the protective effects of resin from V. oleifera in two experimental models of gastric ulcer oxidative-stress dependent. Plant material was collected and the resin was subjected to partitioning with organic solvents. The buthanol fraction was subjected to chromatographic and spectrometric methods for isolation and structural elucidation. The resin was quantified for polyphenols and flavonoids by colorimetric methods. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of resin was determined by three different methods. The ulcers were induced acutely in Swiss male mice with ethanol/HCl and indomethacin using single-doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to reference control lansoprazole (3 mg/kg). The high content of polyphenols (∼82%) and the presence of epicatechin and eriodictyol were determined. The LD 50 was estimated at 2500 mg/kg. At minimum (10 mg/kg) and maximum (100 mg/kg) dosage of resin, both in ethanol/HCl as indomethacin ulcer induction models demonstrate reduction of lesions (minimum: ∼97% and ∼66%; maximum: ∼95% and ∼59%). The gastroprotection might be related to tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids present in the resin by antioxidant properties. The results indicate that this resin has gastroprotective activity probably associated with the presence of phenolic antioxidant substances.

  11. Effects of an invasive plant, Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), on development and survival of anuran larvae

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    Taylor B. Cotten; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski; Daniel Saenz; Michael Collyer

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians are considered one of the most threatened vertebrate groups. Although numerous studies have addressed the many causes of amphibian population decline, little is known about effects of invasive plants. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is an exotic deciduous tree that has invaded the southeastern United States. Amphibian larvae in environments invaded by T....

  12. Synergistic effects of the invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) and climate change on aquatic amphibian survival

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    Daniel Saenz; Erin M. Fucik; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski

    2013-01-01

    Changes in climate and the introduction of invasive species are two major stressors to amphibians, although little is known about the interaction between these two factors with regard to impacts on amphibians. We focused our study on an invasive tree species, the Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), that annually sheds its leaves and produces leaf...

  13. Germinação e armazenamento de sementes de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae Germination and storage of seeds of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae

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    Juliana Domingues Limas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a germinação e o armazenamento de sementes de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. em condições de laboratório, no Estado do Amapá, Brasil. Para tanto, frutos foram coletados na Reserva Particular de Patrimônio Natural, "Ekinox", localizada em Macapá. Sementes recém-colhidas do lote original apresentaram teor médio de água de 24% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição. Devido às diferenças no tamanho e, ou, peso, as sementes colhidas foram divididas em dois grupos: grandes e pequenas. Independentemente do tamanho da semente, a maior porcentagem de germinação e o menor tempo médio de germinação ocorreram a 30 ºC. Sementes armazenadas por 30 dias em condição ambiente (27 ºC ± 3 e 75% ± 5 UR e em germinador (20 ºC e 58% UR apresentaram viabilidade abaixo de 2%, ressaltando-se o comportamento recalcitrante de sementes de Virola surinamensis.The objective of this work was to study the germination and the storage of seeds of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. in laboratory conditions, in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Fruits were harvested in the "Ekinox" Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony, located at Macapa. Seeds recently harvested in the original seedlot showed 24% mean water content and lower water gain, during soaking. Due to differences in the size and/or weight, the seeds were separated in two groups: large and small. Independently of seed size, the highest germination percentage and the lower average germination time occurred at 30ºC. Seeds stored under natural (27 ºC ± 3 e 75% ± 5 RU or germination chamber conditions (20 ºC e 58% RU showed viability lower than 2%, attesting the recalcitrant behavior of Virola surinamensis.

  14. Characterization of 14 microsatellite DNA markers for the tropical forest tree Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warb. (Myristicaceae).

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    Draheim, Hope; Cui, Melissa; Dick, Christopher W

    2009-09-01

    Fourteen microsatellite DNA markers were developed for studies of gene flow in the Neotropical rain forest tree Virola surinamensis. The loci were unlinked and polymorphic in a sample of 21 individuals, with two to 10 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.14 to 0.76. The overall exclusion probability (0.997) indicates high resolution for parentage-based analyses of gene flow. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Lignano Furofuránicos en Corteza de Virola Sebífera (Aublet

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    Luis E. Cuca S.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto toluénico de la corteza de Virola sebífera (Myristicaceae, se aislaron e identificaron dos lignanos furofuránicos (3,7-dioxabiciclo (3,3,0 octánicos, que correspondieron a la ( + -sesamina y ( + -kobusina. Las elucidaciones estructurales fueron realizadas por métodos espectroscópicos en correlación con datos de la  literatura.

  16. The effect of feeding time on dispersal of Virola seeds by toucans determined from GPS tracking and accelerometers

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    Kays, R.W.; Jansen, P.A.; Knecht, E.; Vohwinkel, R.; Wikelski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dispersal is critical to understanding forest dynamics but is hard to study because tracking seeds is difficult. Even for the best-studied dispersal system of the Neotropics, Virola nobilis, the dispersal kernel remains unknown. We combined high-resolution GPS/3D-acceleration bird tracking,

  17. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) invasion in maritime forests: the role of anthropogenic disturbance and its management implication

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    Lauren S. Pile; G. Geoff Wang; Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2017-01-01

    Land-use and forest management practices may facilitate the invasion success of non-native plants in forests. In this study, we tested if agricultural land abandonment and subsequent forest management contributed to the invasion success of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) in the maritime forest of Parris Island, SC. We compared the...

  18. Resin from Virola oleifera Protects Against Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

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    Bôa, Igor Santos Fonte; Porto, Marcella Leite; Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel; Ramos, Jean Pierre Louzada; Scherer, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Jairo Pinto; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Meyrelles, Silvana Santos; Vasquez, Elisardo Corral; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic medical event for which there is not yet a successful therapy. Increasing evidence in rodents has suggested that this disease is associated with renal tubular and vascular injury that is triggered directly by oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated whether the antioxidant resin from Virola oleifera (RV) could attenuate renal damage in an experimental mouse model of CIN. Adult male Swiss mice were divided into six groups and pre-treated orally with RV (10, 100 and 300 mg/kg), N-acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 5 days before the induction of CIN and Control group. Renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea levels. Additionally, renal oxidative stress and apoptosis/cell viability were determined with flow cytometry. Finally, kidney tissues were sectioned for histopathological examination. In this CIN model, pre-treatment with RV improved renal function, lowered the mortality rate, and reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in both the medulla and cortex renal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the RV treatment had beneficial effects on kidney histopathology that were superior to the standard treatment with N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest that because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects and its ability to preserve renal function, resin from Virola oleifera may have potential as a new therapeutic approach for preventing CIN.

  19. Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi: In vitro leishmanicide activity of Virola surinamensis (rol.) warb.

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    Veiga, Andreza; Albuquerque, Kelly; Corrêa, Maria Elinete; Brigido, Helliton; Silva E Silva, João; Campos, Marliane; Silveira, Fernando; Santos, Lourivaldo; Dolabela, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Virola species have been used in traditional medicine as healing in skin infections. From V. surinanensis oil were isolated several sesquiterpene as the nerolidol which showed activity against species of Leishmania. The current study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicide activity and toxicity of extracts, fractions and surinamesin obtained from leaves of Virola surinamensis. Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, and Methanol extracts were obtained from powder of dry leaves of V. surinamensis. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and increasingly polar gradient. The viability of L. chagasi and L. amazonensis promastigotes was assessed by tetrazolium salt assay (MTT). Peritoneal macrophages were exposed to L. amazonensis promastigotes. The treatment was performed with the extracts for 24 h. Then, the coverslips were stained and the infection index was determined. Cytotoxicity was determined in macrophage cells by peritoneum viability assay (MTT). The selectivity index was calculated as the product of cytotoxic concentration 50% and inhibitory concentration 50%. The hexane extract showed leishmanicide activity in promastigotes. The ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and fractions (C1-C6), were inactive against promastigote form of L. chagasi and L. amzazonensis. None extract showed effect on L. amazonensis amastigotes. All samples tested showed low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 500 μg/mL). The selectivity index of the hexane extract was greater than 5. The hexane extract of V. surinamensis was active against L. chagasi and L. amazonensis promastigotes. The extract fractionation did not increase significantly its antipromastigote activity. The surinamensin is probably not responsible for the activity. The extracts were inactive against amastigotes of L. amazonensis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Antiulcerogenic action of ethanolic extract of the resin from Virola surinamensis Warb. (Myristicaceae).

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    Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Batista, Leonia Maria; de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; de Pietro Magri, Luciana; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Vilegas, Wagner; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2009-03-18

    Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae), popularly known as "mucuíba", "ucuuba" or "ucuúba do igapó" is a large tree that grows abundantly in "Várzea" forest and on river banks in the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Tocantins. The resin obtained by cuts on the stem bark is a reputed folk remedy in its natural form for the treatment of ulcer, gastritis, inflammation and cancer. The present work evaluated the pharmacological activity of the resin obtained from bark of V. surinamensis as antiulcerogenic in experimental in vivo model in order to observe whether its traditional use is justified. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of V. surinamensis was evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents that simulated this disease in human gastric mucosa. Oral administration of acidified ethanol solution produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in glandular mucosa with ulcerative lesion of 50+/-11.5mm. In animals pretreated with V. surinamensis (500 mg/kg, p.o.) a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of 2.40+/-0.56 mm (95% inhibition) was detected. The V. surinamensis, at the same dose, also reduced significantly (presin was analyzed by TLC and spectrometric methods (NMR and ES-MS) and the main constituent of this extract was epicatechin. We suggest that the epicatechin present in V. surinamensis resin may be among active principles responsible for the antiulcer activity shown by the tested resin but their used suggest carefulness because toxicological symptoms mentioned by population.

  1. Comparative Lipidomics and Proteomics of Lipid Droplets in the Mesocarp and Seed Tissues of Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera).

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    Zhi, Yao; Taylor, Matthew C; Campbell, Peter M; Warden, Andrew C; Shrestha, Pushkar; El Tahchy, Anna; Rolland, Vivien; Vanhercke, Thomas; Petrie, James R; White, Rosemary G; Chen, Wenli; Singh, Surinder P; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are composed of a monolayer of phospholipids (PLs), surrounding a core of non-polar lipids that consist mostly of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and to a lesser extent diacylglycerols. In this study, lipidome analysis illustrated striking differences in non-polar lipids and PL species between LDs derived from Triadica sebifera seed kernels and mesocarp. In mesocarp LDs, the most abundant species of TAG contained one C18:1 and two C16:0 and fatty acids, while TAGs containing three C18 fatty acids with higher level of unsaturation were dominant in the seed kernel LDs. This reflects the distinct differences in fatty acid composition of mesocarp (palmitate-rich) and seed-derived oil (α-linoleneate-rich) in T. sebifera. Major PLs in seed LDs were found to be rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in contrast to those with relatively shorter carbon chain and lower level of unsaturation in mesocarp LDs. The LD proteome analysis in T. sebifera identified 207 proteins from mesocarp, and 54 proteins from seed kernel, which belong to various functional classes including lipid metabolism, transcription and translation, trafficking and transport, cytoskeleton, chaperones, and signal transduction. Oleosin and lipid droplets associated proteins (LDAP) were found to be the predominant proteins associated with LDs in seed and mesocarp tissues, respectively. We also show that LDs appear to be in close proximity to a number of organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi apparatus. This comparative study between seed and mesocarp LDs may shed some light on the structure of plant LDs and improve our understanding of their functionality and cellular metabolic networks in oleaginous plant tissues.

  2. Comparative Lipidomics and Proteomics of Lipid Droplets in the Mesocarp and Seed Tissues of Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera

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    Yao Zhi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are composed of a monolayer of phospholipids (PLs, surrounding a core of non-polar lipids that consist mostly of triacylglycerols (TAGs and to a lesser extent diacylglycerols. In this study, lipidome analysis illustrated striking differences in non-polar lipids and PL species between LDs derived from Triadica sebifera seed kernels and mesocarp. In mesocarp LDs, the most abundant species of TAG contained one C18:1 and two C16:0 and fatty acids, while TAGs containing three C18 fatty acids with higher level of unsaturation were dominant in the seed kernel LDs. This reflects the distinct differences in fatty acid composition of mesocarp (palmitate-rich and seed-derived oil (α-linoleneate-rich in T. sebifera. Major PLs in seed LDs were found to be rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in contrast to those with relatively shorter carbon chain and lower level of unsaturation in mesocarp LDs. The LD proteome analysis in T. sebifera identified 207 proteins from mesocarp, and 54 proteins from seed kernel, which belong to various functional classes including lipid metabolism, transcription and translation, trafficking and transport, cytoskeleton, chaperones, and signal transduction. Oleosin and lipid droplets associated proteins (LDAP were found to be the predominant proteins associated with LDs in seed and mesocarp tissues, respectively. We also show that LDs appear to be in close proximity to a number of organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi apparatus. This comparative study between seed and mesocarp LDs may shed some light on the structure of plant LDs and improve our understanding of their functionality and cellular metabolic networks in oleaginous plant tissues.

  3. Leaf litter of invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) negatively affects hatching success of an aquatic breeding anuran, the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

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    C.K. Adams; D. Saenz

    2012-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) is an aggressive invasive tree species that can be abundant in parts of its non-native range. This tree species has the capability of producing monocultures, by outcompeting native trees, which can be in or near wetlands that are utilized by breeding amphibians. Existing research suggests that leaf litter from invasive...

  4. DESCRIPCIÓN DE LA ARQUITECTURA DE IRYANTHERA TRICORNIS, OSTEOPHLOEUM PLATYSPERMUM Y VIROLA PAVONIS (MYRISTICACEAE

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    JIMÉNEZ-ROJAS ELIANA MARÍA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis arquitectónico de Iryanthera tricornis, Osteophloeumplatyspermum y Virola pavonis (Myristicaceae, en dos bosques amazónicos detierra firme. Las especies mostraron gran similitud en su arquitectura: todas crecenconforme al modelo de Massart y su unidad arquitectónica alcanza tres órdenes deejes. Se definieron ocho fases de desarrollo, con base en el número de órdenes deramificación y los tipos de reiteración. En las etapas iniciales se construyen losárboles potenciales, desde el establecimiento temprano de las plántulas hasta queexhiben la unidad arquitectónica completa; luego surgen las reiteraciones adaptativas:primero las parciales, en las ramas más bajas y viejas; después, las totales sobre losejes A2 más lignificados. En la copa de los árboles del presente, los complejosreiterados totales conforman las reiteraciones arbóreas y arbustivas, cuyo tamaño yvigor disminuye en los árboles del pasado, cuando son más abundantes las herbáceas.Al aumentar el número de ejes y, por consiguiente, expandir el sistema deramas, la reiteración tiene suma importancia en la construcción de la copa. Por unaparte, las reiteraciones adaptativas surgen en fases específicas del desarrollo y, porotra, las reiteraciones traumáticas pueden surgir, en cualquier fase, como respuestadirecta a los daños en la estructura vegetativa. Este plan de crecimiento confiere alos árboles gran habilidad para sobrevivir en las condiciones del bosque, especialmentedurante los estados juveniles dentro del sotobosque. La plagiotropía de lasramas y la disposición en abanico de las reiteraciones parciales permiten utilizar máseficientemente los recursos más próximos. El desarrollo arquitectónico de las especieses muy dinámico y permite que se ajusten constantemente a los cambios en elmedio para alcanzar el dosel.

  5. Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) from the invasive range outperform those from the native range with an active soil community or phosphorus fertilization.

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    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m(2)), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m(2)), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however

  6. Dinâmica da massa seca e propriedades químicas da liteira em Virola surinamensis e floresta sucessional na Amazônia oriental

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    Beatriz Cordeiro Costa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a expansão das atividades antrópicas, a floresta tropical amazônica tem sofrido intensas transformações. Após a retirada da vegetação há o abandono desses ecossistemas possibilitando a resiliência natural. Com o intuito de acelerar este processo, é realizado o plantio de diversas espécies nativas para favorecer a ciclagem de nutrientes, com o acúmulo de liteira. Portanto, objetivou-se comparar a deposição de massa seca e as propriedades químicas em floresta em estágio sucessional de desenvolvimento (FSU e plantio de Virola surinamensis Rol. (Ward. (VSU. O experimento foi conduzido na região dos tabuleiros costeiros, na Amazônia oriental, sendo as coletas realizadas quinzenalmente durante três anos. O estudo evidenciou que o ecossistema FSU houve maior quantidade (p<0,05 no estoque de liteira em relação ao VSU. Os resultados da acumulação da liteira foram 7,94 Mg ha-1 ano-1 e 6,30 Mg ha-1 ano-1 no FSU e VSU, respectivamente. Quanto às propriedades químicas do material depositado, o teor e conteúdo de K e Mn no FSU foram maiores comparando-se ao VSU. Para o Ca e o Mg os teores foram superiores no VSU, entretanto o conteúdo não diferiu entre os dois ecossistemas. Para o FSU o teor e conteúdo de Fe foram menores, enquanto que para estas mesmas variáveis, Cu e Zn pouco divergiram na floresta e no monocultivo. O acúmulo de liteira e a maioria do conteúdo de nutrientes apresentam valores superiores em floresta sucessional devido à diversidade florística e estrutural das espécies envolvidas. Dynamics of dry mass and chemical properties of litter in Virola surinamensis and successional forest in eastern AmazonAbstract: With the expansion of anthropogenic activities, the Amazon Rain Forest has suffered sweep changes. After the removing of vegetation, there is an abandonment of the ecosystems, allowing a natural resilience. In order to accelerating this process, it is performed the planting of several native species

  7. Conspecific plasticity and invasion: invasive populations of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera have performance advantage over native populations only in low soil salinity.

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    Leiyi Chen

    Full Text Available Global climate change may increase biological invasions in part because invasive species may have greater phenotypic plasticity than native species. This may be especially important for abiotic stresses such as salt inundation related to increased hurricane activity or sea level rise. If invasive species indeed have greater plasticity, this may reflect genetic differences between populations in the native and introduced ranges. Here, we examined plasticity of functional and fitness-related traits of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera populations from the introduced and native ranges that were grown along a gradient of soil salinity (control: 0 ppt; Low: 5 ppt; Medium: 10 ppt; High: 15 ppt in a greenhouse. We used both norm reaction and plasticity index (PIv to estimate the conspecific phenotypic plasticity variation between invasive and native populations. Overall, invasive populations had higher phenotypic plasticity of height growth rate (HGR, aboveground biomass, stem biomass and specific leaf area (SLA. The plasticity Index (PIv of height growth rate (HGR and SLA each were higher for plants from invasive populations. Absolute performance was always comparable or greater for plants from invasive populations versus native populations with the greatest differences at low stress levels. Our results were consistent with the "Master-of-some" pattern for invasive plants in which the fitness of introduced populations was greater in more benign conditions. This suggests that the greater conspecific phenotypic plasticity of invasive populations compared to native populations may increase invasion success in benign conditions but would not provide a potential interspecific competitive advantage in higher salinity soils that may occur with global climate change in coastal areas.

  8. Polyketides isolated from Penicillium herquei; Policetideos isolados de Penicillium herquei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosario; Marinho, Patricia Santana Barbosa, E-mail: andrey@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Quimica; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ferreira, Izabel Cristina Piloto [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Analises Clinicas

    2011-07-01

    In this work we are reporting the isolation of polyketides citreoserine (1), emodin (2), janthinone (3), dihydrocitrinone (4) and citrinin H-1 (5). The compounds were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by spectral methods of NMR 1D and 2D and MS. The compounds 1, 2 and 3 were tested against promastigotes of Leishmania brasiliensis. (author)

  9. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

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    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  10. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, DF.

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    José Alves da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  11. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FLORÍSTICA, FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DO SUB-BOSQUE DA RESERVA GENÉTICA FLORESTAL TAMANDUÁ, DF

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    Salomão João Marcelo de Rezende

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  12. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  13. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  14. Áreas prioritárias na Amazônia para conservação dos recursos genéticos de espécies florestais nativas: fase preliminar Priority areas for genetic resources conservation of native Forest Species: preliminary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Conte Leite

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O CENARGEN/EMBRAPA está realizando a prospecção das áreas prioritárias para a conservação in situ dos recursos genéticos de espécies com importância sócio-econômica para cada bioma existente no Brasil, buscando a conservação da variabilidade genética das mesmas. Para a prospecção da floresta tropical úmida amazônica, inicialmente foram feitos levantamentos de herbários nacionais bem como de literatura, para tentar definir os padrões de distribuição geográfica de algumas espécies prioritárias da região. A ocorrência das mesmas foi correlacionada com solos, clima, vegetação e com a existência de unidades de conservação na Amazônia, no intuito de se propor as áreas mais adequadas para a implantação de reservas genéticas (conservação in situ e de bancos de germoplasma (conservação ex situ à campo. As espécies relatadas no presente trabalho são Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (pau-rosa, Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. (castanha-do-Pará, Carapa quianensis Aubl. (andiroba, Cedrela fissilis Veil, e C. odorata L. (cedros, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e C. multijuga Hayne (copaibas, Cordia goeldiana Huber (freijó, Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Dom (pará-pará, Simaruba amara Aubl. e Virola sebifera Aubl. e V. surinamensis Warb. (ucuúbas e Voucapoua americana Aubl. e V. pallidor Ducke (acapús. Trabalhos posteriores com as mesmas incluirão a corroboração à campo dos dados obtidos nos herbários e na literatura, bem como estudos a nível de população dentro das áreas selecionadas.CENARGEN/EMBRAPA is investigating priority areas for in situ conservation of genetic resources of socially and economically important species. Herbaria and the literature were consulted to determine the distribution patterns of some tropical rain forest species. Known species distribution were correlated with soils, climate, vegetation types and the existence of conservation units, in order to propose the establishment of genetic reserves for

  15. Caracterización de la vegetación alrededor de los senderos del sector Quebrada González, Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Costa Rica.

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    Paúl E. Oviedo Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a preliminary analysis of the composition and structure of the forest growing near the paths of Quebrada González, Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica. Nine parcels of 20 x 20 m settled down subdivided in quadrants of 10 x 10 m. All trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of 10 cm or greater were marked, measured and identified. Two quadrants were selected by parcel and we recorded the number of individuals for species with a DBH smaller than 10 cm and a height greater than 50 cm. Also the amount of terrestrial large-leave plants was registered. A plastic tube was placed in the center of each parcel to estimate the density of the understory as the percentage of the longitude of the tube covered by the vegetation. A total of 143 trees were measured and 40 species were registered. The mean abundance and mean density was of 595,7 ± 155,5 individuals ha-1 and 266,3 ± 61,5 species ha-1 respectly. There was no significant difference in the forest composition when comparing the three study places (KW = 2, gl=2, p=0.9999. The species with highest Importance Value índex were Hedyosmum mexi-canum, Colubrina spinosa, Protium panamense and Vochysia spp. The diametric class distributions followed the expected J-invested shape. This forest has three well differentiated stories. The understory is very dense, dominated by Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and terrestrial monocots. The middle-story measures among 10-20m and it is dominated by lasting successional species. The canopy rarely overpasses the 25, it is very discontinuous and it is dominated by Vochysia spp, Virola sebifera and Carapa guianensis. The results  suggest that the forest of the Quebrada González is according to a premontane forest, with different periods of human disturbance and with an age between 25 and 35 years.

  16. Effects of biomass particle size on yield and composition of pyrolysis bio-oil derived from Chinese tallow tree (Triadica Sebifera L. and energy cane (Saccharum complex in an inductively heated reactor

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    Gustavo Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of fluctuating petroleum costs and a growing demand for energy, the need for an alternative and sustainable energy source has increased. A viable solution for this problem can be attained by using thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, of existing biomass sources for the production of liquid fuels. This study focuses on the effect that biomass particle size has on the conversion of biomass into liquid pyrolysis oil. Energy cane and Chinese tallow tree biomass were pyrolyzed at 550 ℃. The particle size ranges studied were < 0.5, 0.5 to 1.4, 1.4 to 2.4 and, 2.4 to 4.4 mm. The results indicate that the range from 0.5-1.4 mm is a better range for optimizing bio-oil production while keeping water content low.

  17. Functional diversity of photosynthetic light use of sixteen vascular epiphyte species under fluctuating irradiance in the canopy of a giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae tree in the tropical lowland forest of French Guyana

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    Uwe eRascher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3-hour window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at pre-dawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm30’, was observed during the day. By correlating (Fv/Fm30’ to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 hours, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light adapted ancestors.

  18. Functional Diversity of Photosynthetic Light Use of 16 Vascular Epiphyte Species Under Fluctuating Irradiance in the Canopy of a Giant Virola michelii (Myristicaceae) Tree in the Tropical Lowland Forest of French Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, Uwe; Freiberg, Martin; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the first study, in which a large number of different vascular epiphyte species were measured for their photosynthetic performance in the natural environment of their phorophyte in the lowland rainforest of French Guyana. More than 70 epiphyte species covered the host tree in a dense cover. Of these, the photosynthesis of 16 abundant species was analyzed intensely over several months. Moreover, the light environment was characterized with newly developed light sensors that recorded continuously and with high temporal resolution light intensity next to the epiphytes. Light intensity was highly fluctuating and showed great site specific spatio-temporal variations of photosynthetic photon flux. Using a novel computer routine we quantified the integrated light intensity the epiphytes were exposed to in a 3 h window and we related this light intensity to measurements of the actual photosynthetic status. It could be shown that the photosynthetic apparatus of the epiphytes was well adapted to the quickly changing light conditions. Some of the epiphytes were chronically photoinhibited at predawn and significant acute photoinhibition, expressed by a reduction of potential quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m))(30'), was observed during the day. By correlating (F(v)/F(m))(30') to the integrated and weighted light intensity perceived during the previous 3 h, it became clear that acute photoinhibition was related to light environment prior to the measurements. Additionally photosynthetic performance was not determined by rain events, with the exception of an Aechmea species. This holds true for all the other 15 species of this study and we thus conclude that actual photosynthesis of these tropical epiphytes was determined by the specific and fluctuating light conditions of their microhabitat and cannot be simply attributed to light-adapted ancestors.

  19. Using internet images to gather distributional data for a newly discovered Caloptilia species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) specializing on Chinese tallow in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera (L.), Euphorbiaceae) is a noxious and highly invasive species that was deliberately introduced to GA in 1772. In early 2009, an unfamiliar caterpillar was independently discovered feeding on T. sebifera trees in Gainesville, FL and Slidell, LA. Adult moths were...

  20. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  1. Neutralizacion del efecto hemorragico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper por extractos de plantas tropicales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Oscar; Gutierrez, Jose Maria; Barrios, Mariano; Castro, Ian; Romero, Marjorie; Umana, Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    ... cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El analisis quimico de estos extractos permitio identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrian jugar un papel en la inhibicion del efecto hemorragico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorragicas para su accion. Abstract: Organic extracts rep...

  2. Screening cut-stump control of Chinese tallowtree, sweetgum and yaupon with aminocyclopyrachlor

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Yeiser; M. Link; J. Grogan

    2012-01-01

    Aminocyclopyrachlor (MAT28) was investigated for the potential control of unwanted woody rootstocks of Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). A cutstump application of MAT28+Brush and Basal Oil by Helena was tested against standard treatments: (1)...

  3. Integrating spread dynamics and economics of timber production to manage Chinese Tallow invasions in southern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang; William E. Grant; Jianbang Gan; William E. Rogers; Todd M. Swannack; Tomasz E. Koralewski; James H. Miller; John W. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Economic costs associated with the invasion of nonnative species are of global concern. We estimated expected costs of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) invasions related to timber production in southern U.S. forestlands under different management strategies. Expected costs were confined to the value of timber production losses plus costs for search and...

  4. Effects of Chinese tallow leaf litter on water chemistry and surfacing behaviour of anuran larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of exotic invasive species, including plants, has been linked to the decline of some amphibian populations. Of particular concern with invasive plants, from an amphibian conservation perspective, is that they are disproportionately wetland or riparian species. Recent evidence suggests that Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), an...

  5. [Aboveground biomass input of Myristicaceae tree species in the Amazonian Forest in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta Adrianzén, Marisabel

    2015-03-01

    Amazonian forests are a vast storehouse of biodiversity and function as carbon sinks from biomass that accumulates in various tree species. In these forests, the taxa with the greatest contribution of biomass cannot be precisely defined, and the representative distribution of Myristicaceae in the Peruvian Amazon was the starting point for designing the present study, which aimed to quantify the biomass contribution of this family. For this, I analyzed the databases that corresponded to 38 sample units that were previously collected and that were provided by the TeamNetwork and RAINFOR organizations. The analysis consisted in the estimation of biomass using pre-established allometric equations, Kruskal-Wallis sample comparisons, interpolation-analysis maps, and nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results showed that Myristicaceae is the fourth most important biomass contributor with 376.97 Mg/ha (9.92 Mg/ha in average), mainly due to its abundance. Additionally, the family shows a noticeable habitat preference for certain soil conditions in the physiographic units, such is the case of Virola pavonis in "varillales", within "floodplain", or Iryanthera tessmannii and Virola loretensis in sewage flooded areas or "igapo" specifically, and the preference of Virola elongata and irola surinamensis for white water flooded areas or "varzea" edaphic conditions of the physiographic units taken in the study.

  6. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae) en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; J. de Jong, B H; Soto-Pinto, M L

    2015-01-01

    We describe the habitat ofspecies within .the Fagaceae subgenus Lepidobalanus (genus Quercus) and identify environmental variables relatedto their distribution in the Meseta Central of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In 258 plots adortúnance index was used, combining tree density arid crown cover, for Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha,Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera and Q.segoviensis. The following variables were measmed:. altitude, pre' cipitatioh from November through April (PPNA), exposure, slope, fuel...

  7. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  8. Estudio teórico experimental de la estabilidad lateral en vehículos cisterna. Metodología para la determinación del umbral de vuelco.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín López, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    El oleaje de la masa de líquido contenida en el interior del tanque de los camiones cisterna puede afectar significativamente a su dinámica de marcha y su estabilidad. Plateando como objetivo, el aumento de la seguridad, cualquier mejora en el diseño del vehículo o en la geometría de la virola, redundará en un aumento de la misma. En la actualidad, el marco normativo exige a los vehículos un umbral de vuelco mínimo, verificable mediante ensayo o cálculo en condiciones cuasi-estáticas. La expe...

  9. Aporte de biomasa aérea de las especies arbóreas de la familia Myristicaceae en los bosques Amazónicos del Perú

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    Marisabel Ureta Adrianzén

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques amazónicos son un gran almacén de biodiversidad y funcionan como sumideros de carbono debido a la biomasa aérea que acumulan en las diversas especies arbóreas, sin embargo, no se puede definir con exactitud cuál es el taxón con el mayor aporte de biomasa aérea. La representativa distribución de las Myristicaceae R. Br. en la Amazonía peruana fue el punto de inicio para plantear el presente estudio, el cual pretende cuantificar el aporte de biomasa aérea de esta familia en estos bosques. Para este estudio se utilizaron las bases de datos de 38 unidades muestrales recolectadas y proporcionadas por las organizaciones RAINFOR y TeamNetwork. Con estos datos se realizó la estimación de la biomasa aérea por medio de ecuaciones alométricas pre-establecidas, contraste de muestras con la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis, mapas de interpolación y un análisis de ordenamiento de escalamiento multidimensional no paramétrico (NMDS. Los resultados sugieren que Myristicaceae R. Br. es la cuarta familia más importante en aporte de biomasa aérea acumulada con 376.97Mg/ha (9.92Mg/ha en promedio debido principalmente a su abundancia. Adicionalmente, la familia muestra una evidente preferencia de hábitat por determinadas condiciones edáficas dentro las unidades fisiográficas, tal es el caso de Virola pavonis en los “varillales”, dentro de “planicies inundables”, o de Iryanthera tessmannii y Virola loretensis en áreas inundadas de aguas negras o “igapó” específicamente, y de Virola elongata y Virola surinamensis en áreas inundadas de aguas blancas o “várzea”.

  10. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae) en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; de Jong, B. H. J.; Soto-Pinto, M L

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el hábitat de las especies del subgénero Lepidobalanus en la Meseta Central de Chiapas e identificar las principales variables que condicionan su distribución. En 258 parcelas se utilizó un índice de dominancia, basado en la abundancia y cobertura de las especies, para conocer la distribución de Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis. Además se midieron las variables ambientales: altitud, precipitación de noviembr...

  11. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

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    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el hábitat de las especies del subgénero Lepidobalanus en la Meseta Central de Chiapas e identificar las principales variables que condicionan su distribución. En 258 parcelas se utilizó un índice de dominancia, basado en la abundancia y cobertura de las especies, para conocer la distribución de Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis. Además se midieron las variables ambientales: altitud, precipitación de noviembre a abril (PPNA, exposición, pendiente, intensidad de extracción de leña y pastoreo. Se utilizó el Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis para la evaluación estadística de los datos. Se encontró una relación negativa entre el índice de dominancia de Q. peduncularis y Q. segoviensis con la altitud y la PPNA. El índice de dominancia de Q. rugosa y Q. segoviensis mostró correlación con la exposición y la intensidad de extracción de leña. La altitud fue la variable ambiental que condiciona la distribución diferencial de las especies, seguida por la PPNA. El resultado de este estudio sugiere que hay hábitat diferenciados para Q. peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis determinados por variables naturales (altitud y PPNA, aunque también las variables culturales (pastoreo y extracción de leña pueden condicionar la distribución y abundancia de estas especies.We describe the habitat of species within the Fagaceae subgenus Lepidobalanus (genus Quercus and identify environmental variables related to their distribution in the Meseta Central of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In 258 plots a dominance index was used, combining tree density and crown cover, for Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera and Q. segoviensis. The following variables were measured: altitude, precipitation from November through April (PPNA, exposure, slope, fuel-wood harvesting and grazing. Detrended Canonical

  12. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

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    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  13. Biological activities of lignoids from Amazon Myristicaceae species: Virota michelii, V. mollissima, V. pavonis and Iryanthera juruensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Sabrina K.R.; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: myoshida@iq.usp.br; Teixeira, Ana F. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Escola Normal Superior; Torres, Zelina E. dos S. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude; Numomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisa de Produtos Naturais; Yamashiro-Kanashiro, Edite H.; Lindoso, Jose Angelo I. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Lab. de Epidemiologia e Imunobiologia

    2009-07-01

    This work revisits the fruits of Iryanthera juruensis and Virola pavonis and the leaves from V. michelii, as well as describing a study of the fruits of V. mollissima. In I. juruensis aryltetraline neolignan (1) and tetrahydrofuran neolignan (2), were found while from V. pavonis neolignans of benzofuran type (6-9), the tetrahydrofuran type (2, 11-13, 17) and the biphenyl type (10), in addition to diastereoisomers of the 8.O.4'-oxyneolignan type (14 and 15) and others were isolated. The V. mollissima accumulates the aryltetralone neolignan 4 and its seco derivative (5). The lignoids 1 and 2 obtained from I. juruensis arils possess antileishmanial activity against the promastigote form of Leishmania amazonensis. (author)

  14. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  15. Pharmepéna-Psychonautics: Human intranasal, sublingual and oral pharmacology of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J

    2001-01-01

    Summarized are psychonautic bioassays (human self-experiments) of pharmepéna--crystalline 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT; O-Me-bufotenine), at times combined with crystalline beta-carbolines (harmaline or harmine). These substances were administered via intranasal, sublingual and oral routes, by way of pharmacological modeling of diverse South American shamanic inebriants (principally the snuffs epéna/nyakwana, prepared from barks of diverse species of Virola.) Intranasal, sublingual and oral psychoactivity of 5-MeO-DMT, and the 1967 Holmstedt-Lindgren hypothesis of the paricá-effect--intranasal potentiation of tryptamines by concomitant administration of monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting (MAOI) beta-carbolines from stems of Banisteriopsis caapi admixed with the snuffs--have been confirmed by some 17 psychonautic bioassays. Salient phytochemical and psychonautic literature is reviewed.

  16. Oak forests types of quercus humboldtii in the Guantiva-La Rusia-Iguaque corridor (Santander-Boyacá, Colombia: their conservation and sustainable use

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    Andrés Avella Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de robles en el corredor Guantiva-La Rusia-Iguaque corresponden a la formación mayor de Quercus humboldtii y Billia rosea, los cuales se clasificaron en una estructura jerárquica de siete tipos: Bosques de Q. humboldtii y Ocotea calophylla(franja altoandina > 3200 m, la gran formación de Q. humboldtii y Alchornea grandiflora, en la región andina con el robledal de Q. humboldtii - Blakea cuatrecasii y el de Q. humboldtii - Cyathea multiflora. En la parte baja de la región andina se diferenciaron los bosques de Q. humboldtii y Daphnopsis caracasana y los de Q. humboldtii y Pouteria baehniana. Los bosques de Virola macrocarpa y Q. humboldtii están presentes en la zona de vida sub-andina. Los robledales son considerados ecosistemas de alto valor cultural y social con dos prácticas principales de uso: como fuente de combustible y en el mantenimiento de las fincas (postes, estacas, madera. Según la caracterización florística y estructural, los bosques de Virola macrocarpa - Q. humboldtii, los de Q. humboldtii - Pouteria baehniana y los de Q. humboldtii - Daphnopsis caracasana podrían ser utilizados por la comunidad, bajo prescripciones técnicas. Los bosques de Q. humboldtii - Blakea cuatrecasii y de Q. humboldtii - Ocoteo calophylla no se deben usar, bajo ninguna condición, y deben ser objeto de un programa de protección estricta y restauración ecológica. Se deben implementar estrategias de conservación basadas en la generación de acuerdos de co-manejo entre las comunidades locales y las instituciones ambientales que faciliten su conservación bajo esquemas de uso sostenible.

  17. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

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    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  18. DNA Barcoding of Sangihe Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans using matK Gene

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    TRINA EKAWATI TALLEI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutmeg (family: Myristicaceae is a plant that originated from Banda islands and is widely cultivated in several places in the world. Secondary metabolites of this plant have a high value because of their benefits for the health, food, and beauty industries. This study aims at developing DNA barcode for nutmeg (Myristica fragrans using standard recommended fragment of matK (maturase K gene. Universal matK primer pairs were used to amplify 889 bp DNA fragment. BLAST search from NCBI site showed that Sangihe nutmeg has 100% identity with Myristica fatua, M. maingayi, and M. globosa. It also has 3 nucleotides difference with Rivola sebifera (identity 99.58% and 4 nucleotides difference with Knema laurina (identity 99.43%. It can be inferred from this study that single locus of matK gene cannot be used to differentiate species in Myristica; it can only be used to differentiate the genus level within family Myristicaceae.

  19. Woody structure facilitates invasion of woody plants by providing perches for birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Huynh, Andrew; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-10-01

    Woody encroachment threatens prairie ecosystems globally, and thus understanding the mechanisms that facilitate woody encroachment is of critical importance. Coastal tallgrass prairies along the Gulf Coast of the US are currently threatened by the spread of several species of woody plants. We studied a coastal tallgrass prairie in Texas, USA, to determine if existing woody structure increased the supply of seeds from woody plants via dispersal by birds. Specifically, we determined if (i) more seedlings of an invasive tree ( Tridacia sebifera ) are present surrounding a native woody plant ( Myrica cerifera ); (ii) wooden perches increase the quantity of seeds dispersed to a grassland; and (iii) perches alter the composition of the seed rain seasonally in prairie habitats with differing amounts of native and invasive woody vegetation, both underneath and away from artificial wooden perches. More T. sebifera seedlings were found within M. cerifera patches than in graminoid-dominated areas. Although perches did not affect the total number of seeds, perches changed the composition of seed rain to be less dominated by grasses and forbs. Specifically, 20-30 times as many seeds of two invasive species of woody plants were found underneath perches independent of background vegetation, especially during months when seed rain was highest. These results suggest that existing woody structure in a grassland can promote further woody encroachment by enhancing seed dispersal by birds. This finding argues for management to reduce woody plant abundance before exotic plants set seeds and argues against the use of artificial perches as a restoration technique in grasslands threatened by woody species.

  20. Changes in understory species occurrence of a secondary broadleaved forest after mass mortality of oak trees under deer foraging pressure

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    Hiroki Itô

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of mass mortality of oak trees by Japanese oak wilt has affected secondary deciduous broadleaved forests that have been used as coppices in Japan. The dieback of oak trees formed gaps in the crown that would be expected to enhance the regeneration of shade-intolerant pioneer species. However, foraging by sika deer Cervus nippon has also affected forest vegetation, and the compound effects of both on forest regeneration should be considered when they simultaneously occur. A field study was conducted in Kyôto City, Japan to investigate how these compound effects affected the vegetation of the understory layer of these forests. The presence/absence of seedlings and saplings was observed for 200 quadrats sized 5 m ×5 m for each species in 1992, before the mass mortality and deer encroachment, and in 2014 after these effects. A hierarchical Bayesian model was constructed to explain the occurrence, survival, and colonization of each species with their responses to the gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of Quercus serrata trees. The species that occurred most frequently in 1992, Eurya japonica, Quercus glauca, and Cleyera japonica, also had the highest survival probabilities. Deer-unpalatable species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera had higher colonization rates in the gaps, while the deer-palatable species Aucuba japonica had the smallest survival probability. The gaps thus promoted the colonization of deer-unpalatable plant species such as Symplocos prunifolia and Triadica sebifera. In the future, such deer-unpalatable species may dominate gaps that were created, expanded, or affected by the mass mortality of oak trees.

  1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants Part 2: Constituents of orally-active Myristicaceous hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D J; Towers, G H; Abbott, F S

    1984-11-01

    Alkaloid constituents in Myristicaceous bark and leaf samples and in purportedly hallucinogenic preparations derived from Myristicaceous sources were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using TLC, GC, alkaloid precipitation tests and GC/MS. Fourteen of the 27 bark and leaf samples analyzed contained detectable amounts of alkaloids. The major bases were N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and/or 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT); much smaller amounts of tryptamine and/or N-methyl-tryptamine (NMT) were also usually present. beta-Carbolines were not detected in the bark or leaf samples. Considerable variation in alkaloid profiles was found, extending to different collections of the same species. Fourteen of the 20 Virola samples contained alkaloids; none of the 6 Iryanthera species had detectable alkaloids. Osteophloem platyspermum contained an indolic base, identified as N-methyl-tryptophan methyl ester. Seven samples of an orally-ingested drug made from Virola spp. were analyzed. All except one contained substantial amounts of tryptamines; the types and proportions of tryptamines present varied greatly between samples. Samples of Yanomama snuff including various admixtures were analyzed and all components but one contained tryptamines. The drug samples having the highest concentrations of alkaloids contained 15-20 mg/g dry wt while the Myristicaceous bark and leaf samples had much lower concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 0.25 mg/g dry wt. beta-Carbolines were detected as trace constituents in only two of the Myristicaceous drug samples. Four Myristicaceous paste samples were bioassayed in self-experiments. Two of the samples were devoid of detectable hallucinogenic or physiological activity, while some degree of oral activity was detected in two other samples. The activity of a number of tryptamine derivatives as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) was investigated using an in vitro enzyme assay. Activity was measured using single compounds and mixtures

  2. Estrutura e síndromes de dispersão de espécies arbóreas em um trecho de mata ciliar, Sirinhaém, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure and dispersal syndromes of tree species in a stretch of riparian vegetation, Sirinhaém, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Karla Soares da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a fitossociologia do componente arboreo em uma mata ciliar de um corrego que desagua no Rio Sirinhaem, localizado no Engenho Buranhem, Sirinhaem, PE e identificar as sindromes de dispersao das especies. O corrego esta situado em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrofila Densa de Terras Baixas, com 272 ha. Utilizou-se como area amostral um hectare (40 unidades amostrais, 10 m x 25 m onde foram registrados 1.307 individuos arboreos com circunferencia a altura do peito (CAP ≥ 15 cm. Foram identificadas 118 especies, pertencentes a 40 familias botanicas. Protium heptaphyllum e Pouteria sp.1 foram as especies mais abundantes. Em termos de valor de importancia (VI, as especies Protium heptaphyllum, Pouteria sp.1 e Virola gardneri estao entre as mais importantes ecologicamente. As sindromes de dispersao predominantes foram: zoocoria (72,8%, autocoria (13,6% e anemocoria (4,8%. Nao foi possivel determinar a sindrome de dispersao de 8,8% das especies estudadas.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.01

    This study aimed to know the phytosociology of the tree component of riparian vegetation in a stream that flows into the Sirinhaem River in Engenho Buranhem, Sirinhaem, Pernambuco State, and identify the species dispersal syndromes. The stream is located in a fragment of dense rain forest of the lowlands, with 272 ha. It was sempled used one hectare (40 sampling units of 10 m x 25 m each. It was registered 1,307 trees with circumference at breast height (CAP . 15 cm. We identified 118 species belonging to 40 botanical families. Protium heptaphyllum and Pouteria sp.1 were the most abundant species. In terms of importance value (IV, Protium heptaphyllum, Pouteria sp.1 and Virola gardneri are among the most important ecologically species. The predominant dispersal syndromes were zoocory (72.8%, autocory (13.6% and anemochory (4.8%. It was not possible to determine the type of dispersal of 8.8% of the

  3. Potencial produtivo de madeira e palmito de uma floresta secundária de várzea baixa no Estuário Amazônico Productive potential of wood and heart-palm in a secondary low floodplain forest of the Amazon Estuary

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    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos analisar a estrutura arbórea e valorar uma floresta secundária de várzea baixa. A área de estudo está localizada na propriedade florestal da Exportadora de Madeiras do Pará Ltda. - EMAPA, município de Afuá, Estado do Pará. A área inventariada corresponde a 12,5 ha, onde foram medidos todos os espécimes arbóreos com DAP > ou = 15,0 cm. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 73 espécies, que totalizaram 357,7 indivíduos/ha e área basal de 23,4 m²/ha. As espécies mais importantes do ambiente estudado foram Virola surinamensis, Symphonia globulifera, Eschweilera coriacea, Pentaclethra macroloba e Astrocaryum murumuru. Entre os grupos de uso foi verificado que as espécies não-comerciais apresentaram o maior número de toras comercializáveis (24,3 toras/ha, seguidas das espécies comerciais (16,2 toras/ha e das potenciais (12,9 toras/ha. A receita potencial de toras/ha foi de US$ 501,70 e a de palmito/ha foi de US$ 68,50.The aim of this paper was to analyze tree structure and value a secondary low floodplain forest. The study area is located at EMAPA forest lands, in the county of Afuá, in the state of Pará. The inventoried area presents 12.5 ha, where all the tree specimens with DBH > or = 15.0 cm were measured. A total of 73 species were identified, corresponding to 357.7 individuals/ha and a 23.4 m²/ha basal area, the most important being Virola surinamensis, Symphonia globulifera, Eschweilera coriacea, Pentaclethra macroloba and Astrocaryum murumuru. Among the categories, the non-commercial species showed the highest number of marketable boles (24.3/ha, followed by the commercial (16.2/ha and potential ones (12.9 boles/ha. The boles and the heartpalms provided a potential income of US$ 501.70/ha and US$ 68.50/ha, respectively.

  4. Catálogo sistemático dos pólens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil meridional: I - Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae e Myristicaceae

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    Henrique P. Veloso

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Wir beginnen mit dieser Arbeit einen Katalog der Baumpollen Suedbrasiliens, der als Unterlage zum spaeteren Studium der Humusablagerungen in Brasilien dienen soll. Die Reihenfolge der Familien stuetzt sich auf die Phylogenie der Pflanzenfamilien, weshalb wir mit den Polycarpicae, im besonderen der Magnoliaceae s. lat., Lauraceae, Annonaceae und Myristicaceae, beginnen. Obwohl die Abstammungsfolge der verschiedenen Familien noch sehr hypothetisch ist (vergleiche zum Beispiel WETTSTEIN, 1944, und HUTCHINSON, 1946 und 1959, konnten wir Aehnlichkeiten zwischen den Pollen der behandelten Familien feststellen. Vergleiche zwischen den verschiedenen Gattungen dieser Familien fuehren zu keinem sicheren phylogenetischen Schluss. Die Pollen der verschiedenen Lauraceengattugen, ausser Cryptocarya, aehneln sich untereinander so, dass dadurch die Gattungs-und Artbestimmungen unmoeglich gemacht werden. Im Gegensatz treffen wir bei den Annonaceengattungen, so wie auch bei den Magnoliaceen s. lat., typische Formen und Strukturen an. Hierzu machen wir auf die pollensystematische Zusammenfassung am Ende der Arbeit aufmerksam. Die Praeparate wurden nach der Acetolysemethode (beschrieben in ERDTMAN, 1952 und 1954 hergestellt. Da alle Pollen, ausser Drimys und Virola, eine sehr duenne Exine besitzen, war groesste Vorsicht geboten, um sie nicht zu zerstoeren. Gleichzeitig wurde zum Vergleich jeweils ein Objekt nach der Wodehouse'schen Methode (WODEHOUSE, 1935 behandelt.

  5. Allometric relationships predicting foliar biomass and leaf area:sapwood area ratio from tree height in five Costa Rican rain forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Alvarado, J C; McDowell, N G; Waring, R H

    2008-11-01

    We developed allometric equations to predict whole-tree leaf area (A(l)), leaf biomass (M(l)) and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(l):A(s)) in five rain forest tree species of Costa Rica: Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Fabaceae/Mim), Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae), Vochysia ferru-gi-nea Mart. (Vochysiaceae), Virola koshnii Warb. (Myristicaceae) and Tetragastris panamensis (Engl.) Kuntze (Burseraceae). By destructive analyses (n = 11-14 trees per species), we observed strong nonlinear allometric relationships (r(2) > or = 0.9) for predicting A(l) or M(l) from stem diameters or A(s) measured at breast height. Linear relationships were less accurate. In general, A(l):A(s) at breast height increased linearly with tree height except for Penta-clethra, which showed a negative trend. All species, however, showed increased total A(l) with height. The observation that four of the five species increased in A(l):A(s) with height is consistent with hypotheses about trade--offs between morphological and anatomical adaptations that favor efficient water flow through variation in the amount of leaf area supported by sapwood and those imposed by the need to respond quickly to light gaps in the canopy.

  6. Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus‒ Ulmus‒ Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus‒ Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

  7. Delayed tree mortality in the Atchafalaya Basin of Southern Louisiana following Hurricane Andrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Gorham, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes can damage trees in forested wetlands, and the potential for mortality related to these storms exists due to the effects of tree damage over time. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the forested wetlands of southern Louisiana with winds in excess of 225 kph. Although more than 78 of the basal area was destroyed in some areas, most trees greater than 2.5 cm dbh were alive and resprouting prolifically the following year (98.8). Survival of most tree species was similarly high two years after the hurricane, but mortality rates of some species increased dramatically. For example, Populus heterophylla (swamp cottonwood) mortality increased from 7.8 to 59.2 (n 76) and Salix interior (sandbar willow) mortality increased from 4.5 to 57.1 (n 21). Stem sprouts on many up-rooted hardwood trees of other species were still alive in 1998, 6 years after the hurricane. Due to the understory tree species composition, regeneration, and high levels of resprouting, there was little change in species composition or perhaps a slight shift toward more shade and flood tolerant species six years following the hurricane event. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) was found on some of the sites heavily disturbed by Hurricane Andrew, and may proliferate at the expense of native tree species. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  9. Integrating spread dynamics and economics of timber production to manage Chinese tallow invasions in southern U.S. forestlands.

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    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Economic costs associated with the invasion of nonnative species are of global concern. We estimated expected costs of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L. Small invasions related to timber production in southern U.S. forestlands under different management strategies. Expected costs were confined to the value of timber production losses plus costs for search and control. We simulated management strategies including (1 no control (NC, and control beginning as soon as the percentage of invaded forest land exceeded (2 60 (Low Control, (3 25 (Medium Control, or (4 0 (High Control using a spatially-explicit, stochastic, bioeconomic model. With NC, simulated invasions spread northward and westward into Arkansas and along the Gulf of Mexico to occupy ≈1.2 million hectares within 20 years, with associated expected total costs increasing exponentially to ≈$300 million. With LC, MC, and HC, invaded areas reached ≈275, 34, and 2 thousand hectares after 20 years, respectively, with associated expected costs reaching ≈$400, $230, and $200 million. Complete eradication would not be cost-effective; the minimum expected total cost was achieved when control began as soon as the percentage of invaded land exceeded 5%. These results suggest the importance of early detection and control of Chinese tallow, and emphasize the importance of integrating spread dynamics and economics to manage invasive species.

  10. Análise florística e estrutural de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará Floristic and structural analysis of agroforestry floodplain systems of the Juba river, Cametá, Pará

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    Silvio Roberto Miranda dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição florística e a estrutura de sistemas agroflorestais (SAF nas várzeas do rio Juba, Município de Cametá-PA. Utilizou-se sete parcelas de 0,25 ha (50 m x 50 m em SAF tradicionais. Cada parcela foi dividida em 25 sub-parcelas de 10 m x 10 m. As espécies foram classificadas quanto aos tipos de usos e em três níveis de comercialização. Nos sete SAF foram inventariados 21060 indivíduos/ha com CAP e" 10 cm ou (média de 3009 indivíduos/ha, pertencentes a 27 famílias, 53 gêneros e 61 espécies. Cinco espécies (8 % são comuns aos sete SAF. O uso energético (lenha e carvão foi o mais freqüente (63 %. Os SAF apresentaram maior percentual de espécies comerciais (46 %. Espécies comumente encontradas nas várzeas da Amazônia brasileira foram importantes nesse estudo: Euterpe oleracea Mart., Theobroma cacao L., Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb., Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. Euterpe oleracea e Theobroma cacao, juntas apresentaram Dr média de 80 % e IVImédio de 48 %. Os valores médios de abundância, área basal e IVI, bem como os percentuais de espécies potenciais e comerciais indicam grandes possibilidades de sustentabilidade se adotado manejo adequado e racional nesses importantes ecossistemas antrópicos da Amazônia Oriental.This study analyzed the floristic composition and the structure of traditional agroforestry systems (SAF in the floodplains of the river Juba, Cametá, Pará. The survey was made on seven plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m. Each plot was divided into 25 sub-plots of 10 m x 10 m. The species were classified in types of use and levels of commercialization. In seven SAF were surveyed 21060 individuals/ha with CAP e" 10 cm or (average of 3009 individuals/ha, belonging to 27 families, 53 genera and 61 species. Five species (8% were common to the seven SAF. The most frequent (63 % use of species was energy (firewood and coal. Most species were commercial (46%. Species

  11. Utilização dos recursos naturais por comunidades humanas do Parque Ecoturístico do Guamá, Belém, Pará Utilization of natural resources by the human communities of the Guamá Ecotouristic Park, Belém, Pará

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    Ana Sílvia Sardinha Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta dados sobre o uso dos recursos naturais por populações humanas em pequenas comunidades (vilas localizadas no entorno (n = 6 e no interior (n = 1 do Parque Ecoturístico do Guamá (PEG, visando avaliar os impactos sobre a fauna e flora local, ante a implantação de um projeto de infra-estrutura rodoviária local. A metodologia consistiu da aplicação de dois modelos de questionários. Um direcionado a pessoas-chave, como: moradores mais antigos, presidentes de associações, agentes de saúde, etc, e o outro aplicado aleatoriamente aos adultos locais. Buscou-se atingir pelo menos 50% das famílias das pequenas localidades (11 famílias. Em todos os casos é realizado o extrativismo da fauna e flora, principalmente com o objetivo de subsistência. As espécies mais caçadas foram Agouti paca,Dasyprocta agouti,Nasua nasua, Euphractus sexcintus e Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. A complementação da renda familiar através do comércio de caça sob encomenda é realizada em todas as comunidades estudadas. Frutíferas como Euterpe oleracea Mart., Musa spp e Theobroma cacao foram encontradas em 100% das comunidades (n=7. Plantas medicinais são rotineiramente cultivadas e empregadas. As espécies madeireiras exploradas são utilizadas com o objetivo de produção de carvão, construção de casas e de meios de transporte, predominando o Inga edulis, Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb e Simaruba amara (Aubl.. O trabalho discute os resultados sob o aspecto da implantação do projeto viário, oferecendo recomendações para a minimização dos impactos do mesmo sobre a fauna, a flora e o modo tradicional de vida das comunidades.This work shows data about the use of natural resources by the human population located in (n=1 and around (n=6 the Guamá Ecotouristic Park (GEP, in order to evaluate the impact on the local fauna and flora in view of the project for constructing a road through the park. The methodology utilized in this community

  12. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

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    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  13. Fine root decay rates vary widely among lowland tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, James W; Russell, Ann E; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    Prolific fine root growth coupled with small accumulations of dead fine roots indicate rapid rates of fine root production, mortality and decay in young tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica. However, published studies indicate that fine roots decay relatively slowly in tropical forests. To resolve this discrepancy, we used the intact-core technique to quantify first-year decay rates of fine roots in four single-species plantations of native tree species. We tested three hypotheses: first, that fine roots from different tree species would decay at different rates; second, that species having rapid fine root growth rates would also have rapid rates of fine root decay; and third, that differences in fine root decay among species could be explained by fine root chemistry variables previously identified as influencing decay rates. Fine roots in Virola koschnyi plantations decayed very slowly (k = 0.29 +/- 0.15 year(-1)); those of Vochysia guatemalensis decayed seven times faster (k = 2.00 +/- 0.13 year(-1)). Decay rates of the remaining two species, Hieronyma alchorneoides and Pentaclethra macroloba, were 1.36 and 1.28 year(-1), respectively. We found a positive, marginally significant correlation between fine root decay rates and the relative growth rates of live fine roots (R = 0.93, n = 4, P = 0.072). There was a highly significant negative correlation between fine root decay and fine root lignin:N (R = 0.99, P = 0.01), which supports the use of lignin:N as a decay-controlling factor within terrestrial ecosystem models. The decay rates that we observed in this single study location encompassed the entire range of fine root decay rates previously observed in moist tropical forests, and thus suggest great potential for individual tree species to alter belowground organic matter and nutrient dynamics within a biotically rich rainforest environment.

  14. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change

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    AF. Colombo

    Full Text Available After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  15. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, A F; Joly, C A

    2010-10-01

    After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica), considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  16. INDICATED SPECIES TO RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FORESTS IN SUBWATERSHED OF PEIXE-BOI RIVER, PARÁ STATE

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    Igor do Vale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815736This study aims to indicate native species to be used in the restoration of degraded riparian forests in the subwatershed of Peixe-Boi river. All trees and shrubs with diameter at breast height (DBH > 5 cm were inventoried in ten areas of secondary forest and six areas of igapó forest. The results were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the silviculture of the species was assessed by literature review. In Igapó areas 66 species were found; the areas had low richness and low diversity index of Shannon, when compared with data from the secondary forests. The floristic composition was heterogeneous, and the floristic similarity is higher between areas that are closer geographically. In the secondary forests were found 175 species; the areas showed high abundance of individuals, high species richness, diversity and evenness. Secondary forests were separated according to geographic proximity and age, which is directly linked to the successional stage. The PCA analysis established the ecological importance of 29 tree species; however only ten species had enough silvicultural information. Due to a greater ecological importance and viable silvicultural techniques available in the literature, Carapa guianensis, Pachira aquatica, Spondias mombin, Tapirira guianensis and Virola guianensis are the most suitable species to restore the degraded areas, in association with Inga edulis, Jacaranda copaia, Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya, Simarouba amara and Vismia guianensis of the secondary forests, that can be planted in the borders and in the nearby areas of igapó forests.

  17. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

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    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  18. Impact of Field Densities of the Naturalized Defoliator Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on the Invasive Weed Chinese Tallowtree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, G S; Hight, S D; Wright, S A

    2017-12-08

    Chinese tallowtree, Triadica sebifera (L.) Small (Euphoriaceae), is one of the most aggressive weeds of coastal wetlands and forests of the southeastern United States. The lack of specialist herbivores in the invaded range may be one of the factors that contribute to the invasive nature of this weed. Chinese tallowtree has been the target of a classical biological control project since 2006. Several herbivore species are being tested for biological control of Chinese tallowtree. Concurrently, an adventive herbivore, Caloptilia triadicae Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was found feeding on Chinese tallowtree in the southeastern United States in 2004 and now occurs throughout the invaded range. Field populations of C. triadicae from two sites caused extensive mining damage to the Chinese tallowtree leaves. The greatest damage occurred after 30 d of exposure to C. triadicae in the herbivory treatment and amounted to about 25-30 leaf mines (early instars) and leaf rolls (late instars) per plant. Insecticide-treated plants had atmost 5-10 leaf mines and rolls per plant. Despite this difference, plant growth in height, number of new branches, and leaves did not differ significantly from plants protected from herbivory. Analysis of harvested plant results suggested that, in general, herbivory had little impact on biomass. However, there was a slight reduction in trunk weights in the unrestriced herbivory treatment compared with the insecticide-treated plants. Although this study exposed experimental plants to only 60 d of herbivory, these results suggested that C. triadicae alone will not exert sufficient control of invasive populations of Chinese tallowtree. Furthermore, they indicated that continued development of biological control agents that target Chinese tallowtree are needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Deep Sequencing of the Fruit Transcriptome and Lipid Accumulation in a Non-Seed Tissue of Chinese Tallow, a Potential Biofuel Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divi, Uday K; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Penghao; Butlin, Jamie; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Qing; Vanhercke, Thomas; Petrie, James R; Talbot, Mark; White, Rosemary G; Taylor, Jennifer M; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder P

    2016-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is a valuable oilseed-producing tree that can grow in a variety of conditions without competing for food production, and is a promising biofuel feedstock candidate. The fruits are unique in that they contain both saturated and unsaturated fat present in the tallow and seed layer, respectively. The tallow layer is poorly studied and is considered only as an external fatty deposition secreted from the seed. In this study we show that tallow is in fact a non-seed cellular tissue capable of triglyceride synthesis. Knowledge of lipid synthesis and storage mechanisms in tissues other than seed is limited but essential to generate oil-rich biomass crops. Here, we describe the annotated transcriptome assembly generated from the fruit coat, tallow and seed tissues of Chinese tallow. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of candidate genes and reconstruction of lipid pathways. A tallow tissue-specific paralog for the transcription factor gene WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and lipid droplet-associated protein genes, distinct from those expressed in seed tissue, were found to be active in tallow, underpinning the mode of oil synthesis and packaging in this tissue. Our data have established an excellent knowledge base that can provide genetic and biochemical insights for engineering non-seed tissues to accumulate large amounts of oil. In addition to the large data set of annotated transcripts, the study also provides gene-based simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for Yellow-rumped Warblers, Northern Cardinals, and American Robins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Jeske, C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive exotic Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) produces an abundant fruit crop, which is primarily bird-dispersed. The fruit pulp of tallow is lipid-rich, high in saturated fatty acids, and consumed by many bird species. Long-chained fatty acids can be difficult for many birds to digest and we investigated the ability of tallow consumers to assimilate energy in the pulp. We used the total collection method and compared apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of tallow fruit for three species of birds with differing fruit composition in their natural diets. All birds exhibited nitrogen deficits and lost body mass during the trials. Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) lost more mass (8.73%/day) than Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) (5.29%/day) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (5.48%/day), and had larger nitrogen deficits (-120.1 mg N/g diet) than both species as well (-36.4 mg N/g diet and -68.9 mg N/g diet, respectively). Food intake relative to metabolic body mass was highest in Yellow-rumped Warblers (0.70 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Northern Cardinal and American Robin food intake was lower and did not differ from each other (both species: 0.13 g-dry/g 0.75??day). Nitrogen corrected values of AME were used to make species comparisons. Yellow-rumped-Warblers exhibited the highest values of AME (30.00 kJ/g), followed by American Robins (23.90 kJ/g), and Northern Cardinals (14.34 kJ/g). We suggest tallow may be an important winter food source for Yellow-rumped Warblers where their ranges overlap.

  1. Fatores edáficos e as variações florísticas de um trecho de Mata Ciliar do Rio Gualaxo do Norte, Mariana, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda de Sena Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a correlação entre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas ciliares do rio Gualaxo do Norte (S20°16'31,9" W43°26'15,3" e S20°16'30,6" W43°26'07,3" com fatores edáficos, assim como se existem espécies de ocorrência restrita à área de depleção ciliar que possam ser indicadas para recuperação de matas ciliares. As parcelas foram alocadas em 1 ha dividido em três blocos com declividades distintas. Todos os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m do solo igual ou superior a 15 cm foram registrados e identificados. Foram coletadas cinco amostras simples de solo em cada parcela para análises químicas de fertilidade. A ordenação dos dados de solo e vegetação foi realizada pela análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, que indicou que variações na fertilidade, na acidez do solo e na altitude estavam influenciando a distribuição da vegetação arbórea ao longo do gradiente topográfico. Albizia hassleri, Bathysa meridionalis, Cariniana estrelensis, Casearia gossypiosperma, Casearia sp., Cecropia hololeuca, Himatanthus lancifolius, Luehea grandiflora, Picramnia sp., Platypodium elegans, Pseudopiptadenia contorta, Tibouchina candoleana e Virola oleifera são espécies adaptadas a condições edáficas com elevada acidez e fertilidade muito baixa, apresentando potencial para utilização em projetos de recuperação de áreas degradadas, principalmente de encostas e topo de morros. Já Casearia sylvestris, Dalbergia villosa, Dendropanax cuneatus, Machaerium aculeatum, Machaerium stiptatum, Ocotea odorifera, Ocotea pulchella, Rollinea longifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Tibouchina granulosa, Vernonia piptocarphoides e Vismia sp. estavam correlacionadas com solos menos ácidos, mais férteis e mais próximos ao rio, apresentando potencial para a restauração florestal em áreas ciliares.

  2. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  3. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  4. Potencial herbicida da biomassa e de substâncias químicas produzidas pelo fungo endofítico Pestalotiopsis guepinii Herbicide potential of the biomass and chemical compounds produced by the fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitas substâncias químicas disponíveis na natureza, produzidas por plantas ou por microrganismos, podem oferecer novas e excelentes oportunidades para diversificar o controle de pragas na agricultura e na prática agrícola, e, nesse sentido, os fungos podem contribuir de forma positiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o potencial inibitório na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de duas espécies de plantas daninhas em relação aos extratos e substâncias químicas obtidas da biomassa produzida por Pestalotiopsis guepinii - um fungo endofítico da espécie Virola michelii. Foram desenvolvidos bioensaios em condições controladas de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, para germinação, e de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, para desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Os extratos brutos foram analisados em concentração de 1,0% (m/v. Os resultados indicaram os extratos mais polares (MeOH-1 e MeOH-2 como de maior potencial inibitório, porém os efeitos promovidos pelos extratos hexânicos e acetato de etila foram expressivos, especialmente em relação à germinação das sementes. Comparativamente, a germinação das sementes das espécies de plantas daninhas se mostrou mais sensível aos efeitos do que o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Das espécies receptoras, Mimosa pudica (malícia apresentou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos inibitórios dos extratos. Entretanto, na germinação de sementes da espécie Senna obtusifolia (mata-pasto, o extrato MeOH-1 apresentou 100% de inibição. As substâncias ergosterol e peróxido de ergosterol, isoladas do extrato hexânico, quando testadas isoladamente, apresentaram potencial inibitório sempre abaixo dos 35%, não repetindo o potencial inibitório do extrato hexânico, de onde foram isoladas. Quando testadas juntas, não se verificaram aumentos expressivos na atividade herbicida, embora acréscimos na atividade inibitória tenham sido observados

  5. Evaluación espacial y temporal de la diversidad de los ascomicetes dulceacuícolas del canal turístico Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, México Spatial and temporal evaluation of the diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes from the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Chavarria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la diversidad de los ascomicetes del canal Santa Cruz, considerado el de mayor importancia turística en Xochimilco, Distrito Federal. En 2007 se realizaron 2 muestreos en las épocas de menor y mayor precipitación. En el márgen del canal se establecieron 4 estaciones de muestreo con diferente grado de urbanización y en cada una se sumergieron bloques de madera de Virola sp., Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei y Abies religiosa durante 8 semanas. Se midió la temperatura, el pH, el oxígeno disuelto, la materia orgánica y el fósforo, y se determinó el número más probable de bacterias coliformes del agua. Para evaluar los datos, se aplicaron el índice de diversidad de Shannon y el índice de similitud de Sørensen. La mayor diversidad de ascomicetes (H' = 1.152 se registró en la tercera estación, ubicada en la zona de viveros con flores y la menor diversidad (H' = 0.976 se obtuvo en la primera estación, localizada frente al embarcadero Santa Cruz, ambos valores de diversidad coincidieron con el grado de urbanización y con los datos fisicoquímicos y bacteriológicos. La temporada de lluvias presentó la diversidad más baja debido probablemente al efecto de la precipitación en este ambiente acuático.The diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes was determined in the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico. Two surveys were conducted in 2007 during the dry and wet season. Four sampling sites were selected in the channel margin, based on the level of urbanization. At each sampling site, wood panels of Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei and Abies religiosa were submerged during 8 weeks. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, organic matter, phosphorus and most probable number of coliform bacteria were determined. Results were evaluated using the diversity index of Shannon and the index of similarity of Sørensen. The highest Ascomycete diversity

  6. Remote sensing survey of Chinese tallow tree in the Toledo Bend Reservoir area, Louisiana and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    We applied Hyperion sensor satellite data acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite in conjunction with reconnaissance surveys to map the occurrences of the invasive Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in the Toledo Bend Reservoir study area of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. The rationale for application of high spectral resolution EO-1 Hyperion data was based on the successful use of Hyperion data in the mapping of Chinese tallow tree in southwestern Louisiana in 2005. In contrast to the single Hyperion image used in the 2005 project, more than 20 EO-1 Hyperion and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) images of the study area were collected in 2009 and 2010 during the fall senescence when Chinese tallow tree leaves turn red. Atmospherically corrected reflectance spectra of Hyperion imagery collected at ground and aerial observation locations provided the input datasets used in the program for spectral discrimination analysis. Discrimination analysis was used to identify spectral indicator sets to best explain variance contained in the input databases. The expectation was that at least one set of Hyperion-based indicator spectra would uniquely identify occurrences of red-leaf Chinese tallow tree; however, no combination of Hyperion-based reflectance datasets produced a unique identifier. The inability to discover a unique spectral indicator resulted primarily from relatively sparse coverage by red-leaf Chinese tallow tree within the study area (percentage of coverage was less than 5 percent per 30- by 30-meter Hyperion pixel). To enhance the performance of the spectral discrimination analysis, leaf and canopy spectra of Chinese tallow tree were added to the input datasets to guide the indicator selection. In addition, input databases were segregated by land class obtained from an ALI-based landcover classification in order to reduce the input variance and to promote spectral discrimination of red